Widely used in fine wet screening applications, these high frequency screening machines comprise of up to five individual screen decks positioned one above the other operating in parallel. The stacked design allows for high-capacity units in a small footprint. The flow distributor splits the feed stream evenly to the individual polyurethane screen decks (openings down to 45 pm) where feeders distribute the stream across the entire width (up to 6 m) of each screen. Dual vibratory motors provide uniform linear motion to all screen decks. The undersize and oversize streams are individually combined and exit toward the bottom of the Stacked Sizer. Repulp sprays and trays arc an optional addition in between screen sections, which allow for increased screen efficiency.
By classifying by size-only, screens compared to hydrocyclones, give a sharper separation with multi-density feeds (for example, in PbZn operations), and reduce overgrinding of the dense minerals. Operations that replaced hydrocyclones with stackedhigh frequency screening machines in closing ball mill circuits can result in a decrease in the circulating load from 260% to 100% and 10 to 20% increase in circuit throughput.
The high capacity Stacked Sizing/screening machine consists of up to five decks positioned one above the other and all operating in parallel. Its use together with urethane screen surfaces as fine as 75 microns (200 mesh) has made fine wet screening a practical reality in mineral processing operations worldwide. The application of this technology in closed circuit grinding is demonstrated with specific application examples.
Screening is the process of separating particles by size and fine screening typically refers to separations in therange of 10 mm (3/8) to 38 microns (400 mesh). Fine screening, wet or dry, is normally accomplished with highfrequency, low amplitude, vibrating screening machines with either elliptical or straight-line motion. Various types ofwet and dry fine screening machines and the factors affecting their operation have been discussed previously.In fine particle wet screening, the undersize particles arc transported through the screen openings by the fluid andthe fraction of fluid in the slurry will therefore affect the efficiency of the separation. From a practical standpoint, the feed slurry to a fine screen should be around 20% solids by volume to achieve reasonable separation efficiency. Asmost of the fluid passes through the screen openings rather quickly, the fine screening process can be completed in ashort screen length. Therefore screen width, rather than screen area, is an important design consideration for fine wet screening.
Recognition of this concept led to the development of multiple feed point fine wet screening machines, or example, the Multifeed screen consists of three screen panels mounted within a rectangular vibrating frame and is actually three short screens operating in parallel. Each screen panel has its own feed box and the oversize from each panel flows into a common launder and then to the oversize chute. Similarly, the undersize from each of the three panels flows into the undersize hopper. The popular 1.2 m (4 ft) wide by 2.4 m (8 fl) long version has a total effective width of 3.0 m (10 fl) In general, multiple feed point machines have been shown to have 1.5 to 2 times more capacity than a single feed point machine of equivalent size and screen area.
Expanding further on this concept, the Stacked screening machine was introduced in 2001. With a capacity considerably greater than any other type of fine wet screening machine previously available, the Stack Sizer has up to five vibrating screen decks operating in parallel for a total effective width of 5.1 m (17 ft). The decks are positioned one above the other and each deck has its own feed box. A custom-engineered single or multiple-stage flow distribution system is normally included in the scope of supply to representatively split the feed slurry to each Stacked screen and then to the decks on each machine. Ample space is provided between each of the screen decks for clear observation during operation and easy access for maintenance and replacement of screen surfaces. Each screen deck, consisting of two screen panels in series, is equipped with an undersize collection pan which discharges into a common launder with a single outlet. Similarly, the oversize from each of the screen decks collects in a single hopper with a common outlet large vibrating motors rated at 1.9 kW (2 5 HP) each and rotating in opposite directions produce a uniform high frequency linear motion throughout the entire length and width of all screen decks for superior oversize conveyance.
As mentioned above, the fluid passing through the openings carries the undersize particles through the screen openings. The screening process is essentially complete when most of the fluid has passed through the openings. Any remaining undersize particles adhere to the coarse particles and are misdirected to the oversize product An optional repulping system is available for the Stack Sizer in which spray water is directed into a rubber-lined trough located between the two panels on each deck With this feature, oversize from the first panel is reslurried and screened again on the second panel. This repulping action maximizes the correct placement of undersize particles and its use will depend upon the particular objective of the screening machine.
To date, 1000s of screening machines are in operation at mineral processing plants worldwide. Dry mass flow capacity typically ranges from 100 to 350 t/h. This is roughly equivalent to 3 or 4 of the older style Multi-feed screens discussed above Like all screening machines, capacity depends upon many factors such as screen panel opening, weight recovery to oversize, the amount of near-size particles, particle shape, and slurry viscosity.
Sizers are for high capacity in a short compact machine. Generally you can make good cuts or separations with high efficiency. If you need near absolute 99.9% precision cuts, then a sizer cannot do that, and most inclined screeners also cannot. So that is why it is very important to understand what the separation goal is before selecting a screener. You cannot have high capacity and high accuracy + 99.9 in the same machine! This machine does not exist! A sizer generally can accomplish a similar separation of a single inclined screen in 2 or 3 screens, and 1/3 the length. of course a lot depends on the PSD, and how close the remaining particles are on each side of the desired cut.
A high frequency monitor means more image rendered on your screen per second. Example in hand, if you have a 60 Hertz screen, your screen will refresh its rendered image 60 times per second. If you have a 100 Hertz refresh rate, then your screen will run at 100 Frames Per Second (FPS).
The only problem is that an abnormal amount of people report having issues with high refreshing rate monitors. No matter the monitor or video card monitor brand, thousands upon thousands of otherwise happy gamer are reporting the very same issue: Flickering (or black screens).
The epileptic nightmare. Imagine going on with your daily business, or playing your favorite video game, and suddenly, your screen goes black.. then comes back.. and then black again, doing so at irregular interval and without obvious reasons.
Your first reflect is to check that your display cable is securely in pace both on your monitor and your video screen, you may even reinstall your video card drivers, or try to OC your GPU. Every one seems to have the same approach.
Before going on to forums and start endless threads, which of some are a decade old with posting of a this very week, make sure to have what it takes to run a high frequency game and high frequency monitor.
Here is the funny thing. To take full advantage of a high refreshing rate, you need a game to output the same or greater Frames Per Second. For example, if you have your screen refresh rate set at 100 Hertz, and your game output only up to 60 FPS, then obviously, you will only see experience a 60 FPS game. You will need enough memory, CPU process, GPU horse power to match or over perform the monitor refreshing rate.
NVIDIA did try (somewhat successfully) to address this with its G-SYNC chip-set which it installs in both its newer GPUs and high performing monitors. This allows the GPU and the monitor to sync both the GPU performances and the monitor refreshing rate to have a matching FPS and refreshing rate as much as possible.
It seems almost trivial to say so, but make sure that your video card can handle such refreshing rates (if produced after 2011, they usually do) and that they are DisplayPort 1.2 compliant at the very least.
To run a high refresh rate monitor, ONLY the Display Port can do so! The HDMI (even 2.0) will lock your frequency at 60 Hertz or below. Any attempt to run your config at a higher refresh rate, will result in an out of range message on your screen.
Display Ports cable ARE confusing. Unlike USB plug, they do not have any color codes, or marking to identify which generation they belong to. Even their boxing seems to purposely not report what gen they are from.
The flickering effect that you so dread is due to the fact that you are using a 1.0 or 1.1 Display Port cable. These cables do not provide enough bandwidth to convey, say, 144 frames per second of 2k resolution. And when you do try, of course, your cable cannot keep up with the massive GPU output and what the monitor needs, to keep a steady flow of video output.
IIf you are going with a high-en gaming monitor, I would go straight to a 1.4 HBR3 cable. They are more expensive (about 35 USD), but you are set for generations of monitors and video cards to come. This new standard can not only deliver 240 Hertz refresh rates to a 4k panel, but it can cater to 5k and 8k panels as well! In short it is future proof!
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The high-frequency screens manufactured by Midwestern can be utilized in many screening applications from rugged quarry and rock sizing to sand and gravel processing and high volume fine mesh screening. With a variety of sizes and screening decks, the versatile MEV Screener can fit numerous applications.
The MEV High-Frequency Screener is a rectangular screener that utilizes an elliptical motion to convey material across itsscreening surface. Available in sizes three-foot by five-foot (3 x 5), four-foot by eight-foot (4 x 8), and five-foot by ten-foot (5 x 10) with the availability of one to five screening decks gives the MEV Screener the versatility to meet your screening needs.
The MEV Screener is designed to retain material at the feed end for a longer period of time and then gently slops the material near the discharge end, assisting itoff the screening deck and into production. This is achieved by the screeners unique parallel-arc configuration. Crossbars support the end-tensioned screens tocreate a flat screening surface, thus maximizing the screening area.
The end-tensioned screens used in the high-frequency screener simplify changing screen panels. End-tensioning permits the use of square-opening and slotted screens and is accurately maintained by a spring-loaded drawbar. Users can make screen changes in 1015 minutes.
Midwesterns commitment to providing our customers with outstanding screening products continues with our full line of replacement rectangular screens. Our screens are manufactured to fit all makes and models of screeners.
WGPS High frequency fine screenProduct overview:High frequency fine screen using adjustable vibration exciter, wearable module plate, advanced design, reliable and durable. At present, there are black mines, nonferrous metals mining, building materials and other industries to popularization and application.Application:1.Iron ore dressing plant.2.Tungsten, tin, tantalum, niobium, ore dressing plant.3.glass raw materials quartz sand, feldspar ore dressing plant.4.Kaolin c0ncentrator.5.Metal powder preparation.6.Black mines, nonferrous metals, building materials and other industries.Advantages:1.No rotating parts, no need to add lubricating oil.2. Simple structure, convenient maintenance,durable,low fault rate.3.Use vibrator resonance principle, the driving power is small, low noise;4.After the start of the vibrator, the instantaneous amplitude can reach the stable value.5.The screen of the excitation or amplitude can be adjusted;6.At the same time, the screen body vibration, screen mesh also produce relative vibration between the screen, the screen is not easy to plug the gap between the screen.Technical parameter table:ModelVibration frequencyScreen size 1 * b-sievelayers number layersSeparation of particle sizeProductivityDrive power(mim-1)mmt/hkwWGPS- 900-310.0452.02161.5WGPS-1200-37001200-315202.2WGPS-1200-310001200-227302.2WGPS-1400-37001400-318253.0WGPS-1400-21000600-128303.0WGPS-41000600-120.085412252.2WGPS-61000600-1215353.0
High frequency fine screen using adjustable vibration exciter, wearable module plate, advanced design, reliable and durable. At present, there are black mines, nonferrous metals mining, building materials and other industries to popularization and application.
Windows provides APIs that you can use to acquire high-resolution time stamps or measure time intervals. The primary API for native code is QueryPerformanceCounter (QPC). For device drivers, the kernel-mode API is KeQueryPerformanceCounter. For managed code, the System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch class uses QPC as its precise time basis.
QPC is independent of and isn't synchronized to any external time reference. To retrieve time stamps that can be synchronized to an external time reference, such as, Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) for use in high-resolution time-of-day measurements, use GetSystemTimePreciseAsFileTime.
Time stamps and time-interval measurements are an integral part of computer and network performance measurements. These performance measurement operations include the computation of response time, throughput, and latency as well as profiling code execution. Each of these operations involves a measurement of activities that occur during a time interval that is defined by a start and an end event that can be independent of any external time-of-day reference.
QPC is typically the best method to use to time-stamp events and measure small time intervals that occur on the same system or virtual machine. Consider using GetSystemTimePreciseAsFileTime when you want to time-stamp events across multiple machines, provided that each machine is participating in a time synchronization scheme such as Network Time Protocol (NTP). QPC helps you avoid difficulties that can be encountered with other time measurement approaches, such as reading the processors time stamp counter (TSC) directly.
QPC was introduced in Windows2000 and WindowsXP and has evolved to take advantage of improvements in the hardware platform and processors. Here we describe the characteristics of QPC on different Windows versions to help you maintain software that runs on those Windows versions.
QPC is available on WindowsXP and Windows2000 and works well on most systems. However, some hardware systems' BIOS didn't indicate the hardware CPU characteristics correctly (a non-invariant TSC), and some multi-core or multi-processor systems used processors with TSCs that couldn't be synchronized across cores. Systems with flawed firmware that run these versions of Windows might not provide the same QPC reading on different cores if they used the TSC as the basis for QPC.
All computers that shipped with WindowsVista and Windows Server2008 used a platform counter (High Precision Event Timer (HPET)) or the ACPI Power Management Timer (PM timer) as the basis for QPC. Such platform timers have higher access latency than the TSC and are shared between multiple processors. This limits scalability of QPC if it is called concurrently from multiple processors.
The majority of Windows7 and Windows Server2008R2 computers have processors with constant-rate TSCs and use these counters as the basis for QPC. TSCs are high-resolution per-processor hardware counters that can be accessed with very low latency and overhead (in the order of 10s or 100s of machine cycles, depending on the processor type). Windows7 and Windows Server2008R2 use TSCs as the basis of QPC on single-clock domain systems where the operating system (or the hypervisor) is able to tightly synchronize the individual TSCs across all processors during system initialization. On such systems, the cost of reading the performance counter is significantly lower compared to systems that use a platform counter. Furthermore, there is no added overhead for concurrent calls and user-mode queries often bypass system calls, which further reduces overhead. On systems where the TSC is not suitable for timekeeping, Windows automatically selects a platform counter (either the HPET timer or the ACPI PM timer) as the basis for QPC.
Windows8, Windows8.1, Windows Server2012, and Windows Server2012R2 use TSCs as the basis for the performance counter. The TSC synchronization algorithm was significantly improved to better accommodate large systems with many processors. In addition, support for the new precise time-of-day API was added, which enables acquiring precise wall clock time stamps from the operating system. For more info, see GetSystemTimePreciseAsFileTime. On WindowsRT PC platforms, the performance counter is based on either a proprietary platform counter or the system counter provided by the WindowsRT PC Generic Timer if the platform is so equipped.
Windows has and will continue to invest in providing a reliable and efficient performance counter. When you need time stamps with a resolution of 1 microsecond or better and you don't need the time stamps to be synchronized to an external time reference, choose QueryPerformanceCounter, KeQueryPerformanceCounter, or KeQueryInterruptTimePrecise. When you need UTC-synchronized time stamps with a resolution of 1 microsecond or better, choose GetSystemTimePreciseAsFileTime or KeQuerySystemTimePrecise.
On a relatively small number of platforms that can't use the TSC register as the QPC basis, for example, for reasons explained in Hardware timer info, acquiring high resolution time stamps can be significantly more expensive than acquiring time stamps with lower resolution. If resolution of 10 to 16 milliseconds is sufficient, you can use GetTickCount64, QueryInterruptTime, QueryUnbiasedInterruptTime, KeQueryInterruptTime, or KeQueryUnbiasedInterruptTime to obtain time stamps that aren't synchronized to an external time reference. For UTC-synchronized time stamps, use GetSystemTimeAsFileTime or KeQuerySystemTime. If higher resolution is needed, you can use QueryInterruptTimePrecise, QueryUnbiasedInterruptTimePrecise, or KeQueryInterruptTimePrecise to obtain time stamps instead.
In general, the performance counter results are consistent across all processors in multi-core and multi-processor systems, even when measured on different threads or processes. Here are some exceptions to this rule:
When you compare performance counter results that are acquired from different threads, consider values that differ by 1 tick to have an ambiguous ordering. If the time stamps are taken from the same thread, this 1 tick uncertainty doesn't apply. In this context, the term tick refers to a period of time equal to 1 (the frequency of the performance counter obtained from QueryPerformanceFrequency).
When you use the performance counter on large server systems with multiple-clock domains that aren't synchronized in hardware, Windows determines that the TSC can't be used for timing purposes and selects a platform counter as the basis for QPC. While this scenario still yields reliable time stamps, the access latency and scalability is adversely affected. Therefore, as previously stated in the preceding usage guidance, only use the APIs that provide 1 microsecond or better resolution when such resolution is necessary. The TSC is used as the basis for QPC on multi-clock domain systems that include hardware synchronization of all processor clock domains, as this effectively makes them function as a single clock domain system.
The frequency of the performance counter is fixed at system boot and is consistent across all processors so you only need to query the frequency from QueryPerformanceFrequency as the application initializes, and then cache the result.
The performance counter is expected to work reliably on all guest virtual machines running on correctly implemented hypervisors. However, hypervisors that comply with the hypervisor version 1.0 interface and surface the reference time enlightenment can offer substantially lower overhead. For more information about hypervisor interfaces and enlightenments, see Hypervisor Specifications.
We strongly discourage using the RDTSC or RDTSCP processor instruction to directly query the TSC because you won't get reliable results on some versions of Windows, across live migrations of virtual machines, and on hardware systems without invariant or tightly synchronized TSCs. Instead, we encourage you to use QPC to leverage the abstraction, consistency, and portability that it offers.
The Windows kernel provides kernel-mode access to the performance counter through KeQueryPerformanceCounter from which both the performance counter and performance frequency can be obtained. KeQueryPerformanceCounter is available from kernel mode only and is provided for writers of device drivers and other kernel-mode components.
QPC is based on a hardware counter that can't be synchronized to an external time reference, such as UTC. For precise time-of-day time stamps that can be synchronized to an external UTC reference, use GetSystemTimePreciseAsFileTime.
No. If the processor has an invariant TSC, the QPC is not affected by these sort of changes. If the processor doesn't have an invariant TSC, QPC will revert to a platform hardware timer that won't be affected by processor frequency changes or Turbo Boost technology.
You don't need to perform this check yourself. Windows operating systems perform several checks at system initialization to determine if the TSC is suitable as a basis for QPC. However, for reference purposes, you can determine whether your processor has an invariant TSC by using one of these:
The computational calling cost of QPC is determined primarily by the underlying hardware platform. If the TSC register is used as the basis for QPC, the computational cost is determined primarily by how long the processor takes to process an RDTSC instruction. This time ranges from 10s of CPU cycles to several hundred CPU cycles depending upon the processor used. If the TSC can't be used, the system will select a different hardware time basis. Because these time bases are located on the motherboard (for example, on the PCI South Bridge or PCH), the per-call computational cost is higher than the TSC, and is frequently in the vicinity of 0.8 - 1.0 microseconds depending on processor speed and other hardware factors. This cost is dominated by the time required to access the hardware device on the motherboard.
A file time is a 64-bit value that represents the number of 100-nanosecond intervals that have elapsed since 12:00 A.M. January 1, 1601 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). File times are used by Win32 API calls that return time-of-day, such as GetSystemTimeAsFileTime and GetSystemTimePreciseAsFileTime. By contrast, QueryPerformanceCounter returns values that represent time in units of 1/(the frequency of the performance counter obtained from QueryPerformanceFrequency). Conversion between the two requires calculating the ratio of the QPC interval and 100-nanoseconds intervals. Be careful to avoid losing precision because the values might be small (0.0000001 / 0.000000340).
No. For more info, see Guidance for acquiring time stamps. This scenario is neither necessary nor desirable. Performing this scenario might adversely affect your application's performance by restricting processing to one core or by creating a bottleneck on a single core if multiple threads set their affinity to the same core when calling QueryPerformanceCounter.
Absolute clocks provide accurate time-of-day readings. They are typically based on Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and consequently their accuracy depends in part on how well they are synchronized to an external time reference. Difference clocks measure time intervals and aren't typically based on an external time epoch. QPC is a difference clock and isn't synchronized to an external time epoch or reference. When you use QPC for time-interval measurements, you typically get better accuracy than you would get by using time stamps that are derived from an absolute clock. This is because the process of synchronizing the time of an absolute clock can introduce phase and frequency shifts that increase the uncertainty of short term time-interval measurements.
QPC uses a hardware counter as its basis. Hardware timers consist of three parts: a tick generator, a counter that counts the ticks, and a means of retrieving the counter value. The characteristics of these three components determine the resolution, precision, accuracy, and stability of QPC.
If a hardware generator provides ticks at a constant rate, time intervals can be measured by simply counting these ticks. The rate at which the ticks are generated is called the frequency and expressed in Hertz (Hz). The reciprocal of the frequency is called the period or tick interval and is expressed in an appropriate International System of Units (SI) time unit (for example, second, millisecond, microsecond, or nanosecond).
The resolution of the timer is equal to the period. Resolution determines the ability to distinguish between any two time stamps and places a lower bound on the smallest time intervals that can be measured. This is sometimes called the tick resolution.
Digital measurement of time introduces a measurements uncertainty of 1 tick because the digital counter advances in discrete steps, while time is continuously advancing. This uncertainty is called a quantization error. For typical time-interval measurements, this effect can often be ignored because the quantizing error is much smaller than the time interval being measured.
However, if the period being measured is small and approaches the resolution of the timer, you will need to consider this quantizing error. The size of the error introduced is that of one clock period.
QueryPerformanceFrequency returns the frequency of QPC, and the period and resolution are equal to the reciprocal of this value. The performance counter frequency that QueryPerformanceFrequency returns is determined during system initialization and doesn't change while the system is running.
Cases might exist where QueryPerformanceFrequency doesn't return the actual frequency of the hardware tick generator. For example, in many cases, QueryPerformanceFrequency returns the TSC frequency divided by 1024; and on Hyper-V, the performance counter frequency is always 10 MHz when the guest virtual machine runs under a hypervisor that implements the hypervisor version 1.0 interface. As a result, don't assume that QueryPerformanceFrequency will return the precise TSC frequency.
QueryPerformanceCounter reads the performance counter and returns the total number of ticks that have occurred since the Windows operating system was started, including the time when the machine was in a sleep state such as standby, hibernate, or connected standby.
QueryPerformanceFrequency returns the value 3,125,000 on a particular machine. What is the tick interval and resolution of QPC measurements on this machine? The tick interval, or period, is the reciprocal of 3,125,000, which is 0.000000320 (320 nanoseconds). Therefore, each tick represents the passing of 320 nanoseconds. Time intervals smaller than 320 nanoseconds can't be measured on this machine.
On the same machine as the preceding example, the difference of the values returned from two successive calls to QPC is 5. How much time has elapsed between the two calls? 5 ticks multiplied by 320 nanoseconds yields 1.6 microseconds.
It takes time to access (read) the tick counter from software, and this access time can reduce the precision of the of the time measurement. This is because the minimum interval time (the smallest time interval that can be measured) is the larger of the resolution and the access time.
For example, consider a hypothetical hardware timer with a 100 nanosecond resolution and an 800 nanosecond access time. This might be the case if the platform timer were used instead of the TSC register as the basis of QPC. Thus, the precision would be 800 nanoseconds not 100 nanoseconds as shown in this calculation.
If the access time is greater than the resolution, don't try to improve the precision by guessing. In other words, it's an error to assume that the time stamp is taken precisely in the middle, or at the beginning or the end of the call.
By contrast, consider the following example in which the QPC access time is only 20 nanoseconds and the hardware clock resolution is 100 nanoseconds. This might be the case if the TSC register was used as the basis for QPC. Here the precision is limited by the clock resolution.
This table provides info on the approximate resolution, access time, and precision of a variety of clocks. Note that some of the values will vary with different processors, hardware platforms, and processor speeds.
The most commonly used hardware tick generator is a crystal oscillator. The crystal is a small piece of quartz or other ceramic material that exhibits piezoelectric characteristics that provide an inexpensive frequency reference with excellent stability and accuracy. This frequency is used to generate the ticks counted by the clock.
The accuracy of a timer refers to the degree of conformity to a true or standard value. This depends primarily on the crystal oscillators ability to provide ticks at the specified frequency. If the frequency of oscillation is too high, the clock will 'run fast', and measured intervals will appear longer than they really are; and if the frequency is too low, the clock will 'run slow', and measured intervals will appear shorter than they really are.
For typical time-interval measurements for short duration (for example, response time measurements, network latency measurements, and so on), the accuracy of the hardware oscillator is usually sufficient. However, for some measurements the oscillator frequency accuracy becomes important, particularly for long time intervals or when you want to compare measurements taken on different machines. The remainder of this section explores the effects of the oscillator accuracy.
The crystals' frequency of oscillation is set during the manufacturing process and is specified by the manufacturer in terms of a specified frequency plus or minus a manufacturing tolerance expressed in 'parts per million' (ppm), called the maximum frequency offset. A crystal with a specified frequency of 1,000,000 Hz and a maximum frequency offset of 10 ppm would be within specification limits if its actual frequency were between 999,990 Hz and 1,000,010 Hz.
By substituting the phrase parts per million with microseconds per second, we can apply this frequency offset error to time-interval measurements. An oscillator with a + 10 ppm offset would have an error of 10 microseconds per second. Accordingly, when measuring a 1 second interval, it would run fast and measure a 1 second interval as 0.999990 seconds.
A convenient reference is that a frequency error of 100 ppm causes an error of 8.64 seconds after 24 hours. This table presents the measurement uncertainty due to the accumulated error for longer time intervals.
The preceding table shows that for small time intervals the frequency offset error can often be ignored. However for long time intervals, even a small frequency offset can result in a substantial measurement uncertainty.
Crystal oscillators that are used in personal computers and servers are typically manufactured with a frequency tolerance of 30 to 50 parts per million, and rarely, crystals can be off by as much as 500 ppm. Although crystals with much tighter frequency offset tolerances are available, they are more expensive and thus are not used in most computers.
To reduce the adverse effects of this frequency offset error, recent versions of Windows, particularly Windows8, use multiple hardware timers to detect the frequency offset and compensate for it to the extent possible. This calibration process is performed when Windows is started.
Suppose you perform time-interval measurements by using a 1 MHz oscillator, which has a resolution of 1 microsecond, and a maximum frequency offset error of 50 ppm. Now, let us suppose the offset is exactly +50 ppm. This means that the actual frequency would be 1,000,050 Hz. If we measured a time interval of 24 hours, our measurement would be 4.3 seconds too short (23:59:55.700000 measured versus 24:00:00.000000 actual).
Suppose the processor TSC clock is controlled by a crystal oscillator and has specified frequency of 3 GHz. This means that the resolution would be 1/3,000,000,000 or about 333 picoseconds. Assume the crystal used to control the processor clock has a frequency tolerance of 50 ppm and is actually +50 ppm. In spite of the impressive resolution, a time-interval measurement of 24 hours will still be 4.3 seconds too short. (23:59:55.7000000000 measured versus 24:00:00.0000000000 actual).
Consider using two different computers to measure the same 24 hour time interval. Both computers have an oscillator with a maximum frequency offset of 50 ppm. How far apart can the measurement of the same time interval on these two systems be? As in the previous examples, 50 ppm yields a maximum error of 4.3 seconds after 24 hours. If one system runs 4.3 seconds fast, and the other 4.3 seconds slow, the maximum error after 24 hours could be 8.6 seconds.
The stability of a timer describes whether the tick frequency changes over time, for example as the result of temperatures changes. Quartz crystals used as the tick generators on computers will exhibit small changes in frequency as a function of temperature. The error caused by thermal drift is typically small compared to the frequency offset error for common temperature ranges. However, designers of software for portable equipment or equipment subject to large temperature fluctuations might need to consider this effect.
Some Intel and AMD processors contain a TSC register that is a 64-bit register that increases at a high rate, typically equal to the processor clock. The value of this counter can be read through the RDTSC or RDTSCP machine instructions, providing very low access time and computational cost in the order of tens or hundreds of machine cycles, depending upon the processor.
Like other timers, the TSC is based on a crystal oscillator whose exact frequency is not known in advance and that has a frequency offset error. Thus before it can be used, it must be calibrated using another timing reference.
The ACPI timer, also known as the PM clock, was added to the system architecture to provide reliable time stamps independently of the processors speed. Because this was the single goal of this timer, it provides a time stamp in a single clock cycle, but it doesn't provide any other functionality.
The High Precision Event Timer (HPET) was developed jointly by Intel and Microsoft to meet the timing requirements of multimedia and other time-sensitive applications. HPET support has been in Windows since WindowsVista, and Windows7 and Windows8 Hardware Logo certification requires HPET support in the hardware platform.
A vibrating screen is a machine made with a screening surface vibrated precisely at high speeds. It is utilized particularly for screening mineral, coal, or other fine dry materials. The screening execution is influenced essentially by different factors, for example, hardware limit and point of inclination, in which the performance can estimate by screening effectiveness and flux of the item. While this type of machine is doesnt use for DIY purposes, you may require this for industrial purposes. It is especially essential in the mineral processing industry. If you are considering buying one, check out this article and learn which vibrating screen machine may be perfect for you and your project.
Twofold vibrating engines drive a linear vibrating screen. At the point when the two vibrating engines are turning synchronously, and contrarily, the excitation power creates by the whimsical square counterbalances each other toward the path corresponding to the pivot of the engine. Then, it covers into a resultant power toward the path opposite to the hub of the engine. So, the movement becomes a straight line.
The elliptical vibrating screen is a vibrating screen with an elliptical movement track, which has the upsides of high proficiency, high screening precision, and a wide scope of use. Contrasted with the conventional strainer machine of similar detail, it has a bigger handling limit and higher screening productivity.
A circular vibrating screen is another sort of vibrating screen with a multi-layer screen and high proficiency. As per the kind of materials and the prerequisites of clients, you can use its multiple screening plates. it were introduced in the seat type. The alteration of the screen surface edge can acknowledge by changing the position and tallness of the spring support. This screen is used for mining, building materials, transportation, energy, chemical industry.
The working surface of the roller screen is made out of a progression of moving shafts that masterminded on a level plane, on which there are many screen plates. When working, the fine material goes through the hole between the roller or the screen plate. In this way, enormous squares of materials are driven by rollers, moving to the closures and releasing from the outlets. Roller screens are usually widely used in the conventional coal industry.
High frequency vibrating screen is likewise called a high-frequency screen for short. High frequency vibrating screen is made out of exciter, screen outline, supporting, suspension spring and screen, and so on. This type of vibrating screen is the most significant screening machine in the mineral preparing industry, which is reasonable for totally wet or dry crude materials.
Rotary vibrating screen principally utilize for the grouping of materials with high screening effectiveness and fine screening precision. It features a completely shut structure, no flying powder, no spillage of fluid, no obstructing of work, programmed release, no material stockpiling in the machine, no dead point of matrix structure, expanded screen territory, etc. Any molecule, powder, and bodily fluid can screen inside its specific range. The machine usually used for characterization, arrangement, and filtration in nourishment, substance, metal, mining, and some other ventures.
Horizontal screen has the benefits of both slanted screen and straight vibrating screen. The machine has the highlights of good screen penetrability, enormous handling limit, and small installed height. The establishment point of the regular vibrating screen is 15-30, while the establishment of a flat screen is corresponding to the ground, or somewhat slanted 0-5.
Heavy inclined screen can apply to the treatment of debris from the quarry, mine, and building destruction. It can also utilize in the treatment of topsoil, the reusing of development materials, the screening of rock, the screening of gravel and aggregates, etc.
Grizzly screen regularly utilizes for pre-screening before coarse and medium pulverizing of materials. The work size is by and large>50mm, yet some of the time <25mm. This machines productivity is low, but screen efficiency is not that high. Also, quite often, the mesh tends to get a block.
The banana screen has a screen plate with various areas and diverse plunge edges. The longitudinal segment is a broken line, while the entire screen resembles a banana shape. The banana screen is, for the most part, appropriate for the arrangement of huge and medium-sized materials with high substance of fine particles. It can likewise utilize for drying out and demoralization.
While you picking vibrating screens, the material qualities should consider, including the substance of material particles under the screen, the substance of troublesome screen particles, material dampness, the shape and explicit gravity of the material, and the substance of clay. Professional vibrating screens makers could give serious vibrating screen value, assorted variety redid vibrating screen models, auspicious after-deals administration, save parts, and can keep on offering types of assistance for clients entire creation circle.
With great pixels comes great image quality. Soit's not surprising when PC gamers drool over monitors with 4K resolution. A panel packing 8.3 million pixels (3840 x 2160) makes your favorite games look incredibly sharp and realistic. In addition to being the highest resolution you can get in a good gaming monitor these days, going 4K also offers the ability to expand past 20-inch screens. With that loaded pixel army, you can stretch your screen size well past 30 inches without having pixels so big that you can see them.And the new graphics cards from Nvidia's RTX 30-series and AMD's Radeon RX 6000-series make the move to 4K even more tempting.
But that image quality comes at a steep price. Anyone who's shopped for a 4K monitor before knows they're not cheap. Yes, 4K is about high-res gaming, but you're still going to wantsolid gaming specs, like a 60Hz-plus refresh rate, low response time and your choice of Adaptive-Sync (Nvidia G-Sync or AMD FreeSync, depending on your system's graphics card). And you can't forget the cost of the decently beefy graphics card you'll require to game properly in 4K.If you're not ready for 4K yet, see our Best Gaming Monitors page for lower-res recommendations.
With speed, accurate color and high contrast, the LG 27GN950-B is the best 4K gaming monitor and our top recommendation. Theres tough competition on this page, but the 27GN950-B stands out with some of the best input lag scores weve seen of a 144Hz monitor (tying with the Asus ROG Strix XG27UQ below) while also keeping up with its rivals in our response time testing.
Image quality is also a sight to hold. With an edge array backlight with a local dimming feature, the 27GN950-B doesnt quite hit FALD-level HDR but still brought stellar performance with 8,475.3:1 contrast ratio. LG also implemented its Nano IPS panel, the answer to Samsungs Quantum Dot tech, to achieve massive color coverage (94.5% of DCI-P3 and 133.9% of sRGB after our recommended calibration) that really made games pop.
The Asus ROG Strix XG27UQ is the best 144Hz 4K gaming monitor and may be cheaper than you expect. We've seen it listed for $800, but as of writing it's going for $1,000. The XG27UQ doesnt have a premium FALD backlight for beautiful HDR; however, HDR performance is still impressive, thanks to an effective edge-array backlight and the screen's Dynamic Dimming feature.
The ROG Strix XG27UQ stacked up well in our testing when it came to both response time and input lag. In the input lag test, it outperformed other 144Hz monitors, including the Acer Predator X27 and Asus ROG Swift PG27UQ, which went for about $2,000 each. And while the XG27UQ is listed as a FreeSync monitor, we were able to run G-Sync on it successfully.
A little more affordable than the other 144Hz options on this page, the Acer Predator XB273K is the best 4K gaming monitor at that ideal refresh rate for value-seekers. During fast-paced games with settings maxed, there was no blur. G-Sync worked successfully--with both standard and HDR content-- to fight screen tearing when paired with an Nvidia graphics card. The monitor kept up well with other 144Hz displays during our testing and even beat the Asus ROG Swift PG27UQ and Acer Predator X27, which are about $2,000 monitors, when it came to input lag.
In terms of image quality, the Predator XB273K delivers with pro-level color accuracy and contrast that reached over 4,000:1, according to our testing, and over 2,000:1 after our calibration. HDR doesn't look as good as it does on monitors with FALD backlights, but we consider the Predator XB273K the next best thing.
If you want the best 4K gaming monitor for HDR movies and games, the Asus ROG Swift PG32UQX is an expensive, but impressive, buy. This is the first gaming-focused monitor with Mini LED. Thanks to that advanced backlight, we recorded an amazing HDR contrast ratio of 180,820.8:1. And while an OLED screen like the Alienware on this page can offer deeper, purer blacks, the PG32UQX can get much brighter. It hit 1,627 nits with HDR during testing.
We loved watching HDR films on the screen, but theres no Dolby Vision support. This wont affect many games, but 4K Blu-ray discs and content from Netflix and the like often use Dolby Vision. On the other hand, you do get support for 24p film candences.
And as a gaming monitor the PG32UQX is no slouch either. It performed admirably against other 144 Hz screens in our response time and input lag tests, even besting some, including the HP Omen on this page, in the latter. And the nifty OLED screen on the bottom uniquely relays helpful information, like refresh rate adn CPU and GPU temperatures.
You dont often see the word budget associated with a 4K monitor, but the Asus TUF Gaming VG289Q isnt just affordable, its a great gaming monitor too. Despite being available for $349 as of writing, it offers a great amount of performance, making it a fantastic value for gamers looking to get to 4K without breaking the bank.We've even seen 4K monitors at the $400 mark offer lesser gaming performance.
There was no ghosting when we gamed on the VG289Q, and overdrive successfully helped eliminate motion blur. SDR titles looked extra colorful, but there was hardly any improvement when moving over to HDR games.
With the VG289Q priced so low, its not surprising that its refresh rate is limited to just 60 Hz (FreeSync works down to 48 Hz). Hardcore gamers will want more Hz, but casual players can make due with fast-paced scenes showing sufficient detail and great pixel density.
The lines separating the monitor needs of gamers and professionals keeps blurring. Besides that, theres nothing wrong with a photo editor wanting to game during their free time, right? The Acer ConceptD CP271K is the best 4K gaming monitor for professionals because it boasts impressive gaming specs coupled with accurate color space coverage.
Creative professionals can get work done with the monitors 110% coverage of the DCI-P3 color space, although the very meticulous will find that to be slightly too colorful. You can, however, reduce color with a software look-up table. You also get great HDR output with a FALD backlight that reaches 1,000 nits.
At the same time, the ConceptD CP271K offers gamers accurate sRGB coverage (96.3%), as well as powerful performance that kept up with 144 Hz gaming monitors in our response time and input lag benchmarking.
If youre looking for a big 4K experience, the Aorus FV43U offers excellent image quality and gaming performance at a much cheaper price than screens with slightly lesser image quality. We've seen it for as cheap as $1,000, giving the $1,500 Asus ROG PG43UQ on this page a run for its money by besting it in our contrast (both SDR and HDR) and max brightness tests, as well as color coverage. The Asus beat the Aorus in our response time test by 1ms and in input lag by 7ms, but unless youre an extremely competitive gamer, thats probably worth the price savings and slight image quality advantages.
The Aorus FV43U also offers USB-C connectivity, allowing you to hit 144Hz, two 12W speakers that sound better than most and a remote. HDR performance is also top-of-the-line, with our benchmarks recording 38,888.4:1 contrast and HDR games showing amazing depth and popping textures. A lack of 24p and Dolby Vision support hurt the FV43Us chances as a full TV replacement, but there isnt much else missing in a premium gaming monitor here.
We loved the Asus ROG Swift PG43UQ when we first saw it in June, but its been hard to find online ever since. We reviewed it at $1,500 but have seen it sell for more. If you can find this massive screen at the right price, you wont be disappointed.
At 43 inches, the ROG Swift PG43UQ is juggernaut that makes for a great TV replacement -- it even has a remote. From a 4-foot distance, it lends to a highly immersive experience that rivals a curved ultra-wide. And with DisplayHDR 1000 certification, HDR movies pack a punch. Games looked incredibly realistic and warm in HDR and also natural and vibrant in SDR.
Most importantly, the PG43UQ is specced for high-performance gaming. Response time competed well against other 144 Hz screens in our benchmarks, and input lag was better than the equally priced Acer Predator CG437K.If you can't find the Asus in stock though, the Acer's a fine substitution with a drop less performance for around $1,500.
The Samsung UR59C isnt a gaming monitor exactly, but youd be surprised at the speed it offers compared to other curved 4K so-called gaming monitors. For example, the MSI Optix MAG321CURV, a 32-inch curved 4K gaming monitor, showed a 22ms response time in our testing and 71ms input lag, while the UR59C posted the same response time but a shorter 63ms input lag. Make no mistake, this is not a high-end gaming monitor. But 4K at 60 frames per second (fps) is a lot more attainable than 144 fps, which may make the lack of Adaptive-Sync acceptable, depending on your GPUs capability. And the low price makes this one of the best budget 4K monitors overall too.
We havent seen very many curved 4K gaming monitors but found the UR59Cs 15000mm curve noticeable and effective in upping productivity with multiple windows open. The curve didnt feel as extreme as it would on an ultrawide, but that also meant no distortion.
Games looked tear free and without obvious lag when we paired it with a GTX 1080 Ti, while the VA panels high contrast 2,648.4:1 out of the box, according to our testing) made cut scenes feel like a movie and graphics, like trees and dirt, more realistic.
With a massive 55-inch panel and OLED technology that provides the deepest blacks around and amazing contrast, the Alienware AW5520QF is the best 120Hz 4K gaming monitor, offering a more manageable refresh rate for your GPU than the 144Hz options here, while also being the best 4K gaming monitor you can nab for HDR.
This screen is a great fit for the living room. The first real OLED gaming monitor, it delivered the best image quality we had ever seen at the time, including immeasurable blacks and, therefore, theoretically unlimited HDR and SDR contrast.
But the Alienware OLED still isnt perfect. Max brightness with regular SDR content is just 130 nits, while HDR only bumps it up to 400 nits. That means its potential is best realized in a darker room. But keep in mind that with its large size, 150 nits with SDR would've been acceptable, so the monitor is only a little bit short. But the AW5520QF's also expensive--even by OLED TV standards. And for better audio, consider the HP Omen X 65 Emperium below.
If you're looking for the best 4K gaming monitor for the PS5 and Xbox Series X, opt for something with HDMI 2.1, like the Gigabyte Aorus FV43U. With the AW5520QF's HDMI 2.0 port, you'll be limited to 60Hz.
If youre a couch gamer, you need a monitor thats fit for replacing your TV. With a 64.5-inch display, the HP Omen X 65 Emerpium is amply equipped to do just that. This juggernaut of a gaming monitor offers larger-than-life gaming. In testing, performance matched its high price tag with zero gaming hiccups and high frame rates at high settings.
HP also included some unique bonuses that make this monitor even more fitting for the living room. An included soundbar featuring four 4-inch woofers, two 1-inch tweeters and two passive radiators add to the feeling of immersion. The monitor also comes with Nvidia Shield Android-based streaming interface, which means gaming, TV and movie-streaming options are built right into your gaming display. A remote completes the living room package.
Whether you're shopping for one of the screens that made our list of best 4K gaming monitors above or something else, you may find savings by checking out our best monitor deals page, along with our lists of Dell coupon codes, Lenovo coupon codes, LG coupon codes, HP coupon codes, Monoprice coupon codes and Newegg promo codes.
Scharon Harding is a Senior Editor at Tom's Hardware. She has a special affinity for gaming peripherals (especially monitors), laptops and virtual reality. Previously, Scharon covered business technology, including hardware, software, cyber security, cloud and other IT happenings, at Channelnomics, with bylines at CRN UK.
High-frequency screen is made up of the vibrator, pulp distributor, screen frame, chassis, suspension springs, screens, and other components. Mineral high-frequency screen has the following merits: high efficiency, low amplitude, high-frequency screening.
High efficiency breaks the tension on pulp, which means the fine grains vibrate strongly on the surface of the screen to help the heavy useful grains separate out. As a result, the fine grains contact with screen frequently and the fine grains which are smaller than the need fall down from the screen pore and leave the grain we need.
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Laminated high-frequency vibration fine screen for miningOverview of :1.Laminated high-frequency vibration fine screen by the separator, feeder, screen frame, rubber spring, anti-wear polyester screen, electric vibrator, support, collection bucket and so on.2.Laminated high-frequency vibration fine screen is a unified vibration source to drive multi-layer screen box common vibration equipment.3.Laminated high-frequency vibration fine screen, using independent screening system screen boxes stacked up and down the layout of scattered methods, the screen surface of each layer to complete the independent feeding, screening operations, the screening surface of each layer of material were collected from the discharge .4. Feeding concentration: 25 -50% (according to the nature of the material to determine).5. Ambient temperature: no more than -20 ~ 40 .6. Excitation force: 0 - 3500 kg, adjustable.7.Double vibrator configuration, linear vibration with the reconstruction of pulp patent technology, flow area screening materials, transmission speed, the maximum from the feed in screening fine materials.Advantage of Laminated high-frequency vibration fine screen for mining:1.Laminated high-frequency fine screen is developed by our company's high-performance grading materials grading equipment.2.Advanced 5 laminated linear vibration technology, large vibration amplitude, saving floor space.3. Two sets of cylindrical motor configuration of the linear motion, hanging rubber spring system suspended in the outer support frame, vibration force uniformity, low noise, low load, low power consumption, environmental friendly.4. Wear-resistant parts of the equipment, according to the use of resistant ceramic, rubber, polyurethane and other wear-resistant materials to e*tend the service life of equipment and reduce equipment maintenance.5. Frequency conversion design, effective control of screening size.Applications of Laminated high-frequency vibration fine screen for mining:1. Used in iron ore, ilmenite ore concentrator concentration control and grading.2. Widely used in tungsten, tin, tantalum, niobium ore concentrator, such ore is more brittle, than the major, can be used instead of high-frequency vibration sieve spiral classifier, cyclone classification, or combination of classification, improve the efficiency of mineral processing. So that the recovery rate increased by 8% to 15%, while the processing capacity of the grinding system increased by about 20 to more than 30%.3. Quartz sand for the glass raw materials, feldspar ore dressing plant, quartz sand bar mill product size wide, angular, and is difficult to screen materials, Using high-frequency vibration fine screen can be stable to produce qualified products.4. Kaolin beneficiation plant for controlling the final product particle size.Technical Data Sheet of Laminated high-frequency vibration fine screen for mining:ModelVibration frequency (BPM)Separation size(mm)Capacity(t/h)Power(kw)Sieving area(m2)Size(mm)WDGS-12-1207Z14500.074-6.06-301.83.443790*1924*3280WDGS-33-1007Z14500.074-6.030-1203.64.414050*1659*3715WDGS-44-1007Z14500.074-6.040-1504.55.885019*1659*3574WDGS-55-1007Z14500.074-6.050-2004.57.455640*1659*4427WDGS-55-1207Z14500.074-6.080-2204.88.885813*1803*4325WDGS-12-1207Z14500.074-6.080-2507.213.326747*1852*5541
3.Laminated high-frequency vibration fine screen, using independent screening system screen boxes stacked up and down the layout of scattered methods, the screen surface of each layer to complete the independent feeding, screening operations, the screening surface of each layer of material were collected from the discharge .
7.Double vibrator configuration, linear vibration with the reconstruction of pulp patent technology, flow area screening materials, transmission speed, the maximum from the feed in screening fine materials.
3. Two sets of cylindrical motor configuration of the linear motion, hanging rubber spring system suspended in the outer support frame, vibration force uniformity, low noise, low load, low power consumption, environmental friendly.
4. Wear-resistant parts of the equipment, according to the use of resistant ceramic, rubber, polyurethane and other wear-resistant materials to e*tend the service life of equipment and reduce equipment maintenance.
2. Widely used in tungsten, tin, tantalum, niobium ore concentrator, such ore is more brittle, than the major, can be used instead of high-frequency vibration sieve spiral classifier, cyclone classification, or combination of classification, improve the efficiency of mineral processing. So that the recovery rate increased by 8% to 15%, while the processing capacity of the grinding system increased by about 20 to more than 30%.
3. Quartz sand for the glass raw materials, feldspar ore dressing plant, quartz sand bar mill product size wide, angular, and is difficult to screen materials, Using high-frequency vibration fine screen can be stable to produce qualified products.
I have a brand new HP Spectre with a 4k screen with an SSD and a weirdelectronic, high frequency, static, sound comes from inside the laptop, not the speakers. The annoying noiseincreases as I move sliders in photoshop and decreases as I am not pressing them, but it is still present. Is this normal?
1. Turn off the computer and wait five seconds. 2. Press the Power button to start the computer and repeatedly press the F10 key to enter the BIOS setup menu. 3. On the BIOS Setup screen, press F9 to select and load the BIOS Setup Default settings. 4. Press F10 to Save and Exit. 5. Use the arrow keys to select Yes, then press Enter when asked Exit Saving Changes? 6. Follow the prompts to restart your computer.
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Transparency and uniformity are fundamental to orchestrating your hardware operations. The interoperability between Hatch and our Forge automated manufacturing environment gives you real-time visibility to your products being built, configured, tested and verified. Only MBX gives this level of granularity.
We had an error we were unable to diagnose, and the MBX support team worked with us late into the night in diligent pursuit of a solution, even when it surfaced that it might not be a hardware problem.
Our next-generation digital audio cinema processors are flexible enough to fit your budget and theatre, while giving your guests an unforgettable Dolby Atmos and Dolby Audio experience. Speakers deliver exceptionally clear, powerful sound in a smaller, lighter package. Our multichannel amplifiers are designed to use less space and produce less heat to lower your overall costs.
Our flexible, versatile SLS loudspeakers can complement your existing setup or new build and deliver powerful audio experiences, including Dolby Atmos and Dolby Audio 5.1 and 7.1. Your guests will enjoy the incredible clarity, superior dynamic range, and ultraclear high frequency from any seat in the house.
Although a high refresh rate can indeed do wonders for gamers, a higher number isnt better for everyone. Depending on what you use your computer for, it might be a better idea to look at screen resolution, the panel type, and color accuracy. To help you know what to look for, weve broken down what a high refresh rate does, what it doesnt do, and why its important.
Hz stands for hertz, which is a unit of frequency. Regardless of the context, 1Hz equals one cycle per second. So, you may see a computer processor that runs at 4GHz, meaning it completes 4,000,000,000 instruction cycles per second. The same thing is true for monitors, except Hz measures something known as the refresh rate.
Refresh rate is the number of times per second a display refreshes its image. Since movement is displayed by the difference between frames, the refresh rate effectively places a hard cap on the framerate thats visible. That said, refresh rate is not the same as framerate. Refresh rate is an attribute of the monitor, while framerate is an attribute of the information being sent to it. They have to agree on just what is being shown on screen.
If you can run a game at 100 frames per second, you may see a tangible benefit from playing it on a monitor that can refresh that many times per second. But if youre watching a movie at a classic 24 fps, a higher refresh rate monitor wont make any difference.
If your computer can play a game at a high enough framerate to match a 120Hz or 240Hz monitor, youll see a noticeable change in the perceived sharpness of a moving image. Blurring occurs because of how the human brain processes the set of individual frames a monitor displays. The brain blurs together the series of frames to create a sensible moving picture, but some detail is lost along the way.
A higher refresh rate helps to decrease the blur by giving our brains more information to act on, in turn reducing perceived blur. However, unlike computer hardware, our brains arent all made to the same specification. Some people notice the difference between a 60Hz and 120Hz display immediately, while others cant see what everyone is all worked up about. The difference between 120Hz and 240Hz is even more subtle.
Again, it is very much dependent on what youre doing on your system. Gamers will notice sharper visuals during fast action, and moving a mouse can feel smoother compared to a more typical 60Hz display. Web browsing when fast scrolling down a page can look a little smoother, too, but in watching online videos and answering emails, you wont see any advantage.
Because refresh rates and framerates are very different things, they can often mismatch. Thats when something called screen tearing can occur. It tends to happen when a computers video card is spitting out frames at a rate well beyond the refresh rate of the monitor connected to it. Because more frames are being rendered than the monitor can handle, half-frames are sometimes shown together on the screen, manifesting as an obvious split between two portions of it, neither of which appears to line up correctly with the other. Its a distracting problem that even the least sensitive viewer will usually notice.
In games that arent particularly taxing, framerates can often exceed 100 fps. However, a 60Hz display only refreshes 60 times per second. This means gamers are not fully benefiting from the enhanced responsiveness of the higher framerate and may notice tearing as the display fails to keep up with the data fed to it. A 120Hz display refreshes twice as quickly as a 60Hz display, so it can display up to 120 fps, and a 240Hz display can handle up to 240 fps. This will eliminate tearing in most games.
Although you always run the risk of screen tearing with a framerate above your refresh rate, its only to a certain point. In games like Counter-Strike: Global Offensive, where framerates are often well about 100 fps, there are more, smaller tears. A single tear is easy to notice, but several minor ones dont register for most people.
Frame syncing technologies like V-Sync, Freesync, and G-Syncalso help prevent screen tearing, but they have their own drawbacks. V-Sync will cap performance. Freesync and G-Sync, meanwhile, require specific combinations of video card and monitor hardware. These technologies are getting better, but they still require some key choices about GPUs and displays.
Syncing technologies are designed to work with GPUs to help solve issues like screen tearing, but thats far from the only role GPUs play in display performance. If you want 120 to 144Hz or higher performance, you also need a GPU that can keep up with your gaming.
Theres no perfect choice for getting a GPU that can output 120 or more frames per second, but more processing power and a greater amount of faster memory are always good signs. The latest generation of Nvidias RTX 3000 series GPUsare excellent candidates, but theyre not the only ones.
The refresh rate of a monitor has an impact on input lag. A 60Hz display, for example, will never have a visible lag below 16.67 milliseconds, because thats the amount of time that passes from one refresh to the next. A 120Hz display halves that time to 8.33ms, and a 240Hz display further reduces it to 4.16ms.
Decreasing lag by less than 10ms may not seem important, and for many people even gamers its not. However, lag can be worth eliminating for ultra-competitive gaming or for those who like games to feel as smooth as possible. This is, once again, an issue some people will notice more readily than others.
Its important to note here that the refresh rate has nothing to do with input lag. Whenever you click your mouse or input a keystroke, your PC still receives and processes it at the same rate. The refresh rate just has to do with how quickly you see the result of your action on screen, compromising the entire input chain.
We think that gamers will see a more significant benefit in switching to a high refresh rate monitor than they will in upgrading to 4K since doing both can be quite expensive as well as taxing on your hardware. 120Hz or 144Hz displays deliver smoother, tear-free gaming with less input lag. This improved performance is especially beneficial in games where fast inputs are vital to winning and in games with competitive fighters or shooters, including Fortnite, Overwatch, Mortal Kombat, and others in these genres.
The best way to get an understanding of how this feature works is by physically witnessing motion demos on screens in an actual store. Thus, you will be able to make a more informed decision on whether to upgrade.
If youre a non-gamer, higher refresh rates supply an almost unnoticeable change in your systems overall performance. It will make your desktop appear smoother when surfing the web, but you wont see much improvement beyond that. Televisions with 120Hz or 240Hz panels further improve motion quality with image processors that change their input. Some can even add frames, which increases the framerate of content. In contrast, monitors dont usually have a processor, which minimizes the panels benefit when watching video content. An improved refresh rate also does not guarantee to eliminate ghosting.
Ultimately, we think that dedicated gamers will definitely benefit from upgrading their systems with high refresh rate displays. If you arent an avid gamer, there are plenty of features that will better fulfill your non-gamer desires.
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