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RO3006 advanced circuit materials provide a stable dielectric constant (Dk) over a range of temperatures. This stability eliminates the step change in Dk that occurs for PTFE glass materials near room temperature.
Access technical papers, white papers, calculators, tools and more for circuit laminates, prepreg and bonding materials.
High reflectivity mirrors, with reflectivity ranging from 99.8% up to 99.999%, are essential components in most laser systems for beam steering while maximizing throughput. It is common industry practice to determine mirror reflectivity by measuring transmission using spectrophotometry and assuming that the rest of the light was reflected. However, this false assumption does not consider scatter or absorption, leading to overly optimistic reflectivity values. For mirrors with reflectivities above 99.5%, a more accurate way to determine reflectivity is to measure total loss through cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS). Understanding your suppliers metrology is critical for predicting real world performance.
It is standard industry practice for optical component suppliers to verify the reflectivity of mirrors by using a spectrophotometer to directly measure transmission. This assumes that scatter and absorption are insignificant but these smaller effects have a significant impact when very high reflectivity is required. Spectrophotometers can directly measure reflectivities below 99.5% but values higher than that reach the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) limit of the spectrophotometer.
The most accurate metrology option for high reflectivity mirrors is cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) which measures the total loss of the mirror, including transmission, absorption, and scatter. A laser pulse is introduced to a resonant cavity bounded by two highly reflective mirrors (Figure 1). The reflected laser light oscillates in the resonant cavity and a small amount of light is lost with each reflection. A detector placed after the second mirror measures the decreasing intensity of the reflected light. The total loss of the mirrors is determined by the decay time, or ring down, of the reflected light.
The transmission of two high reflectivity mirrors was measured using transmission spectrophotometry (Figure 2). Mirror 2 had significantly lower measured transmission than Mirror 1, so it appears that Mirror 2 has a higher reflectivity. If no other metrology was done, it would be assumed that Mirror 1 has a nominal reflectivity of 99.9% and Mirror 2 has a nominal reflectivity of 99.99%.
However, measuring both mirrors through CRDS reveals that this is not the case. The loss value of Mirror 1 was consistent with the nominal reflectivity determined using spectrophotometry, but the reflectance of Mirror 2 was so low that it could not even create resonance in the CRDS system. Measuring its reflectance directly by using reflectance spectrophotometry showed that Mirror 2 has much worse performance and a trailing reflectance that drops to 0.5% less than that of Mirror 1 due to absorption and scattering (Figure 3). The extra low reflectance at lower wavelengths is characteristic of absorption and scatter.
This example shows how critical it is to use the proper metrology technique for high reflectivity laser mirrors. Mirror 2 could lead to system failure if it was believed to have a reflectivity of 99.99%. In reality, it had a reflectance of 99.5%. This discrepancy between the test value and the true value can lead to performance degradation, safety issues, and even catastrophic system damage.
Edmund Optics (EO) utilizes CRDS to make highly sensitive loss measurements of both high reflectivity and high transmission optics. EOs CRDS system is tuned for common Nd:YAG wavelengths and harmonics including 1064nm, 532nm, 355nm, and 266nm. The system can be tuned to other wavelengths upon request.
TECHSPEC Laser Line Mirrors offer >99.98% reflectivity at 1064nm and high damage thresholds of up to 6 J/cm2 @ 355nm. They are designed for demanding Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, and Yb:YAG laser applications and are available in various harmonic designs and 0 and 45 AOI options.
TECHSPEC 2m Laser Mirrors feature >99.6% reflectivity and guaranteed laser damage thresholds of >10 J/cm2 at their design wavelengths for use with Holmium (2100nm) and Thulium (1940nm) doped laser systems. Their high laser damage threshold makes them ideal for use in medical, industrial, and metrology application spaces. The 2m wavelength regime is useful for surgical procedures as it can target discrete depth levels of tissue beneath the skins surface.
TECHSPEC Laser Line /20 High Tolerance Right Angle Mirrors feature >99.5% reflectivity at Nd:YAG wavelengths. A 15 arcsecond angular tolerance, 1 arcminute pyramid tolerance, and convenient right angle geometry make the mirrors easily mountable in order to integrate into systems that redirect light by 90. The mirrors also feature highly thermally stable UV fused silica substrates and high laser induced damage threshold specifications.
Ultrafast Laser Line Mirrors feature >99% reflectivity and low group delay dispersion (GDD), resulting in optimal performance for applications utilizing Er:Glass, Ti:Sapphire, or Ytterbium-doped femtosecond lasers. The mirrors balance the group velocity dispersion of the coating materials to yield a minimal GDD and provide maximum reflection over broad wavelength ranges. Ultrafast Laser Line Mirrors are available in both 0 and 45 angle of incidence versions.
2m Highly-Dispersive Broadband Ultrafast Mirrors offer reflectivity >99% between 2000-2200nm and a high negative group delay dispersion (GDD) of -1000fs2 at a 5 angle of incidence (AOI). Their low loss, excellent spectral performance, and proven GDD make them ideal for use inside 2m thin-disk laser oscillators. These broadband ultrafast chirped mirrors are available in 12.7mm and 25.4mm diameters.
TECHSPEC Broadband Dielectric /10 Mirrors exhibit >99% reflectivity over broad wavelength ranges from the UV to NIR spectra, significantly better than that of metal coated mirrors, and are designed for all polarization states at angles of incidence from 0-45. This, along with their highly thermally stable fused silica substrates, makes them ideal for beam steering or reflection applications utilizing multiple laser sources.
Mirrors with reflectivities below 99.5% can be directly measured using reflection spectrophotometry. However, this technique will not work for mirrors with higher reflectivities because these systems reach the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) limit.
Yes, absorption can be directly measured using photothermal deflection spectroscopy, in which measured changes in refractive index determine the amount of light absorption. scatter can be measured directly using a scatterometer or atomic force microscope (AFM). An AFM creates a highly accurate topological map of the sample and measures its roughness, which can then be used to calculate scatter.
Sorry, Galaxys S1119, Samsung's jumping straight to Galaxy S20 this year. They're also going with essentially three base models before accounting for niche variants. Of these three models, it's clear which one's the best: the Galaxy S20 Ultra.
Jump to a section: Standout Features | Dates | Storage | Price | Body | Basics | Software | Skin | Display | Performance | Battery | Front Camera | Rear Camera | Audio | Media Formats | Sensors | Connectivity | Security | Box Includes
The Galaxy S20 Ultra will likely be the best smartphone on the market until the Galaxy Note 20 releases in August 2020. It has a 120 Hz OLED display and a 5,000 mAh battery. But the real star is the rear camera array, which includes a 108 MP sensor and a periscope camera with 10x optical zoom and 100x digital zoom.
The Samsung Galaxy S20 Ultra was announced on February 11, 2020, in San Francisco, alongside the Galaxy S20 and S20+ and the Galaxy Z Flip. Preorders start on February 21, with in-store sales starting March 6.
All three Galaxy S20 series phones will start with 128 GB of internal storage. However, as you would expect from the Ultra variant, the S20 Ultra will the only to offer 512 GB of internal storage as well. All three will use the UFS 3.0 standard and will be faster than other phones using the standard thanks to Samsung usage of the F2FS file system. MicroSD card support is on board, supporting up to 2 TB of expandable storage (although, currently the largest microSD card available is 1 TB).
The Galaxy S20 Ultra will be priced at $1,399, making it one of the most expensive starting prices for any Samsung phone ever released (only the Galaxy Fold has been priced higher). However, the high price tag was expected with the very high-end specs and 5G support.
The Galaxy S20 Ultra uses glass on both the front and back cover of the phone, protected by Gorilla Glass 6. The frame is aluminum once again, which minimizes the weight while remaining durable to most drops.
Thanks to shrinking bezels, the Galaxy S20 Ultra is able to pack a huge display (6.9 inches) in a one-handed phone. The Galaxy S20 Ultra will be 6.57 by 2.99 inches, and despite the huge battery, it still manages to keep its thickness at 0.35 inches. It has a IP68 rating.
Running on top of Android 10 is One UI 2. The latest upgrade from Samsung adds dark mode to more apps and shrinks portions of the UI to make it more accessible, especially with the larger display. It isn't a huge upgrade (on Samsung's end), but with the addition of Android 10's features, there is more than enough reason to get excited.
The Galaxy S20 Ultra has a 6.9-inch Dynamic AMOLED display. It uses a punch hole to house the front-facing camera, which is at the top of the screen in the center. It has a resolution of 3200 x 1440 for an impressive 506 ppi pixel density. There is also support for HDR10 and HDR10+.
The headlining display feature, however, will be the 120 Hz refresh rate. This will be a first for smartphone OLED displays and should lead to impeccably crisp animations and scrolling. However, this feature is limited to FHD+ mode only (2400 x 1080).
The Galaxy S20 Ultra will be powered by the new Qualcomm Snapdragon 865. This SoC offers a 20% increase to CPU performance and a 1720% increase in GPU performance. It uses the same tri-cluster core configuration with one Gold core clocked higher than three other Gold cores (for a total of four), paired with four Silver cores.
The "base model" Ultra will have 12 GB of RAM. But exclusive to the S20 Ultra is a 16 GB variant for those who just want as much memory as possible. Either way, it's LPDDR5X RAM, the newest standard for mobile phones which has a faster transfer rate than its predecessor while consuming less power.
At 5,000 mAh, the Galaxy S20 Ultra has the largest battery Samsung has ever used in its flagship lineup. It will also the second phone to support Samsung new Super Fast Charging 2.0 allowing to also use the 45 W Super Fast Charger (starting at $38.56 on Amazon). It will also have Fast Wireless Charging 2.0 and support for PowerShare, the marketing name for reverse wireless charging.
The Galaxy S20 Ultra has a 108 MP primary camera. It uses the Samsung ISOCELL Bright HM1, the successor to the ISOCELL Bright HMX co-developed with Xiaomi. This camera uses the more advanced Nonacell technology, allowing it to combine nine adjacent pixels into one. This reduces the resolution of photos but effectively increases the pixel size from 0.8 m to 2.4 m, one of the largest on a smartphone, which should dramatically improve low-light photography.
Samsung has paired this camera with two other cameras, a telephoto and an ultra-wide. The telephoto camera is a 48 MP sensor with a periscope lens capable of 10x optical zoom. Apparently, it can only truly zoom to 5x, and will use pixel cropping to reach 10x (similar to how OnePlus 7 Pro reached 3x optical zoom). This lens is also capable of 100x digital zoom which will be known as "Space Zoom."
As far as video, one advantage of the 108 MP Samsung ISOCELL Bright HM1 is the upgrade to 8K video capture (at 30 fps). The Snapdragon 865 can handle video capture at this size so the process should be very similar to recording video at a lower resolution. And unlike in years past, the SoC natively supports super slow motion capture, which means you can record at 960 fps for a much longer time. It can shoot HDR10+ videos as well on select resolutions.
Samsung is also introducing a new Pro Mode for Video which gives you manual controls while recording video. This includes shutter speed, ISO, brightness, and much more. Super Steady is also improved for smoother video capture while moving.
Let cut straight to what you care about the headphone jack is gone. It looks like there won't be a dongle included, though AKG-tuned USB-C earbuds should be in the box. The stereo speakers will once again support Dolby Atmos and be tuned by AKG.
New to the Galaxy S20 is the feature, Music Share. While your phone is connected to let say a car radio, if someone else wanted to play music from the same source, they could pair their phone to your phone and share music through your device to the car radio. This way you don't need to unpair your phone from the car radio.
The Galaxy S20 Ultra will only be available in the 5G model in the US. It will also use Wi-Fi 6 (802.11ax), the lastest commercially available Wi-Fi standard. As far as SIM goes, it only supports nano-SIM.
As far as cellular bands, Qualcomm is forcing OEMs to purchase the separate 5G modem with each purchase of the Qualcomm Snapdragon 865. While the other models will have 4G and 5G variants (overseas), the Galaxy S20 Ultra will only be available with 5G support.
The Samsung Galaxy S20 Ultra uses an ultrasonic in-display fingerprint scanner. While it had its share of issues last year, it has gotten much better over the course of the Galaxy S10 series and Note 10 series. It also includes the standard Android authentication methods such as passcode and PIN.
The Galaxy S20 Ultra comes with AKG USB-C wired headphones to compensate for the lack of a headphone jack. A 25 W Super Fast Charger will come in the box. The USB cable, for the first time, is a USB-C to USB-C data cable.
Keep Your Connection Secure Without a Monthly Bill. Get a lifetime subscription to VPN Unlimited for all your devices with a one-time purchase from the new Gadget Hacks Shop, and watch Hulu or Netflix without regional restrictions, increase security when browsing on public networks, and more.
The need for EMI/RFI shielding has never been greater than it is today. We are surrounded by RFemissions everywhere, constantly. Anyone who has looked at the screen of a high-frequency spectrum analyzer fitted with an antenna probe can verify just how cluttered the airwaves are in practically any environment. Yet everyone expects there electronic devices to operate flawlessly, regardless of the surrounding chatter.
Fortunately, a number of companies have been coming up with new solutions to help designers deal with the problem. The following are but a few examples of the products that are readily available to designers today for coping with EMI/RFI.
For use in demanding military, medical, industrial, and avionic applications, the CAR Series and VC1-IM Series index-matched ITO coatings on glass filters from Dontech (www.dontech.com) are designed for high-end displays to provide exceptional optical and electrically conductive properties. Utilizing the latest thin-film vacuum deposition technology, CAR Series (index-matched to air) and VC1-IM Series (index-matched to lamination coatings) optimize display contrast (for example, sunlight readability) while providing EMI/RFI shielding and/or transparent heating.
The filters can be fabricated from a variety of glass substrates, such as chemically strengthened (soda lime, Corning Gorilla, or Asahi Dragontrail), borosilicate, fused silica, and optical glasses (for example, Schott nBk-7). Customization options include low photopic reflections and tightly toleranced resistances. The coatings offer AR coating reflections less than 0.4%, and ITO sheet resistances range from less than 1 /sq. to 300 /sq., with transmittances over 96%.
Pulse Electronics (www.pulseelectronics.com) recently introduced a 10GBASE-T press-fit integrated connector module (ICM) product family that have a patented shielding system that prevents noise interference from adjacent ports, ensuring optimal data transmission, according to Product Manager Muhammad Khan. The ICMs are tuned to have excellent insertion and return loss performance over 10-gigabit frequencies. The modules are designed to facilitate implementation of 10GBASE-T in large enterprises and cloud data centers.
The press-fit RJ45 ICMs meet IEEE 802.3 specifications and are available in common industry configurations: 2 x 2, 2 x 4, 2 x 6, and 2 x 8. Using a press-fit pin provides a pressure contact with the printed circuit board, eliminating the need for wave soldering, and the products are qualified at leading 10GBASE-T PHY vendors, which enables system designers to eliminate extensive qualifications and accelerates time-to-market for their products.When designing an electronic enclosure, engineers must be certain that all gaps, seams and openings are properly shielded. As chip speeds and operational frequencies increase, even the smallest gaps can allow unwanted electromagnetic and radio frequency interference to escape into the surrounding environment. To solve this extremely common problem, Leader Tech (www.leadertechinc.com) developed a comprehensive line of FSG fabric shielding gaskets.
The company offers 125 different sizes and profiles that are both lightweight and extremely easy to install. Each gasket is manufactured with a resilient polyurethane foam core and a unique, highly conductive nickel/copper ripstop outer fabric that exhibits a shielding effectiveness up to 115 dB when installed.
There are times when systems not designed for RFI protection need to have immunity added. For such instances, Select Fabricators has recently unveiled two new Select-A-Shield RF isolation pouches with a redesigned window-touchscreen and USB connectivity. They can be used to isolate wireless devices and view data without sending or receiving signals, thereby enhancing data security for mobile forensic applications.
The patent-pending window touch pouches offer high RF shielding performance of 80 dBat 1 GHz and large, nonglare touch screens made from double-layer conductive mesh to accommodates a wide variety of mobile devices. The pouches are made with conductive silver/copper/nickel material with a double rollover closure to ensure a tight isolation performance. Conductive material will maintain shielding performance for hundreds of uses. The standard bags come in 6.25 x 10.25-in. and 9.5 x 12.625-in. sizes and custom size and configuration Faraday bags are also available.
At the center of this frenzy of activity is the interconnect. Current options range from organic, silicon and glass interposers, to bridges that span different die at multiple levels. There also are various fan-out approaches that can achieve roughly the same high performance and low-power goals as the interposers and bridges.
Whats driving all of this activity is a recognition that the economic and performance benefits of shrinking features are dwindling. While this has been apparent on the analog side for some time, its now beginning to impact ASICs for a different reasonthe immaturity of applications for which chips are being designed.
In artificial intelligence, deep learning and machine learning, which collectively represent one of the hot growth markets for chips, the training algorithms are in an almost constant state of flux. So are the decisions about how to apportion processing between the cloud, edge devices and mid-tier servers. That makes it far more difficult to commit to building an ASIC at advanced nodes, because by the time it hits the market it already may be obsolete.
The situation is much the same in the automotive segment, where much of the technology is still in transition. And in burgeoning markets such as medical electronics, augmented and virtual reality, IoT and IIoT, no one is quite sure what architectures will look like or where the commonalities ultimately will be. Unlike in the past, when chipmakers vied for a socket in a mobile phone or a PC or server, applications are either emerging or end markets are splintering.
Performance can be improved significantly by routing signals through wider pipesTSVs, bridges or even bonded metal layers, rather than thin wires. Distances between critical components can be reduced by placing different chips closer to each other rather than on the same die, thereby reducing the amount of energy required to send signals as well as the time it takes to move data. Components can be mixed and matched from multiple process nodes, which in the case of analog IP can be a huge time saver because analog circuitry does not benefit from shrinking features.
Still, advanced packaging adds its own level of complexity. There are so many options in play in the packaging world that it isnt clear which approaches will win. The outcome depends largely on the choice of interconnect, which serves as the glue between different chips.
The key here is the shorten the time to development, particularly for AI, said Patrick Soheili, vice president of business and corporate development at eSilicon. On one side, you cant afford not to do the chip right away because you cant be left behind. But you also have to worry about future-proofing it. The goal is to get both.
DARPA has been pushing chiplets as a way to standardize the assembly of components. The first commercial implementation of this sort of modular approach was developed by Marvell Semiconductor with its MoChi architecture. Marvell still uses that internally for its own chips, which it can customize for customers using a menu of options. DARPAs CHIPS program takes that one step further, allowing chiplets from multiple companies to be mixed and matched and combined through an interposer.
Chiplets are absolutely part of the solution, said Soheili. But this isnt so easy. If a 7nm ASIC has to sit in the middle and connect to 180nm chiplets, something has to line up the data and send it over a link.
Different types of interposers As companies working with advanced packaging have discovered, this can be time-consuming and expensive. It is assumed that once these various approaches can be vetted and standardized, this process will become quicker and cheaper. That could involve sidestepping silicon interposers, which can run as high as $100 for the interposer itself in complex devices that require stitching of multiple reticles.
There is overall agreement that silicon interposers are expensive, said Ram Trichur, director of business development at Brewer Science. The question is what to replace it with. The challenge with organic interposers has been warpage. There are a lot of companies addressing these challenges and working with certain formats for organic interposers. Some are directly mounted, others need a substrate.
Kyocera, Shinko Electronics and Samsung independently have been developing organic interposers using epoxy films that can be built up using standard processes. One of the key issues here has been matching the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with that of silicon. This isnt a problem with silicon interposers, of course, but it has been an issue with organic laminates and underfill. Reducing the thickness of the interposer layer has been found to help significantly, according to several technical papers on the subject.
Its still not clear if this will be a commercially viable alternative to silicon interposers, however. With an organic interposer you get the same lines and spaces as a silicon interposer, but by the time you address all of the issues you come up with basically the same cost at the end, said Andy Heinig, a research engineer at Fraunhofer EAS. The problem is that you need a system-level study to find out which is the best solution for a design. One of the variables is that you need to transfer a huge amount of data on these devices. If you reduce that to a certain point, you can use an organic interposer. But its more of a task to find that out than with a silicon interposer.
Organic interposers arent the only alternative. There is also work on glass interposers, which are tunable, said Brewers Trichur. The CTE of glass matches silicon, so you get low loss, which is suitable for high-frequency applications. Glass is also good for panel-level processes, and the cost is low.
Interposer alternatives One of the big attractions of 2.5D silicon interposers, or 2.1D organic interposers, is improved throughput using arrays of TSVs rather than skinny wires. That allows a multi-pipe connection to stacks of DRAM, known as high-bandwidth memory.
The current HBM 2 JEDEC standard, introduced in 2016, supports up to 8 stacked DRAM chips with an optional memory controller, which is similar to the Hybrid Memory Cube. HBM 2 supports transfer rates of up to 2 GT/s, with up to 256 GB/s bandwidth per package. Over the next couple years that will increase again with HBM 3, which will double the bandwidth to 512 GB/s. There is also talk of HBM 3+ and HBM 4, although exact speeds and time frames are not clear at this point.
The goal of all of these devices is to be able to move more data between processor and memory more quickly, using less power, and 2.5/2.1D are not the only approaches in play at the moment. Numerous industry sources say that some new devices are being developed using pillarsstacked logic/memory/logicon top of fan-outs. TSMC has been offering this capability for some time with its InFO (Integrated Fan-Out) packaging technology.
Other high-end fan-outs use a different approach. Fan-out takes the place of the interposer, said John Hunt, senior director of engineering at Advanced Semiconductor Engineering(ASE). Chip-last is closer to an inorganic interposer, and the yield right now is as high as 99% using 4 metal layers and 2.5 spacing. The real objective of an interposer is to increase the pitch of active devices so you can route HBM2. High-end fan-outs perform better thermally and electrically because the copper RDL is thicker and the vias are less resistive. But they only work in cases where you dont need 1 micron lines.
Whats important is that there are many ways to tackle this problem, and high-speed interconnects are now available using multiple packaging approaches. Until a couple years ago, the primary choices were fan-out, fan-in, 2.5D and 3D-IC and multi-chip modules, and there were distinct performance and cost differences between all of those. There are currently more options on the table for all of those approaches, and the number of options continues to expand, thereby blurring the lines.
Bridges Another approach uses low-cost bridges. Intel has its Embedded Multi-die Interconnect Bridge (EMIB), which it offers to Intel Foundry customers as an option for connecting multiple routing layers.
Both of those approaches can certainly cut the cost of advanced packaging, but they are more limited than an interposer. So while a bridge can provide a high-speed connection between two or more chips, there is a limit to how many HBM stacks can be connected to logic using this type of approach.
Moreover, while the bridges themselves are less expensive than interposers filled with through-silicon vias, they can be challenging to assemble because the connections are planar. The same kinds of warpage issues that affect multi-die packaging apply with bridge technology, as well.
Future goals and issues One of the reasons this kind of in-package, and inter-package interconnect technology is getting so much buzz lately is that the amount of data that needs to be processed is increasing significantly. Some of that must be processed locally, using multiple processors or cores, and some of it needs to be processed remotely, either in a mid-tier server or in the cloud. All of the compute models require massive throughput, and trying to build that throughput into a 7/5nm chip is becoming much more difficult.
The rule of thumb used to be that on-chip processing is always faster than off-chip processing. But the distance between two chips in a package can be shorter than routing signals from one side of an SoC to another over a skinny wire, which at advanced nodes may encounter RC delay. None of this is simple, however, and it gets worse in new areas such as 5G.
There are several materals and process challenges, said Brewers Trichur. First, youve got the structural package issues. Then, when we get into 5G, youve got a gap in materials with integrated dielectrics. 5G will be the next materials challenge. So now youve got to integrate new materials and new processors, all in a small package. Youve got more switches, and you also have to integrate antennas, which requires a new process and new materials in itself. This is a whole new challenge.
Another market where advanced packaging will play a critical role is in AI/ML/DL. The key metrics there are performance and power, but the bigger challenge is being able to churn out new designs quickly. The problem in this segment is that the training algorithms are in an almost constant state of flux, so being able to add new processors or IP is time-sensitive. An 18-month development cycle will not work if the processor or memory architecture needs to change every six months.
Trying to utilize off-the-shelf components for a single-chip solution can cause its own set of issues. One of the problems weve been seeing in big SoCs is that companies are trying to glue everything together and the IP models are at different levels of abstractions and different speeds, said Kurt Shuler, vice president of marketing at ArterisIP. That requires you to shim and hack the interconnect model to get it to work. Even then, because of the ancestry of the models, they werent developed for pins or TCM (tightly coupled memory) interfaces, or they are cycle-accurate or approximately timed or loosely timed. So were seeing things that were not developed on a large scale. They were developed as a point problem.
Advanced packaging can help that to a point. But most advanced packaging so far has been more about a particular application and a particular project, rather than developing a platform that can be used by many companies.
If it works well, you can do great things, said Raymond Nijssen, vice president of systems engineering at Achronix. But there are many forks in that road. There are solutions with interposers or without. There are different data rates, so you have some solutions with very high data rates. And if you are doing chiplets, it depends on why you are doing chiplets. Is it because you cant afford that many balls on a package, or is it an issue of power efficiency because you have a hard ceiling on power usage?
Conclusion So far, there are no clear answers to any of these questions. But the good news is that there are plenty of options, and many of them have been proven in real products in the market and shown to work.
The next challenge will be to build economies of scale into the packaging world. That will require the industry to narrow down its choices. Until now, many of these packaging approaches have been expensive to implement, which is why they have shown up in everything from smart phones, where there are sufficient volumes to offset the development cost, or in networking chips, where price is less of an issue.
In the future, advanced packaging will need to become almost ubiquitous to drive widespread applications of AI/ML/DL inference at edge nodes and in automotive and a variety of other new market segments. That requires repetition with some degree of flexibility on designbasically the equivalent of mass customization. This is the direction the packaging world ultimately will take, but it will require some hard choices about how to get there. The interconnect will remain the centerpiece of all of these decisions, but which interconnect remains to be seen.
Related Stories Interconnect Challenges Rising Resistance and capacitance drive need for new materials and approaches. How To Choose The Right Memory Different types and approaches can have a big impact on cost, power, bandwidth and latency.
Two areas that I was surprised were not included were power dissipation as well as signal and power integrity issues. As distances and geometries shrink, supplying sufficient voltages required for functionality are critical (power distribution networks: PDN). As the geometries enable denser packing, signal integrity becomes a bigger issue. Dense arrays of layer to layer interconnects, such as TSVs, create an environment for signal integrity issues and must be accurately analyzed. The same can be said for power dissipation where generated heat does not have efficient mechanisms to rapidly exit the structure.
Hi Bill, Those are certainly interesting challenges. We have written a number of stories on PDNs, the impact of density and various types of noise (power, thermal, digital-to-analog, electromagnetic, etc.) and other physical effects on signal integrity, as well as thermal effects caused by gate leakage and various packaging approaches, particularly 3D-IC. Intel said at ISS two years ago it didnt see a way forward for logic on logic, sandwiched between memories in a 3D-IC design, because the inner logic layer would be performance-constrained by heat. One of the interesting strategies early on was to use dedicated TSVs for ESD and heat dissipation. There also has been talk about microfluidics for removing heat. But all of this adds cost, time and reliability issues, and unless there is enough volume and demand theyll never be solved. Many of those issues can be avoided with the more popular packaging approaches, but none of this is easy. Ed
The D-2-D interconnect of TSV or EMIB still need two solder joints between Die and Path. I think it is the origin of heat source during high frequency band width. Maybe next package can solve this problem.
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We specialize in high voltage capacitors and resistors for tube radios. We carry high voltage film capacitors, high voltage electrolytic capacitors, silver mica capacitors and AC-rated line filter safety capacitors for tube radios. We sell 630 volt & 1600 volt Orange Dips and 630V, 1000V, 1600V & 6000V tubular axial film capacitors. Also on sale are Electrolytic capacitors with long axial or radial leads and high working voltages, ideal for tube radio repairs and restorations. We also carry 500V clamp mount single and dual-section Can electrolytic capacitors with solder lugs. Safety / Interference Suppression and 500 volt & 1000 volt dipped silver mica capacitors are also on sale. Our product line includes 630V, 1000V, 1600V and 6000V tubular metalized polypropylene and metalized polyester film capacitors with axial leads; 630 volt metal-foil polypropylene and metalized polyester orange dips; 630V polystyrene; 1600 volt metalized polypropylene orange dips; 500 volt & 1000 volt dipped silver mica capacitors; 400 volt & 630 volt Mylar film capacitors; 1600 volt & 2000 volt ceramic disc capacitors; 250 VAC ceramic disc X1/Y2 AC rated safety capacitors, 275 VAC metalized polypropylene X2 (across-the-line) and 250 VAC metalized polyester Y2 (line-to ground) safety & interference suppression capacitors and radial, axial and can type electrolytic capacitors and capacitor clamps. For our customers that work on "high-end" audio we carry 400V and 630V film capacitors...."jb JFX Premium Metallized Polypropylene Film Capacitors". These are for use in high-end audio/speaker/amplifier applications. JustRadios Capacitor Product Line has been specifically chosen for vintage tube radio applications. We carry "hard to find" pre WWII MFD/uF tube radio sizes so you can restore your radios to original factory specifications. For "audiophile" applications we now carry Audience Auricap / Auricap XO Audiophile capacitors. For your "precision test equipment and audio circuits" we carry 1% & 2% precision silver mica, 1% polystyrene and now 1% precision & 2% precision metallized polypropylene capacitors up to 2uF. We also sell Capacitor Kits and Resistor Kits for tube radios. If you are new to antique tube radio restorations, here are some practical Capacitor Tips for the Beginner. Are you familiar with the advantages of using line filter safety capacitors?....learn more at ABC's of Safety Capacitors for Tube Radios.
Film and Electrolytic Capacitors for Tube Radios On sale: High voltage electrolytic, film, silver mica and x1/y2Y, Y2 & X1 safety capacitors / condensers for vintage tube radio restorations. All capacitors have high voltages and long radial or axial leads for easy "under chassis" installation. Can type with solder lugs also now available. Our Capacitor Product Line has been specifically chosen for tube radio applications. Fresh stock Electrolytic Capacitors are available at 25/50/100/160/250/350/450/500 volt & 600 volts. Depending on working voltage, electrolytics are available at 0.47uF, 1uF, 2uF, 2.2uF, 3.3uF, 4uF, 4.7uF, 5uF, 6.8uF, 8uF, 10uF, 12uF, 15uF, 16uF, 20uF, 22uF, 25uF, 30uF, 33uF, 40uF, 47uF, 50uF, 60uF, 68uF, 80uF, 100uF, 120uF, 150uF, 200uF, 220uF, 250uF, 330uF, 350uF, 500uF, 1000uF, 1500uF, 2000uF,2200uF, 3000uF, 3300uF, and 5000uF. All electrolytics are polarized except for our 100V which are non-polar/bi-polar. We also sell premium quality, high voltage (630 Volt & 1600 Volt) Orange Dips and 630 Volt, 1000 Volt, 1600 Volt & 6000 Volt tubular axial leaded film capacitors (all sizes 0.0005 mfd thru 2.0 mfd). Choose from Metal-Foil Polypropylene Capacitors, Metalized Polyester Film Capacitors, Polystyrene Capacitors, Metalized Polypropylene Film Capacitors and Mylar Film Capacitors as well as Extra High Voltage Orange Dips and Ceramic Disc Capacitors at 1600V and 2000V. For our customers that work on "high-end" audio we have 400V and 630V film capacitors...."jb JFX Premium Metallized Polypropylene Film Capacitors". These are for use in high-end audio/speaker/amplifier applications. For "audiophile" applications we have just recently added Auricap/Auricap XO Audiophile capacitors. 500 volt dipped silver mica capacitors are on sale in a full range of sizes from 1pf to 10000pf. Also available are AC rated X1/Y2 line bypass safety capacitors and X2 (across-the-line) & Y2 (line-to-ground) safety / interference suppression capacitors. For the bargain hunter, we have 630 volt Mylar Capacitors on sale in "Bags of 50" at the Mylar Bargain Bin and Capacitor Kits.
On sale: High voltage electrolytic, film, silver mica and x1/y2Y, Y2 & X1 safety capacitors / condensers for vintage tube radio restorations. All capacitors have high voltages and long radial or axial leads for easy "under chassis" installation. Can type with solder lugs also now available. Our Capacitor Product Line has been specifically chosen for tube radio applications.
Fresh stock Electrolytic Capacitors are available at 25/50/100/160/250/350/450/500 volt & 600 volts. Depending on working voltage, electrolytics are available at 0.47uF, 1uF, 2uF, 2.2uF, 3.3uF, 4uF, 4.7uF, 5uF, 6.8uF, 8uF, 10uF, 12uF, 15uF, 16uF, 20uF, 22uF, 25uF, 30uF, 33uF, 40uF, 47uF, 50uF, 60uF, 68uF, 80uF, 100uF, 120uF, 150uF, 200uF, 220uF, 250uF, 330uF, 350uF, 500uF, 1000uF, 1500uF, 2000uF,2200uF, 3000uF, 3300uF, and 5000uF. All electrolytics are polarized except for our 100V which are non-polar/bi-polar.
We also sell premium quality, high voltage (630 Volt & 1600 Volt) Orange Dips and 630 Volt, 1000 Volt, 1600 Volt & 6000 Volt tubular axial leaded film capacitors (all sizes 0.0005 mfd thru 2.0 mfd). Choose from Metal-Foil Polypropylene Capacitors, Metalized Polyester Film Capacitors, Polystyrene Capacitors, Metalized Polypropylene Film Capacitors and Mylar Film Capacitors as well as Extra High Voltage Orange Dips and Ceramic Disc Capacitors at 1600V and 2000V. For our customers that work on "high-end" audio we have 400V and 630V film capacitors...."jb JFX Premium Metallized Polypropylene Film Capacitors". These are for use in high-end audio/speaker/amplifier applications. For "audiophile" applications we have just recently added Auricap/Auricap XO Audiophile capacitors. 500 volt dipped silver mica capacitors are on sale in a full range of sizes from 1pf to 10000pf. Also available are AC rated X1/Y2 line bypass safety capacitors and X2 (across-the-line) & Y2 (line-to-ground) safety / interference suppression capacitors. For the bargain hunter, we have 630 volt Mylar Capacitors on sale in "Bags of 50" at the Mylar Bargain Bin and Capacitor Kits.
All capacitor prices are in US $'s. Fixed world-wide airmail shipping for capacitor orders under $100 is just $7.90. Free worldwide airmail shipping for all capacitors orders over $100.00. 10% discount for all capacitor orders over $149.99 (excluding capacitor and resistor kits). JustRadios USPS Shipping Address (all USA & Overseas Mailings): David Cantelon (JustRadios), 4600 Witmer Industrial Estates, Suite 4 #6582, Niagara Falls, NY, USA, 14305 Always a Money Back Guarantee
Constructed with Polypropylene film dielectric aluminum foil electrode, copper plated steel leads, outer wrapped with polyester film type and ends sealed with epoxy resin, in non-inductive type. MFD/uF sizes available and $ Price List. 630V Tubular Axial Film Capacitor Kits with free USA/Canada shipping.
Constructed with Metalized Polyester film dielectric, copper-ply wire leads, outer wrapped with polyester film tape and ends sealed with epoxy resin, in non-inductive type. MFD/uF sizes available and $ Price List. 630V Tubular Axial Film Capacitor Kits with free USA/Canada shipping.
Non-inductive construction with Metalized Polypropylene film as dielectric, copper-clad steel leads, outer wrapped with polyester and ends sealed with epoxy resin. MFD/uF sizes available and $ Price List.
6000V & 15000V Metalized Polyester Film Tubular Axial Capacitors Constructed with non-inductive wound metalized polyester film with flame retardant tape wrap case and epoxy fill. Extra long axial leads. MFD/uF sizes available and $ Price List.
Constructed with Polypropylene film dielectric aluminum foil as electrode, copper-ply wire leads and epoxy resin coating, in non-inductive type. MFD/uF sizes available and $ Price List. 630V Orange Dip Capacitor Kits with free USA/Canada shipping.
Constructed with metalized polyester film dielectric copper-ply wire leads and resin coating, in non-inductive type. MFD/uF sizes available and $ Price List. 630V Orange Dip Film Capacitor Kits with free USA/Canada shipping.
Constructed with special series Metalized Polypropylene film dielectric, tinned copper wire leads and flame retardant epoxy resin coating, in non-inductive type. MFD/uF sizes available and $ Price List.
Construction: Premium "audiophile" grade metallized polypropylene film dielectric with tinned pure copper axial leads. Very low dielectric absorption factor, very low dissipation factor, very low ESR and very low inductance. MFD/uF sizes available and $ Price List. 630V jb JFX Capacitor Kits with free USA/Canada shipping.
Manufactured from selected Indian ruby muscovite having optimum electrical characteristics. Copper-clad steel leads finished with a solder coating for excellent solderability. Epoxy dipped for superior heat, moisture, vibration and solvent resistance.
Construction: Aluminum, vented and non-polarized (same a thing as bi-polar) with axial leads. Constructed with single end rubber seal for best reliability against vibration. Low tolerance and low dissipation to optimize audio applications. MFD/uF sizes available and $ Price List.
Construction: Clamp Mount Can with solder tags for hand wired circuits. "Copper" (with tin plating) solder lugs for top performance in audio applications. Tin plating over "copper" lugs to protect base metal from oxidation, thus preserving its solderability. MFD/uF sizes available and $ Price List.
Auricap .... considered by many Audiophiles as "the best capacitor money can buy". Construction: Auricaps are made in USA with the very best precision wound metalized polypropylene film with extended foil (non-inductive) construction. Special care is taken to insure industry leading ESR values. Applications: High end Audiophile uses include: signal coupling, loudspeaker crossover apps, power supply decoupling, filtering, bypassing and power factor correction applications. If you are restoring vintage tube radios ... absolutely no need to use these audiophile capacitors. Our other lines of film capacitors are ideal for tube radios and are way more economical than audiophile capacitors. Specs: Auricap Specifications Auricap Prices & Shopping Cart
In addition to the traditional Auricap audiophile capacitor (pictured at left) and its successor the Auricap XO, we carry the unique R version where solid tinned copper leads exit from the "periphery" of the Auricap body (as pictured above). Leads: Auricap and Auricap XO use "stranded" hookup leads. Auricap leads are made of polished, stranded High Purity Oxygen Free Copper with XLPE insulation while Auricap XO use insulated OHNO mono crystal leads. The R version uses "solid" tinned copper leads. Although some people refer to the R version as radial, they are actually tubular (same body as Auricap) but with solid leads and unique lead position which makes the R version ideal for circuit board and/or hand wired applications. We provide free black and red heat-shrink with these unique R version Auricap capacitors.
Metalized Polypropylene Capacitors - 630 Volt & 1000 Volt Axial Tubulars Metallized Polyester Film Capacitors - 630 Volt & 1000 Volt Axial Tubulars jb JFX Premium Metallized Polypropylene Capacitors - 630V & 400V Axial Tubulars Polystyrene/Styroflex Audiophile Capacitors - 630 Volt Axial Tubulars Metallized Polyester Film Capacitors - 6000 Volts Axial Tubulars Metal-Foil Polypropylene Capacitors- 630 Volt Orange Dips Metallized Polyester Film Capacitors - 630 Volt Orange Dips Metallized Polypropylene Capacitors- 1600 Volt Orange Dips Mylar Film Capacitor "Bargain Bin" - on sale in Bags of 50 Single Section Can Electrolytic Capacitors - 500 Volts Dual Section Can Electrolytic Capacitors - 500 Volts Capacitor Clamps for Can Electrolytic Capacitors High Voltage Electrolytic Capacitors - Radial Leads High Voltage Electrolytic Capacitors - Axial Leads Non-Polar (Bi-Polar) Electrolytic Capacitors - Axial Leads Silver MICA Capacitors- 500 Volts & 1000 Volts Ceramic Disc Capacitors - 1600 Volts X1/Y2 Disc Safety Capacitors - 250VAC Y2 Film Safety / Interference Suppression Capacitors - 250VAC X2 Film Safety / Interference Suppression Capacitors - 275VAC
Vintage Tube Radio Dial Belts Heat-Shrink Tubing for Capacitor and Resistor Leads Capacitor Tips - how to choose capacitors for tube radio restorations Antique Radio Schematics - JustRadios E-mail:[email protected] This page was last updated July 2021.
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