tarter farm and ranch equipment | american made quality since 1945

tarter farm and ranch equipment | american made quality since 1945

Since 1945 farmers and ranchers around the world have counted on the Tarter family to help improve life on their land. Tarter Farm and Ranch Equipment is privately owned and operated by the fourth generation of the Tarter family. From cattle squeeze chutes and horse stalls to farm gates and galvanized tanks, all of our products are made in the USA and can be found in thousands of retailers across the country. Visit the Retailer Locator to find your closest store.

material handling equipment & conveyors | bunting

material handling equipment & conveyors | bunting

With over 60 years of experience handling just about any wholly or partially ferrous product or scrap, Bunting offers Americas most complete line of permanent magnetic equipment, conveyor components, and material handling equipment. Even plastic assemblies with minimal ferrous components in them, like circuit breakers, can easily be conveyed with the magnetic rails with positive control. You can also save valuable floor space by moving materials vertical or up and over a machine.

Bunting conveyors have been enhancing plant efficiency for decades. There is simply no better way to handle a wide range of ferrous parts. And for those who do not require magnetics but still want superior durability, Bunting manufactures non-magnetic models that have the same well designed features and engineer support.

We manufacture conveyors that can be used alone or in combinations to accomplish a variety of material handling tasks. Five factors should be considered when determining which conveyor will best serve your needs: Conveyor style, angle of incline, belt width, vertical height, and horizontal extension length.

Selecting the right conveyor or combinations of conveyors for your particular application is easy with our standard magnetic conveying equipment. Utilizing standard, pre-engineered components, Bunting offers conveyors to handle virtually any type of ferrous part or scrap by tailoring the physical dimensions to fit the application.

We can also custom design systems or tie several conveyors together for a total material handling solution.Our plant engineers can assist by providing you 3-D models and drawings to fit into your plant layout.

The Eddy Current Separator core is designed to provide a high level of gauss intensity to enhance separation on a wide range of nonferrous conductive materials and sizes. It is protected with the tough urethane belt and a fiber shell. From aluminum cans to aluminum flakes, our ECS units do an excellent job of throw and separation.

The Eddy Current Separator core is designed to provide a high level of gauss intensity to enhance separation on a wide range of nonferrous conductive materials and sizes. It is protected with the tough urethane belt and a fiber shell. From aluminum cans to aluminum flakes, our ECS units do an excellent job of throw and separation.

Grinder Feeder Conveyors can be used to protect your Shredder from being damaged by separating out the metal contaminant with a magnetic cross-belt or metal detector before the product is transferred to a shredder, and Discharge Conveyors can purify your product on the way out.

Grinder Feeder Conveyors can be used to protect your Shredder from being damaged by separating out the metal contaminant with a magnetic cross-belt or metal detector before the product is transferred to a shredder, and Discharge Conveyors can purify your product on the way out.

DragSlide conveyors are totally enclosed and use UHMW drag flights in a chain conveyor design to move and convey film & fiber materials within a sealed conveyor. This makes for a much cleaner facility allowing you to use your employees for production versus clean-up maintenance.

DragSlide conveyors are totally enclosed and use UHMW drag flights in a chain conveyor design to move and convey film & fiber materials within a sealed conveyor. This makes for a much cleaner facility allowing you to use your employees for production versus clean-up maintenance.

Bale Break Conveyors break up bales of recycled plastic bottle containers. Heavy-duty construction for rigorous applications. Designed to improve loading and separations efficiency with recycled materials.

Bale Break Conveyors break up bales of recycled plastic bottle containers. Heavy-duty construction for rigorous applications. Designed to improve loading and separations efficiency with recycled materials.

Most commonly used in the Municipal Recycling Industry, this Sorting Table Conveyor is built with short sideguards and UHMW skirting for safety. Complete with elevated working mezzanines, stairs, drop chutes and belly rests for the operator's comfort.

Most commonly used in the Municipal Recycling Industry, this Sorting Table Conveyor is built with short sideguards and UHMW skirting for safety. Complete with elevated working mezzanines, stairs, drop chutes and belly rests for the operator's comfort.

Horizontal and inclined regrind or pellet transfer conveyors in any size your application requires. Various belt styles including smooth flat flexed wall, cleated or cleat topped belted conveyors to transfer bulk material to a Granulator or storage facility.

Horizontal and inclined regrind or pellet transfer conveyors in any size your application requires. Various belt styles including smooth flat flexed wall, cleated or cleat topped belted conveyors to transfer bulk material to a Granulator or storage facility.

Used for conveying your ferrous parts such as bolts, nails, stamped parts or assemblies around the plant, from one machine to the next operation or to stabilize part in feeding applications and to convey larger ferrous scrap out of a press over to a dumpster.

Used for conveying your ferrous parts such as bolts, nails, stamped parts or assemblies around the plant, from one machine to the next operation or to stabilize part in feeding applications and to convey larger ferrous scrap out of a press over to a dumpster.

Usually designed for specific applications where the smooth top surface of a mattop belt has advantages over a fabric belted conveyor. Mattop belted conveyors are easier to slide parts across the belt and are better for accumulation applications.

Usually designed for specific applications where the smooth top surface of a mattop belt has advantages over a fabric belted conveyor. Mattop belted conveyors are easier to slide parts across the belt and are better for accumulation applications.

Our Permanent Magnetic Conveyor Components offer easy installation and years of trouble-free service in even the most demanding applications. Each component is available in a variety of sizes and magnetic strengths.

Our Permanent Magnetic Conveyor Components offer easy installation and years of trouble-free service in even the most demanding applications. Each component is available in a variety of sizes and magnetic strengths.

Used in horizontal and inclined fabric and mattop belted conveyors in wet wash-down applications. Built with the strongest magnetic rails in the industry. Our engineers are here to help you pick the right magnetic rail for your application.

Used in horizontal and inclined fabric and mattop belted conveyors in wet wash-down applications. Built with the strongest magnetic rails in the industry. Our engineers are here to help you pick the right magnetic rail for your application.

Our Magnetic Test Bath Rails are designed and manufactured for either a single or a dual lane chain for maximum hold down and are engineered and designed for your tank, your chain and your application.

Our Magnetic Test Bath Rails are designed and manufactured for either a single or a dual lane chain for maximum hold down and are engineered and designed for your tank, your chain and your application.

Induced roll magnetic separators are used for the continuous extraction of small magnetic particles from certain minerals to produce mineral purification for a wide range of mineral and ceramic processing industries.

Induced roll magnetic separators are used for the continuous extraction of small magnetic particles from certain minerals to produce mineral purification for a wide range of mineral and ceramic processing industries.

The Magnetic Drum Separator is normally installed at product discharge points and incorporates a 150 - 180 degree magnet system, encased in a stainless steel shell, or manganese wear plates for severe application.

The Magnetic Drum Separator is normally installed at product discharge points and incorporates a 150 - 180 degree magnet system, encased in a stainless steel shell, or manganese wear plates for severe application.

feedlot - an overview | sciencedirect topics

feedlot - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Feedlot finishing has assumed more importance in recent years to assure the eating quality of beef entering the relatively small Australian domestic market, and to enhance the supply of higher value beef for export markets.

The feedlot sector represents an intensive production system with the goal of growing and or fattening cattle until they reach slaughter weight. The feedlot sector can be further divided into growing (backgrounding) and finishing (fattening) phases. In North America the backgrounding phase (typically the first 90 days after arrival for feedlot calves) focuses on feeding high-forage/low-grain rations with the goal of maximizing growth and minimizing fat deposition. Welfare issues in the backgrounding phase can include injuries during handling associated with revaccination and implant protocols, as well as increased morbidity due to the stressors related to transition from the ranch to the feedlot indicated earlier. The finishing phase (typically the last 100 days after backgrounding) focuses on feeding high-grain/low-forage rations to backgrounded calves or yearlings until they reach a prescribed finish (fat cover) before marketing for slaughter. Welfare issues in the fattening phase are predominantly related to the feeding and include free gas bloat, acidosis, liver abscesses, and laminitis, all of which are associated with high concentrate feeding typical in North America and Europe. Some feedlots focus solely on either backgrounding or finishing, however, it is not uncommon to have one feedlot feed calves from growth to finish. Some ranches have their own feedlot facilities where cattle are bred and finished for slaughter by the same producer, but this is less common. Although pasture finishing is the most predominant system in Brazil, a growing percentage of cattle are being finished in feedlots (approximately the last 70 days before slaughter) where they are fed a diet with higher forage content than North American cattle (Millen et al., 2009).

Both the background and finishing (fattening) phases of the feedlot sector use the same housing and facilities. The phases are defined more by the type of cattle and how they are fed rather than the way they are housed. Consequently, the following description will cover the environmental/housing conditions of both and will be referred to as feedlot production in this section.

Feedlot production represents an intensive confinement system that has high input costs (compared with suckler calf and stocker production) associated with extensive infrastructure, feeding, medical, and labor costs. There are two types of feedlots, outdoor and indoor. The outdoor feedlot is suited for drier climates (Fig. 1.25). In addition to animal comfort, indoor facilities also function to keep feed and bedding dry. It is for these reasons that in wetter climates cattle are housed indoors or in partially enclosed shelters or barns. The main difference between indoor and outdoor lots is that indoor feedlots are much smaller and hold fewer cattle per pen but at higher stocking density. They usually have slatted floors so the manure can to fall through to a holding pit (Fig. 1.26A). The indoor facility, as is implied, has a roof and side walls (solid or curtains) that can be opened when weather is moderate (Fig. 1.26B). With the exception of these features, indoor and outdoor facilities are very similar.

In temperate climates both indoor and outdoor feedlots typically have barns for handling and processing cattle (known as processing barns). The barns contain pens and handling equipment such as holding pens (Fig. 1.27), a crowd tub and curved or straight chute (Fig. 1.28) that leads to a squeeze chute (Fig. 1.29) where the cattle can be restrained to receive vaccinations or other medical treatments. The barn can be completely or partially closed which is more for the comfort of the feedlot staff than the animals. In tropical climates, barns are not as common and usually only consist of the handling components of the facility such as the crowd pen, chutes, and squeeze chutes. European feedlots have minimal handling equipment or infrastructure such as central handling alleys which makes handling a welfare issue for both the cattle and the stock attendants.

A typical outdoor feedlot has perimeter as well as internal fencing. In temperate climates, porosity fencing is constructed to reduce the effects of wind chill (Fig. 1.30). Heat stress can be more severe in feedlot environments where cattle may have little access to shade, are in close proximity to other cattle and have high heat loads associated with rumen fermentation. It is for these reasons that heat stress abatement strategies are used in hotter regions and include sprinklers or shade structures within the pens. For example, every year hundreds of cattle die during heat waves in the USA where daily and evening temperatures are similar and cattle have no way of dissipating their heat load.

All feedlots have feed troughs/bunks lined along one side of the pen where feed can be delivered usually by trucks or tractors (Fig. 1.31). Bunks keep feed from being scattered and minimize contamination from manure and mud. Feed bunks can be made of wood, metal or concrete and often have a concrete apron in front of them so that cattle can stand on a level surface while feeding (Fig. 1.31). Each pen contains a water trough that is usually automatic and a raised dirt mound or sloped area where straw or wood chip bedding can be spread. The mound or sloped area supplies an area where cattle can lie down particularly when the pens get excessively muddy during rainy or snow thaw periods (Fig. 1.32). Depending on the size of the pen, cattle are housed in groups ranging in size from 50 to 350 head. Pens are graded to a slope that allows drainage. In both indoor and outdoor systems welfare may be compromised as a result of muddy pen conditions. In comparison to pasture conditions there is an increased incidence of lameness and injury because mud creates slippery conditions and facilitates spread of infectious claw-related disease such as foot rot or digital dermatitis (Stokka et al., 2001). There is limited research on beef cattle lameness in feedlots with concrete or slatted floors. However, claw health appears better for beef cattle kept in straw yards or deep litter rather than on slatted floors (Tessitore et al., 2009). Mud also makes locomotion more difficult and results in greater energy expenditure and can also affect heat loss. There is also evidence that cattle lying behavior may be affected by mud. Overall movement may be more limited within a feedlot pen versus on pasture as a result of higher stocking density and available space per animal as well as the effects of excessive mud which is known to limit ambulation within the pen.

Feedlots are totally dependent upon harvested feed ingredients from the crop production model. Three rations were considered. The daily feed ingredients in the rations on a dry-matter basis for a typical 825 lb average weight of beef animal are given in Table 4. The expected average daily gains are 3.0 lb/day for rations 1 and 2, and only 2.1 lb/day for ration 3.

Three basic weight intervals for beef production were considered in the model. Calves produced by the rangeland models weigh 440 lb. The backgrounding phase feeds the cattle until a 715 lb weight. The final finishing phase raises the weight to 1100 lb. The above daily rations are converted into total rations needed to raise the weight from 440 to 715 lb and from 715 to 1100 lb. National Research Council guidelines [25] are used in the conversion. Feed processing varies with the ration so that separate activities are available for grinding and flaking operations.

Finishing feedlots are larger than backgrounding feedlots and usually house >10,000 head of cattle, with 150200 animals per pen (Fig.5.1). Unlike backgrounding diets, finishing feedlot diets contain high amounts of concentrate feeds (>70%) and are designed to increase both subcutaneous and intramuscular (marbling) fat. Toavoid digestive disturbances, like ruminal acidosis and bloat, calves must be carefully transitioned from forage-based to concentrate-based diets during finishing. This process usually requires a series of 24 diets, where the amount of concentrate feeds is gradually increased over a period of 24weeks. Reducing the duration of adaptation to less than two weeks can impair the growth performance of cattle.26 This transition period is the time when cattle are at greatest risk of developing acidosis or bloat. When cattle first arrive at finishing feedlots they are typically provided with access to a total mixed ration (TMR) receiving diet, consisting primarily of forage and a smaller proportion of concentrate. Initially, the feed intake of newly arrived cattle can be very low and some cattle may not consume feed.27 The introduction of the final high-concentrate diet is typically withheld until all cattle have settled into confinement and exhibit consistent and stable feed intake.

Abrupt diet change from forage to grain has been reported by many researchers to result inruminal acidosis.7 Even when dietary concentrate is increased using a step-up approach, increases in concentrate may cause acidosis. On the first day of each transition, low ruminal pH values are common and Klopfenstein etal.28 concluded that during adaptation, it is likely that all cattle experience at least some mild level of acidosis. In contrast, Bevans etal.29 accomplished this same objective using a single diet and encountered only a few cases of clinical acidosis. Others have proposed that subclinical acidosis is mainly caused by the high ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids arising from the fermentation of starch.30 Low ruminal pH also reduces the diversity of both bacteria and protozoa within the rumen microbiome,31,32 an outcome that is also associated with a reduction in fiber digestibility.33 A shorter adaptation period to grain-based diets tends to be associated with greater variability in pH among individuals as opposed to an absolute pH decline.29 Under these conditions a small proportion of the herd, typically< 2% may develop clinical acidosis. The risk of clinical acidosis and the occurrence of subclinical acidosis can be reduced by increasing the proportion or lowering the quality of the forage in the diet.34 This serves to reduce the rate of ruminal volatile fatty acid production and stimulates rumination and the production of saliva, which contains sodium bicarbonate that buffers ruminal pH. Skillful feeding management can minimize both the occurrence and severity of acidosis, but as long as feedlot cattle are finished on high-grain diets, acidosis will pose a health risk. A detailed understanding of clinical acidosis has been hampered by its low rate of occurrence and the multitude of factors that contribute to the disease (Fig.5.2).

Fig.5.2. Possible factors and interrelationships affecting acidosis in feedlot cattle. Solid arrows indicate relationships known to exist with a high degree of confidence, whereas dotted arrows represent putative relationships.

Clostridial disease in feedlots may be rare because of the extensive use of clostridial vaccines in cattle before entering the feedlot. However, clostridial diseases that can found in the feedlot include malignant edema (Clostridium septicum), blackleg (Clostridium chauvoei), black disease (Clostridium novyi type B), redwater disease (C. novyi type D), enterotoxemia (C. perfringens type D), bacillary hemoglobinuria (Clostridium hemolyticum), and tetanus (Clostridium tetani).50,51 Some clostridial vaccinations have been associated with injection-site lesions, so concerns have developed for prudent use of these vaccines. Despite the potential for injection-site lesions, the 1994 National Animal Health Monitoring System report indicated that 34.4% of feedlots with fewer than 1000 head used clostridial vaccines, whereas 91% of larger feedlots vaccinated against one or more clostridial agents. To respond to the topic on injection-site lesions with clostridial vaccines, the National Cattlemen's Beef Association's Beef Quality Assurance task force released recommendations, which include the use of subcutaneous injections whenever possible. Furthermore, after the primary immunization with clostridial bacterins, repeat or multiple injections should be discontinued, especially late in the feeding period.

A common consensus among feedlot veterinarians is to administer a clostridial vaccine to calves on arrival. However, it is probably not advantageous to administer more than one clostridial vaccine after arrival to the feedlot. Several studies have shown detrimental effects on feedlot performance after a booster of clostridial vaccine. One such study reported a 20% decrease in feed consumption in response to a second vaccination with a multivalent vaccine.52 Additionally, another study indicated there was no effect on the incidence of sudden death syndrome after a second vaccination.19

Reactive nitrogen from feed yards could negatively influence the air and water quality in the event of volatilization of ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and leaching and runoff of nitrate (NO3), or other forms of organic and inorganic N. The review performed by Waldrip etal. (2015a) offers current evaluation methods to mitigate losses of N from feed yards, identifying the gapsthat require further research. According to this information, there are key factors to study: feed yard manure management and cattle diet.

Nitrogen-balance studies showed that only about 15% of the N flow through a feed yard remains in animal tissue (average of 25g animal day-1), and that most of the N (44%) was lost to the atmosphere or as runoff, whereas only 41% was removed with harvested manure.

In relation to ammonia (NH3) other review of Waldrip etal. (2015b) reports the state of the science concerning feed yard NH3 and evaluate methods to mitigate their losses. Briefly, the review shows the following:

The authors describe that managing cattle diets to meet, but not exceed, metabolic protein requirements is the most practical way to reduce N losses; however, diets must be changed carefully to avoid unintended negative consequences on animal production. Other possible mitigation approaches are (1) dietary manipulation to decrease N excretion, (2) inhibition of urea hydrolysis, and (3) capture of ionic ammonium in manure with pen-surface amendments (e.g., urease inhibitors, alum, and zeolites).

To end this section, it is clear that manure management systems that prevent pollution and minimize fugitive CH4 emissions are becoming increasingly attractive. Anaerobic digestion results in the production of biogas that can be used as a renewable source of electricity on-farm or sold to the distribution grid. Anaerobic digestion can also reduce GHG emissions, odors, and water contamination. Digested manure solids can be recycled on-farm as bedding material, thus decreasing operational expenses (Arikan etal., 2015).

On the other hand, nanotechnology-enabled catalysts will play a critical role in efficient and cost effective bioconversion and fuel cell for electricity production as well as enabling efficient energy storage, which will greatly facilitate and benefit the development of distributed energy supplies, especially in rural communities where infrastructure is lacking. Such an approach may result in the elimination of the need for system-wide electricity grids, hence accelerating rural development and improving productivity, business and living environment, and will be especially beneficial to developing countries (Thornton, 2010; Chen and Yada, 2011).

The best stockyards have one-way traffic through the yards. Animals enter through one alley and leave to go to the stunner through an alley that is at the other end of the pen. Pens can be laid out either straight or on an angle (herringbone). Angled pens work well but they must be laid out correctly. The correct angle for all species is pens on a 6080 angle (Figure 3). Never use a 45 angle. Animals might get stuck in the corners. To further eliminate corners, gates can be built that are longer than the width of the alley so that they open on an angle. The recommended alley and gate lengths are:

As cattle in the feedlot approach harvest time, real-time ultrasound measurements can be used to help the feedlot management make good marketing decisions. The three criteria used in the study to establish the genetic base for selection of quality cattle for the feedlots should be used in the decision process on when to send the feedlot cattle to the packer for the harvest process. The three criteria are as follows:

Live weight: When cattle reach a weight on the growth curve where average daily gains start to slow, it is a good time to use the real-time ultrasound scans to estimate the carcass traits. This is usually 30 days or about 100 pounds before expected harvest. The live weight of the cattle should be obtained at this time. When the live weight is obtained, the carcass weight of the cattle can be estimated by multiplying the live weight by the estimated dressing percentage (61.5%63.5%). Marketing cattle at an acceptable weight range is important for obtaining a good market price. Acceptable carcass weights usually range from 600 to 950 pounds. Individual packing companies may deviate slightly from this range.

Subcutaneous fat cover: When the live weights of the cattle are obtained, real-time ultrasound measurements for the subcutaneous fat cover should be obtained at the 12th13th rib area. The fat thickness is a major factor for the determination of the USDA Yield grade. The relationships are presented in Table 6.2. This information can be used by the feedlot management on when to market the cattle to obtain a good market price and not overfeed the cattle. Feeding cattle to a weight where excess waste fat is deposited not only reduces the market value but also reduces the feed efficiency of the cattle in the feedlot.

Percent intramuscular fat: The intramuscular fat percentage should also be determined by real-time ultrasound when the cattle are weighed. The intramuscular fat percentage is determined at the 12th13th rib of the live cattle. Intramuscular fat percentage in the live animal can be related to the degree of marbling in the carcass as cattle grow in the feedlot. An example is shown in Fig. 6.31, Example A. Feedlot management can use this information as a guide on how long to feed cattle to obtain the most profitable return on investments based on the original feeder cattle prices as well as feed costs.

Marbling score is the primary determinant for the quality (Prime, Choice, Select) grades of beef carcasses, and a major price difference often exists between Select and Choice grades in most markets. Therefore the feedlot managers will balance the value effect of weight, subcutaneous fat thickness (Yield grade Value), and intramuscular fat percentage (Quality grade Value) with feed efficiency of the cattle when decisions are made to market the cattle for harvest to the packer.

The feedlot managers have several options to consider when they market cattle. Marketing cattle on a live weight basis is the old method that has been in place for years. The purchase price (bid) for the cattle may be from a packer buyer or from a price determined at the sale barn. The price is for the live weight and is usually expressed as the dollars per hundred weight. For this option, carcass information is not usually reported back to the owner of the cattle.

Another option for the feedlot managers is to sell the cattle for the value of the hot carcass weight. This is often called selling in the beef by the industry. It is used when dressing percentage is difficult to evaluate, such as muddy conditions of the hide of cattle. Usually this option includes the value based on a truckload of cattle. In this system, the producer or feedlot owner is responsible for the trim loss of the carcass that occurs before the hot carcass weight is obtained. In this marketing option, the packer can obtain the carcass traits such as carcass grade, marbling, and subcutaneous fat and return the information to the feedlot management or owner of the cattle.

A third marketing option is the Grid method. When cattle are sold on the grid option, the packer provides a price for each carcass and provides the 12th13th rib fat thickness, rib-eye area, and degree of marbling. The carcass Yield grades and Quality grades are also provided.

An example of a Grid Marketing Program that promotes higher carcass prices for cattle that have a Quality grade of Choice and a Yield grade of 1 or 2 will be described later. Only a limited number of cattle have these traits. Therefore a Grid Marketing Program for Choice Quality grades and Yield grades of 1 or 2 can be used by the industry for selection programs to improve the genetic base and strengthen the marketing programs for cattle with a low amount of subcutaneous fat and a high amount of marbling. An example for cattle with these traits is shown in Fig. 6.31 (Example B) when they enter the feedlot until harvest. It is important to market these cattle when they grade Choice and before they deposit more than 0.3in. of fat at the 12th and 13th rib.

The initial contact by feedlot personnel will describe the reason for their concern. As information about the cattle and situation is put together, a mental picture will begin to develop. Questions should move from general to specific. The normal starting point is a series of general questions, usually starting with asking about the region of the country where the cattle originated. The experienced feedlot veterinarian knows that a semiload of cattle purchased through an order buyer in a particular state may be made up of cattle originating from up to 40 different farms located in 10 different states. The origin just happens to be the home base for the order buyer who assembled the load. Gathering this type of history helps the veterinarian determine that the cattle may have come from an area where cattle are commonly mismanaged or undermanaged, a mineral-deficient area, an area where tall fescue frequently creates a toxicity problem, or where internal or external parasitism may be a major contributing factor.

Specific history of the cattle should be obtained. What is the age, sex, quality, and origin of the cattle? How were the cattle purchased or supplied to the feedlotranch/farm of origin, video auction, local auction barn, stocker or backgrounding operation, order buyer? If cattle were from multiple origins, how long did it take to put the load together? From which states were cattle assembled? Were cattle fresh at the time of purchase? Were cattle preconditioned? What products, procedures, and timing were included in any preconditioning program? Was anything requested to be done to cattle at an order buyer facility (e.g., castrated, dehorned, vaccinated, mass medicated, individuals treated for illness)? Were any things done that were not requested or anticipated before shipment? Were the trucks clean before the cattle were loaded? When did the trucks load up and leave for the feedlot? What was the distance between the origin and the feedlot? How long were the trucks en route? Did the trucks encounter any delays? Answers to these questions help develop the mental picture further and provide additional insight into the overall situation.

Arrival history at the feedlot should then be obtained. What time of day/night did the trucks arrive? Did a qualified person watch the cattle unload from the trucks? Did the cattle match the description of the order from a health status and freshness appearance, as well as number, sex, quality, etc.? Were there dead cattle on the truck or cattle that were obviously sick as they unloaded from the truck? What did the cattle do when they were placed in the receiving penexplore the pen, search for feed and water, or lay down and rest? Did the cattle appear dehydrated? Were the cattle bawling? How much did the cattle shrink from payweight at the point of origin to the inweight at the feedlot? Were answers based on memory, or were these items routinely recorded for each set of cattle received at the feedlot? Again, answers to these questions provide additional insight.

Processing history should be obtained next. How long were the cattle rested between arrival at the feedlot and processing? Were backtags removed to see if the amount of hair retained on the backtag matched the amount of hair missing from the spot where the backtag was removed? Which vaccines were administered and what procedures were conducted during processing? How were the vaccines handled from the time of purchase until the actual time of administration to the animals? Were observations made for sick cattle before and during processing? Were temperatures taken as animals were being processed? Were any delays encountered during processing? Were cattle mass medicated and, if so, with what product and dose? Has the processing crew experienced problems in the past? Were new personnel working on the processing crew the day the problem cattle were processed? Were serial numbers recorded for products administered, as well as the name of the individual administering each product? Were answers based on memory, or were these items routinely recorded for each set of cattle processed at the feedlot? All of these answers lead to more insight.

Transitioning to feed history should be obtained. What is the general history of this feedlot's ability to mix rations properly and deliver the correct ration to the correct pen of cattle on a timely basis? Were there any problems getting the cattle started on feed? How does this feedlot transition cattle from starting ration to finishing ration? Which ration step were the cattle on when the respiratory outbreak started? If the problem occurred later in the feeding period, were there any problems getting the cattle to step up through the intermediate rations to the top ration? Were there any feed-related problems at any time before the time the respiratory outbreak occurred?

Time and location history should be obtained. Is there only a single pen or several groups of cattle affected? Is it a generalized problem or localized to a specific area within the feedlot? Is there a pattern in the age, sex, or arrival time of affected cattle? Is the affected section of the feedlot served by a specific treatment facility? Did the problem arise following a weekend, holiday, or major social event when feedlot employees might have been preoccupied? Are there new pen riders or new members of the treatment crew? How well do they know their jobs? Has the veterinarian observed them doing their jobs?

Shade alone is the most important factor in maintaining the comfort of livestock and preventing heat stress. Shade reduces the heat gain from solar radiation and can be provided by trees or artificially by roofs or shades made from cloth or artificial material. Shades should be placed over feed and where the producer wants the animals to spend their time. The efficiency of metal shades can be increased by painting metal shades white on the topside and black on the underside. A northsouth orientation will permit drying under the shades as the shaded area moves throughout the day; this may be helpful in decreasing the incidence of coliform mastitis if sprinklers are used under the shades and cattle prefer to lie under the shades than in freestalls.

Use shades and intermittent sprinkler systems (wet time of 12min with an adequate dry off time of 2030min); continuous application of water increases the local humidity and decreases the effectiveness of evaporative cooling.

Select cattle based on breed and coat characteristics, and house the most susceptible cattle (heavy, black) on east-sloping lots with the most shade; genetic studies have identified genes associated with resistance to heat stress in dairy cattle.1,6

In exercising horses, periodic rests in the shade with fans and water sprinklers and maintaining a normal hydration status can be very helpful in preventing heat stress. Monitoring the heart rate is a useful and practical method of assessing the degree of heat stress in horses, because heart rates remain elevated for a longer period of time in horses undergoing heat stress.

If animals have to be confined under conditions of high temperatures and humidity, the use of tranquilizing drugs has been recommended to reduce unnecessary activity. However, care is needed because blood pressure falls and the animals may have difficulty losing heat if the environment is very hot and in some cases may gain heat. Chlorpromazine, for example, has been shown to increase significantly the survival rate of pigs exposed to heat and humidity stress.

F. necrophorum is susceptible in vitro to -lactam antibiotics, tetracyclines, macrolides, and lincomycins but is resistant to aminoglycosides and ionophore antibiotics.2 The apparent sensitivity of this gram-negative pathogen to penicillin and cephalosporins is peculiar even based on its cell wall structure.2

Liver abscess in feedlot cattle is not clinical and not routinely treated as a clinical disease. In clinical disease associated with liver abscess, prolonged treatment with high doses of antimicrobials is required if therapeutic concentrations are to be achieved at the site of infection. Relapse is common because of incomplete control of the localized infection.

Procaine penicillin G (44,000IU/kg IM every 24h long term) (R-2)Oxytetracycline (10mg/kg IM every 24h or long-acting formulation 20mg/kg every 72h long term) (R-2)Ampicillin trihydrate (10mg/kg SC or IM every 24h long term) (R-2)

Tylosin (90mg/animal PO every 24h long term) (R-1)Chlortetracycline (70mg/animal PO every 24h long term) (R-1)Oxytetracycline (75mg/animal PO every 24h long term) (R-1)Virginiamycin (16.519.8mg/kg PO every 24h long term) (R-1)

live & online auctions | 2 results

live & online auctions | 2 results

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instruction manuals | hog slat

instruction manuals | hog slat

Hog Slat is dedicated to providing the best products and service in our industry. Please refer to these instructional documents to assist with installing, replacing and operating the products referenced below.

deer chutes, deer creep feeders, deer automatic feeders

deer chutes, deer creep feeders, deer automatic feeders

Hello, my name is Mike Ford. My wife, Lori, and I own the Rio Rojo Rancho, Inc. It is a hunting ranch in Red River County, Texas. We embarked in the deer breeding industry in 2004 to enhance our own native deer herd. We had good deer, but we wanted really good deer. As novices in the deer breeding business, we reached out to many friends and fellow breeders to find out how, why and when to take care of our deer. After darting deer for 2 years to work on them, we wanted a new and different way to handle our animals.

Along with local breeder and friends at Backwoods Deer Ranch, we developed and refined a chute that would contain our animals allowing us to get our hands on the animals without sedation. We were able to medicate, vaccinate and inseminate our deer. I kept fixing and refining our chute until it was as good as I could make it and it worked.

Later, fellow breeders at White Ghost Ranch and Morani River Ranch approached us about building them a chute. We worked on them for a while and then we were ready for delivery to these 2 top end ranches. As word of mouth traveled through this wonderful industry, more and more ranches approached us asking about building more chutes. After building almost 40 chutes in an 18 month period, we had the chute as well as I could make it. Im a beat up old quarterback with a degree from SMU, but it was not in engineering.

On a seasonal trip to Las Vegas and the National Finals Rodeo, I had the absolute pleasure of meeting the President of Priefert Manufacturing, Eddie Priefert, after the rodeo one night. The location of Priefert Manufacturing in Mount Pleasant, Texas, is close to me. One day, as I was delivering some equipment, I drove by the Priefert plant and pulled in. One thing led to another and we talked and Nate Priefert asked when they could see this equipment and I told him that I had a chute and an AI box on my trailer outside. After looking and explaining how the chute and AI box worked, he asked when they could see one work first hand and I told them we would be working deer soon and they could come to the ranch and see for themselves. They came up to the ranch and watched us work about 30 does in less than 45 minutes. We were inserting CIDRs and they were all put to work.

The new Priefert Wildlife Equipment can literally be set up in 2-3 hours and be able to work deer that afternoon, provided all alleys and crush equipment is in place. We have now installed equipment from New York to Florida, South Dakota State University and Kansas State University. We have close to 100 installed in Texas, alone! So, go by your neighbors deer facility and witness for yourself the most advanced wildlife handling system on the planet. Not only has the Priefert Wildlife Equipment helped revolutionize the industry of whitetail breeding, it is also being used on exotic breeding ranches and has successfully worked over 25 species of animals. The Priefert Wildlife Equipment System is an industry leader no matter what species!

We have developed a Deer Chute, to medicate, vaccinate, and inseminate whitetail deer in a safe and secure way, both for animals and humans as well. We have been approached by several breeders to build them a Chute. We feel this chute will allow even the novice handlers to work their deer in a safe and humane atmosphere.

We can help you walk your way through the process of laying out your facility in a way that would benefit any breeder anywhere. Our Chute can be worked by the novice all the way to the expert at handling animals. It has four working parts, and all of them can be operated by one finger. Do not laugh at me until you see this Chute in action! My wife, Lori, can work our Chute. Although we do recommend anyone starting out to get experienced help.

The ultimate Wildelife Managment tool for feeding; protien, corn or textured feed. Holds 1,000 #'s of protien and 1,250 #'s of corn. A timer lets you open and close up to 3 different times a day. It is a trough feeder that when it starts to rain, the trough closes. On skids for easy movement. Fills from the ground. Includes a solar panel for battery maintenance.

A trough feeder for many speacies of animals from Exotics to Native Deer. It holds 750 #'s, fills up from the ground, and on skids for easy movement. When faced Northeast to East it is virtually rain free. Minimizing clean out from heavy rains. Perfect for feeding Does and Fawns in a controlled environment.

Used to control non-desirable animals from using feed stations. Helps control Hogs, Javalina, and most Cattle. Allows Bucks, Does, and Fawns to enter and eat undistrubed. Helps to control cost of expensive feed, by only allowing target species to enter area. Controled by Priefert patented pin technology, male on one end, female on the other. You can not lose pins.

The Black Plastic / AKA Polypropylene has multiple uses from lining doors, alleys, and catch pens. Used for Whitetail as well as Exotic Animals, UV lined and protected. All sizes available as well as thicknesses.

Our Priefert Wildlife Equipment makes working deer at La Roca Range safe both on the deer and the operator. The visibility is huge, no more bending to look through small holes to read ear tags. We find having the deer at eye level speeds up the process of moving deer through the system. All the doors open, close, and slide very smoothly and can be worked from one side. The chute is a one size fits all design and it restrains all sizes of deer very well. Setting the chute on the fawn latch or big deer latch takes less than a second and is done with your foot. It works every time. We have worked deer in our Priefert system for all work. Weaning fawns, vaccinating does, cutting horns on bucks, as well as all A-I technical work for over two years now with out incident to deer or operator. We want the very best for our deer and their well being, and the Priefert Wildlife System delivers all. The customer service has been outstanding as well.

At Nooner Whitetails we have a huge breeding operation. Which means we feed a lot of animals. Last year we installed several of the new Priefert Wildlife Feeders in our operation. Our fawns and does eat comfortably out of the trough feeders. Fawns as young as one month old will be standing next to their mother or another doe and eating out of the trough as well. Getting your fawns on pellets as fast as you can, means getting healthier deer in your pasture.

My name is Carroll Glaser and I own Emma's Crossing Deer Ranch. I built an AI facility in 2013 and Mike Ford installed a Priefert system in my facility. The system was installed very quickly and it works very efficiently.

I have AI'd approximately 28 does each year for the last couple of years. We can AI 28 to 30 does in less than two hours from start to finish. Every time I AI my does, I have serveral people helping and 5 to 8 watching.

chute feeder, trough vibration feeder | feeder manufacturers

chute feeder, trough vibration feeder | feeder manufacturers

Chute Feeder is a kind of reciprocating feeding equipment with a tank bottom plate. It is also a kind of feeding equipment used earlier in ore storage tank discharging. The mine feeder can be mounted under the discharge opening of the silo or mounted on the ground. Trough feeder is widely used in metallurgy, chemical industry, coal, mine, water conservancy, and hydropower engineering, etc.

From the experience of the concentrator, it is known that the eccentricity of the chute feeder should not be less than 30mm for the viscous ore. The width of the trough is about 2-2.5 times the maximum grain size of the feed. The largest mining trough feeder can meet the size of less than 500 mm iron ore feed.

The removable bottom of the chute feeder is flat and the working principle is very simple. The motor drives the eccentric wheel, and the connecting rod moves with the eccentric wheel. The connecting rod pulls the bottom plate on the roller to do the reciprocating movement, thus achieves the even feeding goal.

The ore trough feeder is provided with an adjustable gate that can control the height of the material layer. Feed plate movement has back and forth moving, jitter and swing, etc. The transmission mechanism is a crank-rotary type.

Jiangxi Shicheng stone crusher manufacturer is a new and high-tech factory specialized in R&D and manufacturing crushing lines, beneficial equipment,sand-making machinery and grinding plants. Read More

syntron material handling - feeder systems

syntron material handling - feeder systems

Simple design and flexible control account for the efficient, economical performance of Syntron volumetric feeder machines, and the growing industrial preference for them. These units can feed most dry bulk materials and can be supplied to conform to FDA and USDA specifications. Six Syntron volumetric feeder machine models are available.

Syntron volumetric feeder machine designs include four basic components: a supply hopper, a hopper vibrator, a vibrating feeder, and the supporting frame. Supply hoppers are usually fabricated from mild steel but are available in stainless steel. Most supply hoppers are conical; however, rectangular hoppers are an option. Adjusting the gate height between the hopper and feeder trough regulates material depth for most models. Material depth for model FM-T0 is regulated by hopper tilt.

Arching, plugging, or bridging of materials in the hopper is prevented through incorporation of a Syntron electromagnetic vibrator. The hopper vibrator features a variable power control, assuring free flow of material to the feeder trough. Vibrating feeders on the Syntron volumetric feeder machines operate at 3,600 vpm (at 60 Hz) and trough options include flat pan (standard), V-shaped, tubular, or screening troughs of mild or stainless steel.

Because of their simple design, Syntron volumetric feeder machines are dependable and have an exceptionally long service life. There are no moving parts such as motors, belts, gears, valves, connecting arms, or sliding rods to wear or lubricate.

Drives on Syntron vibrating feeders are available with dust-proof, dust-tight, and waterproof construction. For dust-tight sealing, special covered or tubular troughs feature flexible seals on the discharge end of the supply hopper. In addition, flexible seals that seal the top of the supply hopper to an overhead chute, as well as removable dust covers for the supply hopper are available. These units are virtually noiseless, meeting applicable OSHA specifications. Even at maximum feed, a hum is the only indication that the machine is operating.

Syntron volumetric feeder machines are supplied with electric controls that can be mounted separately at any desired location. Standard controls contain operating switches, rectifiers, and rheostats. The electric control regulates the feed rate by varying the vibrating intensity of the electromagnetic feeder. A graduated dial on the control panel permits variation of the flow speeds. Timers are also available to provide intermittent feed.

Light Industry Feeders & Vibrator Catalog Size: 8.70 MB Format: PDF Preview

Product Directory Size: 4.90 MB Format: PDF Preview

cattle handling equipment for dairy farms | mid valley manufacturing

cattle handling equipment for dairy farms | mid valley manufacturing

Mid Valley Manufacturing Abbotsford has become one of North Americas leading dairy farm equipment suppliers for cattle handling equipment and cow confinement systems. We understand that like any good business, a successful dairy farm needs two things:

On your dairy farm you may already have talented hands on deck. However, unless you have the right cow confinement and dairy cattle handling equipment, your dairy farm may not be experiencing the success it could be.

Come to Mid Valley Manufacturing when you need dependable cattle trimming chutes or dairy cow stalls, plus cow water troughs, stanchions, and dairy cow crowd gates. Whether your dairy barn is in Abbotsford BC, Alberta, the United States, or you are an international dairy farm operation, we can custom design and manufacture the dairy cattle handling equipment you need for continued success.

For more than 30 years Mid Valley Manufacturing has served the agricultural community throughout Canada and abroad with custom dairy cattle handling systems. We look forward to serving you and helping your dairy farm continue to succeed.

To learn more about any of our dairy cattle handling equipment for sale and what we can do for your farm, have a look at our line products. We carry everything you will need including compost turners, cattle bedding sawdust blowers, and Arctic Blast fan systems for cow comfort.

Mid Valleys Super-Comfort Dairy Cow Stalls are custom designed to maximize the use of space in your dairy barn. We balance this efficient use of space and ensure the comfort of your cows. Studies have proven that lying down is critically important for a cows energy and blood circulation for the udder. Our dairy cow stall equipment is designed to allow your cows to lie down, stand up, and bob their heads all in complete comfort. Learn More

Hoof trimming is essential for keeping your dairy cows healthy and happy. Cows with sore feet may see losses in milk production, diminished breeding efficiency, and a decreased salvage value in the case of severe lameness. Our cow hoof trimming chutes make hoof trimming less labour intensive. We have designed our hoof trimming equipment to help make your life a little easier, and the hoof trimming process more efficient. Learn More

Proper water intake is essential for a dairy cows temperature control and milk production. Milk contains 87% water, and milking dairy cows consume 4 to 5 litres of water per litre of milk that they produce. A Mid Valley cattle water trough is fully adjustable for height, and designed specifically for dairy cows. Cows are able to completely submerge their muzzles into the cattle water trough and drink without gulping air at the same time. Learn More

The cow feeder trough is integral to the health and well-being of your dairy cows. Mid Valley cow feeder trough designs serve to eradicate pressure points caused by neck rubbing, and allow your dairy herd to feed comfortably and get the nutrition they need. We make cattle feed troughs that are tough, durable, and easy to clean and maintain. Mid Valley also offers installation and maintenance services.Learn More

Mid Valleys cow manure scraping systems are extremely versatile, and fully customizable to fit the cattle handling alley in your dairy barn. These automatic cattle scrapers are designed to maintain constant pressure levels, never giving an alley more pressure than is required. Cow comfort and safety are our top concerns, and we design our manure scraper systems with fail-safes in place to eliminate the possibility of a cow getting injured. Learn More

Mid Valleys RotoKing compost turner equipment is designed to accelerate the natural composting process. What would normally take months can be accomplished in 4 weeks with the RotoKing compost turner. Recycled dairy solids are an excellent fertilizer, and can also be used for dairy cow bedding. Our manure turner system is extremely flexible and will save you money in the long-term. Learn More

Now you can improve cow comfort and create more comfortable cattle bedding more often with Mid Valley Manufacturings cost effective sawdust blower systems that are specifically engineered to create comfortable cow bedding faster. Use our sawdust blowers to save you time and effort, but more importantly, save you money. Dairy cows that are more comfortable have less stress and produce more milk. Learn More

In order to efficiently control the crowd in your dairy barn, Mid Valley Manufacturing offers a variety of custom designed cow gates and cattle stanchions. All of our dairy cow gates and stanchions are custom made to fit your requirements, and designed to organize your dairy barn more efficiently. All of Mid Valleys gate metalwork is made out of high-quality steel that is extremely durable and designed to last. Learn More

Mid Valley Manufacturing acknowledges that many dairy farm operations may require custom calving gates and calf pens for rearing calves, possibly due to certain building constraints. With our Mid Valley dairy calf housing design, you will not only be able to provide a comfortable and secure calf pen to properly care for the calf, but you can also efficiently clean the area; these are attributes of our calf housing and dairy cattle handling products hat always remain high on our priority list.Learn More

Mid Valley Manufacturing is the authorized dealer for Arctic Blast Cooling Fan Systems here in British Columbia, Canada. Designed to cool large open areas, Arctic Blast fans are evaporative cooling systems that provide an affordable means of cooling your dairy operations. Dont let the hot summer months have a big impact on your cow comfort and milk production. Keep your cows cool and reduce heat related problems with industrial cattle cooler fans by Artic Blast. Learn More

Made from high-grade stainless steel, our Mid Valley dairy cow mineral boxes are made to last. Available in single or double block configurations, these durable cow mineral tubs can be easily installed anywhere in your dairy barn. And because we build our dairy cow mineral boxes right here in BC, theyre always in stock. Learn More

Mid Valley Manufacturing custom designs and manufactures dairy cattle handling products for cow comfort. Our manufacturing plant is in Abbotsford, BC Canada. That means we can perform quality assurance on every piece of dairy farm equipment we supply. We also perform cow confinement and dairy barn equipment installations ourselves, allowing us to take an intuitive approach to your dairy housings needs. Not unlike the dairy farmer, ensuring excellent care of dairy cattle is one of our most important considerations, as noted in this Dairy Farmers of Canada article.

Maintaining Cow comfort during the hot months of summer can be difficult. Heat is everywhere and the cows multiply that heat creating an environment that causes their milk production to drop. Your profitability decreases as the temperature increases! Learn More

7 ways to wean cattle - wikihow

7 ways to wean cattle - wikihow

This article was co-authored by Karin Lindquist, a trusted member of wikiHow's community. Karin Lindquist earned a BSc in Agriculture as an Animal Science major from the University of Alberta, Canada. She has over 20 years of experience working with cattle and crops. She's worked for a mixed-practice veterinarian, as a sales representative in a farm supply store, and as a research assistant doing rangeland, soil, and crop research. She currently works as a forage and beef agriculture extension specialist, advising farmers on a variety of issues relating to their cattle and the forages they grow and harvest. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 88% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 179,176 times. Learn more...

Weaning is the practice of separating calves from their source of milk, a stressful time on both cows and calves, as it is very traumatic in an environmental, psychological, and nutritional sense, especially for the calf. This article highlights the general concepts and steps of how to wean calves from cows and vice versa. The article starts with the traditional method of separating cows from calves and sending the calves away where they cannot hear, see nor smell their dams, to weaning using spiked nose rings.

Most calves are weaned between 120 and 290 days (3 to 10 months) after birth, but most producers like to wean their calves when they're around 205 (6 months) of age. Weight is also a factor, with the minimum being generally around 132lb (60kg).[1] X Research source Trisha Fisk, Practical Smallfarming in New Zealand, p.120, (2009), ISBN 978-0-14-301089-0

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