## how to use regression machine learning algorithms in weka

Specifically, the Boston House Price Dataset. Each instance describes the properties of a Boston suburb and the task is to predict the house prices in thousands of dollars. There are 13 numerical input variables with varying scales describing the properties of suburbs. You can learn more about this dataset on the UCI Machine Learning Repository.

It works by estimating coefficients for a line or hyperplane that best fits the training data. It is a very simple regression algorithm, fast to train and can have great performance if the output variable for your data is a linear combination of your inputs.

The performance of linear regression can be reduced if your training data has input attributes that are highly correlated. Weka can detect and remove highly correlated input attributes automatically by setting eliminateColinearAttributes to True, which is the default.

Additionally, attributes that are unrelated to the output variable can also negatively impact performance. Weka can automatically perform feature selection to only select those relevant attributes by setting the attributeSelectionMethod. This is enabled by default and can be disabled.

Finally, the Weka implementation uses a ridge regularization technique in order to reduce the complexity of the learned model. It does this by minimizing the square of the absolute sum of the learned coefficients, which will prevent any specific coefficient from becoming too large (a sign of complexity in regression models).

The k-nearest neighbors algorithm supports both classification and regression. It is also called kNN for short. It works by storing the entire training dataset and querying it to locate the k most similar training patterns when making a prediction.

It is a simple algorithm, but one that does not assume very much about the problem other than that the distance between data instances is meaningful in making predictions. As such, it often achieves very good performance.

The size of the neighborhood is controlled by the k parameter. For example, if set to 1, then predictions are made using the single most similar training instance to a given new pattern for which a prediction is requested. Common values for k are 3, 7, 11 and 21, larger for larger dataset sizes. Weka can automatically discover a good value for k using cross validation inside the algorithm by setting the crossValidate parameter to True.

Another important parameter is the distance measure used. This is configured in the nearestNeighbourSearchAlgorithm which controls the way in which the training data is stored and searched. The default is a LinearNNSearch. Clicking the name of this search algorithm will provide another configuration window where you can choose a distanceFunction parameter. By default, Euclidean distance is used to calculate the distance between instances, which is good for numerical data with the same scale. Manhattan distance is good to use if your attributes differ in measures or type.

Decision trees are more recently referred to as Classification And Regression Trees or CART. They work by creating a tree to evaluate an instance of data, start at the root of the tree and moving town to the leaves (roots because the tree is drawn with an inverted prospective) until a prediction can be made. The process of creating a decision tree works by greedily selecting the best split point in order to make predictions and repeating the process until the tree is a fixed depth.

Support Vector Machines were developed for binary classification problems, although extensions to the technique have been made to support multi-class classification and regression problems. The adaptation of SVM for regression is called Support Vector Regression or SVR for short.

Unlike SVM that finds a line that best separates the training data into classes, SVR works by finding a line of best fit that minimizes the error of a cost function. This is done using an optimization process that only considers those data instances in the training dataset that are closest to the line with the minimum cost. These instances are called support vectors, hence the name of the technique.

In almost all problems of interest, a line cannot be drawn to best fit the data, therefore a margin is added around the line to relax the constraint, allowing some bad predictions to be tolerated but allowing a better result overall.

Finally, few datasets can be fit with just a straight line. Sometimes a line with curves or even polygonal regions need to be marked out. This is achieved by projecting the data into a higher dimensional space in order to draw the lines and make predictions. Different kernels can be used to control the projection and the amount of flexibility.

The C parameter, called the complexity parameter in Weka controls how flexible the process for drawing the line to fit the data can be. A value of 0 allows no violations of the margin, whereas the default is 1.

A key parameter in SVM is the type of Kernel to use. The simplest kernel is a Linear kernel that separates data with a straight line or hyperplane. The default in Weka is a Polynomial Kernel that will fit the data using a curved or wiggly line, the higher the polynomial, the more wiggly (the exponent value).

The Polynomial Kernel has a default exponent of 1, which makes it equivalent to a linear kernel. A popular and powerful kernel is the RBF Kernel or Radial Basis Function Kernel that is capable of learning closed polygons and complex shapes to fit the training data.

Neural networks are a complex algorithm to use for predictive modeling because there are so many configuration parameters that can only be tuned effectively through intuition and a lot of trial and error.

It is an algorithm inspired by a model of biological neural networks in the brain where small processing units called neurons are organized into layers that if configured well are capable of approximating any function. In classification we are interested in approximating the underlying function to best discriminate between classes. In regression problems we are interested in approximating a function that best fits the real value output.

The default will automatically design the network and train it on your dataset. The default will create a single hidden layer network. You can specify the number of hidden layers in the hiddenLayers parameter, set to automatic a by default.

You can also use a GUI to design the network structure. This can be fun, but it is recommended that you use the GUI with a simple train and test split of your training data, otherwise you will be asked to design a network for each of the 10 folds of cross validation.

The learning process can be further tuned with a momentum (set to 0.2 by default) to continue updating the weights even when no changes need to be made, and a decay (set decay to True) which will reduce the learning rate over time to perform more learning at the beginning of training and less at the end.

Here I have a question about the interpretations of outputs. As we know, the values of both Mean absolute error and Root mean squared error are expected to be lower which indicates a better value.

Generally, I would advise you to use Root Mean Square Error, it is just a well understood and well used metric. Only venture out to other measures if the requirements of your problem/domain/etc. force you.

In general, we cannot know which algorithm will perform best on our problem. If we did, we probably would not need machine learning we would just solve our problem. That being said, the more you know about your data, the more ideas you get that a given algorithm type or representation might work better than others but these are just heuristics.

Jason, is there a way to set the regularization parameter for the mutlilayer perceptron? This is a fairly common thing to do to make sure the network does not overfit your training data and generalizes well to new data. Ive been looking in the options for the MultilayerPerceptron class on the Weka Javadoc and I cant find anything. Any ideas? Thanks for writing this article!

Correlation coefficient 0.7914
Mean absolute error 0.3449
Root mean squared error 0.4511
Relative absolute error 53.6479 %
Root relative squared error 61.1281 %
Total Number of Instances 84
Ignored Class Unknown Instances 16
how can i interpret this pls

i dont understand what u mean by RMSE (root mean squared error), it is an error that has the same scale as your output variable. pls can you explain further am new on weka and i need this prediction for my research work thanks man

0.2423 * qualification +
0.2505 * question5 +
-0.13 * question6 +
-0.1356 * question7 +
-0.1561 * question8a +
-0.0983 * question10a +
0.3403 * question14b +
0.3004 * question16a +
-0.4492 * question16b +
-0.1079 * question17a +
0.1564 * question18a +
-0.1771 * question19b +
-0.2994 * question20b +
0.6329 * question21a +
0.3278 * question22b +
0.5585

Correlation coefficient 0.8079
Mean absolute error 0.3358
Root mean squared error 0.4201
Relative absolute error 53.2933 %
Root relative squared error 58.9348 %
Total Number of Instances 88
Ignored Class Unknown Instances 12

I am really appreciate your work. I have actually one question. I work out over linear regression by using data set which gives me appropriate result which i also compared with Ms Excel regression over same data set . The result was same.

how can I know the value of Spearman and Kendall (correlation coefficient) from classification model?
and the correlation coefficient measure in regression model equal to the accuracy in the classification model?

If I want to apply linear regression in WEKA
and I have dataset contains the following attributes: (p1,p2,p3,c1,c2,c3.. etc.)
I want choose ONE variable, ex: p3 to be the output result of p1 and p2
Also c3 to be result of both c1, c2 .
Can I do that? If yes, tell me how please. Because I worked on many hypothesis and I want the correlation coefficient for two variable as an output in one variable.

Correlation coefficient 0.9989
Mean absolute error 77.0165
Root mean squared error 310.2879
Relative absolute error 1.7131 %
Root relative squared error 4.6261 %
Total Number of Instances 366
Ignored Class Unknown Instances 1

What abour Normalized Absolute Error (NAE) for regression models?
How do we interpret it? How do we make comparisons using it? And what could be a reason for a different ranking of the same models using RMSE and NAE?

Im very new to Weka and trying to use multilayer perceptron to predict incident duration.
categorical attribute already coded using unique integer in the dataset. Somehow it predict only one value for all test instances, like below :

inst#,actual,predicted,error
1,6.57,6.087,-0.483
2,18.6,6.087,-12.513
3,6.45,6.087,-0.363
4,5.68,6.087,0.407
5,1.42,6.087,4.667
6,6.73,6.087,-0.643
7,7,6.087,-0.913
8,11.07,6.087,-4.983
9,5.9,6.087,0.187
10,65.18,6.087,-59.093

Ive decided to use 15 multilayer perceptron (1 for each feature). To train each one i set up the feature to impute as the class, execute the buildclassifier method in java using the dataset and stored the resulting trained machine in a hash to latter impute any further not-seen instance.

When this instance arrives I take the MLP corresponding to the feature to impute and do it. To avoid wrong imputations Ive decided to use a MICE- like technique that first performs basic filtering imputation of the whole instance and then uses each machine to impute original missing values.

I do have a question because there doesnt seem to be much out there for Multiple Linear Regression in Weka. Would you consider doing a tutorial on performing a Multiple Linear Regression? My biggest issue is the Weka format for training data with the different categories I am trying to incorporate. Do you recommend wide data (converting category to one-hot)? Or tall data where we concatenate the training data with a third column for category?

Thank you for your explanation, I appreciate your work.
I have a question related to predication for a neural network using Weka, if I want to predict a specific class.
I need to make it as an output if I am not wrong.
However, when I did that the output of RMSE still the same even with different cycles (increase or decrease).
Can you clarify why I obtained the same result or output?

Thanks Jason for your replay, I have another question.
If I am training the data for regression a specific class using MLP, do I need to set a ValidationSize in the parameter or I can leave it as 0?
Even with I train 50% of the data, 20% for validation and 30% for testing.

I am using MLPRegressor on Weka, but there is hardly any information about it online. How is it any different from MLP and how does it work?
If you know where I can look for some more information, it would be greatly appreciated.

## support vector machines for machine learning

As such we will stay high-level in this description and focus on the specific implementation concerns. The question around why specific equations are used or how they were derived are not coveredand you may want to dive deeper in the further reading section.

A hyperplane is a line that splits the input variable space. In SVM, a hyperplane is selected to best separate the points in the input variable space by their class, either class 0 or class 1. In two-dimensions you can visualize this as a line and lets assume that all of our input points can be completely separated by this line.For example:

The distance between the line and the closest data points is referred to as the margin. The best or optimal line that can separate the two classes is the line that as the largest margin. This is called the Maximal-Margin hyperplane.

The margin is calculated as the perpendicular distance from the line to only the closest points. Only these points are relevant in defining the line and in the construction of the classifier. These points are called the support vectors. They support or define the hyperplane.

The constraint of maximizing the margin of the line that separates theclasses must be relaxed. This is often called the soft margin classifier. Thischange allows some points in the training data to violate the separating line.

An additional set of coefficients are introduced that give the margin wiggle room in each dimension. These coefficients are sometimes called slack variables. This increases the complexity of the model as there are more parameters for the model to fit to the data to provide this complexity.

A tuning parameter is introduced called simply C that defines the magnitude of the wiggle allowed across all dimensions. The C parameters defines the amount of violation of the margin allowed. A C=0 is no violation and we are back to the inflexible Maximal-Margin Classifier described above. The larger the value of C the more violations of the hyperplane are permitted.

During the learning of the hyperplane from data, all training instances that lie within the distance of the margin will affect the placement of the hyperplane and are referred to as support vectors. And as C affects the number of instances that are allowed to fall within the margin, C influences the number of support vectors used by the model.

A powerful insight is that the linear SVM can be rephrased using the inner product of any two given observations, rather than the observations themselves. The inner product between two vectors is the sum of the multiplication of each pair of input values.

This is an equation that involves calculating the inner products of a new input vector (x) with all support vectors in training data. The coefficients B0 and ai (for each input) must be estimated from the training data by the learning algorithm.

The kernel defines the similarity or a distance measure between new data and the support vectors. The dot product is the similarity measure used for linear SVM or a linear kernel because the distance is a linear combination of the inputs.

Where the degree of the polynomial must be specified by hand to the learning algorithm. When d=1 this is the same as the linear kernel. The polynomial kernel allows for curved lines in the input space.

Where gamma is a parameter that must be specified to the learning algorithm. A good default value for gamma is 0.1, where gamma is often 0 < gamma < 1. The radial kernel is very local and can create complex regions within the feature space, like closed polygons in two-dimensional space.

You can use a numerical optimization procedure to search for the coefficients of the hyperplane. This is inefficient and is not the approach used in widely used SVM implementations like LIBSVM. If implementing the algorithm as an exercise, you could use stochastic gradient descent.

There are specialized optimization procedures that re-formulate the optimization problem to be a Quadratic Programming problem. The most popular method for fitting SVM is the Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO) method that is very efficient. It breaks the problem down into sub-problems that can be solved analytically (by calculating) rather than numerically (by searching or optimizing).

Support Vector Machines are ahuge area of study. There are numerous books and papers on the topic. This section lists some of theseminal and most useful results if you are looking to dive deeper into the background and theory of the technique.

However, in sci-kit learn, it states A low C makes the decision surface smooth, while a high C aims at classifying all training examples correctly. (http://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/svm.html#parameters-of-the-rbf-kernel)

hi jason.mine is on a different thing.trying to use svm in predicting the likelihood of an individual suffering from cancer. gotten an error while trying to fit the model.the error says that couldnt convert string to float. how do i go about it?

When C is small, we seek narrow margins that are rarely violated; this amounts to a classifier that is highly fit to the data, which may have low bias but high variance. On the other hand, when C is larger, the margin is wider and we allow more violations to it; this amounts to fitting the data less hard and obtaining a classifier that is potentially more biased but may have lower variance.

Thanks Qichang. Thanks for clarifying the variation in C. Since C is a regularization parameter which with large values reduces the misclassification which can lead to over-fitting thus can cause the higher variance.
Believe me C & Gamma varaitions have confused me most in whole machine learning. I am still not able to understand the role of gamma.
Appreciate @Jason and you, if can explain the role of gamma and its variations (low and high)here.

Jason, thanks for your nice tutorials. After reading some articles about SVM, I still dont know whats the difference between support vector machine and support vector networks. In fact, I just found articles about support vector machine. There seems dont have papers about support vector networks. If you know the difference, could you explain it? Thank you.

Im very new to machine learning, therefore, need your help to understand a problem because Im reading, practicing, and understanding in a slow pace. Sorry about the english by the way. Ive some data (like 200,000) of pregnancies and their outcomes. Ive ANC, asset, and education info independent variables and institution delivery as dependent variable. Ive tried logistic regression algorithm but accuracy (78%) was not satisfiable. Because, I know there should be strong relationship between them. My question is, should I try SVM or other algorithm? If other one, then which one?

1. When I read this (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Support_vector_machine)
blog, then I found out the following point about soft margin classifier:
To extend SVM to cases in which the data are not linearly separable, we introduce the hinge loss function. So, is this mean that soft margin classifiers are non-linear classifiers?

2. In the aforementioned wikipedia blogs computing svm classifier section, I read that we can use either primal or dual (support SMO algorithm) method? So, is it necessary to have optimization objective in dual form in order to use libSVM tool for using SMO algorithm as optimization procedure?

Hi Jason,
I have test case data with two classifiers fail or pass , for this data i am able to classify whether it is pass or fail, after that i got the data with fail or pass and also unknown test case status ,we dont know whether it is pass or fail .

Hey Jason! Your posts are really helpful! I have a question on missing data for both categorical and numerical variables. How does SVM or any other classification or regression model handle it? Should the values be imputed? If yes, how do we impute them? This is something which we will come across in real world problems and not many people seem to really explain how to handle it. It would be really helpful to all of us beginners in ML if you could share your knowledge and experience around this.

I have one more question jason , i was wondering why we are squaring only the support vectors xi in the radial kernel formula , i think this is the Euclidean distance of the two variables x and xi , so we must square the difference of their components, not the support vectors only ? Thank you very much.

Solved a regression problem using SVR, getting decent fit on test data but on test its not performing well. Hyperparameter was tuned using Gridsearchcv. What sill be the possible reason?
Tried manually changing C,gamma and epsilon over a wide range. Is effect of gamma very less in SVR?

Im in a situation where I have p variables with a total of q variables and would to forecast n days out on each p variables: a multivariate prediction problem using SVR. 1 solution is to build the model for each p, use q and p combined to predict n days out for p. Other solution is to build and train all in 1 go. I would like to choose the latter. I am having trouble setting up X_train and y_train. For uni-variable prediction, you would just create a new column with back shift of n days. X set would be the q columns, y set would be new column. I am stumped on how to set up X, y and as a result X_train, y_train for multivariate predictions.

I came across a post stating that given that we have n features and m observations, if n >> m, we should use logistic regression; if n << m, we should use SVM. Is it true? If so, why is that? Thank you in advance!

Ive started employing a set of ML tools for my problems, and I have a question. My dataset size is of 30 samples A, and 30 samples B. I want to perform binary classification. Does it make sense to do this using SVM for such a small dataset?

## machine learning classifiers - the algorithms & how they work

A classifier in machine learning is an algorithm that automatically orders or categorizes data into one or more of a set of classes. One of the most common examples is an email classifier that scans emails to filter them by class label: Spam or Not Spam.

A classifier is the algorithm itself the rules used by machines to classify data. A classification model, on the other hand, is the end result of your classifiers machine learning. The model is trained using the classifier, so that the model, ultimately, classifies your data.

There are both supervised and unsupervised classifiers. Unsupervised machine learning classifiers are fed only unlabeled datasets, which they classify according to pattern recognition or structures and anomalies in the data. Supervised and semi-supervised classifiers are fed training datasets, from which they learn to classify data according to predetermined categories.

Sentiment analysis is an example of supervised machine learning where classifiers are trained to analyze text for opinion polarity and output the text into the class: Positive, Neutral, or Negative. Try out this pre-trained sentiment analysis model to see how it works.

Machine learning classifiers are used to automatically analyze customer comments (like the above) from social media, emails, online reviews, etc., to find out what customers are saying about your brand.

Other text analysis techniques, like topic classification, can automatically sort through customer service tickets or NPS surveys, categorize them by topic (Pricing, Features, Support, etc.), and route them to the correct department or employee.

SaaS text analysis platforms, like MonkeyLearn, give easy access to powerful classification algorithms, allowing you to custom-build classification models to your needs and criteria, usually in just a few steps.

Machine learning classifiers go beyond simple data mapping, allowing users to constantly update models with new learning data and tailor them to changing needs. Self-driving cars, for example, use classification algorithms to input image data to a category; whether its a stop sign, a pedestrian, or another car, constantly learning and improving over time.

A decision tree is a supervised machine learning classification algorithm used to build models like the structure of a tree. It classifies data into finer and finer categories: from tree trunk, to branches, to leaves. It uses the if-then rule of mathematics to create sub-categories that fit into broader categories and allows for precise, organic categorization.

Naive Bayes is a family of probabilistic algorithms that calculate the possibility that any given data point may fall into one or more of a group of categories (or not). In text analysis, Naive Bayes is used to categorize customer comments, news articles, emails, etc., into subjects, topics, or tags to organize them according to predetermined criteria, like this:

K-nearest neighbors (k-NN) is a pattern recognition algorithm that stores and learns from training data points by calculating how they correspond to other data in n-dimensional space. K-NN aims to find the k closest related data points in future, unseen data.

In text analysis, k-NN would place a given word or phrase within a predetermined category by calculating its nearest neighbor: k is decided by a plurality vote of its neighbors. If k = 1, it would be tagged into the class nearest 1.

Take a look at this visual representation to understand how SVM algorithms work. We have two tags: red and blue, with two data features: X and Y, and we train our classifier to output an X/Y coordinate as either red or blue.

The SVM assigns a hyperplane that best separates (distinguishes between) the tags. In two dimensions this is simply a straight line. Blue tags fall on one side of the hyperplane and red on the other. In sentiment analysis these tags would be Positive and Negative.

SVM algorithms make excellent classifiers because, the more complex the data, the more accurate the prediction will be. Imagine the above as a 3-dimensional output, with a Z-axis added, so it becomes a circle.

Artificial neural networks are designed to work much like the human brain does. They connect problem-solving processes in a chain of events, so that once one algorithm or process has solved a problem, the next algorithm (or link in the chain) is activated.

Artificial neural networks or deep learning models require vast amounts of training data because their processes are highly advanced, but once they have been properly trained, they can perform beyond other, individual, algorithms.

There are a variety of artificial neural networks, including convolutional, recurrent, feed-forward, etc., and the machine learning architecture best suited to your needs depends on the problem youre aiming to solve.

Classification algorithms enable the automation of machine learning tasks that were unthinkable just a few years ago. And, better yet, they allow you to train AI models to the needs, language, and criteria of your business, performing much faster and with a greater level of accuracy than humans ever could.

MonkeyLearn is a machine learning text analysis platform that harnesses the power of machine learning classifiers with an exceedingly user-friendly interface, so you can streamline processes and get the most out of your text data for valuable insights.

## getting started with classification in machine learning

As the name itself says, Classification refers to the assignment of ordering things into various subcategories. But, I know you are shocked thinking how can a machine do so! Just imagine, your laptop recognizing a stranger trying to log in to your laptop and not allowing the immigrant to do so. Or the machine easily identifying a tomato and potato. Adding more cases, the machine grading you from A to F based on your aggregate marks.

I hope you all have a basic understanding of what Classification means in the language of Computer Science. In Machine Learning and Statistics, the task of classifying various data into subclasses of a given arrangement is what we mean by the term Classification. It can be applied for implementation in both organized and unorganized datasets. The classification method begins with foreseeing the class of the given input data where the classes are regularly alluded to as target, mark or classifications.

We all have heard about supervised and unsupervised Machine Learning techniques. The Classification algorithm belongs to the family of Supervised Learning that has been utilized to recognize the classification of groundbreaking perceptions based on the training dataset. In Classification, a program gains enough information from the given dataset or perceptions, trains itself properly, and afterward builds the model for various classes or gatherings.

For example, True or false, 0 or 1, Have cancer or not, Email is Spam or Not Spam, potato or tomato, and a lot more such types. Classes can be referred to as targets/marks or classification machine learning. In the classification algorithm, y which is the discrete output function is mapped to the input variable, x. The equation is given by: y=f(x), where y is the categorical output.

Let us try to understand it much better by comprehending the help of an example case. Suppose we need to recognize the presence of Coronary illness among a mass group of 10,000 people. This is the instance of a binary classification where there can be just two classes i.e has a coronary illness or doesnt have a coronary illness.

The classifier, for this situation, needs previous data to see which and how the given factors can be identified for the detection of the disease. Furthermore, when the classifier is prepared precisely, it can very well distinguish if the coronary illness is there for a specific patient or not.

Classification is one of the most important concepts about Machine Learning and every beginner should understand the topic till its depth. As it categorizes the set of data into various classes, it can be either binary classification or multiclass classification. Some of the practical applications of classification algorithms involve face detection for protection, speech and iris recognition, document classification, and a lot many.

So, what are Lazy Learners? Their main purpose is to store the training data and delay until the testing information shows up. At the point when it does, classification is carried out in the stored training information on the most related information. In contrast with eager learners, lazy or languid learners have less preparation time yet get additional time in foreseeing. Some of the examples include Case-based reasoning and K-nearest neighbors.

On the other hand, Eager Learners build a proper classification model dependent on the given training information prior to getting the testing data. It should have the ability to focus on a solitary theory that covers the whole occurrence space. Because of the development of the model, eager learners consume most of the time for training data and less time for predicting the output. Some of the examples include Naive Bayes Classifier, Decision Trees, and Artificial Neural Networks.

If you want to become an expert in deploying models, then you should study a lot about various Classification algorithms in Machine Learning because the choice of algorithms or techniques completely depends on the available dataset youre working with. In order to develop business strategies, time series analysis and algorithms for model building are two vital and core components. If you want to grow your career in this vast domain and have some knowledge on how to evaluate, predict and monitor business trends, then check out the article on Time Series Analysis.

One of the most popular classification algorithms in Machine Learning is Logistic Regression. In this algorithm, the probabilities depicting the potential results of a solitary preliminary are displayed utilizing a strategic capacity. Scaling of input features and tuning is not needed in logistic regression and it is highly interpretable.

Random Forest classifier is a meta-assessor that fits various decision trees on different sub-examples of datasets and utilizations normal to work on the prescient exactness of the model and powers over-fitting. The sub-example size is consistently equivalent to the first info test size yet the examples are drawn with substitution.

Benefits: Random Forest Classifier helps to reduce overfitting and is more exact than decision tree algorithm. When implemented in huge datasets, it provides a high level of accuracy and prediction, handling missing data quite efficiently.

These arrangement based algorithms are a sort of languid learning as it doesnt endeavor to build an overall inner model, yet basically stores examples of the preparation information. Order is figured from a straightforward greater part vote of the k closest neighbors of each point.

This classification algorithm is highly dependent on Bayes hypothesis with the presumption of freedom between each pair of highlights. Naive Bayes classifiers function admirably in some certifiable circumstances, for example, spam classification and document classification. Based on Bayes theorem, Naive Bayes algorithm is represented as:

Where: P(A | B) represents how often A will occur given that B has occurred, P(A) and P(B) shows how likely A and B will happen respectively and P(B | A) represents how often B will happen given that A has already happened.

Drawbacks: Naive Bayes is known to be an awful assessor.Benefits: This algorithm requires a limited quantity of training information to gauge the important boundaries. Naive Bayes classifiers are amazingly quick contrasted with more modern strategies.

The algorithm which allows us to visually represent our decisions is what we mean by a decision tree. Given information of qualities along with its anything but, a choice tree delivers a grouping of decisions that can be utilized to characterize the information.

Impediments: Decision trees can make complex trees that dont sum up well. These trees turn out to be precarious because a slight modification in the training data may bring about a totally different model being produced.

Classification in Machine learning utilizes the numerically provable aid of calculations to perform scientific undertakings that would take people many more hours to perform. Also, with the appropriate calculations set up and an appropriately prepared model, classification programs perform at a degree of precision that people would never accomplish.

R Tavva is Senior Data Scientist and Alumnus of IIM- C (Indian Institute of Management Kolkata) with over 25 years of professional experience Specialized in Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Machine Learning.

ITIL Expert certified APMG, PEOPLECERT, and EXIN Accredited Trainer for all modules of ITIL till Expert Trained over 3000+ professionals across the globe currently authoring a book on ITIL ITIL MADE EASY.

## classification in machine learning: a comprehensive guide (2021)

Machine Learning statistics and classifications in ML-machine learning are used in supervised learning of the applications wherein the algorithm learns from the input data to make new classifications and observations.

Both unstructured or structured data of any given dataset can be used in classification in machine learning for classification into label, target, categories etc. in a predictive modelling process that starts with the class prediction of the given datapoints and then approximating the task of the input variables mapping function to discrete variables as the output to identify the category/class of the new datapoints in space and class.

Some terminology in classifications in ML-machine learning to get familiar with is that the algorithm is called the Classifier. The Classification Model can predict if the data falls into a category or class using input data that train the algorithm. A feature is the property observed and is measurable. Binary Classification states if the classification executed is false or true. If the sample is to be assigned to a specific target/ class or target/label, then Multi-Class and Multi-label Classification is used. Initialize is the process of classifier assigning to be used.

Train the classifier process uses the sci-kit-learn with each classifier to fit(X, y) method where the model trains X and trains the label y. It then predicts the target using the predict(X) method for an unlabeled observation X and returns predicted label y. Evaluation of the classifier process is then affected for accuracy score, classification report, and so on.

Supervised learning classification in machine learning has uses in face detection, speech recognition, document classification, handwriting recognition, etc. The variousclassification algorithms in machine learningare discussed briefly below.

The SVM- support vector machine classifier separates into categories represented by points in the entire training dataset space with as wide as possible gaps between them. Newer points can be added into space by predicting which space and category the points would lie in. It is very advantageous in high dimensional spaces and is memory efficient in its decision making. However, the method does not allow the algorithm to make the estimates of probability directly.

Here we can check which algorithm is best suited for classification in machine learningusing the MNIST dataset. MNIST is a set of tiny handwritten images numbering 70,000. Each has its representative digit in it and approximately 784 features. Each feature, in turn, has a 2828 pixel density. The task is to use the classifiers and MNIST to make a digit predictor.

To explore the dataset:One will have to import the files using the matplot and pyplot libraries.The next thing to do is set preferences for the target and specifies that the feature is a 2828 pixels image. Now plot the image for its output.

Data Splitting:Since the data has 70,000 entries, one needs to split the data and consider the beginning 6000 images, set the test set for 1000 entries and use the shape of y and X to model the training data.

Using Logistic Regression, creating a Digit Predictor:This can be executed using the train commands before outputting the file.Now import the logistic regression linear model from sklearn where the clf is the Logistic Regression and output the file.

Creating A Predictor Using Support Vector Machine: Once more import, the svm file from sklearn is used to predict the digital predictor, and the file output is cross-validated. Thus one can create a digit predictor. Since the task was to predict from all data entries if the digit two-2 was present and the classifiers output was false, accuracy was gained using cross-validation. The SVM classifier was not as accurate as of the logistic regression classifier.

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+91 90198 87000 (Corporate Solutions)
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+91 9739147000 (Cloud Computing)
+91 90192 27000 (Cyber Security)
+91 90199 97000 (PG Diploma in Data Science)

## machine learning - what is a classifier? - cross validated

Stack Exchange network consists of 177 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

"An algorithm that implements classification, especially in a concrete
implementation, is known as a classifier. The term "classifier"
sometimes also refers to the mathematical function, implemented by a
classification algorithm, that maps input data to a category."

For example, in a churn model which predicts if a customer is at-risk of cancelling his/her subscription, the classifier may be a binary 0/1 flag variable in the historical analytical dataset, off of which the model was developed, which signals if the record has churned (1) or not churned (0).

As an example, a common dataset to test classifiers with is the iris dataset. The data that gets input to the classifier contains four measurements related to some flowers' physical dimensions. The job of the classifier then is to output the correct flower type for every input.

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## announcing ga of machine learning based trainable classifiers for your compliance needs - microsoft tech community

Foundational to these solutions are capabilities to detect and classify data accurately. Only after you accurately classify your data can you start to govern your data by deciding what to protect, what to retain or delete. At Microsoft, we know that the future of accurate data classification at scale requires machine learning. Through our trainable classifiers, you can leverage the power of machine learning to identify more categories of data with increased accuracy. These classifiers use natural language processing and statistical algorithms to identify critical information.

You can deploy machine learning models with ease through our built-in classifiers, which have been trained at Microsoft and are ready to use in the Microsoft 365 compliance center. Built-in classifiers are readily available for your use to detect and classify popular data categories, for example resumes and source code. Your organization will also have unique data that you can classify by creating a custom trainable classifier. Our customers across a range of industries are taking advantage of this unique opportunity to easily build and deploy trainable classifiers without needing any expertise in machine learning. For instance, a custom classifier can be built to classify loan contracts, invoices, and project documents. Together, both built-in and build-your-own trainable classifiers provide classification support for a breadth of categories important to your enterprise.

Today we are excited to announce the general availability of machine learning based trainable classifiers. This GA includes two new features to improve the accuracy of trainable classifiers. Built-in classifiers are available now in English, with support for Spanish, Japanese, French, German, Portuguese, Italian, and Chinese (simplified) coming in the second half of 2021.

Many organizations rely on employee judgment and manual classification when it comes to managing records and retention schedules. This method is prone to errors and inaccuracies. Additionally, most organizations have unmanaged data repositories that need governance but dont have a way to classify data at scale.

With trainable classifiers, you can apply retention schedules and records policies at scale for business-critical information. For example, a compliance administrator and a records manager can work together to train a new classifier to recognize procurement documents and auto-apply a retention policy.

My hands-on experience in creating a trainable classifier demonstrated how automatic detection and classification of critical records help in accurately executing in-place records management across a large enterprise.

In Content Explorer, which is your primary tool for classified and labeled data discovery, you will see documents and emails that are a match for trainable classifiers. We are now offering you two new features to improve the accuracy of both built-in and build-your-own trainable classifiers. You can now evaluate the matched documents and provide feedback that will retrain the classifier and improve its accuracy. You can also view analytics on the degree of accuracy improvement to decide when to republish your classifier.

Machine learning based trainable classifiers are a powerful capability that enable you to detect and classify data unique to your organization at enterprise scale. We will continue to innovate and bring you new value here. Using trainable classifiers to automatically apply data protection policies in Microsoft 365 applications like Word, Excel, PowerPoint will be generally available in the first half of 2021.

Take advantage of our machine learning platform to start building your own trainable classifier. Learn more about how to create trainable classifiers, how to improve their accuracy, and how to use them to automatically apply retention schedules and records policies. You will need one of the following SKUs to use trainable classifiers--Microsoft 365 E5 or E5 Compliance or E5 Information Protection and Governance.

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## passive aggressive classifier in machine learning

Passive Aggressive Classifier belongs to the category of online learning algorithms in machine learning. It works by responding as passive for correct classifications and responding as aggressive for any miscalculation. In this article, I will walk you through what Passive Aggressive Classifier is in Machine Learning and its implementation using Python.

Passive Aggressive Classifier is a classification algorithm that falls under the category of online learning in machine learning. So what is online learning? If youve never heard of online learning before, you must have heard that supervised and unsupervised are the main categories of machine learning.

As a newbie to machine learning, you only solve problems using supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms. This is the reason why most practitioners think that supervised and unsupervised are the only categories of machine learning.

So, as mentioned above, Passive Aggressive Classifier is an online learning algorithm where you train a system incrementally by feeding it instances sequentially, individually or in small groups called mini-batches.

In online learning, a machine learning model is trained and deployed in production in a way that continues to learn as new data sets arrive. So we can say that an algorithm like Passive Aggressive Classifier is best for systems that receive data in a continuous stream.

Hope you understand what the Passive Aggressive classifier is in machine learning. Simply put, it remains passive for correct predictions and responds aggressively to incorrect predictions. Now lets see how to implement the aggressive passive classifier using the Python programming language.

To implement the Passive Aggressive algorithm using Python, I will be using a fake news dataset where our task will be to train a model to detect fake news. Ill start this task by importing the necessary Python libraries and the dataset:

So I hope you liked this article on what is Passive Aggressive algorithm in Machine Learning and its implementation using Python. Feel free to ask your valuable questions in the comments section below.

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