table vector vector art & graphics

table vector vector art & graphics

Vector footage of a modern furniture piece. Glossy rectangular table, dark glass plate supported by rounded metallic legs. Free vector for furniture, interior design, home decoration and coffee tables visuals. Table graphics for product catalogs, adverts and interior magazines covers. Glass Table by LiDou for FreeVector.com

c++ - simple hash table with vector - stack overflow

c++ - simple hash table with vector - stack overflow

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multi dimensional compaction table vector jst gmbh + co. kg

multi dimensional compaction table vector jst gmbh + co. kg

The lost-foam process (casting) makes it possible to produce complex casting geometries through the use of positive Styrofoam models. During the filling process, the binding agent-free molding sand needs to completely fill all the cavities in the Styrofoam model.That includes all of the cavities with multiple angles.

Due to these complexities, the compaction table is the centerpiece of a lost-foam system. The use of a normal vibrating table doesnt work here because it can only produce vertical vibration. To flawlessly fill horizontal cavities you need a defined, horizontal vibration motion to get the sand to move forward into the cavity.

To solve this problem, JST developed the special vibration table the Multidimensional Compaction Table. Using multiple real-time regulated unbalance motors, this table is able to vary the vector of the vibration on the X, Y or Z axis with independently selected angle, frequency and swing in order to achieve optimal fill and density in the mold. It also guarantees that the system can ramp up from zero to the desired frequency without vibration or self-resonance.

Unlike conventional vibration tables, the VECTOR starts and stops without the common shaking during startup and runout, which can often lead to already dense molds loosening up again and reducing the quality of the cast. This feature also eliminates the risk of the model body slipping in the mold before density is reached.

std::vector

std::vector

The elements are stored contiguously, which means that elements can be accessed not only through iterators, but also using offsets to regular pointers to elements. This means that a pointer to an element of a vector may be passed to any function that expects a pointer to an element of an array.

The storage of the vector is handled automatically, being expanded and contracted as needed. Vectors usually occupy more space than static arrays, because more memory is allocated to handle future growth. This way a vector does not need to reallocate each time an element is inserted, but only when the additional memory is exhausted. The total amount of allocated memory can be queried using capacity() function. Extra memory can be returned to the system via a call to shrink_to_fit(). (since C++11)

what is interrupt vector table in arm cortex m microcontrollers?

what is interrupt vector table in arm cortex m microcontrollers?

In this tutorial, we will talk about the interrupt vector table. Firstly, we will define the interrupt vector table (IVT). Secondly, we will see the role of IVT for interrupts and exceptions processing in microcontrollers or microprocessors. After that, we will see the interrupt vector table of TM4C123G ARM Cortex M4 microcontroller.

Almost all modern processors and microcontrollers support interrupts and exceptions features in order to provide event-driven tasks or threads execution possible. Unlike the polling method, event-driven tasks make use of CPU resources more efficiently. These days microcontrollers or microprocessors support hundreds of interrupts and exceptions. Each interrupt/exception has an interrupt service routine(ISR) defined somewhere in the code memory. But the question is how the processor determines where the ISR is located in code memory for the specific interrupt? The answer is simple, microcontrollers make use of interrupt vector tables to find the starting address of ISR routines.

As its name suggests, it is a table that contains vectors. But what are vectors? In the physics world, the term vector means a dimension or direction. But in embedded programming, vector means memory address. Hence, a vector table is a table that contains memory addresses. But the question is, addresses of which piece of code or instructions? The answer is interrupts or exceptions. In short, the interrupt vector table contains addresses ( function pointers) of interrupt service /routines and exception handler functions.

The interrupt vector table is a table of memory addresses of interrupt/exception handler routines. In other words, it defines where the code of a particular interrupt/exception routine is located in microcontroller memory.

If you check the datasheet of TM4C123G ARM Cortex M4 microcontroller, it has 15 system exceptions and 138 peripheral interrupts. Peripheral interrupts are also defined as simple exceptions in literature. The main difference between system exceptions and interrupts is that system exceptions are generated by the CPU and peripheral interrupts are generated by different peripheral modules available in ARM cortex based microcontrollers.

But not all interrupts are available in TM4C123G microcontroller. Only 78 are available and space is reserved inside the vector table for those peripheral interrupts which are not available. These reserves interrupts might be available in other TI microcontrollers.

If you explore the datasheet of TM4C123GH6PM microcontroller (page 107), the interrupt vector table stores at the starting addresses of code memory ( starting from 0x0000_0000). Because TM4C123GH6PM microcontroller has 154 total exceptions (including system and simple exceptions), Therefore, the vector table contains 154 entries. The first two entries of the vector table are the initial value of the stack pointer and the address of the reset handler function. Because whenever a microcontroller resets, it performs hardware initialization steps. You can read this in-depth guide on the microcontroller booting process:

The figure below shows the interrupt vector table along with their memory addresses and memory contents. Each memory address contains the address of exception handlers.For example. the address 0x0000_003C contains the address location of the systick timer interrupt handler.

The vector table and interrupt service routines/exception handlers are defined inside the startup file of a microcontroller. The startup file and a linker script file define the way to store the interrupt vector table at the starting 256 locations of the microcontrollers code memory. If you dont know about the startup file, you should read this article:

Because TM4C123G MCU supports 154 exceptions and interrupts. Hence, IVT stores at first 154 words of ROM or code memory. One extra location is used to store the starting address of the main stack pointer.

ARM Cortex-M CPU has two modes of operation such as thread mode and exception. In normal execution, CPU runs in thread mode. But when an interrupt occurs the CPU transfers from thread mode to exception mode. In exception mode, nested interrupt vector controller manages all interrupt and exception requests.

When an interrupt x occurs, the interrupt request will be sent to NVIC. If NVIC accepts the exception/interrupt request x, the next step of NVIC to find the starting address of the interrupt service routine or exception handler. The starting address of the respective ISR or exception handler is stored inside the interrupt vector table. Then NVIC uses exception number x to calculate the address of the exception by looking up the interrupt vector table and use the content of that memory address (which is an address of the respective exception handler) to execute the exception handler.

In summary, the interrupt vector table is an array of function pointers that points to the starting address of exception or interrupt handlers of a microcontroller or microprocessor. IVT usually stores at the starting addresses of flash or code memory.

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