know your stuff: the 110 best diy tips ever

know your stuff: the 110 best diy tips ever

For Popular Mechanics' 110th anniversary, we decided to do something special: We dived into our archives to find the 110 best, handiest, and most helpful tips ever printed in PM. It's more than a century of DIY wisdom. (You can read the introduction to the project here.)

For Popular Mechanics' 110th anniversary, we decided to do something special: We dived into our archives to find the 110 best, handiest, and most helpful tips ever printed in PM. It's more than a century of DIY wisdom. (You can read the introduction to the project here.)

Our September 1948 issue showed how to store an ironing board upright in a closet by mounting a towel rack to a wall. The board's tip slips up under the chest-high rack. It's still a good idea. At the right height, a rack (or a rig made of steel pipe fittings) could support brooms or lumber.

On band saws, router tables, or other shop equipment that requires a wrench to make routine adjustments, we advised in July 1952: Press the wrench into a lump of weatherstripping putty and stick the putty on the side of the shop tool. The wrench will be easy to locate for quick changes of bits and blades.

Nail 2 x 4 blocking between studs when framing walls, we suggested in November 1948. The boards provide sturdy mounting bases for heavy pictures or recessed medicine cabinets. Record the positions upon installation.

Depression-era milk thieves met their match with the bandit-proof box we showed bolted to a porch in August 1934. A hole in the top permits the bottle to be set inside, and four strips of spring brass prevent its removal. The owner unlocks a panel to access the milk. Home-security technology evolved in PM's pages, from safes made of spare tires to whole-house diagrams on burglar deterrence.

"Replacing a shovel handle is one of those disappearing rural skills that shows basic mechanical competencejust as wrapping duct tape around a broken handle denotes the opposite," the May 2007 issue said. Getting a wood handle's grain direction right ensures the strength of a replacement handle. Mount the new handle so that the oval rings of wood grain run up and down the sides of the handle relative to the blade. Handles break when the tool is strained along those ovals. A look down the blade toward the face of the handle should reveal only straight, parallel lines of wood grain.

An old glove can become a miniature tool belt with a few modifications, according to our January 1949 issue. Cut a slit in the cuff of the glove so a belt can pass through it. Then snip off the fingertips and thumb tip. Worn on a hip, the open fingertips can conveniently carry pliers and large screwdrivers.

The January 1970 issue showed how to reuse a bleach bottle to ease action on a heavily laden drawer. Cut x 2inch strips from a clean, empty bottle. Heat the plastic and fold its long side into a -inch lip. Mount the strips at the bottom front corners of the drawer frame. The drawer slides on the strips, reducing friction.

"A particularly useful device for people who are forced to stay out late at night" appeared in the September 1914 issue: the key guide. A V-shaped strip of metal affixed to the door tapers to a point just above the keyhole. The key's tip slides along the metal to find the keyhole opening. "This simple device should prove very useful in places where it is impossible to illuminate the keyhole."

To stop a door from swinging while working on its lock or knob hardware, our November 1948 issue suggested this: Notch a block of wood to fit the edge of the door. Set the block on the floor, wedge the notch onto the door's edge, and step on the block.

"The last suit or garment generally takes a beating in a crowded closet." To prevent this, wrap rubber bands around the rod a few inches from each end to form ridged stops for the wire hangers. January 1959

"Transporting a sheet of thin building material can be tricky, as the sheets flutter and flap when carried flat on a car's roof rack," we said in July 1982. The solution: Set a 2 x 4 on the roof rack, running the length of the car. Secure the sheets to the rack's side rails. Twist the 2 x 4 so that it stands on its narrower edge. The 2 x 4 will bow the sheets so they're rigid enough to withstand the wind.

"Jars of bolts and screws that are placed on shelves near power tools often are shaken off the shelf because of vibration from the machinery," according to our July 1946 issue. Clapboard siding, then and now, is beveled. The end that would face downward on a home's exterior is wider than the end facing upward. Nail the siding to the shelf with the flat face down and the wide end at the shelf's edge. This tilts the shelf toward the wall.

"When you make a table saw's pushstickand there should always be one handycut two notches instead of one in the end." The stepped stick end has one notch cut at -inch depth and a second notch cut to inch. Flipping the stick allows either thickness of stock to be pushed safely and securely toward the blade. March 1962

Trash-can lids still pose a problem that PM tried to solve in December 1946, when we suggested mounting two discarded doorknobs on each face of the garbage-can lid. The knobs act both as a handle and a hanger. Grab the knob on top to remove the lid, and use the knob on the underside to hook it over the can's edge. This leaves both hands free to deal with trash.

Fasten the metal portion of a three-ring binder to the top of a stepladder, we said in August 1972. Mount the binder so the rings face downward. Tools with holes drilled in their handles can be stored and replaced. When the ladder is to be moved, snap shut the rings and tools will be securely held. The rings can also be used to hang cleaned brushes to dry.

To prevent splintered edges as a saw blade exits plywood, press masking tape onto the back side of the cut, we said in May 1982. "The cut won't be absolutely clean, but it will be better than without tape."

On an incline, a hand truck can roll backward and cause an injury, our February 1938 issue cautioned. Reduce the risk by mounting stout fabric straps on the truck's frame above the wheels. Move forward and the straps flap out of the way. Go backward and the straps tuck under the wheels to arrest motion.

For readers burdened by correspondence, our November 1948 issue offered "one way to avoid the unpleasant task of licking postage stamps." The trick: Moisten the stamps using a potato cut in half. The water in the potato activates the adhesive. Stamps today often adhere like stickers, but a spare spud can still be used to moisten a pile of envelope flaps.

Haul a heavy boulder out of a yard, our June 1951 issue suggested, by using an old tire to make a sled. Use a bolt and nut to fasten two thick lumber planks in a cross shape and wedge them inside the tire. Drill a hole in one plank near the end. Loop and fasten a chain through the plank and around the tire. Roll the stone onto the planks; hook the chain to a tractor or a truck to tow away the sled. The stone rides above grade in the tire opening while the tire edge drags on the ground.

"We had a door that we wanted to keep closed, and not having any suitable ready-made device at hand, we made one from a spring rattrap," we said in our May 1927 issue. Saw off the bait end of the trap and screw the remaining part to the door casing. Protect the adjacent surface with a piece of tin. "This door closer works perfectly, and is cheap."

To locate identical positions on opposite sides of a wall, we showed a method using a bar magnet and pocket compass in October 1943. The magnet, attached to a suction cup, holds the position on one side of the wall. On the other side, a compass points to the magnet so the spot can be marked.

It's tricky to protect a large push-style handsaw when transporting it along with sawhorses. Our November 1983 issue solved the problem. Cut a saw slot in each end of the sawhorse crosspiece. When finished using the saw, drop it in the slot.

To prevent a bucket or other round container from sliding around on top of a bench while scouring the inside, our March 1934 issue said, lay the bucket on its side and wedge auto tire tubes beneath the curved exterior. To update the tip, use bicycle inner tubes.

A broken broomstick is just another new tool. In March 1981, we showed how to shape a broken handle into a spike to make a dibble for digging holes for bulbs and seeds. A broken shovel with a D-handle also works well. In July 1946, the broomstick entered the game room as a dart rack: Plane an 8-inch length of broomstick so that it can be fastened to a backboard. Drill holes for the darts at a 45-degree angle inch in diameter, inch deep, spaced 1 inch apart on center.

Because a dull wood chisel produces slipshod work, use a method we suggested in June 1948 to test the tool for adequate sharpness. Push the chisel cutting edge gently over the top of a thumbnail. If it slides without catching, the chisel needs to be sharpened.

To measure a drill bit to bore a pilot hole for a nut and bolt assembly, our August 1965 issue recommended using an adjustable wrench as a crude caliper to determine the bolt's diameter. Then match the wrench jaw's reading with a corresponding drill-bit diameter.

When replacing brake fluid, it's necessary to flush out the system. Don't do that by reusing the old muddy brown fluid in the reservoir, we said in November 1992. Use a turkey baster to siphon the excess fluid from the reservoir, then add a little clean fluid to flush out the reservoir. And don't use that baster on poultry ever again.

"If in need of a wrench and one is not at hand, take a large bolt and run on two nuts, allowing a space between them to fit over the nut to be turned," we said in March 1910. "This will make a serviceable wrench, a substitute that will prove very beneficial in case of an emergency."

We shared the secret to making neat cuts in large spools of paper in our March 1969 issue. With the spool standing vertically, unfurl the length of paper planned for use. Begin the cut a few inches from the top, slicing downward. The uncut section supports the sheet so it doesn't droop and tear. Snip off the top portion to finish the cut.

Servicing a fuel-injection system opens up lines with pressures that can top 60 psi, we warned in August 2002. "That's enough to spray atomized gasoline across the shop." Here's how to protect your eyes: Wrap a screwdriver shank in a shop towel and use the tip to depress the Schrader valve stem in the fuel rail's diagnostic fitting.

Six-inch garden-hose scraps can hold hand tools, we noted in November 1948. Cut the hose to length with a small tab at the top to take a wall-mounting screw. "Using garden hose for this purpose is especially convenient for the man who does not want to build a cabinet."

To level a billiard table or a piece of machinery in all directions at once, we advised in November 1937, use a slab of flat glass and a ball bearing. "You can note the low spot by observing in which direction the ball moves." Shim the legs to level the surface in all directions.

"No doubt you have pulled a drawer all the way out andc-r-r-a-a-s-h!" Our December 1961 issue had a solution for drawers prone to pulling free of dressers: Pull the drawer out as far as safely possible and paint a red stripe on each rail next to the cabinet face. Paint a black stripe 2 inches closer to the front of the drawer. Pull the drawer out no farther than the black mark and you'll avoid spilling its load.

A pair of homemade mitts simplify and speed up the job of polishing a car, we said in July 1952. Stitch several thicknesses of terry-cloth toweling or cheesecloth to a pair of cloth work gloves. Use one glove to apply the polish and the other to remove the excess. Wash the mitts in soapy hot water.

Our July 1958 issue had a tip for working safely on round ladder rungs in a muddy yard: Mount a length of bar stock low on the ladder, then scrape mud off boot soles before climbing. Mount another rigid bar near the top of the ladder and you can scrape goop off putty knives and trowels.

"The camp hanger shown is easily made by attaching hooks to an old leather belt," we recommended in April 1921. For hardware, hang S-hooks or bend stout wire through holes punched in the leather. "The hanger will be found quite a convenience for clothing and utensils used around the camp."

"When pebbles or ceramic fragments are not available for use as drainage material in the bottom of a flowerpot," we said in November 1956, "metal bottle caps make a good substitute." Place them with the crimped edge down to cover the entire bottom of the container.

A strap hinge taken from a barn door makes a hasp for a padlock. Remove the hinge pin and separate the halves. Fasten one hinge half to a doorframe, with the wide end of the strap mounted through to the frame, and the narrow end projecting outward. Fasten the other hinge half to the door itself, in the same orientation, so the holes align on the narrow, projecting ends. Insert the lock so its bar spans the holes. November 1938

Don't toss out training wheels when a child moves on to a bigger bike. Mount the wheels to bench saws and other heavy shop machinery. Attach the wheels above the floor and tilt the machines to move them around. April 1972

"Looking for a simple rack for your wife's shoes? You won't find a more practical one," we said in January 1961. Drill holes to fit the heels, and mount the panel so it stands proud of the closet wall.

"A matchbook held by a brick takes the sag out of a mason's line." The matchbook suspends the line, keeping it the right distance from the top course so it doesn't interfere with striking the mortared joint. July 1962

The October 2009 issue gave "Get-Home-at-Any-Cost" tips for roadside catastrophes, beginning with a leak in the radiator. Crack a raw egg into the radiator filler cap (not the overflow tank). The egg white will plug the holefor a while. To fill the radiator back up: Top it off with water, diet soda, tea, or any other sugar-free liquid. To fix a punctured gas tank: Stuff a wedge from a bar of soap into the hole. It'll last long enough to get you into town. Oil pan punctured by a stone? Whittle a plug from a twig and hammer it into the hole. But now you're low on oil. To fill the crankcase, add a quart of water. Really. The oil-pump pickup is not on the exact bottomthe remaining oil will float on top of the water.

For weeding in the cracks of concrete, our June 1938 issue said, "a shoehorn is handy... it enables you to do the work quickly and prevents sore fingers." Good luck finding a spare shoehorn today. Those weeds can now be uprooted from tight cracks with an old putty knife or a painter's five-in-one tool.

In the January 1963 issue, we recommended using a sliver snipped from a toothpaste tube to fill a stripped-out screw hole. Screw threads bite into the metal. With today's plastic tubes, a toothpick works better. But the essence of the tip remains: Implements of oral hygiene can fill cavities.

"Facing an accumulation of soiled clothing that would have cost at least $10 if done at the laundry," a reader reasoned that his outboard motor could agitate suds. Mounted on a barrel divided by a screen, the rig worked, he claimedfor 10 cents. The clothing's condition afterward was never mentioned. September 1926

"When a playpen is needed and none is at hand, just take a kitchen or other small table, turn it upside down, and stretch cloth around the outside of the legs." The tip suggests padding the table's underside with an old comforter, but doesn't mention clearing out the cobwebs and chewing gum first. February 1938

"Spring-type rattraps are an effective means of disposing of turtles which menace game fish in a pond or lake." An illustration shows a turtle about to bite a chicken head in a trap mounted to a post set in shallow water. Sorry, turtles. Our apologies to the chickens too. June 1948

"One home craftsman used the trunk lid of an old sedan to make a serviceable and inexpensive canopy for the back door of his home." The trunk was dressed up, at least, with wrought-steel supports. June 1954

beach sand scoops by coob workshop | sand scoops

beach sand scoops by coob workshop | sand scoops

FEATURES: Usedsmallest Hexahedron Holes (7mm). Best for small ancient coins and finest jewelry The scoop has 2 Mounting Options Made of anti-corrosion stainless steel of 1.5mm The back wall is made stingy angle that provides convenience to stop foot and reduces the load on the hands. SMAL Model. Good for water and surf lines. Ground conditions: sand with silt or clay, clay and silt clogged sand with shells and stones. Has perfect washing ability.

DIMENSIONS LENGTH: 9.85/250 mm WIDTH: 4.75/120 mm HEIGHT: 3.15/80 mm HOLE: 0.27/7 mm (hexagon) (2 Mounting Options): TOP HOLE ~ approx 1.2 inch / 30.5mm (Due handmade work internal diameter can vary within 1.2-1.225 inch /30.5-31.1mm). We strongly recomend use with this model our Poles by CooB or other poles with Diameter ~1.2 inch. Also you can use additionally electrical tape as sealing layer on your poles. Front opening (for handle) ~ about 0.4/10mm WEIGHT: about 0.8kg

Used Hexahedron Holes (10mm). Best for ancient coins and finest jewelry Made of anti-corrosion stainless steel of 1.5mm The back wall is made stingy angle that provides convenience to stop foot and reduces the load on the hands. Improved fixation of top tube and add additional stiffening rib to make scoop even more stronger and rigid.

DIMENSIONS LENGTH: 9/230 mm WIDTH: 6.25/160 mm HEIGHT:4/100 mm HOLE:0.4/10 mm (hexahedron) TOP HOLE ~ approx 1.2 inch / 30.5mm (Due handmade work internal diameter can vary within 1.2-1.225 inch /30.5-31.1mm). We strongly recomend use with this model our Poles by CooB or other poles with Diameter ~1.2 inch. Also you can use additionally electrical tape as sealing layer on your poles. WEIGHT:approx0,75 kg

FEATURES: Used Hexahedron Holes (10mm). Best for small ancient coins and finest jewelry Made of anti-corrosion stainless steel of 1.5mm SMAL COMPACT Model. Good for water and surf lines. Ground conditions: sand with silt or clay, clay and silt clogged sand with shells and stones. Has perfect washing ability.

Used Hexahedron Holes (10mm). Best for ancient coins and finest jewelry Made of anti-corrosion stainless steel of 2.0mm The back wall is made stingy angle that provides convenience to stop foot and reduces the load on the hands. Improved fixation of top tube and add additional stiffening rib to make scoop even more stronger and rigid.

DIMENSIONS LENGTH: 11.5/290 mm WIDTH: 8/200 mm HEIGHT: 4.3/110 mm HOLE: 0.4/10 mm (hexagon) TOP HOLE ~ approx 1.2 inch / 30.5mm (Due handmade work internal diameter can vary within 1.2-1.225 inch /30.5-31.1mm). We strongly recomend use with this model our Poles by CooB or other poles with Diameter ~1.2 inch. Also you can use additionally electrical tape as sealing layer on your poles. WEIGHT: about 1,4 kg

Used Hexahedron Holes (10mm). Best for ancient coins and finest jewelry Made of anti-corrosion stainless steel of 2.0mm The back wall is made stingy angle that provides convenience to stop foot and reduces the load on the hands. Improved fixation of top tube and add additional stiffening rib to make scoop even more stronger and rigid.

Used Hexahedron Holes (10mm). Best for ancient coins and finest jewelry Made of anti-corrosion stainless steel of 2.0mm The back wall is made stingy angle that provides convenience to stop foot and reduces the load on the hands. Improved fixation of top tube and add additional stiffening rib to make scoop even more stronger and rigid.

FEATURES: Usedsmallest Hexahedron Holes (7mm). Best for small ancient coins and finest jewelry The scoop has 2 Mounting Options Made of anti-corrosion stainless steel of 1.5mm The back wall is made stingy angle that provides convenience to stop foot and reduces the load on the hands. Improved fixation of top tube and add additional stiffening rib to make scoop even more stronger and rigid.

DIMENSIONS LENGTH: 11.5/290 mm WIDTH: 8/200 mm HEIGHT: 4.3/110 mm HOLE: 0.27/7 mm (hexagon) HOLES (2 Mounting Options): TOP HOLE ~ approx 1.2 inch / 30.5mm (Due handmade work internal diameter can vary within 1.2-1.225 inch /30.5-31.1mm). We strongly recomend use with this model our Poles by CooB or other poles with Diameter ~1.2 inch. Also you can use additionally electrical tape as sealing layer on your poles. Front openning (for Handle) ~ about 0.4/10mm WEIGHT: about 1.1 kg

Usedsmallest Hexahedron Holes (7mm). Best for small ancient coins and finest jewelry Made of anti-corrosion stainless steel of 1.5mm The back wall is made stingy angle that provides convenience to stop foot and reduces the load on the hands. Improved fixation of top tube and add additional stiffening rib to make scoop even more stronger and rigid.

DIMENSIONS LENGTH: 11.5/290 mm WIDTH: 8/200 mm HEIGHT: 4.3/110 mm HOLE: 0.27/7 mm (hexagon) TOP HOLE ~ approx 1.2 inch / 30.5mm (Due handmade work internal diameter can vary within 1.2-1.225 inch /30.5-31.1mm). We strongly recomend use with this model our Poles by CooB or other poles with Diameter ~1.2 inch. Also you can use additionally electrical tape as sealing layer on your poles. WEIGHT: about 1 kg

Used Hexahedron Holes (10mm). Best for ancient coins and finest jewelry Made of anti-corrosion stainless steel of 2.0mm The back wall is made stingy angle that provides convenience to stop foot and reduces the load on the hands. Improved fixation of top tube and add additional stiffening rib to make scoop even more stronger and rigid.

DIMENSIONS LENGTH: 11.5/290 mm WIDTH: 8/200 mm HEIGHT: 4.3/110 mm HOLE: 0.4/10 mm (hexagon) TOP HOLE ~ approx 1.2 inch / 30.5mm (Due handmade work internal diameter can vary within 1.2-1.225 inch /30.5-31.1mm). We strongly recomend use with this model our Poles by CooB or other poles with Diameter ~1.2 inch. Also you can use additionally electrical tape as sealing layer on your poles. WEIGHT: about 1,4 kg

FEATURES: Used Hexahedron Holes (10 mm). Best for small ancient coins and finest jewelry The scoop has 2 Mounting Options Made of anti-corrosion stainless steel of 1.5mm Smalland Compact Model. Good for water and surf lines. Ground conditions: sand with silt or clay, clay and silt clogged sand with shells and stones. Has perfect washing ability.

DIMENSIONS LENGTH: 11.5/290 mm WIDTH: 8/200 mm HEIGHT: 4.3/110 mm HOLE: 0.4/10 mm (round) TOP HOLE ~ approx 1.2 inch / 30.5mm (Due handmade work internal diameter can vary within 1.2-1.225 inch /30.5-31.1mm). We strongly recomend use with this model our Poles by CooB or other poles with Diameter ~1.2 inch. Also you can use additionally electrical tape as sealing layer on your poles. WEIGHT: about 1.2kg

DIMENSIONS LENGTH: 9.85/250 mm WIDTH: 4.75/120 mm HEIGHT: 3.15/80 mm HOLE: 0.31/8 mm (round) HOLES OF HANDLE (2 Mounting Options): TOP HOLE ~ approx 1.2 inch / 30.5mm (Due handmade work internal diameter can vary within 1.2-1.225 inch /30.5-31.1mm). We strongly recomend use with this model our Poles by CooB or other poles with Diameter ~1.2 inch. Also you can use additionally electrical tape as sealing layer on your poles. Front openning ~ about 0.4/10mm WEIGHT: about 0.85kg

DIMENSIONS LENGTH: 11.6/295 mm WIDTH: 5.9/150 mm HEIGHT: 5.12/130 mm HOLE: 0.31/8 mm (round) HOLES OF HANDLE (2 Mounting Options): Front openning ~ about 0.4/10mm TOP HOLE ~ approx 1.2 inch / 30.5mm (Due handmade work internal diameter can vary within 1.2-1.225 inch /30.5-31.1mm). We strongly recomend use with this model our Poles by CooB or other poles with Diameter ~1.2 inch. Also you can use additionally electrical tape as sealing layer on your poles. WEIGHT: about 1.15kg

ultrasonic cleaning - an overview | sciencedirect topics

ultrasonic cleaning - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Ultrasonic cleaning uses high-frequency, high-intensity sound waves in a liquid to facilitate or enhance the removal of foreign contaminants from surfaces submerged in an ultrasonically activated liquid. Ultrasonic technology has more recently been used in a growing number of applications involving chemical processes and surface conditioning, which, although outside the classic definition of cleaning, use basically the same techniques. Demands for increased cleanliness have driven the development of increasingly sophisticated technology in the field, particularly within the past decade. Today it is possible to customize ultrasonic waves to optimize effects in a wide range of applications, as described by Puskas and Piazza (2000). Recent developments in ultrasonic washing of textiles also have occurred (see the Appendix).

Ultrasonic cleaning is a technology unique in its ability to remove contaminants that other technologies cannot remove and in its ability to effectively clean areas that are not accessible using other technologies. Competing technologies include spray washing, turbulation, agitation, and brushing, among others. In general, these technologies are line of sight in nature; that is, there must be direct access to the contaminated surface for them to be effective. In all of these cases the physical energy is delivered indirectly. In a spray system, for example, the energy for the spray stream is imparted by a pump. Pressurized liquid is delivered to a nozzle, which increases the streams velocity and directs it toward the surface to be cleaned. Cleaning is achieved by the impact of the high-velocity stream with the surface being cleaned. Not only is energy lost during each step of the process, but only that energy in the portion of the stream that ultimately impacts the cleaning target provides benefit; the rest is lost. Sprays are not capable of reaching areas hidden from direct access of the spray nozzle to the surface. Cleaning blind holes with spray technology, for example, can only benefit from a flushing action because the spray creates a pressure differential across the hole opening to force liquid in to and out of the hole.

Another technology, brushing, is similarly limited in that any surface the brush bristle is not able to reach will not be cleaned. In a world where surface geometry of many parts is measured in nanometers, brushes are unable to reach all surfaces of the part to be cleaned.

Ultrasonic cleaning technology, unlike those described above, is able to penetrate and clean any surface that can be reached by a sound-conducting liquid. This means that blind holes, thread roots, parts with complex geometry, minute surface contours, and a number of otherwise impossible cleaning tasks can be easily accomplished using ultrasonic cleaning technology.

Ultrasonic cleaning is a common procedure for high-quality cleaning, utilizing ultrasonic energy to scrub the parts and a liquid solvent to rinse away the residue and loosened particulate matter. This procedure, rather than using the vapor degreasing technique for precleaning and final rinsing, utilizes manual application of liquid solvents. The process is not limited to any particular solvents and, indeed, organic solvents need not be used. It is widely used with aqueous solutions: surfactants, detergents, and alkaline and acid cleaners. The only real limitations are that the cleaning fluid must not attack the cleaning equipment, fluids must not foam excessively, and the fluids must cavitate adequately for efficient cleaning.2

The process is not as efficient as vapor rinse, solvent wipe, immersion, or spray, but it is suitable for many surface preparation applications and pretreatments. One or a combination of these techniques may be used. A large number of solvents are recommended. Solvent wiping is the most portable and versatile of these methods, but is also the least controllable. There is always a danger of incomplete removal of soil, and spreading of soil in a uniform manner, causing its presence not to be readily visible, and contamination of a surface with unclean wiping materials.

For general cleaning, wiping materials should be clean, freshly laundered cotton rags, new cheese cloth, or cellulose tissues. For special super-clean applications whereby cleaning must occur in a controlled clean room, specially processed lint-free polyurethane foam wiping materials are available (from Sills and Associates, Glendale, CA). The solvent should be used only once, and it should be poured onto the wiping material. The wiping material should never be immersed in the solvent. Solvent containers with small openings should be wiped systematically with the solvent-soaked cloth or tissue. The wiping material should be discarded, and the surface should be cleaned again with new solvent and cloth or tissue. This cycle should be repeated until there is no evidence of soil on either the cloth or the cleaned surface.

Although immersion and soaking in a solvent is often sufficient to remove light soil, scrubbing may be required for heavier soils. The most efficient scrubbing method is ultrasonic, as discussed earlier. Other scrubbing techniques include tumbling, solvent agitation, brushing, and wiping. After the parts are soaked and scrubbed they must be rinsed. The quality of cleaning produced by the immersion process depends primarily on the final rinse. The solvent spray cleaning method is efficient because of the scrubbing effect produced by the impingement of high-speed solvent particles on the surface. The solvent impinges on the surface in sufficient quantity to cause flow and drainage, which washes away the loosened soil. Also, because only clean solvent is added to the surface, and scrubbing and rinsing occur, there is no danger of contamination, as there is with the immersion process.

Fig. 6. Assembly of the flow cell. (A) Cross-sectional view of the predrilled microscope slide with inlet and outlet tubing attached. (B) Cross-sectional view of the assembled flow cell, where the double-sided tape spacer is sandwiched between the slide assembly and the PEGylated coverslip. (C) Exploded view of the flow cell assembly. (D) Microscope slide with predrilled holes. (E) Microscope slide with inlet and outlet tubing attached. (F) Microscope slide with inlet and outlet tubing and rectangular double-sided tape spacer (brown). (G) Complete flow cell assembly with glass coverslip attached to the microscope slide.

Thread the roughed-up ends of the tubing through the holes in the slide. Apply adhesive around the base. Allow the ends to protrude ~1mm from the other (bottom) side of the slide (Fig. 6A and E). This ensures that should some adhesive seeps through, it will not block the tubing.

Drilled slides and Teflon tubing may be reused. For disassembly, submerge the flow cell (see below) in acetone for 12 days until it falls apart. Keep the slide and tubing and discard everything else. Remove any residual adhesive from the slide with a razor blade or KimWipe soaked in acetone.

Low frequency ultrasonic cleaning relies on the jetting action of collapsing cavitation bubbles in contact with a surface to provide a high pressure jet of fluid against the surface, as shown in Figure 13.6. Ultrasonic cleaning is often a good way to remove loosely adhering particles after a grinding or abrasive procedure and can be used with solvents to remove adsorbed contaminants. Ultrasonic jetting is good for the removal of large particles but less efficient as the particle size decreases into the submicron range.

The cavitation bubbles are formed by the tension portion of an ultrasonic wave in a fluid media and grow with time. The size that can be attained depends inversely on the frequency and the surface tension of the fluid. High frequencies (>60kHz) give smaller bubbles and a higher bubble density. The ultrasonic wave is produced by magnetostrictive or electrostrictive transducers(s), which can be attached to the fluid-containing tank walls or immersed in the fluid in the form of a probe that can concentrate the ultrasonic energy into a small area. Typically, the transducers operate at 18120kHz at an energy density of about 100watts/gal of fluid. The ultrasonic cleaner size can be from five gallons for a small cleaner up to very large systems using many transducers.

The size of cavitation bubbles in the fluid depends on the vapor pressure, surface energy, and temperature of the fluid. For example, pure water at 60C and 40kHz has a maximum cavitation bubble size of about 100 microns. If a surfactant is present, the bubble size is smaller due to the lowered surface energy. The jet pressure from the collapsing bubble can be as high as 300psi. The cavitation jetting is more energetic for cooler media and when there are no gases in the bubble to hinder its collapse. Note: High power ultrasonic cavitation can fracture the surface of brittle materials and micro-roughen the surface of ductile materials. This can affect film growth and film adhesion.

The ultrasonic energy density decreases with distance from the transducer; therefore, the cavitation energy is greatest near the transducer surface. Acoustic streaming results in an overall movement of fluid away from the transducer surface. If the transducers are mounted in the bottom of the tanks, this brings contaminants that have settled to the bottom of the tank up into the cleaning region. Therefore, the cavitating fluid should be continuously filtered.

When using a fixed frequency transducer, there are nodes and antinodes formed (standing waves) in the fluid, which produce variations of cavitation energy with position. These standing wave patterns can be modified by reflection of the pressure waves from surfaces in the tank. This variation in cavitation with position can be overcome somewhat using swept-frequency generation. A typical system uses 40 2kHz. If frequency sweeping is not used or there are large variations of cavitation energy with position, the parts should be moved from one region to another in the tank during cleaning. The ultrasonic frequencies are above the hearing range of the human ear and the audible noise that is heard from an ultrasonic cleaner is due to the vibration of surfaces in the cleaner.

The temperature of the transducer/cleaning media is important, not only to degas (exsorb gases) the fluids but also to enhance cleaning and maximize cavitation. Some optimal temperatures for ultrasonic cleaning fluids are:

The intensity with which cavitation takes place depends on the properties of the fluid. The energy required to form a cavitation bubble in a liquid is proportional to the surface tension and vapor pressure of the fluid. Thus, the higher the surface tension of the fluid, the greater the energy required to form a bubble, and the greater the energy released on collapse of the bubble. Water, for instance, with its surface tension of about 70dynes/cm, is difficult to cavitate. However, with a surfactant, the surface energy can be lowered to 30dynes/cm and cavitation is easier. Cavitation is enhanced with increasing temperature; however, the jetting energy is lessened at higher temperatures. Gases dissolved in the fluid enter the cavitation bubble, cushion the collapse, and reduce the jetting energy; therefore, fluids should be degassed for maximum cleaning effectiveness. Solvents in particular are susceptible to dissolved gases.

Ultrasonic erosion or deformation of aluminum foil or an aluminum metallized glass surface can be used to determine the cavitation power that a surface is exposed to in the ultrasonic cleaner. A general rule is that ultrasonic cavitation should generate 10 holes in a 1 2 inch area on aluminum foil of 1mil thickness in 10sec. The cavitation intensity can be studied by observing the cavitation damage on a series of aluminum foils with increasing thickness. The damage changes from hole-generation to dimpling to pitting, with foil thickness. The cavitation intensity of an ultrasonic cleaner should be plotted as a function of position with fixtures and substrates in position since reflections from surfaces can change the cavitation energy distribution. The cavitation pattern should be checked periodically, particularly if the fixturing is changed. Energy probes (watts per gallon) are available commercially to measure cavitation energy distribution in the tank but care must be taken that the pressure wave distribution is the same as when being used. Probes are useful for comparing the operation of a tank with time, comparing loaded vs. unloaded conditions, and for comparing one tank to another. Some work has been done using sonoluminescence to visually monitor cavitation intensity.

Fixturing is very important in ultrasonic cleaning to ensure that all surfaces are cleaned. Generally, the total area of parts, in cm2, should not exceed the volume of the tank, in cm3. Parts should be separated and suspended with the surface to be cleaned parallel to the stress wave propagation direction. The parts must not trap gases, which prevent wetting of the surface by the cavitating fluid. Metal or glass holding fixtures of small mass and open structure should be used. Energy-adsorbing materials such as polyethylene or fluoropolymers should not be used in fixturing or containers since they adsorb the ultrasonic energy. Substrates should not be loosely placed in the bottom of a container that is suspended in the transducer fluid.

Often the cleaning fluid is filtered in a flowing system that exchanges 2550% of its volume per minute. This is particularly desirable when the system is used continuously. An overflow tank system can be used to continuously remove contaminants that accumulate on the fluid surface. A cascade ultrasonic system with perhaps three stations of increasing solvent or rinse water purity can be used in the cleaning process.

Ultrasonic cleaning must be used with care since the jetting action can produce high pressures that cause erosion and introduce fractures in the surface of brittle materials. For example, in high power laser applications it has been shown that extended ultrasonic cleaning of glass surfaces increases the light scattering from the surfaces, indicating surface damage. Ultrasonic agitation has been shown to create particles by erosion of the container surface. The erosion of stainless steel creates 500 times as many particles as the erosion of Pyrex glass containers. In all cases studied, particles of the container material were produced on prolonged use. Resonance effects may also mechanically damage devices in an ultrasonic cleaner. Ultrasonic cavitation can also be a source of pitting and the loss of adhesion of thin films. Surface damage can be controlled by adjusting the energy density of the cavitation and/or controlling the time of application.

[2] Ultrasonic cleaning is a common procedure for high-quality cleaning, utilizing ultrasonic energy to scrub the parts and a liquid solvent to rinse away the residue and loosened particulate matter. This procedure, rather than using the vapor degreasing technique for pre-cleaning and final rinsing, utilizes the manual application of liquid solvents. The process is not limited to any particular solvents; organic solvents need not be used. It is widely applied with aqueous solutions: surfactants, detergents, and alkaline and acid cleaners. The only real limitations are that the cleaning fluid must not attack the cleaning equipment, fluids must not foam excessively, and the fluids must cavitate adequately for efficient cleaning.

The process is not as efficient as vapor rinse, solvent wipe, immersion, or spray, but is suitable for many surface preparation applications and pretreatments. One or a combination of these techniques may be used. A large number of solvents are recommended. Solvent wiping is the most portable and versatile of these methods, but also the least controllable. There is always a danger of incomplete removal of soil, spreading of soil in a uniform manner, causing its presence not to be readily visible, and contamination of a surface with unclean wiping materials.

For general cleaning, wiping materials should be clean, freshly laundered cotton rags, new cheese cloth, or cellulose tissues. For superclean applications where cleaning must occur in a controlled clean room, specially processed lint-free polyurethane foam wiping materials are available (from Sills and Associates, Glendale, CA). The solvent should be used only once, poured onto the wiping material. The wiping material should never be immersed in the solvent. Solvent containers with small openings should be wiped systematically with the solvent-soaked cloth or tissue. The wiping material should be discarded and the surface cleaned again with new solvent and cloth or tissue. This cycle should be repeated until there is no evidence of soil on either the cloth or the cleaned surface.

Although immersion and soaking in a solvent is often sufficient to remove light soil, scrubbing may be required for heavier soils. The most efficient scrubbing method is ultrasonic, discussed above. Other scrubbing techniques include tumbling, solvent agitation, brushing, and wiping. After the parts are soaked and scrubbed, they must be rinsed. The quality of cleaning produced by the immersion process depends primarily on the final rinse. The solvent spray cleaning method is efficient due to the scrubbing effect produced by the impingement of high-speed solvent particles on the surface. The solvent impinges on the surface in sufficient quantity to cause flow and drainage, which washes away the loosened soil. Also, since only clean solvent is added to the surface, and scrubbing and rinsing occur, there is no danger of contamination as there is with the immersion process.

Several therapeutic approaches including mechanical, antiseptic, and air-abrasive treatment, photodynamic treatment, sonic, and ultrasonic scalers, lasers, airpowder abrasion, and various chemical solutions such as chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), citric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and saline were applied and tested for implant surface decontamination (e.g., Schou etal. [67]). Although some of the above-mentioned interventions may be effective, no consensus has been reached about the most effective treatment for peri-implantitis [68,69].

Titanium brush and ultrasonic cleaning are the easiest to use under surgical conditions. Cotton pellets with saline solution may be adequate for the cleaning of microrough surfaces (Persson etal. [70]). Similarly, Schou etal. [67] demonstrated in their animalexperiments that treatment of infected plasma-sprayed titanium surfaces withairpowder+citric acid, gauze soaked saline+citric acid or gauze soaked with CHX led to equal results.

Air abrasives with sodium bicarbonate powder are capable of removing all viable cells but are the least convenient due to the grit and mess in a flapped surgical site. Soaked cotton pellets, airpowder abrasive, citric acid, delmopinol, chlorhexidine irrigation, and rotating brushes with pumice alone or in different combinations were used [7174].

For decontamination of the infected implant surfaces, rinsing with saline (or cleaning with cotton pellets soaked with sterile saline) and air-abrasive treatments seem to work. Laser decontamination of the surface does not improve healing results. Nonsurgical therapy of implants with peri-implantitis does not lead to successful treatment outcomes.

The most common physicochemical treatments are chemical surface reactions (e.g., oxidation, acid-etching), sand blasting, ion implantation, laser ablation, coating the surface with inorganic calcium phosphate, etc. These methods alter the energy, charge, and composition of the existing surface but they provide surfaces with modified roughness and morphology as well [75].

Ultrasonic cleaning is a common technique of modern dentistry. It is used for both periodontal and peri-implant treatments. The ultrasonic tip is made of very thin hardened steel. Vibration induces a phenomenon called cavitation, which is the formation of cavities or bubbles in a liquid medium containing gas or vapor. In addition, the vibratory motion allows debridement, that is, the breakdown of microorganisms attached to the surface of the tooth or implant [19].

The most important reasons for laser application in the treatment of peri-implantitis and for the oral implants success are the significant reduction in bacteria on the implant surface and the peri-implant tissues during irradiation and that it is a minimally invasive procedure to treat failing implants [76]. The laser decontamination of the surface caused by CO2 laser irradiation has been reported to pose a risk because of the temperature increase of the implant surface. Then, it should be avoided for the removal of subgingival calculus since it causes melting and carbonization of the root cementum [77]. Using the LightWalker's Er:YAG 2940nm wavelength, it is possible to clean the granulation tissues, both on the bone and implant surfaces, and thoroughly decontaminate the infected site. Er:YAG does not promote excessive heating [78] and is considered efficient for implant surface decontamination [77]. Nevertheless, it can produce temperature increase above the critical threshold to bone safety (10C) after 10s [79]. The erbium laser targets the water content to remove the granulation tissue selectively due to its ability to use long-pulse durations and low peak power, while ablating the microorganisms on the surface of the bone. The bactericidal effect of low-power Er:YAG on the surgical site is also effective against endotoxins and lipopolysaccharides, which provide the complete cleansing of the implant surface without chemicals or any surface modification on the implant. Er:YAG is also used with shorter pulse durationsto activate bleeding and decorticating the bony wall of the defect.

On the contrary, Er,Cr:YSGG was reported [80] to be safe to titanium and zirconia material, but decontamination of the surface does not improve healing results. Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation used to decontaminate the implant surface is expected to have a different behavior in the oral cavity where the presence of water of the gingival fluid, saliva, and blood is different from the invitro situation. The wavelength of Er,Cr:YSGG laser is highly specific to water and the behavior of the laser treatment to decontaminate superficial implants can be different depending on the clinical situation. Although there are few available studies, there is evidence of improved clinical results [8182].

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the use of light-activated dyes (photosensitizers). When the photosensitizers are activated in the presence of oxygen they produce cytotoxic species, which are known to be effective against viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Therefore, PDT can be used as a therapy for localized infections. PDT in dentistry involvesthe application of a photosensitizer gel. The photosensitizing gel produces free oxygen radicals, which are highly reactive when in contact with the cell walls of microorganisms and, thus, toxic to them. This therapy is often used for peri-implantitis treatment and several studies have demonstrated a high bactericidal effect of this process being a valuable alternative to conventional mechanical procedures [8386]. To date the phenothiazine dyes (toluidine blue O and methylene blue) are the major photosensitizers that have been used clinically. Both are very effective photosensitizing agents for the inactivation of Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative periodontal pathogenic bacteria [87]. In this study, the Ti alloy implant samples were covered with a toluidine blue gel, then illuminated (Application FotoSan Lamp at 570nm), left to stand for 1min (100g/mL), then illuminated a second time (application of a soft laser 906nm), and finally rinsed with plenty of physiological saline.

Also, in the treatment of periodontitis, PDT alone showed similar improvements when compared to deep scaling and root planning [84]. The application of antimicrobial PDT can effectively reduce the prevalence of pathogens on implant surfaces without causing any deleterious defects on the implant bone surfaces [88,89]. However, studies on patients are limited and clinically significant effects of antimicrobial PDT have not yet been demonstrated.

Currently, the clinically used dyes do not differentiate between bacteria and host cells. Thus, activation of PDT by lasers also causes damage to the host cells since it does not specifically react only with pathogens.

In addition to the physicochemical methods, biochemistry is generating a lot of excitement. Today we struggle to produce biomaterials that interact with specific targets within the body or mimic tissue architecture. It is well known that biological systems have a highly developed ability to recognize special features of the surface on the molecular scale. We look to nature when we design biomimetic materials to understand how cells interact with other cells, extracellular proteins, and tissues. This knowledge is then utilized to develop biomimetic strategies for functional, interactive biomaterials. These strategies include biodegradable and smart materials used in targeted drug delivery systems and tissue engineering, as well as biochemical modifications of biomaterial surfaces for implant or wound-healing applications [90,91]. The aim of biochemical methods applied to implants is to immobilize biomolecules (i.e.,peptides,proteins, enzymes) on the surface to ensure specific cell and tissue responses (adhesion, signaling, stimulation) and to control the tissueimplant interface with molecules delivered directly there [9295].

For this extraction procedure, an ultrasonic cleaning bath and a double jacket cell are usually used. The cell is maintained at a constant temperature (usually 25C) by circulating water from a thermostat bath so that the rising temperature caused by ultrasonic exposure is avoided. The samples are filtered, washed with the solvent, evaporated to dryness using a rotary evaporator, and diluted appropriately to inject to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for further analysis. To obtain total curcuminoids, the optical density of the samples at 420nm was measured (after certain dilution) using a suitable spectrophotometer (Waghmare etal., 2015, p. 116).

Polysulfone, UdelSolvay Advance Polymers, www.solvayadvancedpolymers.com, is a thermoplastic resin with very high strength and has one of the highest service temperatures (171C) of any melt-processible thermoplastic.26 It is highly resistant to mineral acids, alkalis, salts, detergent solutions, oils, and alcohol. On the other hand, it is attacked by polar organic solvents such as ketones, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Polysulfone stress cracks easily and is considered notch-sensitive. It can be solvent cemented, conventionally adhesive bonded or ultrasonically welded. Air Studies have evaluated three surface-preparation techniques: (1) sandblast, (2) acid-etch, and (3) solvent-wash. The acid-etch procedure was found to give the best results. (See procedures for Polyaryl Sulfone in Section 7.2.16 for details.)

Another method using a grit-blast and ultrasonic cleaning, was used by General Electric. In this method, polysulfone parts were prepared for bonding to niobium with AF-42 epoxy-nylon film adhesive (3M Co). The procedure is as follows:26

Clean in an ultrasonic cleaner as follows:a.Immerse parts in Neutra-Clean 7 (a trademark of AMREP Inc., Marietta, Ga, www.amrep.com) (90 g/L)b.Rinse with tap waterc.Rinse with distilled waterd.Rinse with isopropyl alcohol for at least 30 se.Flash with dry nitrogenf.Dry with warm air at 66C maximum

used sand washing for sale. cyclone equipment & more | machinio

used sand washing for sale. cyclone equipment & more | machinio

Application Fine stone powder, river sand, arrgetates, artificial sand, balsalt artificial sand, diabase sand etc for washing, grading, cleaning in building materials, utilities and other industries. Description ...

Application Fine stone powder, river sand, arrgetates, artificial sand, balsalt artificial sand, diabase sand etc for washing, grading, cleaning in building materials, utilities and other industries. Description ...

Application Fine stone powder, river sand, arrgetates, artificial sand, balsalt artificial sand, diabase sand etc for washing, grading, cleaning in building materials, utilities and other industries. Description ...

Product Description Product Application DS sand washing machine is designed based on sand washer and sand recycling system and adopted foreign advanced technology. The machine has simple structure and multiple fu...

Product Description Product Application DS sand washing machine is designed based on sand washer and sand recycling system and adopted foreign advanced technology. The machine has simple structure and multiple fu...

Products Description Trommel Screen LZZG trommel screens are designed to minimize setup time and be easy and convenient to service. We havperfected the ability to size and customise trommel screens with different...

XSD2610 Mini sand washing machine is a kind of bucket sand washing machine that coordinates with sand making machines. It can wash out the small amount of the sand powder and impurities from the mixed sand to imp...

Product Description Product Application With the shortage and non-renewable of mining resources, LZZG blockbuster launched DS series new sand washing equipment. Working Principle Sand becomes the qualified produc...

Product Description XFS series integrated machine of sand washing & fine sand recovery combines the sand washing wheel bucket with fine sand efficient recovery system together. Haiwang wheel bucket sand washing m...

Product Description Product Application DS sand washing machine is designed based on sand washer and sand recycling system and adopted foreign advanced technology. The machine has simple structure and multiple fu...

1.This zircon sand washing plant is widely used for zircon sand recovery in Nigeria. 2.Most zircon sand miners get the 60%-65% zircon sand from this flow and make lots profit. 3.This flow is including: Feeding-gr...

Product Description XFS series integrated machine of sand washing & fine sand recovery combines the sand washing wheel bucket with fine sand efficient recovery system together. Haiwang wheel bucket sand washing m...

Product Description XFS series integrated machine of sand washing & fine sand recovery combines the sand washing wheel bucket with fine sand efficient recovery system together. Haiwang wheel bucket sand washing m...

5 most commonly used sand washing machines: their working principle and characteristics - eastman rock crusher

5 most commonly used sand washing machines: their working principle and characteristics - eastman rock crusher

The sand washing machine is a kind of sand washing equipment used for sand (artificial sand, natural sand), which can make the sand cleaner and higher quality. It is widely used in sand quarries, mines, building materials, transportation, chemicals, water conservancy Concrete mixing station, and other industries.

At present, there are various types of sand washing machines in the domestic market. The most common ones are spiral sand washing machine, wheel sand washing machine, drum sand washing machine, vibration sand washing machine, bucket sand washing machine, etc.

The spiral sand washing machine uses the buoyancy of water to classify feeding materials. It functioned with the principle that the specific gravity of solid particles is different, so the speed of sedimentation in the liquid is different.

The spiral sand washing machine needs to be arranged obliquely while using. The lower part of the sink is surrounded by a three-sided weir to form a sedimentation tank. The screw head is submerged in the sedimentation tank. The screw is driven by the motor through the reducer to continuously rotate, and the cleaning water is fed into the perforated plate at the bottom of the sedimentation tank.

The motor drives the impeller to rotate slowly after deceleration by the V-belt, reducer, and gear. The sand and gravel enter through the feeding trough, roll under the impeller, and grind each other to remove impurities covering the surface of the gravel and destroy the water vapor that covers the sand. Layer to facilitate dehydration.

At the same time, add water to form a strong water flow, timely takeaway impurities and foreign objects with small specific gravity, and discharge them from the overflow tank. The clean sand and gravel are taken away by the blades, and finally, the gravel is poured into the discharge chute from the rotating impeller to complete the cleaning effect of the gravel.

Because the transmission part of the wheel sand washing machine is isolated from water and sand, its failure rate is much lower than that of the sand washing equipment commonly used in the current market, which is a good choice to choose.

It is also called a roller stone washing machine. While working, the motor drives the reducer. The large and small gears drive the cleaning cylinder to rotate at a low speed. The aggregate containing mud and stone powder is fed from the feed port and enters the rotating drum.

It is constantly brought up and dropped. The cleaned aggregate is sieved and dewatered at the discharge end and then discharged, and the wastewater containing sludge flows out through the perforated baffle at the discharge or feed end.

Its working process can be summarized as raw material storage, transportation, cleaning, finished material transportation, sewage sedimentation, and reuse. The drum sand washing machine requires a large amount of water while the production volume is also large.

This machine is composed of upper eccentric block, circular vibration, motor and other structures. The motor is connected to the screen box to vibrate to work, and then automatically separate and clean. The vibrating sand washing machine is mainly used for the construction of high-standard projects such as highways, railways, bridges, tunnels, etc.

It is special equipment used to clean sand and gravel. It is suitable for the washing of fine-grained and coarse-grained materials, but it is relatively less used in the industry, its output is high, but the price is relatively high.

During the mixing process, the sand will be deposited in a larger proportion, and the soil and impurities with a small specific gravity will be taken away by the water flow as wastewater. The sand at the bottom of the water is picked up while the bucket is agitated, and the muddy water is cleaned through the water control hole, and transported out through the conveyor belt to form a hill pile, or into the next stage of sand cleaning machine.

In summary, among these 5 types of sand washing equipment, wheel sand washer and spiral sand washer are the most widely used, accounting for about 80%-85% of the market, and both have double-wheel and double-helical structures, which makes the output increased doubly.

front, top & twin load washing machines | kenmore

front, top & twin load washing machines | kenmore

Its efficient washing, steaming away stains and getting large loads clean fast. Its laundry on your terms with performance and reliability that can keep up with you. Thatsamazing. ThatsKenmore.

how to remove sand from the inside of a washing machine

how to remove sand from the inside of a washing machine

When you spend a lot of time at the beach one thing is inevitable. Youll end up with sand on your shorts. Unfortunately, that sand on your shorts and other beach items may also end up in your washing machine. So what is a beach lover to do? Clean it up of course! Heres how:

The easiest way to keep your washing machine sand free is to remove as much of it from your familys clothing and beach towels as possible. Id suggest leaving the dirty clothes and towels outside to dry. Once the items are dry, shake them vigorously to remove as much of the sand as you can before bringing them inside to be washed. If the sand has already found its way into your washer machine, youll have to start cleaning and vow to be more vigilant the next go round.

Start with a basic cleaning of your washing machine to remove surface dirt and funky odors. You can accomplish that task with your household cleaning solution of choice and a clean rag. Be sure to remove the dispensers and clean around the hinges too. I have found that old toothbrushes and cotton swabs work great for hard to reach areas. You might also want to run a cup or vinegar or some baking soda through the washing machines rinse cycle to help deodorize things a bit.

Next, turn your attention toward your washing machines supply and drain lines. Both the hot and cold supply lines should be equipped with sediment filter screens that are designed to keep sand and other debris from leaving your homes plumbing system and entering into the washing machine. You may want to go ahead and either clean or replace the screens depending on what you find. The drain line probably doesnt have a screen, but it can get clogged up with sand, frayed fabric and other gunk. Detailed instructions on how to replace the filters and clean the drain line should be in the service and installation manual that came with your washing machine. If you misplaced the manual, you should be able to download a copy from the manufacturers website.

Depending on how much sand we are talking about, removing it from the washing machine may be accomplished with a good quality vacuum cleaner and a soft bristle attachment brush. Simply turn the vacuum on and carefully run the bristle attachment inside the washing machines tub. Avoid scratching the inside of the washing machine with the attachment otherwise you could inadvertently cause rust problems later on down the road. If you do accidentally scratch it, Id suggest covering the scratch with touch-up paint.

If there is a small sand dune forming in the bottom of your washing machine, you may need to get more aggressive and remove the tub. Instructions for completing that task should also be in your washing machines service and installation manual. Once you have successfully removed the tub, youll be able to use your vacuums soft bristle attachment to remove the remaining sand and debris.

quality wheel sand washing machine & spiral sand washing machine factory from china

quality wheel sand washing machine & spiral sand washing machine factory from china

About MZZG company Introduction Luoyang Meizhuo Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd. takes the new, green and sustainable development as our service concept, focuses on the manufacture of environmentally, friendly mining machinery and equipment, formed a series ...

how to clean the gunk out of top-loading washing machine | fred's appliance

how to clean the gunk out of top-loading washing machine | fred's appliance

Have you noticed a filmy layer of mildew or gunk coating the inside of your top-loading washing machine? This is typically caused by stagnant water (soft or hard), detergent, and/or mildew stuck inside the unit. Some of the newer top-models are designed in a manner that discourages the formation of residue such as this, but older models may have cracks and crevasses that promote gunk buildup.

Turning a blind eye to your dirty washing machine isnt going to make it go away. On the contrary, it will allow the bacteria-ridden substance to transfer over to your clothes when you wash a load of laundry. So the next time you put on a supposedly clean t-shirt, you may notice a foul stench. This problem is easily prevented, however, by cleaning the gunk out of your washing machine.

There are several different ways to clean the inside of a top-loading washing machine, one of which involves chlorine bleach. Bleach is an all-around great cleaner that kills germs on contact, but its not the preferred choice for washing machines. Being that its highly toxic, common sense should tell you to keep it away from your clothes. A small cap full per load isnt going to hurt, but adding a cup or more can leave harsh chemicals on the clothes you and your family wear each day.

In addition to being toxic, bleach can degrade or even damage septic tank systems by killing the good germs that help with the natural decomposition process. With these good germs eliminated, the septic tank wont be able to break down its contents as efficiently.

rock crusher - eastman rock crusher

rock crusher - eastman rock crusher

Granite is not easy to crush to sand, main equipment has PE-7501060 jaw crusher (coarse crusher), HP300 cone crusher (fine crusher), bin, 490110 vibrating feeder, B1000x22 conveyor belt, B1000x30m conveyor belt, B800x31 conveyor belt, 4YK2460 vibrating screen, etc. contact us!

In this case, we recommend the use of a PCZ1308 heavy hammer crusher with a feed size of 930x650mm, the feed particle size is less than 600mm, the motor power is 4P 132Kw, and the processing capacity of the equipment is 100-180t/h.

Eastman is a typical direct selling enterprise with green and standardized production plants. All the delivery of the equipment will be completed within the delivery period signed by the contract to ensure the smooth commissioning of the equipment.

Rock crushers have a wide range of suitable material to choose from, whether its soft or hard, or even very hard, rock crushers can reduce those large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel, or even rock dust.Here are some typical materials that break or compress by industry crushers, such as Granite, quartz stone, river pebble, limestone, calcite, concrete, dolomite, iron ore, silicon ore, basalt and other mines, rocks and slag.

Understanding the stages of crushing process and the types of crushers that best fit each stage can simplifies your equipment selection. Each type of crusher is different and used to achieve a certain end result.

Similarly, a certain output is expected at the end of each crushing stage for the next phase of the process. Aggregate producers who pair the correct crusher to the correct stage will be the most efficient and, in turn, the most profitable.

A jaw crusher is a compression type of crusher. Material is reduced by squeezing the feed material between a moving piece of steel and a stationary piece. The discharge size is controlled by the setting or the space between those two pieces of steel. The tighter the setting, the smaller the output size and the lower the throughput capacity.

As a compression crusher, jaw crushers generally produce the coarsest material because they break the rock by the natural inherent lines of weakness. Jaw crushers are an excellent primary crusher when used to prepare rock for subsequent processing stages.

Although the chamber is round in shape, the moving piece of steel is not meant to rotate. Instead, a wedge is driven around to create compression on one side of the chamber and discharge opening on the opposite side. Cone crushers are used in secondary and tertiary roles as an alternative to impact crushers when shape is an important requirement, but the proportion of fines produced needs to be minimized.

An impact crusher uses mass and velocity to break down feed material. First, the feed material is reduced as it enters the crusher with the rotating blow bars or hammers in the rotor. The secondary breakage occurs as the material is accelerated into the stationary aprons or breaker plates.

Impact crushers tend to be used where shape is a critical requirement and the feed material is not very abrasive. The crushing action of an impact crusher breaks a rock along natural cleavage planes, giving rise to better product quality in terms of shape.

Most aggregate producers are well acquainted with the selection of crushing equipment and know it is possible to select a piece of equipment based solely on spec sheets and gradation calculations. Still, theoretical conclusions must always be weighed against practical experience regarding the material at hand and of the operational, maintenance and economical aspects of different solutions.

The duty of the primary crusher is, above all, to make it possible to transport material on a conveyor belt. In most aggregate crushing plants, primary crushing is carried out in a jaw crusher, although a gyratory primary crusher may be used. If material is easily crushed and not excessively abrasive, an impact breaker could also be the best choice.

The most important characteristics of a primary crusher are the capacity and the ability to accept raw material without blockages. A large primary crusher is more expensive to purchase than a smaller machine. For this reason, investment cost calculations for primary crushers are weighed against the costs of blasting raw material to a smaller size.

A pit-portable primary crusher can be an economically sound solution in cases where the producer is crushing at the quarry face. In modern plants, it is often advantageous to use a moveable primary crusher so it can follow the movement of the face where raw material is extracted.

The purpose of intermediate crushing is to produce various coarser fractions or to prepare material for final crushing. If the intermediate crusher is used to make railway ballast, product quality is important.

In other cases, there are normally no quality requirements, although the product must be suitable for fine crushing. In most cases, the objective is to obtain the greatest possible reduction at the lowest possible cost.

In most cases, the fine crushing and cubicization functions are combined in a single crushing stage. The selection of a crusher for tertiary crushing calls for both practical experience and theoretical know-how. This is where producers should be sure to call in an experienced applications specialist to make sure a system is properly engineered.

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