3 simple ways to dry sand - wikihow

3 simple ways to dry sand - wikihow

This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. wikiHow's Content Management Team carefully monitors the work from our editorial staff to ensure that each article is backed by trusted research and meets our high quality standards. There are 13 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 29,714 times. Learn more...

Wet sand, whether for a sandbox or your pet's terrarium, can be a pain. For one thing, it can breed germs that put your loved ones at risk. Drying out sand typically requires a heat source and time. You can use the sun, your oven, or if you're using sand for industrial purposes, a cement mixer and a torch. Either of the first 2 methods will also work for drying out sand you bring home from the beach and want to use for crafting purposes.

the different types of sand for sandtray therapy

the different types of sand for sandtray therapy

This is the premo- number one sand of all the sands. Its antimicrobial and is winner of the No Allergy No Asthma Sands. Its made by an actual geologist who specializes in creating awesome sands for those of us who use this powerful method in our work.Hes a great guy and extremely passionate about his work (which I really appreciate).

The people at Jurassic sand are quick to fill orders. I recently ordered a couple of different sands for my office and had them at my house within about 4 or 5 days. The packaging leaves a bit to be desired, but if you are like me, this doesnt really matter. I just want the sand.

Jurassic sand has broaden into different types of sand from its original red color. Im so excited that they did this because honestly I wasnt too jazzed about the red color. Jurassic sand is a bit more pricey than just regular sand you can pick up at your local hardware store. But, if you are going to be doing work for any amount of time in the sandtray, its worth it.

Its made from recycled glass and oh so pretty. It sparkles! My kids often ask if its made of real jewels. Its one of their pricier sands but I HAD to have it after seeing it at APT in Houston. One of the downsides though is that it does hold shape very easily, making some miniatures difficult to stand up in the sand.

My favorite is the white sand. It sparkles and feels like beach sand from the gulf of Florida. My clients of all ages love this sand. My anxious little ones will just move their hands through it over and over.

Santastik is 100% natural and environmentally friendly. The only complaint Ive heard from other therapists is that it can be a bit dusty at times if the child moves it around in the air (like pouring). Personally, I havent had any issues with this thus far but just wanted to put that out there.

Unless youve been living under a rock in the sandtray world, youve heard about this new type of sand. You can get it at pretty much anywhere they sell toys, although Ive heard reports of many stores being sold out.

Kinetic sand has polymers wrapped around the sand itself, allowing for maximummalleability. It feels like wet beach sand but doesnt stick to your hands. My kids LOVE it. The adults I work with wont touch the stuff. I dunno. It is what it is. However, I recommend it if you work with kids at all.

I bought 4 of the little packages ($22.00 a piece) which filled up a tray, bringing me to a total of $90 per tray. It may seem like it is more expensive than the Santastik sand but you dont need as much as I bought to use with your kids. One or two boxes will do just fine.

I have this sand in my large 4-foot round tray in my play room. I have it for pure economic reasons. Do you know how much sand it takes to fill a 4-foot tray? A LOT. So, thats why I went with the plain-ol sand from my local hardware store. It works just fine honestly. My kids love it- its familiar and they love to dig and build things with it.

Word of caution: if you use this for a wet tray, be sure and let it dry out for several trays or it will mold and that stuff is NASTY when its all moldy (but besides penicillin, Im not sure what IS awesome when its moldy.)

You can buy enough sand to fill 3 trays with one $5.00 bag (50 lbs). If you are going to judge on quantity, this is your best bet. My recommendation is to change this sand every few months if not more just to decrease germs and overall nastiness, especially if you have little hands in it all the time.

sandtray specs: the what, why, and how of your tray | sandtray therapy training | southern sandtray institute

sandtray specs: the what, why, and how of your tray | sandtray therapy training | southern sandtray institute

Answer: In short, whatever you would like. However, Im here to tell you that some sizes just plain work better than others in general. *Sidenote: Im a sandtray therapist (not sandplay) so I have much more leeway with the size of my tray*

For most trays, I like for my trays to be 3.5 inches deep by 20 inches wide. My general, go-to trays look like this (Ive included a Diet Coke can for reference if youre anything like me, measurements and directions leave me dumbfounded, I need REFERENCES people).

Since I dont allow the use of actual water in my trays (because it gets the sand nasty and takes forever to dry), kids will just use the bottom and the sides to make the bodies of water they requested.

Its always helpful for us as sandtray therapists to be able to see all parts of the tray in as much detail as possible. You never know when the client has put something in just the right place that you would miss it if you werent able to see it from all angles.

I use a Lazy-Susan underneath my sand tray. I bought a decent one at Bed, Bath and Beyond and its held up amazingly well over the years. Ive never been afraid of the tray falling off and the Lazy-Susan stays in place unless I move it myself.

Little ones are drawn more to the round tray because they live in their right brains much more than we do as adults. Right brains like circular items or non-standard, linear items. We left-brained adults in the Western world seem to love right angles and boxes.

the sand tray | via montessori - for todays casa dei bambini

the sand tray | via montessori - for todays casa dei bambini

Choose two or three letters that the child is already completely familiar withperhaps some from his name. Using one letter at a time, place the letter in front of the child, trace it and sound it out. Now, turn the letter over and trace it in the sand. Turn the sandpaper letter card over once again and use it for control of error.

When a teacher has a child see and touch the letters of the alphabet, three sensations come into play simultaneously: sight, touch and kinaesthetic (muscular) sensation. This is why the image of the graphic symbol is fixed in the mind much more quickly than when it is acquired through sight in the ordinary methods. Maria Montessori in The Discovery of the Child

Here I have used a baking tray; any other plain tray can be used. Semolina can replace the commonly used sand, or why not use coloured/fluorescent fine sand! This little trick might invite the child to use the tray more frequently.

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solids drying: basics and applications - chemical engineering | page 1

solids drying: basics and applications - chemical engineering | page 1

Adjustment and control of moisture levels in solid materials through drying is a critical process in the manufacture of many types of chemical products. As a unit operation, drying solid materials is one of the most common and important in the chemical process industries (CPI), since it is used in practically every plant and facility that manufactures or handles solid materials, in the form of powders and granules.

The effectiveness of drying processes can have a large impact on product quality and process efficiency in the CPI. For example, in the pharmaceutical industry, where drying normally occurs as a batch process, drying is a key manufacturing step. The drying process can impact subsequent manufacturing steps, including tableting or encapsulation and can influence critical quality attributes of the final dosage form.

Apart from the obvious requirement of drying solids for a subsequent operation, drying may also be carried out to improve handling characteristics, as in bulk powder filling and other operations involving powder flow; and to stabilize moisture-sensitive materials, such as pharmaceuticals.

Drying may be defined as the vaporization and removal of water or other liquids from a solution, suspension, or other solid-liquid mixture to form a dry solid. It is a complicated process that involves simultaneous heat and mass transfer, accompanied by physicochemical transformations. Drying occurs as a result of the vaporization of liquid by supplying heat to wet feedstock, granules, filter cakes and so on. Based on the mechanism of heat transfer that is employed, drying is categorized into direct (convection), indirect or contact (conduction), radiant (radiation) and dielectric or microwave (radio frequency) drying.

Heat transfer and mass transfer are critical aspects in drying processes. Heat is transferred to the product to evaporate liquid, and mass is transferred as a vapor into the surrounding gas. The drying rate is determined by the set of factors that affect heat and mass transfer. Solids drying is generally understood to follow two distinct drying zones, known as the constant-rate period and the falling-rate period. The two zones are demarcated by a break point called the critical moisture content.

In a typical graph of moisture content versus drying rate and moisture content versus time (Figure 1), section AB represents the constant-rate period. In that zone, moisture is considered to be evaporating from a saturated surface at a rate governed by diffusion from the surface through the stationary air film that is in contact with it. This period depends on the air temperature, humidity and speed of moisture to the surface, which in turn determine the temperature of the saturated surface. During the constant rate period, liquid must be transported to the surface at a rate sufficient to maintain saturation.

At the end of the constant rate period, (point B, Figure 1), a break in the drying curve occurs. This point is called the critical moisture content, and a linear fall in the drying rate occurs with further drying. This section, segment BC, is called the first falling-rate period. As drying proceeds, moisture reaches the surface at a decreasing rate and the mechanism that controls its transfer will influence the rate of drying. Since the surface is no longer saturated, it will tend to rise above the wet bulb temperature. This section, represented by segment CD in Figure 1 is called the second falling-rate period, and is controlled by vapor diffusion. Movement of liquid may occur by diffusion under the concentration gradient created by the depletion of water at the surface. The gradient can be caused by evaporation, or as a result of capillary forces, or through a cycle of vaporization and condensation, or by osmotic effects.

The capacity of the air (gas) stream to absorb and carry away moisture determines the drying rate and establishes the duration of the drying cycle. The two elements essential to this process are inlet air temperature and air flowrate. The higher the temperature of the drying air, the greater its vapor holding capacity. Since the temperature of the wet granules in a hot gas depends on the rate of evaporation, the key to analyzing the drying process is psychrometry, defined as the study of the relationships between the material and energy balances of water vapor and air mixture.

There are a number of approaches to determine the end of the drying process. The most common one is to construct a drying curve by taking samples during different stages of drying cycle against the drying time and establish a drying curve. When the drying is complete, the product temperature will start to increase, indicating the completion of drying at a specific, desired product-moisture content. Karl Fischer titration and loss on drying (LOD) moisture analyzers are also routinely used in batch processes. The water vapor sorption isotherms are measured using a gravimetric moisture-sorption apparatus with vacuum-drying capability.

For measuring moisture content in grain, wood, food, textiles, pulp, paper, chemicals, mortar, soil, coffee, jute, tobacco, rice and concrete, electrical-resistance-type meters are used. This type of instrument operates on the principle of electrical resistance, which varies minutely in accordance with the moisture content of the item measured. Dielectric moisture meters are also used. They rely on surface contact with a flat plate electrode that does not penetrate the product.

For measuring moisture content in paper rolls or stacks of paper, advanced methods include the use of the radio frequency (RF) capacitance method. This type of instrument measures the loss, or change, in RF dielectric constant, which is affected by the presence or absence of moisture.

Adiabatic dryers are the type where the solids are dried by direct contact with gases, usually forced air. With these dryers, moisture is on the surface of the solid. Non-adiabatic dryers involve situations where a dryer does not use heated air or other gases to provide the energy required for the drying process

Non-adiabatic dryers (contact dryers) involve an indirect method of removal of a liquid phase from the solid material through the application of heat, such that the heat-transfer medium is separated from the product to be dried by a metal wall. Heat transfer to the product is predominantly by conduction through the metal wall and the impeller. Therefore, these units are also called conductive dryers.

Although more than 85% of the industrial dryers are of the convective type, contact dryers offer higher thermal efficiency and have economic and environmental advantages over convective dryers. Table 1 compares direct and indirect dryers, while Table 2 shows the classification of dryers based on various criteria.

Tray dryers. This dryer type operates by passing hot air over the surface of a wet solid that is spread over trays arranged in racks. Tray dryers are the simplest and least-expensive dryer type. This type is most widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The chief advantage of tray dryers, apart from their low initial cost, is their versatility. With the exception of dusty solids, materials of almost any other physical form may be dried. Drying times are typically long (usually 12 to 48 h).

Vacuum dryers. Vacuum dryers offer low-temperature drying of thermolabile materials or the recovery of solvents from a bed. Heat is usually supplied by passing steam or hot water through hollow shelves. Drying temperatures can be carefully controlled and, for the major part of the drying cycle, the solid material remains at the boiling point of the wetting substance. Drying times are typically long (usually 12 to 48 h).

Fluidized-bed dryers. A gas-fluidized bed may have the appearance of a boiling liquid. It has bubbles, which rise and appear to burst. The bubbles result in vigorous mixing. A preheated stream of air enters from the bottom of the product container holding the product to be dried and fluidizes it. The resultant mixture of solids and gas behave like a liquid, and thus the solids are said to be fluidized. The solid particles are continually caught up in eddies and fall back in a random boiling motion so that each fluidized particle is surrounded by the gas stream for efficient drying, granulation or coating purposes. In the process of fluidization, intense mixing occurs between the solids and air, resulting in uniform conditions of temperature, composition and particle size distribution throughout the bed.

Freeze dryers. Freeze-drying is an extreme form of vacuum drying in which the water or other solvent is frozen and drying takes place by subliming the solid phase. Freeze-drying is extensively used in two situations: (1) when high rates of decomposition occur during normal drying; and (2) with substances that can be dried at higher temperatures, and that are thereby changed in some way.

Microwave vacuum dryers. High-frequency radio waves with frequencies from 300 to 30,000 MHz are utilized in microwave drying (2,450 MHz is used in batch microwave processes). Combined microwave-convective drying has been used for a range of applications at both laboratory and industrial scales. The bulk heating effect of microwave radiation causes the solvent to vaporize in the pores of the material. Mass transfer is predominantly due to a pressure gradient established within the sample. The temperature of the solvent component is elevated above the air temperature by the microwave heat input, but at a low level, such that convective and evaporative cooling effects keep the equilibrium temperature below saturation. Such a drying regime is of particular interest for drying temperature-sensitive materials. Microwave-convective processing typically facilitates a 50% reduction in drying time, compared to vacuum drying.

Continuous dryers are mainly used in chemical and food industries, due to the large volume of product that needs to be processed. Most common are continuous fluid-bed dryers and spray dryers. There are other dryers, depending on the product, that can be used in certain industries for example, rotary dryers, drum dryers, kiln dryers, flash dryers, tunnel dryers and so on. Spray dryers are the most widely used in chemical, dairy, agrochemical, ceramic and pharmaceutical industries.

Spray dryer. The spray-drying process can be divided into four sections: atomization of the fluid, mixing of the droplets, drying, and, removal and collection of the dry particles (Figure 2). Atomization may be achieved by means of single-fluid or two-fluid nozzles, or by spinning-disk atomizers. The flow of the drying gas may be concurrent or countercurrent with respect to the movement of droplets. Good mixing of droplets and gas occurs, and the heat- and mass-transfer rates are high. In conjunction with the large interfacial area conferred by atomization, these factors give rise to very high evaporation rates. The residence time of a droplet in the dryer is only a few seconds (530 s). Since the material is at wet-bulb temperature for much of this time, high gas temperatures of 1,508 to 2,008C may be used, even with thermolabile materials. For these reasons, it is possible to dry complex vegetable extracts, such as coffee or digitalis, milk products, and other labile materials without significant loss of potency or flavor. The capital and running costs of spray dryers are high, but if the scale is sufficiently large, they may provide the cheapest method.

With increasing concern about environmental degradation, it is desirable to decrease energy consumption in all sectors. Drying has been reported to account for anywhere from 12 to 20% of the energy consumption in the industrial sector. Drying processes are one of the most energy-intensive unit operations in the CPI.

One measure of efficiency is the ratio of the minimum quantity of heat that will remove the required water to the energy actually provided for the process. Sensible heat can also be added to the minimum, as this added heat in the material often cannot be economically recovered. Other newer technologies have been developed, such as sonic drying, superheated steam, heat-pump-assisted drying and others.

Drying is an essential unit operation used in various process industries. The mechanism of drying is well understood as a two-stage process and depends on the drying medium and the moisture content of the product being dried.

Batch dryers are common in chemical and pharmaceutical industries, while continuous dryers are routinely used where large production is required. Since the cost of drying is a significant portion of the cost of manufacturing a product, improving efficiency or finding alternative drying routes is essential.

1. Sverine, Thrse, Mortier, F.C., De Beer, Thomas, Gernaey, Krist V., Vercruysse, Jurgen, et al. Mechanistic modelling of the drying behavior of single pharmaceutical granules, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 80, pp. 682689, 2012.

6. Raghavan, G.S.V., Rennie, T.J., Sunjka, P.S., Orsat, V., Phaphuangwittayakul, W. and Terdtoon, P., Overview of new techniques for drying biological materials, with emphasis on energy aspects, Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 22(2), pp. 195201, 2005.

Dilip M. Parikh is president of the pharmaceutical technology development and consulting group DPharma Group Inc. (Ellicott City, MD 21042; Email: [email protected]). As an industrial pharmacist, Parikh has more than 35 years of experience in product development, manufacturing, plant operations and process engineering at various major pharmaceutical companies in Canada and the U.S. Prior to staring DPharma Group, he held the position of vice president of operations and technology at Synthon Pharmaceuticals in North Carolina and vice president and general manager at Atlantic Pharmaceuticals Services in Maryland. He is the editor of Handbook of Pharmaceutical Granulation 3rd ed. He has authored several book chapters and articles on various pharmaceutical technologies, including quality by design, process assessment and contract manufacturing. He has been an invited speaker at scientific conferences worldwide on solid-dosage technologies development and manufacturing.

This publication contains text, graphics, images, and other content (collectively "Content"), which are for informational purposes only. Certain articles contain the author's personal recommendations only. RELIANCE ON ANY INFORMATION SUPPLIED IN THIS PUBLICATION IS SOLELY AT YOUR OWN RISK. 2021, Access Intelligence, LLC. All rights reserved. | Privacy Policy | Diversity Inclusion & Equity



Shelves for miniatures are 29" tall, 21" wide and 4.25" deep, including 5 shelves. They come with attached wire hangers. They are often used in sets of 2 or more, in different configurations* to maximize use of space and miniature visibility. They are much superior to larger, deep book shelves.

Snail Mail to: PO Box 131 Tom, NM 87060 Physical Address: 2938 Highway 47 Los Lunas, NM 87031 Orders and Customer Service: 505-866-0582 Office: 505-620-0976 (George's cell) E-mail

Physical Address: 2938 Highway 47 Los Lunas, NM 87031 Orders and Customer Service: 505-866-0582 Office: 505-620-0976 (George's cell) E-mail

The SCHOOL COUNSELOR SPECIAL, at a discounted price of $360 is still offered. The most popular items are now carried in inventory for quicker shipping. All credit cards accepted on the Ordering page

how to refurbish and re-stain a wooden tray

how to refurbish and re-stain a wooden tray

Wooden trays are versatile items to have around the home. You can use them to decorate tables or organize items in the bathroom, bedroom, or kitchen. If you've picked up a used wooden tray at a thrift store or yard sale (or already have one on hand), refurbish it to give it a fresh new look.

Before you begin prepping and staining your wood tray, set up a workspace in a well-ventilated area. Since the liquid sandpaper/deglosser, pre-stain conditioner, and stain can emit fumes, make sure you work in an area with proper airflow, such as a patio or porch area. To protect your work area, lay down newspapers or a drop cloth; to protect your skin, wear gloves.

After you clean the tray, gently sand the surface with high grit sandpaper.You can use liquid sandpaper/deglosser to help remove any gloss or shine from the wood finish. A combination of sandpaper and the liquid sandpaper/deglosser preps the surface more evenly than just sandpaper.

After you remove all of the excess stains, and you are happy with the color, let the stain completely dry. This can take up to eight hours or more, depending on the humidity. Always follow the directions on the stain label to be sure.

sun-drying fruit at home - real food - mother earth news

sun-drying fruit at home - real food - mother earth news

It's possible to dehydrate vegetables, fruits, meats, herbs and even prepared meals. Drying is simple, safe and it offers delicious and lightweight options for campers, food gardeners or anyone with a surplus of fresh food. Teresa Marrone will help you get started with dehydrating in The Beginners Guide to Making and Using Dried Fruits (Storey Publishing, 2014). This excerpt, from Chapter 3, Equipment, provides tips and information that will help you get started with sun-drying fruit around your house.

Sun-dried fruits are delicious; indeed, most raisins you buy in the store have been sun-dried, and commercial producers also sun-dry apricots, peaches, and other fruits. If you are blessed with clean air, low humidity, and an abundance of hot, sunny days, sun-drying is the least expensive method of dehydrating fruits and leathers. The advantages to sun-drying are obvious. The energy of the sun is absolutely free, requiring no outlay for electricity. There is no investment in equipment and just a handful of other expenses, since all the necessary materials can be assembled at home. Unlike other drying methods, there is no capacity limit in sun-drying. The only limit to the amount of food that can be dried at one time is the number of trays available and space to set them.

For reliable sun-drying at home, daytime temperatures must be 90 degrees F or above and the relative humidity must below 60 percent the lower, the better. If the temperature is too low, the humidity too high, or both, spoilage will occur before the foods are adequately dry. The Southwest region of the United States has an ideal summer climate for sun-drying, but other regions are not so fortunate; for example, sun-drying should not be attempted in the humid Southeast. Summer conditions in the Northwest, Midwest, and Northeast are better but may still be marginal. Even if your location is marginal, however, you can use the sun when conditions are good, then fall back on a dehydrator or the oven to finish off a batch on those days when a sudden rainstorm or a low cloud ceiling hampers your sun-drying operation.

Although sun-drying vegetables, meats, and fish is a technique that was used for centuries, modern food science tells us that sun-drying at home should be used only for fruits, which are high in natural acids and sugar. (The exception to this is hot chile peppers, which can simply be strung together and hung in the sun.) Instructions are not given in my book, The Beginners Guide to Making and Using Dried Foods, for sun-drying vegetables, meats, or fish; should you choose to do so, the basic techniques are the same as those used for fruits. Remember that tomatoes are a fruit not a vegetable so they are safe for sun-drying.

To dry fruit in the sun, youll need drying trays and something to cover the fruit to protect it from insects and dirt. Baking sheets or homemade wooden trays may be used as drying trays, but drying is much more efficient if air can circulate freely around the fruit. Wooden frames covered with screens or other mesh-type material are a better choice. Many people use window frames that are being removed during remodeling projects; these can be cleaned up and fitted with new screens to use as your drying trays. If the windows date to 1978 or earlier, however, they may be painted with lead-based paint and should not be used unless you can confirm that the paint is lead-free. You can also make simple wooden frames, sealing the wood with food-grade mineral oil for durability.

The weight of the fresh food will cause large screens to sag, so keep openings fairly small a foot square, or slightly larger when building frames. For larger openings in existing frames, screw wooden strips into the frames at 2- to 4-inch intervals, or add a network of criss-crossed twine to the frame for additional support, stretching it tightly and stapling it to the frame before adding the screen.

Choosing material for the screens is the most challenging part of building the drying frames. Polypropylene screening sold for use in manufactured dehydrators is the ideal choice, but youll probably have to mail-order it; search online for dehydrator screens and look for polypropylene that is sold in rolls or rectangular pieces. Material used for replacement window screens is available at any big-box home center and most hardware stores, but not all of it is safe to use for food. Never use aluminum or galvanized screening or hardware cloth; these metals react with acids in fruits and will contaminate your dehydrated products. Nylon, plastic, and stainless steel screens are often available, but it can be hard to determine if theyre food-safe. The National Center for Home Food Preservation at the University of Georgia reports that Teflon-coated fiberglass window screen is safe for use in sun-drying racks; if the Teflon coating gets damaged, however, the fiberglass may shed minute particles, so keep an eye on it. As a final option, you can use a double layer of fine-mesh nylon fabric netting. This inexpensive material is sold by the yard at fabric stores (it is used for crafts, particularly for making scrubbies for dishwashing and showering). Nylon netting needs more support than other materials and is a bit more difficult to wash if it is permanently attached to the frames (however, if its simply lying on another screen thats used for support, the netting can be removed and washed in the washing machine).

Stretch your screening material tightly over the frames and staple it in place; if using nylon netting, roll-fold the edges so youre stapling through a heavier layer. Youll have to wash the screens with a hose and soft brush after each use, and if youre not careful you can easily pull out the staples or rip the material. For additional security, nail strips of wooden molding over the edges of the screens.

After pretreating, spread the fruit in a single layer over the drying trays and place them in a well-ventilated spot in full sun. The trays need to be raised off the ground for ventilation and cleanliness; its also easier to tend to the trays when theyre not down on the ground. Cement blocks work well as supports; so do benches, sawhorses, or stacked bricks. If you have large sheets of aluminum or tin, lay them on the ground under the raised trays; the sunlight will reflect off the metal and radiate back up to the trays. A concrete surface also provides some radiant heat.

The trays must be covered with a layer of material that lets light and moisture pass through but keeps out insects, twigs, dust, and other unwanted materials. The easiest option is to set another screen-covered tray of the same dimension on top of the one that is holding the fruit; set the top tray upside-down to prevent its screen from touching the fruit. If there are gaps between the frames of the two trays, weight the corners with bricks to keep them pressed together tightly.

Another covering option is to drape open-weave fabric over the entire tray, propping the fabric up so it isnt resting directly on the fruit and wrapping it around the edges so insects cant sneak through gaps in the side. Cheesecloth is often recommended for this use, but it can be difficult to work with because it gets caught on rough surfaces, unravels and leaves threads on the fruit, and wads up into a hopeless ball when laundered. Fine-mesh nylon netting discussed above is a better choice; its cheap, doesnt fray, and doesnt tangle up during washing. If the netting seems too open and insects are able to get through, use a double layer.

Stir or turn the pieces of fruit several times a day to expose all surfaces to the sun. Take the trays inside at night to prevent the fruit from absorbing moisture from dew and to discourage nocturnal critters.

All drying times given for sun-drying specific fruits are rough estimates, since the time required will vary depending on the temperature, the amount of sunshine, the humidity in the air, the amount of air movement, and the amount of moisture in the food. Any time out of the sun, of course, is down time and is not included in the drying-time estimates. Sun-dried fruit should always be pasteurized to kill any minute insect eggs that may have been deposited on the fruit while it was outside. Also be sure to wash your drying screens and any fabric you used to cover them.

You may want to try sun-drying a test batch of fruit to see how it works in your area. For a quick and easy setup, use a cake-cooling rack set over a rimmed baking sheet rather than worrying about building a large screen. Place your prepared fruit on the rack, using a screen, cheesecloth, or nylon netting if necessary to keep it from falling through. Wrap cheesecloth or nylon netting over the setup to keep out insects, propping it up with jars, cans, or blocks of wood to prevent it from touching the fruit.

You may be able to buy a used dehydrator that no longer works at a yard sale or online auction site and then use the trays for sun-drying. After adding the fruit, cover the trays with screening material as described above.

If youre using cheesecloth to cover your drying trays, buy it at a fabric store. The material will be wider than the kind sold in small packages at the supermarket, and it will also cost a lot less per yard.

To intensify the suns heat, prop a pane of glass above the drying tray, allowing enough room for adequate ventilation. Take precautions to prevent the glass from getting bumped or knocked off, and remember that the edges may be quite sharp. For even more efficiency, combine the pane setup with the aluminum reflectors mentioned above.

If you have a greenhouse, solarium, or sun space that isnt currently filled with plants, you can set up drying trays inside it. The food will be protected from critters, and the clear roof allows plenty of sunlight in. As with all sun drying, if the weather turns cloudy or rainy, you may have to finish drying in a dehydrator or your oven. Some people also put small amounts of food on trays, or even baking sheets, and then place them in the back window of an automobile that wont be moved for a few days.

Reprinted with permission from The Beginners Guide to Making and Using Dried Foods by Teresa Marrone and published by Storey Publishing, 2014. Buy this book from our store: The Beginners Guide to Making and Using Dried Foods.

At MOTHER EARTH NEWSfor 50 years and counting, we are dedicated to conserving our planet's natural resources while helping you conserve your financial resources. You'll find tips for slashing heating bills, growing fresh, natural produce at home, and more. That's why we want you to save money and trees by subscribing through our earth-friendly automatic renewal savings plan. By paying with a credit card, you save an additional $5 and get 6 issues of MOTHER EARTH NEWS for only $12.95 (USA only).

full-sized plastic sand tray with lid sand tray therapy

full-sized plastic sand tray with lid sand tray therapy

Our largest plastic sand tray!By popular demand, a full sized plastic sand tray with a lid for sandplay therapy. Made in England, thissand tray is translucent blue with a clear lid. Handles on the tray lock the lid securely in place. The blue color of the tray can represent water or the sky.

This tray stacks nicely if you need more than one; trays also stack without the lid as well! Stackable trays are a practical way to offer more than one type of sandfor your clients. What an easy way to allow your clients access to traditional sand, moldable sand, and wet sand.Waterproof, shatterproof, durable, and easy to disinfect. Tray is made from safe plastic and REACH compliant.

set of dry sand trays for classroom provisions | early excellence

set of dry sand trays for classroom provisions | early excellence

Develop young childrens skills, language and creativity with this attractive and robust Set of Dry Sand Trays. Perfect for everyday use, this versatile, open-ended learning resource will ensure childrens ideas flourish and grow....

Watch young childrens ideas flourish and grow with this attractive and robust Set of Dry Sand Trays. As children work with different resources, create their own displays and handle items with care, they will learn to develop their.

Perfect for everyday use, this set include three different sized wooden trays. As a versatile, open-ended learning resource this tray has many opportunities for use as a play tray for children to use during sand or water exploration, sensory or messy play. Pair alongside our range of wonderful resources including sand, water and small world resources giving endless possibilities for play.

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