the world is running out of sand
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science

 | smithsonian magazine

the world is running out of sand | science | smithsonian magazine

When people picture sand spread across idyllic beaches and endless deserts, they understandably think of it as an infinite resource. But as we discuss in ajust-published perspectivein the journal Science, over-exploitation of global supplies of sand is damaging the environment, endangering communities, causing shortages and promoting violent conflict.

Skyrocketing demand, combined with unfettered mining to meet it, is creating the perfect recipe for shortages. Plentiful evidence strongly suggests that sand is becoming increasingly scarce in many regions. For example, in Vietnam domestic demand for sand exceeds the countrys total reserves. If this mismatch continues, the country may run out of construction sand by 2020, according torecent statements from the countrys Ministry of Construction.

This problem is rarely mentioned in scientific discussions and has not been systemically studied. Media attention drew us to this issue. While scientists are making a great effort to quantify how infrastructure systems such as roads and buildings affect the habitats that surround them, the impacts of extracting construction minerals such as sand and gravel to build those structures have been overlooked. Two years ago we created a working group designed to provide an integrated perspective on global sand use.

In our view, it is essential to understand what happens at the places where sand is mined, where it is used and many impacted points in between in order to craft workable policies. We are analyzing those questions through asystems integration approachthat allows us to better understand socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances and time. Based on what we have already learned, we believe it is time to develop international conventions to regulate sand mining, use and trade.

Sand and gravel are now the most-extracted materials in the world, exceeding fossil fuels and biomass (measured by weight). Sand is a key ingredient forconcrete, roads,glassandelectronics. Massive amounts of sand are mined forland reclamation projects,shale gas extractionandbeach renourishment programs. Recent floods in Houston, India, Nepal and Bangladesh will add to growing global demand for sand.

In 2010, nations mined about 11 billion tonnes of sandjust for construction. Extraction rates were highest in the Asia-Pacific region, followed by Europe and North America. In the United States alone, production and use of construction sand and gravel was valued at $8.9 billion in 2016, and production hasincreased by 24 percentin the past five years.

Moreover, we have found that these numbers grossly underestimate global sand extraction and use. According to government agencies, uneven record-keeping in many countriesmay hide real extraction rates. Official statistics widely underreport sand use and typically do not include nonconstruction purposes such as hydraulic fracturing and beach nourishment.

Sand traditionally has been a local product. However, regional shortages and sand mining bans in some countries are turning it into a globalized commodity. Its international trade value has skyrocketed, increasingalmost sixfold in the last 25 years.

Profits from sand mining frequently spur profiteering. In response to rampant violence stemming from competition for sand, the government of Hong Kong established a state monopoly over sand mining and trade in the early 1900sthat lasted until 1981.

Today organized crime groups in India, Italy and elsewhere conductillegal trade in soil and sand. Singapores high-volume sand imports have drawn it into disputes withIndonesia,MalaysiaandCambodia.

The negative consequences of overexploiting sand are felt in poorer regions where sand is mined. Extensive sand extraction physically alters rivers and coastal ecosystems, increases suspended sediments and causes erosion.

Research shows that sand mining operations are affecting numerous animal species, includingfish,dolphins,crustaceansandcrocodiles. For example, the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) a critically endangered crocodile found in Asian river systems is increasingly threatened by sand mining, which destroys or erodes sand banks where the animals bask.

Sand mining also has serious impacts on peoples livelihoods. Beaches and wetlands buffer coastal communities against surging seas. Increased erosion resulting from extensive mining makes these communities more vulnerable to floods and storm surges.

A recent report by the Water Integrity Network found that sand miningexacerbated the impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Sri Lanka. In the Mekong Delta, sand mining is reducing sediment supplies as drastically as dam construction,threatening the sustainability of the delta. It also is probably enhancing saltwater intrusion during the dry season, which threatens local communities water and food security.

Potential health impacts from sand mining are poorly characterized but deserve further study. Extraction activities create new standing pools of water that can becomebreeding sites for malaria-carrying mosquitoes. The pools may also play an important role in the spread of emerging diseases such asBuruli ulcerin West Africa, a bacterial skin infection.

Media coverage of this issue is growing, thanks to work by organizations such as theUnited Nations Environment Programme, but the scale of the problem is not widely appreciated. Despite huge demand, sand sustainability is rarely addressed in scientific research and policy forums.

The complexity of this problem is doubtlessly a factor. Sand is a common-pool resource open to all, easy to get and hard to regulate. As a result, we know little about the true global costs of sand mining and consumption.

Demand will increase further as urban areas continue to expand and sea levels rise. Major international agreements such as the2030 Agenda for Sustainable Developmentand theConvention on Biological Diversitypromote responsible allocation of natural resources, but there are no international conventions to regulate sand extraction, use and trade.

As long as national regulations are lightly enforced, harmful effects will continue to occur. We believe that the international community needs to develop a global strategy for sand governance, along with global and regional sand budgets. It is time to treat sand like a resource, on a par with clean air, biodiversity and other natural endowments that nations seek to manage for the future.

sand | new braunfels landscape supply | ready to deliver

sand | new braunfels landscape supply | ready to deliver

Our sand comes in a variety of different sizes, coarseness, composition and vary depending on their purpose. The same sand that is used to make concrete is a different specification from the sand used to top-dress a putting green. Both sands require different specifications to carry out its designed task, thats why its important you have the correct sand for your project. Each type of sand is washed and prepared to meet industry standards for its function. At New Braunfels Landscape Supply, we have top quality sand for all your needs.

Mason sand is a fine graded sand that can be used as a fill material, beach sand, sandbox material and leveling agent. We proudly offer mason sand that is clean washed and free of any debris or contaminants. Our products meet the highest quality standards to help provide you with the right sand for your next project.

A manufactured coarse sand. Typically used as a bedding material, i.e. water tanks, under pavers, or utility lines. Our products meet the highest quality standards to help provide you with the right sand for your next project.

A washed, coarse river sand generally used for mixing with concrete. This material is also recommended for use in animal pins. Our products meet the highest quality standards to help provide you with the right sand for your next project.

Our supplies and materials come from the highest quality sources available; not only from Texas, but nationwide.We can also support large, custom projects and orders with unique specifications. Please contact us directly for details.

sand art supplies & kits | oriental trading company

sand art supplies & kits | oriental trading company

There's something mesmerizing about the layering and blending of sand. It's not only soothing, but also pleasing to the eye. Sand art is a craft project that is fascinating for young students and here you'll find all the supplies needed to create beautiful pieces! Sand art is an easy, DIY craft for kids and adults alike. First off, you need to pick the bottle, container, or piece you want to fill with layers of sand. You can pick classic bottles, like the Flat-Sided Sand Art Bottles, or something more unique, like the Ring-Shaped Sand Art Bottles. Whatever you choose, the bottles can be used as gifts or a fun dcor piece. Next, you'll want to pick out your sand. Make sure to pick a few fun colors! Use a rainbow of colors or choose a few complimentary colors. Layer your sand in a pattern or mix it up and randomly lay down a new color every time! Whatever you choose to do, your sand art will be a work of art! Students will appreciate making sand art as part of their art class or even as a marvelous craft. For a fun twist, have students make sand art in a necklace or bracelet. Kids will enjoy showing off their masterpiece in a wearable piece! Check out the Cross Sand Art Bottle Necklaces. They're perfect for VBS and Sunday school classes. These sand art necklaces can be incorporated into the teachings of the day by telling the students to fill these necklaces with their faith! Another interesting way to make sand art is to make sand art pictures! Check out the Mandala Sand Art Pictures, they're easy to fill with your favorite colors. When the sand craft is complete, simply display it on the fridge with the included self-adhesive magnet! Need more sand for your sand art projects? Shop our bulk craft sand. There are plenty of bright colors to choose from for any sand art project! The Best Sand Art Supplies Mandala Sand Art Pictures Cross Sand Art Bottle Necklaces Sea Shell Sand Art Bottle Necklaces Ocean Animal Sand Art Pictures Under the Sea Sand Art Bottles Sand Art Bracelets Star Sand Art Bottle Keychains Optical Illusion Sand Art Pictures Browse Sand Art Crafts: Bottles, Colored Sand and More in This Colorful Selection! Sand art crafts are a great idea for birthday parties, VBS or any fun occasion! Your kids will love the bright colors and unique designs, and you will love our super low prices! Shop a selection of colored sand, sand art bottles and sand art supplies for kids to craft right here. Create awe-inspiring pieces of sand art with the supplies found in this selection! You'll find everything you need and more to create a work of art. A fun craft for kids and adults alike, everyone will want to join in on the creativity! You can't design these vibrant pieces of art without sand! Explore a huge array of craft sand colors; you'll find rainbow hues, as well as white sand and black sand. Inspire your little ones to design their own sand art crafts while they attend Sunday school, birthday parties, VBS or any occasion. Simply pick your favorite sand art bottle or craft, an array of colored sand and create! Hosting a birthday party for your little one and you're searching for a craft to complete his or her special day? Incorporate the Mandala Sand Art Pictures into the festivities! Have the kids simply fill the template with their favorite sand colors and they'll watch their artwork come to life. Another fun project is to have them fill sand art bottles with their favorite colors! The Wavy Sand Art Bottles are wacky and fun for kids to layer with sand. They can fill them by creating patterns, pouring a layer of each color or however they want! The completed piece is a perfect keepsake so they can remember the occasion forever. From sand jars to craft supplies for making sand pictures, you'll find the basics and beyond right here. When it comes to crafts for kids, Oriental Trading supplies you with everything you need to make incredible DIY projects; the only limit is your imagination! Craft Supplies Art & Craft Paint Craft & Tissue Paper Craft Essentials & Tools Craft Foam Shapes Craft Glitter Craft Stickers & Rub On Craft Storage Crafting Stencils Decorative & Washi Tape Die Cut Supplies Poms & Chenille Stems Crafts for Kids Bookmark Crafts for Kids Crafts Kits for Kids Foam Crafts for Kids Handprint Crafts for Kids Jewelry Crafts for Kids Keychain Crafts for Kids Picture Frame Crafts for Kids Religious Crafts for Kids Sand Art Crafts for Kids Suncatcher Crafts for Kids Wood Crafts for Kids Jewelry Craft Supplies Craft Beads Bangle Charm Bracelets Bead Craft Kits Beads for Kids Connectors & Spacer Beads Glass Beads Jewelry Charms Large Hole Beads Pony Beads Snap Jewelry Wooden Beads Crafts Fun at Home Supplies Craft Kits Adult Coloring Crafts for Adults Adult Craft Kits Diamond Dotz Kits Pillow Crafts Scrapbooking Supplies Scrapbook Paper String Art Kits Craft Supplies on Sale

Sand art is an easy, DIY craft for kids and adults alike. First off, you need to pick the bottle, container, or piece you want to fill with layers of sand. You can pick classic bottles, like the Flat-Sided Sand Art Bottles, or something more unique, like the Ring-Shaped Sand Art Bottles. Whatever you choose, the bottles can be used as gifts or a fun dcor piece. Next, you'll want to pick out your sand. Make sure to pick a few fun colors! Use a rainbow of colors or choose a few complimentary colors. Layer your sand in a pattern or mix it up and randomly lay down a new color every time! Whatever you choose to do, your sand art will be a work of art!

Students will appreciate making sand art as part of their art class or even as a marvelous craft. For a fun twist, have students make sand art in a necklace or bracelet. Kids will enjoy showing off their masterpiece in a wearable piece! Check out the Cross Sand Art Bottle Necklaces. They're perfect for VBS and Sunday school classes. These sand art necklaces can be incorporated into the teachings of the day by telling the students to fill these necklaces with their faith!

Another interesting way to make sand art is to make sand art pictures! Check out the Mandala Sand Art Pictures, they're easy to fill with your favorite colors. When the sand craft is complete, simply display it on the fridge with the included self-adhesive magnet! Need more sand for your sand art projects? Shop our bulk craft sand. There are plenty of bright colors to choose from for any sand art project!

Sand art crafts are a great idea for birthday parties, VBS or any fun occasion! Your kids will love the bright colors and unique designs, and you will love our super low prices! Shop a selection of colored sand, sand art bottles and sand art supplies for kids to craft right here. Create awe-inspiring pieces of sand art with the supplies found in this selection! You'll find everything you need and more to create a work of art. A fun craft for kids and adults alike, everyone will want to join in on the creativity! You can't design these vibrant pieces of art without sand! Explore a huge array of craft sand colors; you'll find rainbow hues, as well as white sand and black sand. Inspire your little ones to design their own sand art crafts while they attend Sunday school, birthday parties, VBS or any occasion. Simply pick your favorite sand art bottle or craft, an array of colored sand and create! Hosting a birthday party for your little one and you're searching for a craft to complete his or her special day? Incorporate the Mandala Sand Art Pictures into the festivities! Have the kids simply fill the template with their favorite sand colors and they'll watch their artwork come to life. Another fun project is to have them fill sand art bottles with their favorite colors! The Wavy Sand Art Bottles are wacky and fun for kids to layer with sand. They can fill them by creating patterns, pouring a layer of each color or however they want! The completed piece is a perfect keepsake so they can remember the occasion forever. From sand jars to craft supplies for making sand pictures, you'll find the basics and beyond right here. When it comes to crafts for kids, Oriental Trading supplies you with everything you need to make incredible DIY projects; the only limit is your imagination! Craft Supplies Art & Craft Paint Craft & Tissue Paper Craft Essentials & Tools Craft Foam Shapes Craft Glitter Craft Stickers & Rub On Craft Storage Crafting Stencils Decorative & Washi Tape Die Cut Supplies Poms & Chenille Stems Crafts for Kids Bookmark Crafts for Kids Crafts Kits for Kids Foam Crafts for Kids Handprint Crafts for Kids Jewelry Crafts for Kids Keychain Crafts for Kids Picture Frame Crafts for Kids Religious Crafts for Kids Sand Art Crafts for Kids Suncatcher Crafts for Kids Wood Crafts for Kids Jewelry Craft Supplies Craft Beads Bangle Charm Bracelets Bead Craft Kits Beads for Kids Connectors & Spacer Beads Glass Beads Jewelry Charms Large Hole Beads Pony Beads Snap Jewelry Wooden Beads Crafts Fun at Home Supplies Craft Kits Adult Coloring Crafts for Adults Adult Craft Kits Diamond Dotz Kits Pillow Crafts Scrapbooking Supplies Scrapbook Paper String Art Kits Craft Supplies on Sale

Create awe-inspiring pieces of sand art with the supplies found in this selection! You'll find everything you need and more to create a work of art. A fun craft for kids and adults alike, everyone will want to join in on the creativity!

You can't design these vibrant pieces of art without sand! Explore a huge array of craft sand colors; you'll find rainbow hues, as well as white sand and black sand. Inspire your little ones to design their own sand art crafts while they attend Sunday school, birthday parties, VBS or any occasion. Simply pick your favorite sand art bottle or craft, an array of colored sand and create!

Hosting a birthday party for your little one and you're searching for a craft to complete his or her special day? Incorporate the Mandala Sand Art Pictures into the festivities! Have the kids simply fill the template with their favorite sand colors and they'll watch their artwork come to life. Another fun project is to have them fill sand art bottles with their favorite colors! The Wavy Sand Art Bottles are wacky and fun for kids to layer with sand. They can fill them by creating patterns, pouring a layer of each color or however they want! The completed piece is a perfect keepsake so they can remember the occasion forever.

From sand jars to craft supplies for making sand pictures, you'll find the basics and beyond right here. When it comes to crafts for kids, Oriental Trading supplies you with everything you need to make incredible DIY projects; the only limit is your imagination!

soap making supplies - wholesale supplies

soap making supplies - wholesale supplies

Wholesale soap making supplies and ingredients for professional soap makers and weekend hobbyists. We stock and manufacture only the best materials used for making handmade melt and pour or cold process soap. With over 20 years of selling quality soap making supplies online direct to consumers we are the largest online retailer of soap making supplies with expert advice. Whether you are using Base Oils and Lye to create a one of a kind cold process soap or prefer melting our easy to use bases and adding your own touch, we have all the products you need, all with free shipping!

shop foundry | lost & foundry - affordable sand casting supplies

shop foundry | lost & foundry - affordable sand casting supplies

We are a small mom & pop shop in Spokane, WA. Made in the USA supplies for over 20 years. Our products are in high schools, colleges, universities and in 27 countries around the world. Give us a call if you have any questions! 509-487-6832.Email us at [email protected]

We are a small mom & pop shop in Spokane, WA. Made in the USA supplies for over 20 years. Our products are in high schools, colleges, universities and in 27 countries around the world. Give us a call if you have any questions! 509-487-6832.Email us at [email protected]

Model A Furnace, Burner and Regulator$410 Shipping included Interior: 8 wide, 9 tall Burner and regulator included. Faster than any other gas furnace!2800F maximum temperature, 90,000 BTU.The Model A furnace is made with lightweight ceramic fiber refractory and a castable refractory base.No electricity needed. The Model A will accept a crucible 8 Inches tall and 6 inches wide.

Interior: 8 wide, 9 tall Burner and regulator included. Faster than any other gas furnace!2800F maximum temperature, 90,000 BTU.The Model A furnace is made with lightweight ceramic fiber refractory and a castable refractory base.No electricity needed. The Model A will accept a crucible 8 Inches tall and 6 inches wide.

Fused Silica Crucible and Lifter.$65 includes shipping Large fused silica crucible is 6.8 inches tall and 4.5 inches wide at the top. Capacity about 750 ml of liquid. It holds 12 lbs of bronze or 4.9 lbs of aluminum. Durable steel lifter will never need replacing.

Large fused silica crucible is 6.8 inches tall and 4.5 inches wide at the top. Capacity about 750 ml of liquid. It holds 12 lbs of bronze or 4.9 lbs of aluminum. Durable steel lifter will never need replacing.

Complete Foundry Set.$550 Includes shipping Everything you need to get started.Set includes:1. Model A Furnace, Burner/regulator2. 1 Large Crucibleand Lifter3. Introductory sand molding kit We are always here if you have foundry questions long after the sale. Email us!

Bentonite$26 includes shipping Mix bentonite with 100 lbs sand and 1 gallon of water to make Greensand. Mulling is the last step, check our education section. Keep in a sealed container to retain moisture. Bentonite is used in well drillingto lubricate and cool the cutting tools. Bentonite been used for centuries around the world to promote better health and ward off disease. Many refer to it as healing clay that cleanses the body, taken internally for stomach problems. Some river deltas naturally deposit a blend of clay silt and sand, creating a natural source of excellent molding sand that was critical to ancient metalworking technology.

Bentonite is used in well drillingto lubricate and cool the cutting tools. Bentonite been used for centuries around the world to promote better health and ward off disease. Many refer to it as healing clay that cleanses the body, taken internally for stomach problems. Some river deltas naturally deposit a blend of clay silt and sand, creating a natural source of excellent molding sand that was critical to ancient metalworking technology.

FS Crucible..$45 includes shipping Large fused silica crucible is 6.8 inches tall and 4.5 inches wide at the top. Capacity about 750 ml of liquid. It holds 12 lbs of bronze or 4.9 lbs of aluminum.

Extra Large Crucible...$70 includes shipping Extra Large Fused Silica Crucible8.5 Inches tall and 5.5 inches wide. Capacity about 1050 ml. Holds 19.9 lbs of bronze or 6.65 lbs of aluminum.

Extra Large Crucible and Lifter$100 includes shipping Fused Silica Crucible with Steel Lifter.8.5 Inches tall and 5.5 inches wide. Capacity about 1050 ml. Holds 19.9 lbs of bronze or 6.65 lbs of aluminum.

Molding Set.$90 Includes shipping Small flask with all the molding tools to get started. Set includes:5 lbs Greensand and 6 x 5 Wood Flask Pattern board and bottom boardParting Dust with applicatorMolding spoon and trowelRammer and gate cutterHole cutters and runner pattern2 patterns and instructions

Small flask with all the molding tools to get started. Set includes:5 lbs Greensand and 6 x 5 Wood Flask Pattern board and bottom boardParting Dust with applicatorMolding spoon and trowelRammer and gate cutterHole cutters and runner pattern2 patterns and instructions

When molding with sand, parting keeps two sections from sticking together. Parting Dust and Applicator.$15 Includes shipping Parting is a hydrophobic material, it repels moisture. The Lotus effect. Most powders like talc and baby powder absorb moisture, not suitable for parting.

Burner, Hose and Regulator $95 shipping included Propane burner puts out 90,000 BTUs. Uses less than 1 gallon (.8) of propane per hour. Simple to operate! Comes with regulator and hose. No blower required. Iron pipe 3/4 X 1.5.

Replacement Base $130 Shipping Included When ordering a new base, can we check the model furnace you have? Send us a measurement (OD) or description in an Email and we will send you an invoice. Conversion Set Convert Your Model L or Model S Furnace with a new Body and Lid. Made with ceramic fiber and steel to be almost twice as fast as the old style! Other Parts Complete Lid-$80Complete Body Replacement-$100Base- $130, Burner-$80Email with your items and we will send you an invoice.

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