The concept of hazardous waste incineration in a rotary kiln was developed more than 40 years ago and is still an ideal method for incinerating hazardous waste for throughputs of more than 2 t/h. All types of waste and special waste can be treated here, irrespective of contamination, calorific value and ...
By Steinmller Babcock Environment GmbH based in Gummersbach, GERMANY. from Energy from Waste Product line
HiTemp manufactures Rotary Kiln Systems that will operate at 12 to 100 tons per day. All system components are factory-built and tested. By using a 309 stainless steel liner and ceramic fiber insulation, we can shop assemble the largest systems without exceeding the weight and size restrictions of standard ...
The thermal camera-based kiln shell monitoring system RKS300 monitors kiln shell and provides real-time inspection of the entire kiln length. It integrates hardware and software as a solution, allowing the detection and measurement of all hotspots on the kiln shell, even at an early ...
Complete flexibility to simultaneously dispose of liquids, solids, and sludges. Rotary kiln incineration systems are ideal for processing mixed industrial and hazardous wastes that include a combination of solid, sludge, and liquid waste streams. Verantis provides complete rotary kiln incineration packages ...
By Verantis Environmental Solutions Group based in Middleburg Hts, OHIO (USA). from Incineration Systems Product line
Metso is the worlds leading supplier of pre-heater / rotary kiln lime calcining systems. Metso"s pre-heater / rotary kiln systems produce the highest quality lime, with the widest range of stone feed size. Pre-heater / rotary kiln systems can use ...
Cement rotary kiln is the main equipment for dry and wet production of cement clinker.Rotary kilns are widely used in metallurgy, chemical industry, construction, refractories, and environmental protection industries. The rotary kiln firing system is equipment with technological innovation.This ...
Coal Mill is the main equipment of the rotary kiln cement clinker production system and at the same time, it is also suitable for powder grinding equipment system in such industries as thermal power plant, metallurgy, chemical industry and sugar ...
By Fote Machinery based in Zhengzhou, CHINA. from Cement Making Machinery Product line
Clean Combustions High Performance Rotary Kiln Burner systems have been designed for energy intense industrial applications. Through active innovation and modular design we ensure each system provides improved efficiency and reliability. With over six decades of operational experience and two in research, ...
By Clean Combustion Technologies AB based in Atvidaberg, SWEDEN. from Burners Product line
The HEAT Systems pilot kiln is an indirect fired rotary kiln designed and built for thermal trial applications. The kiln has a capacity of up to 12kg/hr. It has been designed to process a wide range of waste materials for various processes. The kiln has operating temperatures of up to 1,000 ...
By Heat Systems based in Claremorris, IRELAND. from Thermal Testing Product line
By Sinospare - Xiamen Linse Eastern Import & Export Co., Ltd. based in CHINA. from Cement Plant Machinery - Rotary Kiln Product line
We provide complete small and large scale incineration plants with rated thermal input from 1-10 MWth and containing fuel feed, firing, boiler plant, flue gas cleaning plant and chimney. Larger scale plants can be customised and implemented with ourt ...
By Wehrle-Werk Ag based in Emmendingen, GERMANY. from Portfolio Product line
The structure of Air Swept Coal Mill: Our factory manufactures has been improving day by day after years of practical experience and continuous improvement. After making significant improvements to traditional air-swept coal mill and possessing all features of ball mill, compared to the same specification mill other manufacturer produce, the capacity of our mill has increased greatly with ...
Active lime rotary kiln is composed of cylinder, gears,support device, kiln liner and kiln tail sealing equipment, hood of kiln head and alkene material device etc..Active Lime rotary kiln as a heating device is a high-quality steel processed, is supported on the support device ...
Municipal waste incineration system is designed with the consideration of several types of municipal wastes; including paper/cardboard (packing material), plastic (foil, bottles, and dishes), metal cans, food-waste, cloth, garbage etc. Incineration system provides an effective means of reducing the volume of ...
By ATC LLC based in Seyhan, TURKEY. from Waste Disposal Systems Product line
HiTemp Technology (HTT) has developed a concept utilizing modified shipping containers to form modular systems of 10-100 Tons per day capacity. Multiple units may be installed to form larger systems. Our design uses the proven Rotary Kiln technology. Material is loaded into the top of the feed hopper, is ground ...
DUMAG has designed and built a great many customized burner systems for the installation in rotary kiln applications on a global basis. DUMAG burner equipment is specially designed for the treatment of industrial and hazardous waste in rotary kiln with post-combustion chamber. The all-round burner DUMAG ...
By Dumag GmbH based in Gumpoldskirchen, AUSTRIA. from Products & Components - Burner Product line
As an internationally acknowledged manufacturer of water tube boilers for hot water, saturated and hot steam generation, we are the ideal specialist company for you. Our experience over decades in terms of conception, construction and maintenance make us the perfect match for your ...
By Wehrle-Werk Ag based in Emmendingen, GERMANY. from Portfolio Product line
Rotary kiln is also known as calcining kiln, belonging to the building material equipment. According to the difference of processing material, rotary kiln can be classified into cement rotary kiln, metallurgy chemical kiln, and lime rotary ...
By Henan Fote Machinery Ltd. (FTM) based in Zhengzhou City, CHINA. from Cement Plant Product line
Pengfei rotary kiln (Rotary kiln, titanium dioxide kiln, sintering furnace, industrial kiln, kiln, oxidizing pellet) has specifications of 3.2*52m, 3.5*54m, 4.0*60m, 4.3*64m, 4.8*74m, 5.0*78m. Pengfei rotary kiln is the main equipment for ...
By Jiangsu Pengfei Group Co.,Ltd. based in Hai`an City, CHINA. from Rotary Kiln Product line
Grate Kiln systems consist of three major pieces of equipment. The Grate, the Kiln and the Cooler. The object of the process is to transform the pelletized concentrate into hardened pellets that can be used as blast furnace feed or direct reduction furnace feed.
The Travelling Grate is where pellets are dried and then heated up to a temperature of about 800-900 deg C. The heat used to dry and preheat the pellets is typically hot air pulled from the Kiln and cooler. The recycling of the the hot air from the different zones increases energy efficiencies.
In the Kiln, pellets are brought up to final indurating temps. Rotation of kiln exposes entire pellet bed to heat radiating from the burner resulting in uniform pellet quality. The kiln burner utilizes cooler off gas to heat material bed to nominal of 1200-1340 C completing the slag bonding and mineral bridging to form pellets.
In the Cooler, pellets are brought down to a suitable temperature for downstream material handling equipment. The gases from the cooler are recycled to the kiln and the grate, resulting in the Grate-Kiln being the most energy efficient system for producing indurated pellets.
The traveling grate is comprised of a blanket of plates connected into a chain that carries the pellets similar to a conveyor. The difference is that the plates in the grate chain have holes in them that allows air to pass through it. The grate chain travels flat and straight. The grate travels through a furnace with several zones that expose the pellets to different temperatures. Once the pellets are discharged into the kiln, the grate chain returns underneath. The grate is driven by a motor with gearbox or hydraulic drive. The grate is supported by rollers.
The final induration of the pellet is accomplished in a rotary kiln, wherein the principal heat transfer mechanism is radiation from the system's main burner.The process system is designed so that material transfer from the grate to the kiln occurs when the material on the grate is sufficiently preheated to have the requisite indurate strength for subsequent processing in the rotary kiln.A rotary kiln is a steel round shell with refractory lining that rotates. This shell is rotated by a drive gear and electric or hydraulic drive system. The shell is supported on large bearings. There is a single large burner that heats the pellets up as they travel through the kiln.
An annular cooler is a turntable that holds the hot pellets. Ambient air is blown through the hot pellets. The turntable is made of wedge shaped pans. The pellets fall out of the kiln directly onto the pans. The pellets travel all around the turntable until the pan is tipped and the pellets fall underneath. The pan is then righted to accept more material. The cooler pans are supported by rollers.
The concept of hazardous waste incineration in a rotary kiln was developed more than 40 years ago and is still an ideal method for incinerating hazardous waste for throughputs of more than 2 t/h. All types of waste and special waste can be treated here, irrespective of contamination, calorific value and consistency. Due to the high incineration temperatures of more than 1,100 C, rotary kilns are mainly used for special waste incineration. At two seconds above this minimum temperature, all organic substances are safely destroyed. Furthermore, incineration provides the possibility to gain energy in the form of steam or electricity from polluted, contaminated and mixed waste.
The concept of classic special waste incineration with a rotary kiln plant involves separate waste storage, feed devices for all types of waste, the rotary kiln, a secondary combustion chamber, a heat recovery steam generator, and flue gas cleaning.
Our rotary kilns are up to twelve metres long, with a diameter of up to five metres. The lining with refractory bricks enables them to be operated at the high temperatures that prevail there. Lengthwise, the rotary kiln is inclined slightly to allow the transport of the waste and slag. Bulky solid materials, barrels and containers, paste-like, liquid and gaseous waste can be incinerated in the rotary kiln. The waste is fed directly in at the front of the rotary kiln either by means of a conventional waste feed chute, an automatic barrel lift for containers, or a lance for gaseous, liquid or paste-like waste. Depending on suitability or calorific value, liquid and gaseous waste can also be fed into the secondary combustion chamber. The high temperatures and rotation of the waste during incineration generate a sintered to vitrified slag in the rotary kiln.
In the secondary combustion chamber, which is downstream from the rotary kiln, full post-combustion of the combustion gases, and thus also residual organics and entrained solid particles, takes place. Suitable liquid waste and gaseous pollutants are introduced at the beginning of the secondary combustion chamber, to ensure that this waste is also burned off completely. The rotary kiln and the secondary combustion chamber form an interrelated system with two-stage combustion, which allows the treatment of special waste with strongly varying consistencies.
Steinmller Babcock Environment plans, constructs and supports turnkey special waste incineration plants. These plants are designed according to individual requirements. We guarantee a highly developed technology that has proven its worth in countless applications. Our thermal treatment uses the energetic potential of the special waste to extract steam, electricity and heat, while at the same time guaranteeing safe and environmentally-friendly disposal.
An alternative for disposing of hazardous waste is gasification and melting with the Direct Melting System (DMS). Talk to us, we will be happy to explain which system presents the best solution for you.
May 27, 2021 TSX-V-listed Diamcor Mining is proceeding with the expansion of processing facilities at its Krone Endora at Venetia project, in South Africa. The miner originally targeted the expansion for 2020; however, owing to the events surrounding the Covid-19 pandemic and associated public health restrictions implemented in South Africa, those plans were intentionally delayed to lower expenses and ...
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Sep 26, 2011 Cement Manufacturing Process Burned Limestone ( called Limestone blending clinker) is blended with flyash, slag or gypsum in grinding mills Limestone is burned with coal inside rotary kilns Limestone Quarry Private & Confidential. 4. Cement Industry Product Segmentation Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) It is made by blending clinker with ...
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The invention relates to a process for obtaining a cement clinker in an elongated rotary kiln having a feed end and a heating end which is inclined downwardly relative to the feeding end. A predetermined amount of airborne, crushed and sorted blast furnace slag to obtain particles of a predominant size up to an effective diameter of not more than 51 mm is added to a feedstock stream at the ...
Jun 04, 2021 Closed-circuit grinding process: after the material is ground, the product is selected through the classifying machine system, and the coarse powder is returned to the mill for regrinding. It can reduce over grinding phenomenon, increase output, reduce power consumption and product fineness is easy to control, but the system equipment ...
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This 600 t/d cement production line is designed for producing Portland cement (also named silicate cement according to production standards of PRC). The clinker rotary kiln in this cement equipment features a 5-cyclone preheater. Annual output of this cement production line is about 200,000 t.
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Oct 23, 2020 Tunisia: Six companies filed offers to acquire a majority stake of between 58% and 78% of Carthage Cements registered share capital. The group called for expressions of interest on 29 May 2020 and the deadline for receipt of tenders was 4 December 2020. It said, The list of pre-qualified investors will be communicated once the opening and examination of the offers received have been ...
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Preheater Used in Rotary Kiln. For cement production line, there are many cement equipments among which cement preheater is included. Rotary kiln is used widely in cement plant, and we design and produce new-style rotary kiln with vertical preheater which takes use of the heat of the flue gas coming out from the kiln end to preheat the dolomite to 800 in the preheater.
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Henan, China. HS Code. 8417803000. Product Description. Small lime rotary kiln. 1.Introduction of small lime rotary kiln. Small lime rotary kiln the main equipment for claiming cement clinker and it can be used widely for cement industry, metallurgy industry, chemical industry, etc. The rotary kiln is composed of the shell, the supporting ...
The rotary kiln is made up of steel tubes having the diameter of 2.5-3.0 meter and the length differs from 90-120meter. The inner side of the kiln is lined with refractory bricks. The kiln is supported on the columns of masonry or concrete and rested on roller bearing in slightly inclined position at the gradient of 1 in 25 to 1 in 30.
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FLSmidth Standardised Rotary Dryer technology to match your materials. Drive components. Gear and pinion are reversible so that both flanks of the teeth can be utilised for longer life. Forged pinion mounted on an extended reducer shaft for sizes from 3.0 to 3.8 m diameter. Forged pinion with integral shaft for sizes larger than 3.8 m diameter.
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Increase your energy efficiency with our innovative graphite seal that works on any kiln any size, any manufacturer. We deliver a module that is designed to integrate with your existing casing and cooling mantle with no modification required
Much of the Kiln Graphite Seal Module is pre-assembled in our workshop, which means easy installation and less downtime for you. It also allows us to deliver top quality, ensuring the straightness of the flanges.
Unlike other block seals on the market, our Carbon Graphite Kiln Seal uses a staggered arrangement with two rows of graphite blocks held in place by a wire rope system. That means youll get a strong and effective seal against the outer air casing.
Our design lets the graphite blocks move independently with the radial movement of the kiln without getting damaged or stuck. And locking plates installed on the rear flange keep false air from entering the rotary kiln system.
How does it work? The casing, hopping, and ducting act as a material buffer. They guide the excess raw meal to a bin, or to a conveyer system. Meanwhile, the hopper comes with a sloping plate that helps stop dust build-up on the graphite kiln seal.
Our Kiln Graphite Seal works on any rotary kiln, not just the kilns we manufacture ourselves. Well also work with you to adjust any existing equipment, such as kiln shells, fans and hoppers in order to keep installation cost to a minimum.
Two types of Kiln Graphite Seals are available; both are designed to maintain optimal kiln operating conditions and minimise energy loss.The Kiln Inlet Seal provides an interface between the kiln and preheater, while the Kiln Outlet Seal creates an interface between the kiln and the cooler.
FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.
Applied fields: magnetizing roast of lean iron ore in the metallurgical industry; oxidizing roasting of chromium and nickel-iron ore; roasting of high-alumina vanadium ore, clinker and aluminum hydroxide.
Kiln shell is installed tilt in a few support wheels and covered several rectangle tires along the shell length direction. These tires bear weights of all rotary parts such as the machine body, material, kiln lining, and pass the weight to the supporting device.
Large ring gear connects with kiln shell by the tangential spring plate. The connection generates enough space between the big ring gears for heat dissipation, easing the deformation problem which would affect occlusion accuracy, playing an important role in cushioning shock, and extending the service life of the kiln lining.
The Drive system has two types-single drive and dual drive and constituting a set or two sets drive system. Each drive system generally includes a primary drive system and an auxiliary drive system. The primary drive system consists of the main motor, main reducer, small gear, etc. The auxiliary drive system consists of an auxiliary motor, auxiliary speed reducer, etc.
Auxiliary motor electrical power comes from self-equipped power generators to ensure ordinary operation when the city power cuts and makes installation, maintenance, and refractory drying convenient. On the auxiliary motor, there is a brake to prevent the kiln reversal when the main motor accidentally stops.
The supporting device bears almost total weight of the machine, and it is used for positioning kiln and ensuring safe and stable operation. The supporting device consists of a support wheel bearing and welding seat base.
The support wheel sets in the large model generally include support wheel, support wheel axle, axle tile, spherical tile, and bearing seat. Each bearing seat is equipped with two thermal resistances inspecting respectively lubricants oil temperature and axle tile temperature.
According to the force condition and mode of action, the catch wheel can be divided into mechanical and hydraulic catch wheel. The large model of rotary kiln is equipped with a hydraulic catch wheel.
Hydraulic catch wheel withstands the sliding force of the rotary kiln, moving the kiln body upward, forcing the tire and kiln to make a reciprocating motion along the kiln center direction, and making tire and support wheel can evenly wear at full width.
Direct calcination refers to a single shell vessel with rings added inside to slow the catalytic velocity from the inlet towards the outlet. The oxidation medium reacts with the catalyst and flows countercurrent to catalyst movement.
The indirect rotary kiln includes a double-shell cylinder vessel. The space in the shell body is heated either by combustion gas or steam. Sometimes the inner cylinder shell is ebullated, allowing hot gases or steam to enter and contact the tumbled catalyst. Monitoring the temperatures of the inlet and outlet gasses can control the catalyst temperatures.
It is the process of heating a material to a specific temperature for chemical dissociation. The method is widely used to calcinating limestone, dolomite for making hydrated lime or cement clinker.
Thermal desorption adopts heat to drive off a volatile component. The most common rotary kiln used in this process is an indirect rotary kiln designed according to physical and chemical properties and calcination curve of raw materials.
When the waste material is bulky and difficult to handle, the organic combustion can turn the material into ashes which is much less in mass and volume than before. So, the organic combustion method allows the waste material to be deposited more efficiently in the landfill.
Refractory lining is crucial to prolong the longevity of the rotary kiln because the primary function is to prevent the whole body from corroding by the chemical reaction between high-temperature gas and the material.
The refractory as thermal media can absorb part of the heat and transfer the heat to the material by conduction and radiation. So, the refractory material is capable of protecting the whole machine through thermal insulation.
Fote company makes pinion gear experience a finner process and high-frequency quenching, strengthening the tooth hardness up to HRC(40-50), and finally prolonging the service life of the pinion by nearly five times.
The final price of a rotary kiln depends on the production requirements. Fote rotary kiln manufacturer provides you with the most reasonable prices based on three different product ranges. Besides, all rotary kilns can also be customized based on customer-specific requirements.
Our Indonesia client Mr. Cokorda needs to process limestone with production 650 t/h. After the on-site survey and the customers output requirements, we recommend him a cement rotary kiln with a small diameter.
The working principle of the rotary kiln is removing oxygen from the ore composition through carbon monoxide. Finally, this metallurgical chemical kiln ideally reduced and roasted of hematite-containing materials to produce magnetite.
As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.
Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.
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The rotary kiln incinerator is manufactured with a rotating combustion chamber that keeps waste moving, thereby allowing it to vaporize for easier burning. Types of waste treated in a rotary kiln incinerator
The picture"photo 1"gives a schematic overvieuw of the systemmanufactured totreat the waste in a rotating drum, we use a counter current rotary kiln. There are 2 different types of rotary kiln, co-current rotary kilns and counter current rotary kilns. Read here more about the different types of rotary kiln.
Energy recovery is always an individual design, and very attractive is electricity. But electricity is also the most complicated and less economical profitable for small installations ( the min. capacity is 3 ton/h of waste). If heat can be used in another process on site, for example in a dryer. It has to be taken into consideration that a connection between incinerator and the production process (dryer) can be the most efficient solution. The disadvantage can be if there is a production stop of the incinerator, the process (dryer) can not always stop at the same time.
For example : We produce steam as energy recovery, also for electricity production. The post combustion is strictly vertical and the boiler also has a vertical design for evacuation of dust. Our design is made for continuous operation of a steam boiler. The next drawing gives a possible set up of the installation. This is our set-up, created by people with operation experience with incinerators, and it results in this lay-out.
Depending on the amount of Chlorine, S, N or other chemicals in the waste stream there is a wet or/and dry scrubbing system available for the flue gas treatment. Flue gas treatment systems are standard systems, and normal chemical reaction. So, for correct flue gas treatment we need to take care for:
The MKM-System is an on-line measuring unit used to detect abnormalities during kiln operation which can lead to mechanical failures on any rotary kiln system (with more than 2 Stations). The main objective is to detect such abnormalities (thermal or permanent kiln cranks, lack of tire play) at an early stage.
The Ovality Sensor consists of a Deflection Plate, which will be attached with heat resistant magnets to the kiln shell close to a tire. Due to the strong magnetic connection, the deflection in the Deflection Plate follows the deflection of the kiln shell below. Strain gauges are measuring the deflection in the Deflection Plate. The electronic converter is amplifying and conditioning the signals from the strain gauges and sending them together with the values of the angle position sensor via Bluetooth connection to a laptop. The software TomTom-Tools Measurement Studio (for Windows), which comes together with the measurement tool is made to receive, store and process the values from the Ovality Sensor. During the measurement, the values are displayed and calculated directly in real time. There are different display, zoom and report printing options available.
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The length of workshop is around 90 meter and 30 meter width, there are total 6 equipment in this workshop, 3 equipment are located Relatively concentrated, and another 3 equipment are located Relatively decentralized.
1. Implementation timing and automatic lubrication of the equipment during operation, you can save 95% manual cost, reduce personnel to work under complex conditions, ensuring operation safety; 2. Centralized lubrication system ensures each lube point to mandatorytimely and quantitatively gain the pure grease, guarantee the lubrication effect, and reduces grease consumption is more than 70%; 3. The oil-way of Centralized lubrication system is fully-enclosedwhich ensure clean lubrication, its "timely, quantitative, high-frequency" characteristics are effectively extend more than 60% life time of the lubrication parts
4. Good lubrication can lengthen maintenance intervals, reduce maintenance and fault repair times, saves repair and maintenance materials, reducing equipment downtime and operating efficiency. 5. Reducing the times of maintenance and fault repair, reduce the cost of spare parts, increasing equipment operating time, promote energy conservation and environmental protection, save the grease more than 70%.
6 equipment in this workshop, 3 of which are more concentrated, 3 sets of scattered, they are adopted 2 sets of centralized lubrication system to lubricate; jet lubrication is using existing gas source.
This program includes all the lube point of bearing housings, motor housings, large & small gear ring, one set of central lubrication system adopts one electric lubrication pump, 3 spray oil lubricating pumps, 13 single-line Distributors, 9 sets of injection valve, 1 control cabinet. 2 sets of centralized lubrication systems share one upper-computer to do remote control
Electric lubrication pump connects main oil pipe, main oil pipe will convey the grease to primary single-line distributor, then the primary distributor will convey quantitative grease to secondary single-line distributor, the secondary distributor will convey quantitative grease to each lube point. Spray oil lubrication pump connects main oil pipe, main oil pipe will convey the grease to single Distributor, by will quantitative grease will be conveyed to Jet valve by distributor, Jet valve will mix grease and compression air, and mixture will be sprayed to all lubrication gear rings through nozzle. Control cabinets will automatic control the Entire system, it can set operational parameters (for interval time, injection time)
1.Customized lubrication solution for each specific equipment. 2.Training on the operation and maintenance of the system for customers. 3.Installation and adjustion of the equipment to ensure its operation. 4.For the products out of warranty, we provide lifetime maintenance. And as for the spare parts used, we will charge by unified standard. 5.We provide common easily-worn parts which costs 3% of your buying.
Precipitated calcium carbonate, commonly called lime sludge or lime mud, is produced when sulphate green liquor is causticized with lime. For many years this lime sludge was considered a waste product and was dumped into rivers or waste ponds, or used for fill around the plants. Large quantities of new lime were purchased from commercial producers to replace that lost in the sludge waste.
A number of paper manufacturers soon became aware of the savings that could be achieved by recovering the lime. Beginning in the 20s, efforts were directed toward lime recovery installations. Today, a proper Rotary Lime Kiln Operation isan integral part of all modern pulp mills.
High quality lime can be produced at a uniform rate only if the kiln is fed at a constant rate with lime sludge of constant composition. In some cases the feed to the kiln consists of a pumpable sludge containing 55 to 65% water. However, in most installations a drum filter or a centrifuge is installed just ahead of the kiln to reduce the moisture content to 35 to 50%. This cake is fed to the kiln through a screw conveyor, which is water-jacketed for that portion extending into the kiln feed end connection.
A ferris wheel slurry feeder and a surge tank located ahead of the filter or centrifuge will insure a constant rate of feed to the kiln. The surge tank should be provided with efficient means of agitation and dilution control to maintain uniform consistency of the feed to the ferris wheel slurry feeder. The overflow from the feeder is returned to the surge tank. The surge tank should have a capacity of 1 to 2 hours kiln feed.
Calcium carbonate begins to dissociate in the kiln at a temperature of about 1500 F. Theoretically, lime sludge could be heated to this temperature and held there until dissociation was complete. However, this dissociation process is accelerated at elevated temperatures. Therefore, to facilitate complete dissociation of various sized pellets with a reasonable retention time, temperatures in excess of 1500 F are necessary. The lime is usually discharged from the kiln at approximately 2200 F, although this will vary somewhat with the size of the kiln and the capacity at which it is operated.
To improve the thermal efficiency of the kiln, a chain system is installed in the feed end. The chains pick up the lime sludge and expose it to the hot gases. The chains also absorb heat from the hot gases, transferring this heat when they again dip into the wet material.
The gases enter the chain system at a temperature of 1200 to 1400 F and leave at approximately 300 to 550 F. In general, the lime sludge leaving the chain system should have a moisture content of 10 to 15%. If the moisture content is permitted to go below this figure, the sludge will no longer protect the chains, with the result that they will be oxidized and disintegrated by the hot gases.
Such samples will also provide the operator with a visual check on whether satisfactory pellets are being produced. To minimize dusting, the lime should travel through the kiln in the form of pellets about inch in diameter. Larger pellets are undesirable since they will be overburned on the outside. The natural rolling action of the sludge on the kiln wall will form good pellets, provided the kiln is fed at a uniform rate with sludge of constant composition.
Excessive impurities, particularly soda, will promote the formation of large balls as well as rings. Experience indicates that the soda content should be maintained below 1% reported as Na2O on a dry basis. Impurities must be controlled by proper liquor clarification, washing and filtering.
Some mills with lime recovery kilns are troubled by ring formation. So many factors influence the ringing characteristics in a given installation that it is difficult to make any definite statements regarding ring control. Varying amounts of moisture, soda, free calcium oxide, iron, alumina and silica will affect ring formation. Increasing the feed rate beyond the normal capacity of the kiln will increase the tendency to ring. In some cases a change in the moisture content has greatly reduced the formation of rings.
The tendency to ring formation is more pronounced in a small diameter kiln than in a large diameter kiln. This is due to the greater arch effect in a small kiln. The smaller arch effect in a large diameter kiln will permit agglomerating material to fall away more readily, thus minimizing ring formation. Sometimes a change in kiln speed or a change in burning conditions will overcome ringing.
The uniformity of the kiln product, as well as kiln operation as a whole, depends first on controlled feed and second on proper combustion control. Good control of both feed and combustion will establish and maintain a definite temperature gradient throughout the length of the kiln. Any fluctuations in combustion or kiln feed will cause corresponding changes in this temperature gradient, with the result that the lime will not be uniformly calcined.
A constant draft at the firing hood is necessary for good combustion control. An automatic draft controller should be installed. This controller will regulate a damper in the exhaust system to maintain a constant draft at the firing hood. The usual draft at the firing hood will range to 0.05 in. water column.
The fuel should be burned with about 5 to 10% excess air to insure complete combustion. Too much air, as well as too little air, wastes fuel. Periodic Orsat analysis of the exhaust gases should be made to determine whether the correct draft is being maintained at the firing hood for proper combustion conditions.
To properly record, interpret and control the kiln performance, there should be available to the operator a record of the exhaust gas temperature, the burning zone temperature, the rate of fuel flow, and the draft at the feed end of the kiln as well as at the firing hood. All of these instruments, together with the necessary gauges, ammeters, voltmeters, and motor starter pushbuttons, should be mounted on a control panel located on the burning floor.
The chain system in a lime sludge kiln is an excellent dust arrester. However, a small amount of dust will be carried out with the exhaust gases, making a dust collecting system desirable. Returning the collected dust to the system will reduce the amount of make-up lime required.
The form in which the collected dust can be handled most conveniently in a particular mill must be decided before selecting the dust collecting equipment. Dust can be collected dry in a simple cyclone or in a commercially manufactured collector, pugged with water and flushed to waste or returned to the system. Pugging is necessary to permit ready transportation and return to the system. Sometimes difficulty is encountered in pugging this fine dust with water. A wet type collector will collect the dust in a form immediately convenient for further use.
CAUTION: Brick lining must be thoroughly dried before kiln is started up for the first time and immediately after extensive lining repairs have been made. Failure to do so may result in disintegration of the lining when kiln is brought to operating temperature.
The exhaust gas temperature in chain equipped kilns ranges from 300 to 550 F, depending on the particular installation. A few days operation will indicate the average temperature for normal operation. Watch the recorder. Any unusual temperature rise may indicate that the kiln feed has stopped. The temperature will change with changes in kiln speed or moisture content of feed.
Use only enough draft to provide air for combustion and to prevent smoke from showing up at the stack. Too much draft chills discharge end and also wastes fuel. The kiln exhaust gas should be checked frequently with an Orsat gas analyzer. The oxygen content should be held to 1.5% or less, under which conditions there should be no combustibles in the exhaust gas.
The moisture content of the sludge to the filter or centrifuge should be maintained constant with a consistency regulator. It is also important to maintain the percent of impurities in the sludge at a constant value.
The ferris wheel slurry feeder is driven by a four-speed motor which is electrically interlocked with the four-speed kiln drive motor to insure a constant rate of feed per kiln revolution. In addition, there is a speed changer which enables the operator to determine the optimum feed rate to the kiln for a given kiln speed.
Steps should be taken in the initial installation to provide a way of determining the rate of solids to kiln. A calibrating tank following the ferris wheel slurry feeder will enable the operator to make periodic checks on the rate of slurry to the filter or centrifuge. If the moisture content of the slurry is known, the rate of solids to the kiln can be readily determined. The rate of solids to the filter must be maintained constant at all times.
While the slurry feeder will insure a constant volume of sludge to the kiln per kiln revolution, it is possible for the rate of solids to the kiln to vary unless the composition of the sludge is maintained constant as pointed out under Sludge Composition, above.
Hourly samples of sludge should be taken from the sample holes located just after the chain system. These samples should be analyzed by the laboratory for moisture, soda and free lime, and the results should be listed on the kiln data sheet. This information is necessary for a proper study of kiln performance.
Hourly samples of lime should be taken from the discharge end of the kiln for determination of available lime (CaO). Good kiln operation should result in a product with an available lime content of 90%.
A ruled form should be printed for the purpose of recording pertinent data in connection with the lime burning operation. The report forms most commonly used provide spaces designated Shift 1, Shift 2, and Shift 3 for the signatures of the three men in charge of these shifts so that the responsibility for irregularities on any shift can easily be placed.
The thermal camera-based rotary kiln monitoring system RKS300 monitors the kiln shell and provides real-time inspection of the entire kiln length. It integrates hardware and software as a solution, allowing the detection and measurement of all hotspots on the kiln shell, even at an early stage.
With real time inspection at the highest resolution (up to 3.200 measuring points per line), the RKS300 purpose is to ensure proper kiln-shell safety and durability, optimize kiln efficiency and reduces the cost of maintenance due to damage and unscheduled downtime.
To withstand the aggressive environment that surrounds the system in a cement plant, the RKS300 is protected by a rugged protective housing that resists adverse conditions thanks to an air purge and an internal temperature control device. This keeps the thermal camera clean within a constant ambient temperature.
RKS300 software provides real-time thermal imaging for temperature monitoring, display, analysis and detection of hot-spots. Furthermore, our software enables access to all temperature points giving its kilns surface coordinates with very accurate measurements.
OPC Server Protocol and Client Configurations: Data Integration and communication to the different levels of the factory (SCADA, data bases, communications with PLC and sensors) via OPC connection.
When analysing any cement manufacturing process, it is evident that one of the most critical steps takes place in the rotary kiln. When it comes to extending the life of this piece of equipment, as well as preventing any disastrous failures, it is imperative that operators understand the condition of the refractory material coating it. Since it is impossible to measure the inside of the kiln, looking at the outer surface is the only way to determine refractory condition. This can be accomplished with infrared technology and specially developed kiln scanning systems.
During the operation of the rotary kiln, flames can reach temperatures as high as 1900C (3452F) in order to heat raw materials to roughly 1500C (2732F). As a result, these materials become partially molten and undergo a series of physical and chemical reactions to become the primary constituent of cement. At the lower end of a kiln, the raw materials emerge as red-hot particles, called clinker. Rotary kilns are traditionally large steel pipes, several meters in diameter and up to 100 m in length (in larger facilities, however, kiln lengths of over 100 m are not uncommon). To protect the steel from intense heat, however, each kiln is lined with bricks composed of refractory material, which is typically a blend of various ceramic compounds.
These refractory bricks have been compounded specifically for cement processing applications, and while they have impressive temperature and wear-resistance characteristics, exposure to intense heat and the abrasive qualities of cement inevitably leads to material degradation. This wear causes bricks to become thinner over time, severely impacting their ability to shield the steel surface of the kiln. In order to maintain adequate levels of protection, the kiln must be stopped at some point to replace the bricks.
Additionally, if a single brick, or a small section of bricks, becomes loose and falls, the steel kiln shell will suddenly be exposed to extreme heat. If action is not taken quickly, permanent damage to the kiln may result, costing facilities large amounts of money for repair or replacement costs, as well as countless hours of lost production time. By monitoring the entire length of the kiln shell, operators can easily determine the effectiveness of the refractory material. With infrared technology, any fallen bricks can be quickly detected, and appropriate action may even be taken to prevent further damage. Plus, by combining infrared temperature measurement with a database of historical images, operators can examine temperature trends and predict when refractory materials will reach unsafe operating conditions.
As a result, operators can schedule maintenance and plan when to replace the refractory material with minimal downtime. Continuous infrared temperature monitoring also allows the operator to see the overall effect of the process on the refractory, as settings can be optimised to maintain the best possible combination of maximum throughput and extended refractory life.
Today, there are multiple temperature scanning systems for cement kilns available on the market, each with a variety of specifications and features; however, all of these systems utilise infrared scanning technology in order to gather temperature data.
To understand these scanning systems, operators need to know the basics of infrared technology. All objects emit infrared radiation; the intensity of this increases as the temperature of an object rises. Infrared temperature sensors used in industrial applications contain a detector that will generate a current when it is exposed to energy of a specific infrared wavelength. As the intensity increases, so does the current, allowing the temperature of the object to be determined.
When monitoring rotary kilns, one or more linescanners (one of the more popular scanning systems available) often work in parallel to gather data along a kilns axis. As the kiln rotates, a new line of data is generated, allowing for the entire surface of the kiln to be mapped. The data is then transferred to application-specific software, which then converts raw data into a two-dimensional thermal image of the kilns surface.
In addition to a two-dimensional image of the kiln, the software also displays each successive thermal image. This image is a false colour representation of the kilns surface temperature; it is normal for cooler areas to be highlighted by darker colours and hotter areas to be showcased as bright red or white. Normally images are displayed in real-time for the operator, allowing for any significant changes to be seen quickly.
Images are also periodically saved to a history file for later analysis, meaning operators can use this data to predict the lifetime of refractory material and schedule replacements that keep downtime to a minimum.
It is no secret that infrared technology has been widely embraced by the cement industry for more than 20 years; while all infrared rotary kiln systems offer the basic capabilities highlighted above, newer systems developed in the last decade feature some of the latest technology in the industry and offer expanded functionality to support operator needs.
Some top-tier functionalities, for example, address the concern of shadowed areas that stretch along the length of the kiln. With a wide field-of-view scanner, it can be common to have several obstructions, such as buildings, power poles, and other equipment, which essentially prevent the scanner from seeing the entire kiln shell. Several of the top systems available today, for instance the CS210 System from Fluke Process Instruments, incorporate single point sensors, also known as pyrometers, that are located in such a way that they can see the areas shadowed from the linescanner.
Up to 32 pyrometers can be installed and set up to utilise multi-drop communication, meaning only one connection is necessary for communication back to a PC. Because the software integrates data from multiple sensors into one single image, a dirty lens warning can be added. This feature compares each data point with its adjacent points and, if the difference exceeds the defined limits, operators are alerted that the sensor may be partially blocked by a dirty lens or other obstruction.
Additionally, top-tier scanning systems typically read frequencies between 3.5 and 4 . This range enables infrared linescanners to see directly through dust and moisture in order to determine the temperature of the kilns surface. In higher micron ranges, such as 8 to 14 , infrared systems tend to pick up reflections caused by dust and moisture in the air, meaning these solutions can only be used in more controlled facilities. As a result, linescanner systems are the ideal solution for cement manufacture in outdoor, rugged environments.
Other functionalities include monitoring clinker temperatures at the hot end of the process inside the kiln. In this application, an infrared sensor looks into the hot part of the kiln end through a viewing port and monitors clinker temperature. The data is displayed on the same screen as the kiln shell imagery, allowing operators to monitor both steps of the process simultaneously.
Some systems, such as the CS210 System, also offer advanced capabilities that will monitor the condition of the brick and report on refractory wear. These software features also include a module database that can store and analyse all necessary data from (at least) the last year to indicate refractory wear during use, enabling engineers to schedule refractory repairs.
While these systems are useful, it is critical that the data entered into the programme by operators is accurate. Because all installations are inherently different, wear rates will also differ; therefore, making generalised predictions on the wear rate of any given material will inevitably lead to installations where the brick simply will not last as long as the system predicts.
One additional development in improving kiln life still utilises kiln monitoring systems, but not temperature measurement. Typically, kilns are driven from one end which, due to their extensive size and mass, makes homogenous rotation extremely challenging. During this process, and particularly during speed changes, there is a tendency for some of the rotational energy to cause the kilns live-rings (or tire slips) to torque (or twist) instead of rotate.
A small amount of torque is not necessarily a problem for the live-rings, however, too much will cause damage to the fragile refractory material. In typical kiln monitoring systems, pyrometers are used to measure each live-ring rotation and trigger the display of each subsequent image of the kiln.
If multiple sensors are installed, the rotational speed of several points along the length of the kiln can be monitored and if the rotational speed varies along the length, this can be indicative that a twist is occurring, allowing engineers to make corrections before serious damage occurs.
The purpose of monitoring kiln shells with an infrared scanning system is to monitor and report on the overall condition of the refractory materials lining the kiln. Most programmes available today offer some degree of refractory management and viewing this information alongside temperature data provides the information operators need to determine how to modify kiln settings to maximise refractory life or when to schedule downtime to replace bricks.
Infrared temperature scanning systems have shown their usefulness in cement plants across the globe and modern systems are adding even more functionality, making them an essential part of any cement professionals toolkit.
Dr. Martin Budweg is a Senior Product Marketing Manager at Fluke Process Instruments, where he is responsible for designing and developing IR temperature measurement products for a variety of industrial applications. Prior to joining Fluke, he worked in the chipset technology industry as a Project and Product Manager. Dr. Budweg studied Geophysics and Astrophysics and holds a PhD in Geophysics and Seismology.
Metso Minerals has signed a contract with Lynas Kalgoorlie Pty Ltd for the supply of a large rotary kiln and combustion system for baking rare earth elements.The order is valued at approximately EUR 13 million.Commissioning of the kiln is expected to take place in 2022.
Commenting on the award, Lynas CEO and Managing Director Amanda Lacaze said: The kiln is the longest lead time item for our Kalgoorlie project and placing this order is an important milestone in the development of our new processing plant in Kalgoorlie. The project is progressing to schedule and we look forward to working with Metso Outotec on the engineering and supply of the kiln.
Lynas is the second largest producer of rare earths and the largest outside of China. Metso Outotec is a leader in the supply of rotary kilns for the mining industry, with over 1,300 installations worldwide.
The plant will process concentrate from the Mount Weld mine and provide an intermediate feed for further processing to produce NdPr (neodymium and praseodymium), which are key elements used in high-tech consumer electronics and green energy technologies.
We are excited at having been selected by Lynas as a key supplier for the development of its significant greenfield project in Western Australia. Metso Outotecs rotary kiln system forms an integral part for the processing of rare earths, says Stephan W. Kirsch, President, Minerals business area, Metso Outotec.
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