Concrete block often appears after building and bridge demolition, which will cause problems like pollutions and land waste. There are mainly 5 types of concrete crushers like portable concrete crusher, mobile concrete crusher, small concrete crusher, excavator concrete crusher and bucket crusher, so you have to choose the right crushing machine according to your own situation.
A portable stone crusher, a wheeled-mounted crushing machine, is a perfect machine for processing concrete waste because of its strong flexibility. Concrete recycling manufacturers always know that if they choose to set up a fixed crushing line, they have to pay more time, money for labor and transportation.
A portable crusher can load various fixed crusher machines like fixed jaw crusher, impact rock crusher, hydraulic cone crusher, etc. Therefore, it is a mobile crushing plant integrating crushing equipment, conveyor, and power control equipment. It can last for 20,000 hours under difficult conditions while 30,000 hours under normal conditions, and then needs to be overhauled so that its service life can be extended.
This Indian customer purchased FTM938HD80 portable jaw crusher, portable impact crusher, and portable stone screener. These machines can not only produce a wonderful cubical shape of products but greatly reduce labor and transportation cost. The original plan was to require three people to spend about half a month fully installing a fixed crushing production line. In addition to transportation costs, the total cost was really expensive.
It can be seen from the table that Fote portable concrete crusher helps customers save costs, improves production efficiency, and brings objective profits to customers. If you are interested in this equipment, you can consult and quote to obtain detailed information about the equipment.
Compared with the tire-type concrete crusher, the unique feature of the mobile crusher is that it uses a crawler or tracked mounting way, which makes it 100 percent free movement and to be operated by remote control.
This British customer ordered a mobile jaw breaker and mobile impact in December last year, but due to the covid-19, he couldn't come to the factory to buy it in person. The sales team of FTM Manufacturer introduced him to detailed equipment information online and provided him with the best solution based on its output, size and other requirements. After talking, he was very satisfied and then purchased machines online in March 2020.
Small concrete crushers are mainly used for crushing with small output, and most of them are jaw crushers with fixed and mobile types. The feed size of the small concrete crusher is not very large, so it can only process smaller concrete materials.
Excavator concrete crusher can make it easy to process concrete mixed with mud and scrap. It is made of high-strength wear-resistant steel, which can be directly installed or hooked to the excavator, which greatly improves the versatility of the excavator.
It is mostly used for the removal of concrete slabs, walls and bridge decks. The jaws of this crusher can be operated without any hydraulic pressure. The crushing process depends on the pressing forces created by movable front jaw and fixed rear jaw, which can separate the concrete from the steel bar and crush the concrete at the same time.
It is also an ideal attachment for recycling different materials. You can just mount the crusher on a wheel loader to demonstrate the outstanding performance of this attachment on reinforced concrete. Usually, one of the most difficult materials to recycle is wood scraps mixed with metal parts.
As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.
Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.
Aging infrastructure and growing urban areas result in ever increasing amounts of broken concrete. RUBBLE MASTER's line of mobile concrete crushers can process a wide range of concrete products including concrete building slabs, bridgedeck, sidewalk, curbing, pipe, prestressed concrete, high PSI runway concrete or concrete railroad ties.
Crushed concrete has many uses in the construction process and is becoming increasingly popular among engineers and DOT agencies. Many specs require fines for compaction. RUBBLE MASTER's line of mobile impact crushers can be configured to meet any spec so that you get the freedom to tackle more jobs with a single machine and grow your business.
A RUBBLE MASTER is not just a crusher. The on-board screen and return conveyor allow for maximum versatility without additional screening equipment, so that you get the freedom to produce more finished products with one machine.
You crush concrete that doesn't come in convenient sizes or shapes. RUBBLE MASTER has built a mobile impact crusher that ensures smooth material flow and simple processes in case anything goes south so that you can keep crushing.
Many mobile crushers are heavy and burdensome to mobilize between plants. RUBBLE MASTER has made mobile compact crushers that are easy to move so that you get the freedom to use your crusher at virtually any jobsite - small or large.
What makes a RUBBLE MASTER a RUBBLE MASTER? It would be the uniqueness of the compact size and the remote controlled operation combined with the diesel-electric power and high output we achieve with these machines.
As surprising as it might be, concrete gets recycled. Instead of transporting concrete waste to landfills and paying a high price to dispose of concrete, contractors will recycle concrete from a demolition project. Recycling concrete results in significant cost savings, while also reducing the environmental footprint of concrete waste and production.
Instead of mining and transporting new aggregates for concrete production, recycled concrete can be used in its place, cutting down on energy use and fuel emissions involved in sourcing and transporting other aggregates.
Due to the environmental demand on landfills, and both the environmental and economic benefits of recycling concrete, more concrete disposal sites are opening up, and concrete contractors are adopting recycling in their operations to reduce the costs of concrete disposal.
To recycle concrete, the concrete must first be broken and removed from the existing pavementi.e., the demolition of concrete foundations, driveways, sidewalks, and other concrete structures. Concrete recyclers will then haul concrete from a demolition site to a concrete recycling plant.
Concrete recyclers can also use a portable crusher at the demolition site. This method is more convenient than hauling concrete to a recycling plant. The crusher will be centrally located at the demolition site out of the way of traffic but in a convenient location.
Concrete recyclers will use industrial crushing equipment with jaws and impactors to crush the concrete. It will then go through another impactor, and be screened afterward to remove dirt and to separate the crushed concrete into large and small particles (aggregate).
Other equipment and processes may also be involved to remove contaminants and elements, such as steel reinforcement fibers, clay, wood, dirt, plastic, and organic materials. These processes include handpicking, electromagnetic separators, air separators, and water flotation separators.
Crushed concrete can then be reused as an aggregate in new concrete or in any structural layer. This reuse of concrete reduces the need for mining other aggregates such as gravel and relying on the transportation of aggregates.
When used in new concrete, the recycled crushed concrete aggregate is usually mixed with a virgin aggregate. But more often than not, recycled concrete is used as an aggregate for sub-base layers of pavement.
Thanks to developments in concrete recycling equipment, any type of concrete can be recycled, whether it be plain, mesh-and-dowel or continuously-reinforced concrete. The process can remove steel to reduce hand labour. There is breaking equipment for all pavement types and crushing equipment that handles steel reinforcement.
While gravel and river rock are commonly used as mulch, groundcover, and drainage in landscaping, crushed concrete can work just as well. Recycled concrete can also be used for paving stones, water features, retaining walls, rock walls, and underpass abutment structures.
Construction and demolition (C&D) waste account for about 25 percent of solid waste. And concrete makes up the most significant part of this wasteabout 70 percent of C&D waste before recycling. And with the growing demand on landfills, it is more important than ever to divert this waste from landfills and dispose of concrete properly by recycling.
By doing so, you can eliminate the high cost of transporting concrete to landfills and paying for disposal (tipping costs). You can also save money by using recycled concrete instead of new aggregates in many construction and landscaping projects. This also means saving on transportation costs and reducing fuel emissions.
Recycling concrete saves money, energy, and the environment. To learn more about how to recycle concrete and where to take broken concrete, contact your local concrete suppliers. They can help you reduce your environmental footprint with concrete recycling.
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Rick Givan, director of special projects for LVI Environmental Services Inc., headquartered in New York City, shakes his head when he sees someone trying to set up a plant at the edge of a job site, or worse at a separate location. When processing reinforced concrete, overlooking details such as handling distance or overfeeding the hopper can reduce the potential value of a job, Givan says.
Another mistake operators make all too often, according to Dan Jere, a product support specialist at Carroll, Ohio-based Company Wrench, is failing to process concrete down in size sufficiently. He also says operators often put large pieces of concrete into the crusher that have large amounts of steel in them. Too much steel will wear down the blow bars and cut holes into the conveyor belts.
1. Choose the right equipment You must have the right equipment for the job, Jere says. You will never want to have a piece of equipment that is either too big or too small. So if youre processing concrete footers that are 6 feet thick, a concrete pulverizer or a universal processor will not be the best tool. He continues, What would work best is a hydraulic hammer that can fracture the concrete into manageable pieces that can then be processed. These more manageable pieces can then be processed with a concrete pulverizer or universal processor to remove rebar, he adds.
Ron Griess, crushing and tracks product manager for KPI-JCI, Yankton, S.D., gives another example of why equipment selection is imperative. If the concrete is heavily reinforced with rebar, it is common and recommended to use a backhoe with a shear attachment to break or shear any excessive rebar from the broken concrete. The shorter the rebar is, the less likely it is to get hung up in the machinery, and the easier it is to be extracted by the magnet.
2. Reduce Handling Givan emphasizes the importance of knowing exactly how a job site is laid out. Always sketch a job site and find the best ways to reduce handling, he advises. This will help keep the plant close to the actual pile of reinforced concrete. Ideally, you want to move the plant closer and closer as the project goes on, he says. Moving material too far will hinder the value of a job, according to Givan.
Griess also says it is best to line the largest pieces of material up first to be processed with hydraulic hammers. He suggests creating a flow so tipping vehicles can quickly be inspected, weighed and tipped without bottlenecking traffic or interrupting the crusher operation or the loader feeding the crusher. He explains, It works in an assembly line so that the smaller pieces are fed to processors to be processed down and then fed into the crusher.
3. Always pre-process Using discretion up front will save time and money later when it comes to what types of material to accept for processing. Griess says, The cleaner the material the more marketable and valuable it is. He also says to pre-screen for dirt and mud to avoid build-up from clogging the hoppers, chutes or the inside of a crusher.
D.J. Cavaliere, operations manager of Cavaliere Onsite Recycling/Rubble Master, Stamford, Conn. suggests cutting and removing any extruding rebar longer than five feet from the chunks of concrete. The longer rebar has a chance of tearing conveyor belts, he says. This is especially critical when crushing with a jaw crusher. I also like to have any lump pre-broken to a 20-inch minus size to reduce the risk of solid base plates from foundation piers entering the crushing chamber. These are normally embedded in concrete.
Gerry Mangrich of McLanahan Corp. (formerly Universal Engineering), Hollidaysburg, Pa., says pre-processing depends on the type of crusher. Typically, slabby material should be pre-broken or sheared into manageable pieces to minimize the occasional bridging in the hopper ahead of the crusher. Ideally, exposed reinforcing rod should be trimmed to reduce the potential for snagging and jamming through the transitions, he says.
Whether a contractor is using a jaw crusher or an impact crusher as a primary crusher, most crushers are designed with a reasonable level of forgiveness, Mangrich says. Even so, he also advises checking demolition rubble for the floor safe and manhole covers.
4. Magnet configuration If metal must be separated from the concrete after the material has been crushed, then magnet configuration is an important consideration to ensure maximum extrusion. Many operators and equipment manufacturers agree an overhead belt magnet is best for the job.
An overhead belt magnet should be installed over the end or beside a discharge conveyor and after the primary crusher. Mangrich adds that once the ceramic core on a magnet is damaged, the magnetic field is destroyed. An overhead belt, he says, can help prevent repeated impact.
5. Adjust when necessary Adjustments may need to be made to a crusher for it to handle concrete that contains steel reinforced bar. Cavaliere says he recommends the crushing gap be set to at least double the diameter of the largest piece of steel rebar that may enter the crushing chamber.
I also notice that operators often tend to load the crusher with an excavator that is too large or have a bucket that may be too large, he adds. For example, if your crusher will have an opening that will only allow a 36-inch wide chunk, then you should feed with a 30-inch to 36-inch bucket. This is an easy gauge for an operator.
If larger rebar is in the concrete and cannot be removed from the concrete, the crusher should be opened up to allow larger material to pass through. This helps remove the steel from the crushed material on the discharge belt, according to Griess. Jaw crushers work best for large amounts of steel in the concrete, he adds.
We always prided ourselves in using every last little bit of wood that we could, wherever we could, recalls Voortman, who ran a small construction business in Hamilton and Niagara, Ontario, Canada, for 20 years. Many other builders, he says, were not doing that. They were throwing away all kinds of good stuff at a big expense to builders.
When his friend and business colleague Joe Lopes approached him about opening a C&D facility with him, he says, I knew right away there was a lot of good waste, and we would be able to get a lot of good wood out of that.
Lopes, who operated a stone delivery service and excavation company, came across an article on St. Paul, Minn.-based Shamrock Recycling in a Mack Truck magazine and decided to tour the facility to see if it was something that could be done in Hamilton. Voortman says Lopes came back from his trip excited at the prospect of opening a facility. Lopes asked Voortman to read the article, and told him he wanted him as a partner.
That is when we went down to New England to check out a couple more plants, and then I got excited about it and it grew from there, says Voortman. The two men toured New England Recycling (NER) in Maine and Thomson Brothers in North Andover, Mass. Both companies have processing systems from Continental Biomass Industries (CBI), Newton, N.H. Voortman and Lopes also saw CBIs manufacturing plant and decided it should be the company to design and build the processing system for its new C&D recycling facility.
Countrywide Recycling At a Glance: Principals: Joe Lopes, president and operations manager; John Voortman vice president and general manager; Dave Burtt, plant manager; and Marie Voortman, office/account manager
Equipment: Continental Biomass Industries (CBI) 4860 Grizzly Mill; Case Excavator 930B and CX240 models; Action Equipment Taper-Slot screen; Action Equipment Dense-Out air knife separator; Dings crossbelt magnet; two Caterpillar 942G front-end loaders; Bobcat with grapple; NexGen two-ram baler
Becoming Reality Countrywide Recycling Inc. opened its doors in April 2011. Voortman serves as vice president and general manager while Lopes is president and operations manager. Dave Burtt, Voortmans business partner in his construction business, also joined on as plant manager, and Voortmans wife Marie is office/account manager.
When the group bought the land for the facility from the City of Hamilton in 2007, there was a moratorium on waste sites that included the groups 11.5-acre site. It took approximately six months to close the deal on the land. All the planning, site plan approvals and certificate of approval (C of A) took about one-and-one-half years. Then, it took one year to build the 60,000-square-foot facility.
By December 2011, Voortman estimates Countrywide had more than 200 customers and counting. He says Countrywide is the only C&D recycling facility in Ontario that has an automated system for sorting and recycling material. There are a lot of transfer stations that pull out some of the wood, but they dont separate it like we do.
Currently, Countrywide grinds up its clean wood to be used as a boiler fuel in greenhouses. Voortman says wood is a cost-effective alternative to natural gas for the large-scale greenhouses in Ontario that must keep temperatures near 95 degrees at all times.
The company currently processes between 200 to 250 tons per day of material, but has the capability and approval to process up to 800 tons per day. There is a lot of room there to go, admits Voortman, but he is optimistic about the companys growth. We havent got a full year in yet. I am happy with the growth we are having right now.
According to Voortman, much of the C&D material generated in Canada ends up in the U.S. Hauling companies and other potential customers can reduce their transportation costs by unloading material at Countrywides facility instead of hauling it into the U.S. Voortman says Countrywide tries to keep its tipping fees competitive.
Countrywide diverts about 65 percent of the material it receives from the waste stream, according to Voortmans estimates. He hopes that number continues to improve. The materials the company does not recycle are going to a landfill in the U.S., since he says municipally owned landfills in Ontario do not accept C&D materials and privately owned C&D landfills in Canada tend to be more expensive than they are across the border.
According to Voortman, Hamilton is working on a sludge-to-energy plant that would be an ideal outlet for the overs the Countrywide plant produces. This would further help increase landfill diversion.
Hands-on Approach Increasing diversion and intake of material isnt the only way Countrywide is interested in growing. Voortman says the company wants to someday put in a truck maintenance shop for its trucks, which currently includes three tractor trailers, one rolloff truck, one hooklift truck, three walking floors and three dry van trailers. The company also has an estimated 75 bins in Southern Ontario to collect material.
Voortman says he and his partners are very hands-on with their business. It is not out of the ordinary to find Voortman on the picking line pulling out recyclables. A 12-hour day is a short day for us owners. Usually it is 14 to 15 hours.
It is impossible today to have a conversation about waste and recycling without using or hearing the words sustainability or sustainable principles. The idea of sustainability has permeated our culture at every level from the elementary school classroom to the White House, and is spoken of in business conference rooms and family dinner tables. It is even starting to break into the world of health and safety on construction sites. But what is sustainability and why should this article be any different from the thousands that have come before it on the subject?
If you ask 10 people what they think sustainability means, you may get 10 different answers. You may hear about conserving electricity by turning off lights when they are not needed, or about fossil fuels and how we need to minimize their use and develop re-usable energy sources. Webster defines sustainability as of, relating to, or being a method of harvesting or using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged.
Safety and Sustainability This relates to jobsite health and safety in that the resources we are trying to conserve are ourselves and our labor force onsite. This seems to be a new idea and a new relationship between the ideas of safety and sustainability, but I would disagree. The safety and protection of the employees on a jobsite has been a priority for companies long before the idea of sustainability became mainstream practice. Health and safety programs are inherently sustainable. They are implemented to conserve and protect our workforce through management of work hours, training initiatives, working conditions, and hazard protection, and are outlined in the health and safety plan (HASP).
The National Demolition Association (NDA) is conducting its 2012 17th Demolition Academy at the Grand Hyatt in San Antonio, March 10-11. This year, the academy is scheduled right before the NDA 39th Annual Convention, enabling participants to stay on for the convention.
The most obvious management tool used to protect the labor force from damage is the use of hazard identification and control. It is also at this point that you establish the Hierarchy of Controls. The Hierarchy of Controls is a system of hazard identification that is used to eliminate, mitigate or otherwise control all hazards. The general order goes something like this:
A Fresh Look Elimination of the hazard seems simple enough, but we face hazards every day at the construction and demolition recycling job site. The idea of eliminating the hazard is not new, but many times the assumption is made that we cannot eliminate the hazard strictly by our past experience with similar operations. The old saying goes, when you assume you makewell, you know the rest. A fresh look must be taken at eliminating the hazard or are we not protecting the resource that is our workforce. The new perspective gained may also improve working conditions by reducing the amount of time that employees will be exposed to a hazard.
Substitution of hazardous chemicals used in demolition, decontamination or remediation is an area that has benefited from the sustainability push; many new products are taking the place of previously accepted and widely used chemicals. The new products are often reusable, recyclable and less harmful to the environment and workforce.
Engineering controls are used to keep employees away from the hazard using time distance and shielding as a primary means of protection. The industry has been a major factor in the innovations that have become mainstays in the performance of work. From the use of long-handled torches to high-reach demolition machines, the industry has been able to move the hazard and exposure away from the average worker. This has been integral in lowering the exposure to injury in the industry. The downside to the speed of innovation is the lag time in the corresponding safety rules and practices associated with these tools. With new tools come new hazards that must be addressed, and the industry is looking to trade associations and OEM manufactures to take the lead in providing this information to the industry. Employers must stay up to date with the latest guidance documents and technical bulletins to implement them into health and safety plans as they become available.
Taking Control Administrative controls are the area where the largest impact for the well-being of your workforcewritten policies and procedures that affect work rules, regulated areas, hours of work, supervision and training with the goal of reducing exposure to identified hazards. The focus of these principles should be in the training and professional development of the workforce. This will not only make the organizations we work for more sustainable, but also secure the sustainability of the industry going forward.
The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is the last line of defense from the hazards that can be used. The key to being in compliance with PPE regulations is to perform an extensive evaluation of the hazard and to choose the appropriate equipment for all exposed personnel.
There are many decisions and tradeoffs to be made in this process. Employee fit and comfort are of utmost importance for the successful implementation and execution of the site HASP. The amount of additional waste that PPE will add to the project is another consideration to be made during the evaluation process. The reduced exposure to hazards due to the use of the Hierarchy of Controls will curtail the amount of time workers must spend in PPE, thus making them more comfortable and productive.
Hazard evaluation and the use of the Hierarchy of Controls to develop your HASP is not a new concept, and as we have shown it is a sustainability tool. Careful pre-planning and analysis of your job site will allow you to ensure your safety program will address the hazards to your employees. As well, sustainability decisions will positively contribute to the long-term success of your organization and the industry.
In order for Keremes to make the best recommendation, he will need to know what is being loaded, how many tons a day are being shipped out of the yard, what material is being moved, and the layout of the facility.
A smaller facility can get away with a smaller machine. If the facility handles larger volumes each day and week, a higher capacity machine may be necessary. While a smaller machine might offer more mobility and transportability between work areas or even job sites (and lower operating costs per hour), it may not be able to handle the volume of a larger, more powerful machine or provide the same stacking height.
Steve Brezinski of Terex Fuchs, Southaven, Miss., says some recycling facilities use a combination of larger and smaller material handlers. In scrap applications, the larger material handlers will do the heavy lifting while the smaller machines will handle the peddler traffic materials or engage in yard clean-up with a magnet.
Expansion goals should be taken into consideration in the machine decision as well. Depending on what their expansion goals are, [recycling companies] may want to buy a bigger machine, says Brezinski. Essentially, if a company is planning to expand its processing capacity at a future date, it generally makes sense to go with a larger machine.
Weighing the Options Size is not the only consideration a recycler will have to take into account when deciding on a material handler. From automation to safety to power source, there are many options available. Wilson says there are some features that every material handler should have, including a boom and stick, a safety lever and a rear view safety camera.
Brezinski says Terex offers a quick attach, which Brezinski describes as a hanger at the end of the stick. This allows operators to change between a grapple or another attachment without having to remove the pin at the end of the stick. Other features depend on the application, he says.
A straight boom and stick are typically standard on machines, but there also are options for specialized applications. For example, a facility that is loading a below-grade or ground-level sorting system infeed conveyor may benefit from having a bent boom on their material handler, which will allow for a lower reach.
One aspect Keremes appreciates about the Sennebogen machines he sells is that many key components are made in the U.S. This is important, he says, because if the dealer or manufacturer does not have a part, they can easily look through common distribution channels to find what a customer needs.
On the Ground Determining which platform to select on a material handler has a lot to do with terrain and how much movement is necessary. Dealers and manufacturers indicate that wheeled material handlers are more popular than the track-mounted models in the scrap recycling sector, where yards have become increasingly more concrete- and asphalt-covered.
Brezinski says tracked machines are useful in the dirt or mud, which is certainly terrain demolition contractors are familiar with, and often mixed C&D recyclers as well. Tracked machines can also be useful in more stationary applications, say equipment industry sources.
Keremes says fuel savings is a key reason recyclers are choosing this type of machine. While the initial cost may be 20-to-25 percent higher, he points out, The fuel savings will pay for the difference in two-to-three years tops.
Other benefits of pedestal-mounted material handlers are reduced maintenance and increased efficiency because of their ability to run longer and stay cooler without an engine. They also last longer, according to Keremes. A typical diesel engine-powered material handler can run about 20,000 to 25,000 operating hours before needing to be rebuilt. Keremes estimates an electric-powered machine can run 30,000 to 40,000 hours. Onsite emissions also are eliminated with the use of electricity compared to a diesel engine-powered machine.
With so much to consider not only about a recycling facilitys needs but also the capabilities of the machine, talking to a salesperson is an important step in the purchase process, according to Keremes. A good sales representative should know the products, what they can handle and what they are capable of doing, he comments. They really need to narrow down what it is the customer wants to do.
Exodus Machines Inc., Superior., Wis., has been making significant strides into the hydraulic material handler market since being formed by Bruce Bacon, Jim Campbell, and Greg Bacon in late 2007 and early 2008.
Exodus currently fields models in the 100,000-pound and 125,000-pound classes. The Exodus machines are designed to provide ground-level cab entry and ease of transport without removing sticks or catwalks.
As a purpose-built machine, traditional engineering constraints were limited, says the company of its product design. This allows for the design to start from scratch and focus on longevity and flexibility. The machine uses proven parts and common components for ease of logistical support. Exodus also provides a warranty of two years or 4,000 [operating] hours.
A sales and market development stepping stone for Exodus occurred in the summer of 2011, when Michigan CAT, Novi, Mich., was lined up as the exclusive authorized distributor of Exodus wheeled material handlers in Michigans Lower Peninsula.
According to Michigan CAT, the agreement fulfills a need for both organizations, as Michigan CAT was seeking purpose-built material handling machines for industrial customers and Exodus was looking for a dealer who could provide product support and had experience servicing the scrap and recycling industries.
Terry Erickson, Michigan CAT sales manager, says the agreement should provide customers with the opportunity to enjoy greater productivity and profitability within market segments such as demolition and scrap metal that remain vital components of Michigans recovery.
As we compared our capabilities in product as well as support, I think both parties quickly realized that this would be a winning combination, Erickson says. Exodus sees a dealer with unmatched competitive advantages in this territory; from experience with the scrap/recycling industry to our statewide shop footprint and our field service capability. For our part, we get to offer a unique machine with excellent capabilities manufactured here in the United States, he adds.
For much of 2011, demolition contractors and C&D recyclers received prices for their scrap metal that were not only near historic highs, but also relatively stable. In the final four months of the year, however, price volatility first affected the copper market and then it affected the market for ferrous scrap.
Ferrous scrap shippers in the U.S. had received steady prices for their products from March through October of 2011, whether export demand fluctuated or not. After November, when buyers came in with offers about $40 per ton lower for many grades of ferrous scrap, these same buyers came back into the market in December in the previous price range.
Red metals (copper and brass scrap) traders began to experience volatility in the third quarter of 2011. In September, prices for copper on international exchanges fell sharply, meaning scrap processors in the U.S. dropped their scale prices for demo contractors and other customers.
In the nonferrous metals markets, where prices change minute-by-minute on international exchanges, throughout 2011 conditions in the worlds economy provided a sub-text of anxiety. While traders kept one eye on Internet news sites at all times to make sure world events did not catch them off guard, demolition contractors asking for copper and brass scrap price quotes often heard very different numbers from one day to the next.
At the 2011 Paper Recycling Conference (www.Paper RecyclingConference.com), held in Chicago in late October, panelists were nonetheless optimistic that Asian markets would continue to work in tandem with domestic mill demand to keep OCC healthy. I think there is still growth to come in places like India in the next five to 10 years, said Rice.
China has only 4 percent of the worlds forestation but about 20 percent of its population, said DeRueda, who added that OCC shipments from the United States to China will likely rise again in 2011 when final statistics are tabulated.
The global significance of Chinese recovered fiber imports was highlighted in a BIR (Bureau of International Recycling) Autumn Round-Table presentation given by Nobutaka Okubo, the vice president of the Japan Recovered Paper Association. He indicated that China accounted for 79.8 percent of all Japanese recovered paper exports in 2010 (slightly less than 3.5 million metric tons). Of the 4.4 million metric tons exported by Japan to all destinations, OCC made up 50.6 percent and news/OMG a further 34.3 percent by grade, said Okubo.
American paper recyclers contacted in December described the OCC market as sluggish, though, as Chinese mills continued to postpone making significant purchases. Several paper stock dealers also say Chinese New Year, which takes place in late January, is likely to further suppress pricing for OCC.
At that same BIR event (held in Munich in October), BIR Plastics Committee Chairman Surendra Borad of Gemini Corp. NV, Belgium, used the phrase, under pressure to describe plastic scrap prices in the United States. The export market to India was absolutely dormant, said Borad, as many company licenses to import plastic scrap into India had not been renewed. Indias domestic recycling industry, on the other hand, is doing extremely well and claims to have achieved a recycling rate of 47 percent, Borad said.
An American plastics recycler contacted by Recycling Today in mid-December said that several grades of plastic scrap were oversupplied at that time, causing prices to decline. He said, though, that he expects demand to recover in late winter as the supply starts to slow.
In his presentation, Borad predicted a golden future for the rapidly-expanding recycling industry. After examining data, he has arrived at the conclusion that the global recycling industry is worth upwards of $500 billion annually and employs as many as 20 million people around the world. The industry is growing at a tremendous rate that is faster than (world) GDP growth, Borad stated.
Iron Resolve With turmoil as a backdrop throughout the year and the red metals markets beginning to fade in mid-August, ferrous scrap processors may well have anticipated their market segment would be the next to suffer. And a price drop that occured in November seemed to point in that direction.
But if demolition contractors and scrap recyclers were concerned about price declines in November, they merely needed to wait for the December buying period, when prices rebounded by nearly the same amounts that they had fallen 30 days earlier.
Spot market figures collected through the Raw Material Data Aggregation Service (RMDAS) of Management Science Associates (MSA), Pittsburgh, showed domestic steel mills paying from $10 to $40 more per ton for their scrap in the first 20 days of December.
Two different recyclers in the South reported that across-the-scale scrap flows were strong in December. A peddler yard operator in Arkansas said that in mid-December, despite the harsh weather moving through his state at that time, traffic was brisk. In some cases, peddlers, farmers and other property owners were selling obsolete items to earn some last-minute holiday spending money.
Another recycler who works for a larger processing and wholesaling firm, said that as of mid- and late December many smaller dealers were holding onto their scrap. Our secondary suppliers feel bullish about January and are holding back, says the scrap processor. A lot of smaller dealers are seeing what they think will be a bigger market in January and holding onto material. Plus, a lot of them want to minimize their 2011 tax liability, so they are not selling any more in 2011.
On the demand side, North American mills in early December produced at 74 percent of capacity, according to the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI, www.steel.org). That level is above the 2010 same-week rate of 68 percent but down slightly from the previous week of this year.
With 2011 nearly complete, steelmakers in the U.S. had produced nearly 90 million tons of steel, showing a 7.5 percent increase from the 83.6 million tons that had been produced in the first 11-and-a-half months of 2010, according to AISI.
Globally, figures from the World Steel Association (www.worldsteel.org) demonstrated a significant decline in steel production in November 2011 compared with the month before. While the worlds steel producers pumped out nearly 124 million metric tons of steel in October, in November that figure fell to just 115.5 million metric tons.
The biggest decline was in the biggest market, as Chinese production slipped by 4.7 million metric tons, accounting for about half of the global decrease. European steelmakers also produced about 1 million metric tons less, while steel output in the U.S. was down by less than 120,000 metric tons.
In major scrap export destination Turkey, steel production in the first 11 months of 2011 was an impressive 17.6 percent higher year-to-date compared with 2010. Some 3.6 million metric tons more steel was produced in 2011 compared with the year before.
Rapid Pulse Buyers and sellers of nonferrous metals, and copper in particular, operated in an environment of historically high prices in 2011, with volatility added to the mix in the second half of the year.
While coppers autumn volatility grabbed the spotlight, the worlds aluminum market functioned on a more stable plateau. Measured by London Metal Exchange (LME) aluminum alloy cash buying monthly average pricing, the light metal ranged in from $2,272 to $2,398 per metric ton in the first nine months of 2011. That reflects a trading range of about 9 percent from peak to trough during that 9-month period.
In the case of aluminum, the metal was at its low in January, drifted upward through May, and then began losing value. Its September average of $2,274 per metric ton put it almost exactly where it started in January. Demolition contractors selling their aluminum scrap, for the most part, received across-the-scale prices that stayed within a steady range.
LME copper, on the other hand, traded from as high as $9,866 per metric ton in February down to $8,313 in September, representing a steeper 16 percent drop. In the red metals case, there were fluctuations throughout the 9-month period, with the steepest drops occurring in May and September.
Aluminums ups and down were mild compared to coppers in 2011. As portrayed by Recycling Today Global Edition (www.RecyclingTodayGlobal.com) contributor Steve Solomon of Solomon Metals Corp., Lynn, Mass., in the late summer, There seems to be scrap available, but the problem is that getting commitments from consumers to buy it when they dont know what the economic landscape will be for the next several months. It is very difficult to make strong sales in that type of environment.
Uncertainty about Europes economy and figures that point to slower economic growth in China were helping contribute to coppers price decline, as speculation now seems to figure into copper pricing much more than in previous decades. As well, new customs rules adopted by China on Aug. 12, 2011, led to traffic jams at several major ports.
New regulations in China are continuing to throw confusion into how material can be shipped, Solomon reported in the late summer. Regulations seem to be changing constantly. People are unsure whether things will change even when things are en route. Just to get bookings of containers has been a challenge. The business is sort of changing on the fly.
Solomon cited these procedural customs changes as being of greater concern than price fluctuations. The volatility of the markets is no different now than it was or has been for the last several years, he commented. I think we have gotten used to the volatility of the markets. We can deal with that through hedging or whatever other means we use to lock our prices in. What we cant get used to are the changing regulations that, even when good deals are made, things can change before the deals are done.
When customs and inspection procedures change, both sellers and buyers can experience turmoil, Solomon noted. There is sort of a lack of confidence that what was a good shipment previously, now when it gets there, the same material is a problem, Solomon said.
Whether the problems are market related or not is hard to tell, Solomon added. All these factors are creating a very frustrating trading environment with no answers. It is very hard and many of the exporters have been caught in the middle. It is frustrating on [the buyers] part as well. It is hard to get into deals knowing there could be problems and the kind of profits the traders are trying to make is not enough to cover potential problems.
As of mid-December 2011, nonferrous recyclers contacted by Recycling Today magazine were expressing mild optimism for the year ahead. I think the demand for autos in 2012 will be good, commented one East Coast recycler.
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