## convert lb/h to m3/h | pound (water mass) per hour to cubic meters per hour

The cubic meters per hour unit number 0.00045 m3/h converts to 1 lb/h, one pound (water mass) per hour. It is the EQUAL flow rate value of 1 pound (water mass) per hour but in the cubic meters per hour flow rate unit alternative.

This unit-to-unit calculator is based on conversion for one pair of two flow rate units. For a whole set of multiple units for volume and mass flow on one page, try the Multi-Unit converter tool which has built in all flowing rate unit-variations. Page with flow rate by mass unit pairs exchange.

With the above mentioned two-units calculating service it provides, this flow rate converter proved to be useful also as a teaching tool: 1. in practicing pounds (water mass) per hour and cubic meters per hour ( lb/h vs. m3/h ) measures exchange. 2. for conversion factors between unit pairs. 3. work with flow rate's values and properties.

To link to this flow rate pound (water mass) per hour to cubic meters per hour online converter simply cut and paste the following.
The link to this tool will appear as: flow rate from pound (water mass) per hour (lb/h) to cubic meters per hour (m3/h) conversion.

The flow rate converter from lb/h ( pounds (water mass) per hour ) measure to m3/h ( cubic meters per hour ) equivalent. Privacy policy | Terms of Use & Disclaimer | Contact | Advertise | Site map 2021 www.traditionaloven.com

## concrete calculator - how much concrete do you need in yards, feet, meters, etc

Use this concrete calculator to estimate how much concrete in volume (cubic ft, cubic yards, or cubic meters), weight or number of bags you would need for your walls, columns, steps, slabs, footings, etc. The calculator uses a standard readymix concrete density by default, but allows for a custom one as well.

Before using a concrete calculator, it is helpful to understand what concrete is so any estimations you make can be as close to reality as possible. Concrete is a composite material used for all kinds of construction projects, especially where high compressive strength is required. It is composed of fine and coarse aggregate which are bonded via fluid cement paste that hardens over time - usually about a week to reach over 50% of its final strength and a couple of weeks to reach 95% of it. Completely settling in place might take several years, depending on climate and other conditions.

Most concretes in construction are lime-based, such as Portland cement concrete or calcium aluminate cement. Road construction is an exception since in asphalt concrete the cement material is bitumen. Polymer-based concretes are seldom used. Most concrete is embedded with reinforcing materials (e.g. rebar) which provide tensile strength (which concrete lacks on its own) resulting in reinforced concrete.

Different concretes may exhibit highly variable density which is an important part of estimating the amount of concrete you need. For example, Portland cement concrete holds water, but other types of concrete called "Pervious concrete" allow water to pass, making storm drains unnecessary. These two types of conrecte would naturally have vastly different densities. Our concrete calculator allows you to specify custom concrete density for accurate results.

Most builders face the task of calculating or estimating the amount of concrete needed to build a certain structure: a rectangular or round slab, a wall, supporting square and round columns, staircases and curbs and gutters. The process is as follows:

The final step can be done for a custom mix by calculating the required amounts of gravel, cement and other materials based on the chosen proportions (percentages). Scroll down for more on concrete density and redymix versus custom mix concrete.

Given that there is usually some percentage of concrete lost or wasted during the mixing and pouring process, it is a good idea to consider buying 5-6% more concrete than estimated, to be on the safe side. For example, if our concrete calculator estimates you need 8 tons (~16,000 lbs) of concrete, you need to add at least 5% and purchase a total of 8.4 tons (~16,800 lbs). Use our percentage increase calculator for easier calculation.

It is no different for a concrete footing, where we again have the familiar formula h x w x l.
Concrete column
A rectangular column is simple to calculate, except in most cases the height will be much greater than the foundation dimensions, so in our concrete calculator we have defaulted to inches for width and length, and feet for the height (cm and meters respectively).
Things get more interesting with a round column:
If you remember, the volume of a column is its height times the area of its foundation. To calculate the area we only need its diameter, since the formula is x r2, where r is the radius, or diameter/2.
Concrete staircase, curb and gutter
More complex concrete forms such as curb and gutter and staircases use the same approach, though the calculation is a bit more complex and so a calculator becomes more essential. For the curb & gutter its just a matter of combining the curb and gutter volume using this formula:
curb depth * (curb height + flag thickness) * length + gutter width * flag thickness * length, where each component is as illustrated below:
A staircase is probably the most complex one, since we need to account for the increasing volume of concrete for each subsequent stair, and also the added depth of the platform on the last step. A calculator like ours is really does a lot of heavy lifting in this case. The volume formula for each particular step is n x step rise x step run x step width, where n is the n-th step. For step 2, with a rise of 6 inches, run of 6 inches and width of 4 feet, the calculation would be 2 x 0.5 x 0.5 x 4 = 2 ft3 (cu ft.)
Note that larger concrete stairs usually have air space beneath them, thus greatly reducing the amount of concrete you need. They usually have a sloping base, and steps on top. This form is more complex and not currently supported by our calculator.
Concrete density & common bag sizes
Estimating volume is easy but estimating the required concrete weight (mass) is harder, as we need to know the density of our material, usually given in kg per cubic meter (kg/m3). It is also referred to "density in place". Conventional concrete has density between 1900 kg/m3 and 2400 kg/m3 and can endure, on day 28 of its pouring, and has a compressive strength between 2500 psi and 7000 psi (pounds per square inch) ~ 200-492 kg/cm2. According to the Portland Cement Association concrete with strength between 7000 and 14000 psi is considered high-strength[1].
Standard U.S. concrete is usually about 2130 kg/m3, which is also the default in this concrete calculator, but you can enter any density in it to customize the calculation. Lightweight concrete is usually below 1500 kg/m3, while electrically conductive concrete is between 1450-1800 kg/m3.
Concrete manufacturers often don't specify the density of their concrete mixture directly, but instead give you the bag yield of the material in place. For example, a conventional redymix concrete bag of 80 lbs may be listed as having a yield of approximately 0.60 cu ft or a 25 kg bag may have a yield of ~0.01 cu m. With a few simple mathematical transformations we can use this number to arrive at the in place density of the material and complete our calculation of the total mass and number of bags of concrete we would need. If you already know the density and volume you can also use our density calculator to complete the calculations.
Common bag sizes in the U.S. are 80 lbs and 60 lbs bags, while 40 lbs are also manufactured by some producers. In Europe the standards are 25 kg and 50 kg bags. All of these are calculated by default in our online tool, depending on your chosen metrics, while you can also specify a custom bag size if you so desire.
Readymix vs. custom mixed concrete
Our software uses readymix concrete (a.k.a. ready mix concrete) in the calculations it does. Readymix is pre-mixed concrete to which you only need to add water (in proportion as specified by manufacturer). By knowing the pounds or kilograms of concrete you need, you can calculate the amount of cement and other materials you would need for your custom mix. Custom mixing concrete is, however, a complicated matter and we recommend you attempt it only if your knowledge of building and construction materials is on a professional level.
Concrete in Ancient Rome
Did you know that concrete was known and heavily used in ancient Rome[2]? Romans were so good at making concrete, that some of it is in perfect condition even today, some 2 millennia later. Rather than eroding, like most modern concrete the material seems to gain strength from the exposure, particularly in the presence of sea water.
We are still unable to replicate the concrete of ancient Rome and there are a number of limiting factors which make it a very challenging task. For example - the lack of suitable volcanic rocks - Romans were fortunate the right materials were on their doorstep, almost literally. Another issue is that the Romans didn't follow a precise mixture, so we'll need years of experimenting to arrive at a good approximation.
Modern concrete tunnel
If you want your building project to stand the test of time, then a good concrete mixture and estimating the amount of concrete you need are solid first steps.
References
[1] Portland Cement Association. "Cement & Concrete Basics FAQs" (2001) [online] Available at: http://www.cement.org/cement-concrete-applications/cement-and-concrete-basics-faqs
[2] Jackson M., Marra, F. "Roman Stone Masonry: Volcanic Foundations of the Ancient City" (2006) American Journal of Archaeology Vol. 110-3, pp. 403436

A rectangular column is simple to calculate, except in most cases the height will be much greater than the foundation dimensions, so in our concrete calculator we have defaulted to inches for width and length, and feet for the height (cm and meters respectively).

If you remember, the volume of a column is its height times the area of its foundation. To calculate the area we only need its diameter, since the formula is x r2, where r is the radius, or diameter/2.

More complex concrete forms such as curb and gutter and staircases use the same approach, though the calculation is a bit more complex and so a calculator becomes more essential. For the curb & gutter its just a matter of combining the curb and gutter volume using this formula:

A staircase is probably the most complex one, since we need to account for the increasing volume of concrete for each subsequent stair, and also the added depth of the platform on the last step. A calculator like ours is really does a lot of heavy lifting in this case. The volume formula for each particular step is n x step rise x step run x step width, where n is the n-th step. For step 2, with a rise of 6 inches, run of 6 inches and width of 4 feet, the calculation would be 2 x 0.5 x 0.5 x 4 = 2 ft3 (cu ft.)

Note that larger concrete stairs usually have air space beneath them, thus greatly reducing the amount of concrete you need. They usually have a sloping base, and steps on top. This form is more complex and not currently supported by our calculator.

Estimating volume is easy but estimating the required concrete weight (mass) is harder, as we need to know the density of our material, usually given in kg per cubic meter (kg/m3). It is also referred to "density in place". Conventional concrete has density between 1900 kg/m3 and 2400 kg/m3 and can endure, on day 28 of its pouring, and has a compressive strength between 2500 psi and 7000 psi (pounds per square inch) ~ 200-492 kg/cm2. According to the Portland Cement Association concrete with strength between 7000 and 14000 psi is considered high-strength[1].

Standard U.S. concrete is usually about 2130 kg/m3, which is also the default in this concrete calculator, but you can enter any density in it to customize the calculation. Lightweight concrete is usually below 1500 kg/m3, while electrically conductive concrete is between 1450-1800 kg/m3.

Concrete manufacturers often don't specify the density of their concrete mixture directly, but instead give you the bag yield of the material in place. For example, a conventional redymix concrete bag of 80 lbs may be listed as having a yield of approximately 0.60 cu ft or a 25 kg bag may have a yield of ~0.01 cu m. With a few simple mathematical transformations we can use this number to arrive at the in place density of the material and complete our calculation of the total mass and number of bags of concrete we would need. If you already know the density and volume you can also use our density calculator to complete the calculations.

Common bag sizes in the U.S. are 80 lbs and 60 lbs bags, while 40 lbs are also manufactured by some producers. In Europe the standards are 25 kg and 50 kg bags. All of these are calculated by default in our online tool, depending on your chosen metrics, while you can also specify a custom bag size if you so desire.

Our software uses readymix concrete (a.k.a. ready mix concrete) in the calculations it does. Readymix is pre-mixed concrete to which you only need to add water (in proportion as specified by manufacturer). By knowing the pounds or kilograms of concrete you need, you can calculate the amount of cement and other materials you would need for your custom mix. Custom mixing concrete is, however, a complicated matter and we recommend you attempt it only if your knowledge of building and construction materials is on a professional level.

Did you know that concrete was known and heavily used in ancient Rome[2]? Romans were so good at making concrete, that some of it is in perfect condition even today, some 2 millennia later. Rather than eroding, like most modern concrete the material seems to gain strength from the exposure, particularly in the presence of sea water.

We are still unable to replicate the concrete of ancient Rome and there are a number of limiting factors which make it a very challenging task. For example - the lack of suitable volcanic rocks - Romans were fortunate the right materials were on their doorstep, almost literally. Another issue is that the Romans didn't follow a precise mixture, so we'll need years of experimenting to arrive at a good approximation.

If you'd like to cite this online calculator resource and information as provided on the page, you can use the following citation: Georgiev G.Z., "Concrete Calculator", [online] Available at: https://www.gigacalculator.com/calculators/concrete-calculator.php URL [Accessed Date: 10 Jul, 2021].

Our online calculators, converters, randomizers, and content are provided "as is", free of charge, and without any warranty or guarantee. Each tool is carefully developed and rigorously tested, and our content is well-sourced, but despite our best effort it is possible they contain errors. We are not to be held responsible for any resulting damages from proper or improper use of the service. See our full terms of service.

## weight of 1 cubic meter of m10, m15, m20 and m25 concrete - civil sir

Weight of 1 cubic meter of M10, M15, M20 and M25 concrete | Weight of 1 cubic meter of M10 concrete | Weight of 1 cubic meter of M15 concrete | Weight of 1 cubic meter of M20 concrete | Weight of 1 cubic meter of M25 concrete | weight of 1 cubic meter concrete.

Concrete is the one of the most important building material made of mixture of cement, sand, aggregate mixed with water to form plain cement concrete if it is provided with steel reinforcement bar then it will be reinforced cement concrete.

Plain cement concrete and reinforced cement concrete used to form structural member of building like concrete floor slab, RCC footing, RCC beam, RCC column and RCC slab. Today concrete is used in various project in construction civil engineering, in construction industries, formation of commercial building, Apartment, high rise building, Bridge, dams, Reservoir, tunnels, etc.

Concrete have various grade represented as M10, M15, M20 and M25, in which M stand for mix and all world by numerical figure is characteristics of compressive strength. In this article we know about weight of 1 cubic meter of M10, M15, M20 and M25 concrete.

Weight of 1 cubic meter of concrete:- 1 cubic metre of concrete weight around 2.5 metric ton (2500kgs), typically 1m3 of concrete is made up of about 350kg (7bags) cement, 700 kg sand, 1200kg aggregate, about 150 litres of water and 100kg of steel embedded in it as per design structure in case reinforced cement concrete (RCC concrete).

Weight of 1 cubic meter concrete:- 1 cubic metre of concrete weight around 2.4 metric ton (2400kgs), typically 1m3 of concrete is made up of about 350kg (7bags) cement, 700 kg sand, 1200kg aggregate and about 150 litres of water without steel in it as per design structure in case plain cement concrete (PCC concrete).

We have to prepare 1m3 of M10 concrete, this is wet volume, to calculate dry volume we will multiply 1.54 in wet volume, so total volume of concrete = 1.54m3, in M10 concrete nominal mix ratio of cement, sand and aggregate is 1: 3: 6 respectively and water cement ratio is about 0.60.

Quantity of cement required for 1 cubic meter of m10 concrete:- considering, 1440kg/m3 is density of cement, then cement quantity = (1/10) 1.54m3 1440 kg/m3 = 222kg or around 4.44 bags 50 kg of cement. Therefore, 222kg (4.44 bags of 50kg) cement are required to form 1 cubic meter of m10 concrete

According to indian standard, as we know that about 480kg of mixture of sand and aggregate required per bag 50kg of cement, so total weight of gravel (sand + aggregate) = 4.44480 = 2130 kg, Generally sand to aggregate ratio is 1:2 by weight, total ratio = 1+2 =3, part of sand = 1/3 and part of aggregate = 2/3.

Quantity of sand required for 1 cubic meter of m10 concrete:- As total gravel weight is 2130kg, sand part is 1/3, hence sand quantity in mix = (1/3) 2130 = 710kg sand. Therefore 710kg of sand required for 1 cubic meter of m10 concrete.

Quantity of aggregate required for 1 cubic meter of m10 concrete:- As total gravel weight is 2130kg, aggregate part is 2/3, hence aggregate quantity in mix = (2/3) 2130 = 1420kg aggregate. Therefore 1420kg of aggregate required for 1 cubic meter of m10 concrete.

Quantity of water required for 1 cubic meter of m10 concrete:- As we know water cement ratio for m10 concrete is about 0.6, as cement = 222kg, then water quantity = 0.6 222kg= 133 Litres. Therefore 133Litres of water required for 1 cubic meter of m10 concrete.

Weight of 1 cubic meter of m10 concrete:- M10 concrete generally used as PCC, 1 cubic metre of m10 concrete weight around 2.4 metric ton (2400kgs), typically 1m3 of m10 concrete is made up of about 222kg (4.44bags of 50kg) cement, 710 kg sand, 1420kg aggregate and about 133 litres of water as per design structure in case plain cement concrete (PCC concrete).

We have to prepare 1m3 of M15 concrete, this is wet volume, to calculate dry volume we will multiply 1.54 in wet volume, so total volume of concrete = 1.54m3, in M15 concrete nominal mix ratio of cement, sand and aggregate is 1: 2: 4 respectively and water cement ratio is about 0.60.

Quantity of cement required for 1 cubic meter of m15 concrete:- considering, 1440kg/m3 is density of cement, then cement quantity = (1/7) 1.54m3 1440 kg/m3 = 317kg or around 6.35 bags 50 kg of cement. Therefore, 317kg (6.35 bags of 50kg) cement are required to form 1 cubic meter of m15 concrete.

According to indian standard, as we know that about 330kg of mixture of sand and aggregate required per bag 50kg of cement, so total weight of gravel (sand + aggregate) = 6.35330 = 2095 kg, Generally sand to aggregate ratio is 1:2 by weight, total ratio = 1+2 =3, part of sand = 1/3 and part of aggregate = 2/3.

Quantity of sand required for 1 cubic meter of m15 concrete:- As total gravel weight is 2095kg, sand part is 1/3, hence sand quantity in mix = (1/3) 2095 = 698kg sand. Therefore 698kg of sand required for 1 cubic meter of m15 concrete.

Quantity of aggregate required for 1 cubic meter of m15 concrete:- As total gravel weight is 2095kg, aggregate part is 2/3, hence aggregate quantity in mix = (2/3) 2095 = 1396kg aggregate. Therefore 1396kg of aggregate required for 1 cubic meter of m15 concrete.

Quantity of water required for 1 cubic meter of m15 concrete:- As we know water cement ratio for m15 concrete is about 0.6, as cement = 317kg, then water quantity = 0.6 317kg= 190 Litres. Therefore 190Litres of water required for 1 cubic meter of m15 concrete.

Weight of 1 cubic meter of m15 concrete:- M15 concrete generally used in both PCC and RCC, 1 cubic metre of m15 concrete weight around 2.5 metric ton (2500kgs), typically 1m3 of m15 concrete is made up of about 317kg (6.35bags of 50kg) cement, 698 kg sand, 1396kg aggregate and about 190 litres of water and 100kg of steel embedded in it as per design structure in case reinforced cement concrete (RCC concrete).

We have to prepare 1m3 of M20 concrete, this is wet volume, to calculate dry volume we will multiply 1.54 in wet volume, so total volume of concrete = 1.54m3, in M20 concrete nominal mix ratio of cement, sand and aggregate is 1: 1.5: 3 respectively and water cement ratio is about 0.55.

Quantity of cement required for 1 cubic meter of m20 concrete:- considering, 1440kg/m3 is density of cement, then cement quantity = (1/5.5) 1.54m3 1440 kg/m3 = 403kg or around 8 bags of 50 kg of cement. Therefore, 403kg (8 bags of 50kg) cement are required to form 1 cubic meter of m20 concrete.

According to indian standard, as we know that about 250kg of mixture of sand and aggregate required per bag 50kg of cement, so total weight of gravel (sand + aggregate) = 8250 = 2000 kg, Generally sand to aggregate ratio is 1:2 by weight, total ratio = 1+2 =3, part of sand = 1/3 and part of aggregate = 2/3.

Quantity of sand required for 1 cubic meter of m20 concrete:- As total gravel weight is 2000kg, sand part is 1/3, hence sand quantity in mix = (1/3) 2000 = 666kg sand. Therefore 666kg of sand required for 1 cubic meter of m20 concrete.

Quantity of aggregate required for 1 cubic meter of m20 concrete:- As total gravel weight is 2000kg, aggregate part is 2/3, hence aggregate quantity in mix = (2/3) 2000 = 1332kg aggregate. Therefore 1332kg of aggregate required for 1 cubic meter of m20 concrete.

Quantity of water required for 1 cubic meter of m20 concrete:- As we know water cement ratio for m20 concrete is about 0.55, as cement = 403kg, then water quantity = 0.55 403kg= 220 Litres. Therefore 220Litres of water required for 1 cubic meter of m20 concrete.

Weight of 1 cubic meter of m20 concrete:- M20 concrete generally used as RCC, 1 cubic metre of m20 concrete weight around 2.5 metric ton (2500kgs), typically 1m3 of m20 concrete is made up of about 403kg (8bags of 50kg) cement, 666 kg sand, 1332kg aggregate and about 220 litres of water and 100kg of steel embedded in it as per design structure in case reinforced cement concrete (RCC concrete).

We have to prepare 1m3 of M25 concrete, this is wet volume, to calculate dry volume we will multiply 1.54 in wet volume, so total volume of concrete = 1.54m3, in M25 concrete nominal mix ratio of cement, sand and aggregate is 1: 1: 2 respectively and water cement ratio is about 0.50.

Quantity of cement required for 1 cubic meter of m25 concrete:- considering, 1440kg/m3 is density of cement, then cement quantity = (1/4) 1.54m3 1440 kg/m3 = 554kg or around 11 bags of 50 kg of cement. Therefore, 554kg (11 bags of 50kg) cement are required to form 1 cubic meter of m25 concrete.

According to indian standard, as we know that about 165kg of mixture of sand and aggregate required per bag 50kg of cement, so total weight of gravel (sand + aggregate) = 11165 = 1815 kg, Generally sand to aggregate ratio is 1:2 by weight, total ratio = 1+2 =3, part of sand = 1/3 and part of aggregate = 2/3.

Quantity of sand required for 1 cubic meter of m25 concrete:- As total gravel weight is 1815kg, sand part is 1/3, hence sand quantity in mix = (1/3) 1815 = 605kg sand. Therefore 605kg of sand required for 1 cubic meter of m25 concrete.

Quantity of aggregate required for 1 cubic meter of m25 concrete:- As total gravel weight is 1815kg, aggregate part is 2/3, hence aggregate quantity in mix = (2/3) 1815 = 1210kg aggregate. Therefore 1210kg of aggregate required for 1 cubic meter of m25 concrete.

Quantity of water required for 1 cubic meter of m25 concrete:- As we know water cement ratio for m25 concrete is about 0.50, as cement = 554kg, then water quantity = 0.50 554kg= 277 Litres. Therefore 277Litres of water required for 1 cubic meter of m25 concrete.

Weight of 1 cubic meter of m25 concrete:- M25 concrete generally used as RCC, 1 cubic metre of m25 concrete weight around 2.5 metric ton (2500kgs), typically 1m3 of m25 concrete is made up of about 544kg (11bags of 50kg) cement, 605 kg sand, 1210kg aggregate and about 277 litres of water and 100kg of steel embedded in it as per design structure in case reinforced cement concrete (RCC concrete).

## is cross-laminated timber (clt) the concrete of the future? | archdaily

Concrete, an essential building material, has for decades offered us the possibility of shaping our cities quickly and effectively, allowing them to rapidly expand into urban peripheries and reach heights previously unimagined by mankind. Today, new timber technologies are beginning to deliver similar opportunities and even superior ones through materials like Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT).

Concrete, an essential building material, has for decades offered us the possibility of shaping our cities quickly and effectively, allowing them to rapidly expand into urban peripheries and reach heights previously unimagined by mankind. Today, new timber technologies are beginning to deliver similar opportunities and even superior ones through materials like Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT).

To better understand theproperties and benefitsof CLT, we talked with Jorge Caldern, Industrial Designer and CRULAMM Manager. He discusses some of the promising opportunities that CLT couldprovide architecture in the future.

To better understand theproperties and benefitsof CLT, we talked with Jorge Caldern, Industrial Designer and CRULAMM Manager. He discusses some of the promising opportunities that CLT couldprovide architecture in the future.

Laminatedtimber is the result of joining boards to form a single structural unit. While they can be curved or straight, the grains are always aligned in one direction. With CLT, however, the stacking of boards in perpendicular layers allows the manufacture of plates or surfaces or walls. It's a plywood made of boards thatcan reach enormous dimensions: between 2.40 m and 4.00 m high, and up to 12.00 meters long.

Laminatedtimber is the result of joining boards to form a single structural unit. While they can be curved or straight, the grains are always aligned in one direction. With CLT, however, the stacking of boards in perpendicular layers allows the manufacture of plates or surfaces or walls. It's a plywood made of boards thatcan reach enormous dimensions: between 2.40 m and 4.00 m high, and up to 12.00 meters long.

Due to the cross orientation of each of its longitudinal and transverse layers, the degrees of contraction and dilation of thetimber at the level of the boards are reduced to a negligible amount, while the static load and shape stability are considerably improved. [1]

Due to the cross orientation of each of its longitudinal and transverse layers, the degrees of contraction and dilation of thetimber at the level of the boards are reduced to a negligible amount, while the static load and shape stability are considerably improved. [1]

CLTwas first manufactured in Austria with the aim of reusing lower value timber. Today, the use of wood is again becoming a relevant factor in the construction industry because of environmental factors.

CLTwas first manufactured in Austria with the aim of reusing lower value timber. Today, the use of wood is again becoming a relevant factor in the construction industry because of environmental factors.

We usually design and build with concrete, but concrete's environmental footprint is enormous compared to that of wood. One ton of CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere for every cubic meter of concrete created. In contrast, CLT contains "sequestered carbon," or carbon naturally stored in wood during tree growth. Thus, despite all the energy used in the extraction and manufacturing processes, emissions from wood construction will never match the amount of carbon that is kept "sequestered" in the CLT.Comparison of the energy consumption (GJ/m2) of various construction methods during production:

We usually design and build with concrete, but concrete's environmental footprint is enormous compared to that of wood. One ton of CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere for every cubic meter of concrete created. In contrast, CLT contains "sequestered carbon," or carbon naturally stored in wood during tree growth. Thus, despite all the energy used in the extraction and manufacturing processes, emissions from wood construction will never match the amount of carbon that is kept "sequestered" in the CLT.Comparison of the energy consumption (GJ/m2) of various construction methods during production:

CLT has been called "the concrete of the future," and in a sense it's true. It delivers at minimum the same structural strength as reinforced concrete, but it's a material with a high degree of flexibility that has to undergo great deformations to break and collapse unlike concrete.Moreover, 1 m3 of concrete weighs approximately 2.7 tons, while 1 m3 of CLT weighs 400 kg and has the same resistance. The same goes for steel.

CLT has been called "the concrete of the future," and in a sense it's true. It delivers at minimum the same structural strength as reinforced concrete, but it's a material with a high degree of flexibility that has to undergo great deformations to break and collapse unlike concrete.Moreover, 1 m3 of concrete weighs approximately 2.7 tons, while 1 m3 of CLT weighs 400 kg and has the same resistance. The same goes for steel.

Fire in timber advances at a rate of 0.7 to 0.8 millimeters per minute. If a CLT wall is 100 mm, it would end up being consumed after more than 2 hours, even if it were untreated wood. This carbonization process is a naturalphenomenon that allows trees to protect themselves.

Fire in timber advances at a rate of 0.7 to 0.8 millimeters per minute. If a CLT wall is 100 mm, it would end up being consumed after more than 2 hours, even if it were untreated wood. This carbonization process is a naturalphenomenon that allows trees to protect themselves.

Smoke, which is the main cause of death during a fire,moves from one room to the other through slits or open spaces that result from the convergence of different materials. Built correctly, CLT can be completely airtight. So when constructing with CLT, it's extremely important to select and manage all of the elements that make up the final structure, such as fittings, seals, joints,etc. It's estimated that 90% of the strength of CLT comes from its fittings and joints,while only 10% is attributable to thetimber itself.

Smoke, which is the main cause of death during a fire,moves from one room to the other through slits or open spaces that result from the convergence of different materials. Built correctly, CLT can be completely airtight. So when constructing with CLT, it's extremely important to select and manage all of the elements that make up the final structure, such as fittings, seals, joints,etc. It's estimated that 90% of the strength of CLT comes from its fittings and joints,while only 10% is attributable to thetimber itself.

Moisture and weather are the most important enemies of wood.Exposedtimbersuffers, and since CLT is a structural component, we have to protect it to avoid its wear, corrosion, and collapse.While it's possible to add supplementary layers of coating to wood, such as fiber cement, brick, stone, or other materials, there are also ways to preserve exposed CLT.

Moisture and weather are the most important enemies of wood.Exposedtimbersuffers, and since CLT is a structural component, we have to protect it to avoid its wear, corrosion, and collapse.While it's possible to add supplementary layers of coating to wood, such as fiber cement, brick, stone, or other materials, there are also ways to preserve exposed CLT.

Vegetable oils are recommended for indoor use, while mineral paints work best outdoors, mainly on walls. These products, which are odorless and high performance, can be applied by anyone, following basic instructions and taking necessary precautions.

Vegetable oils are recommended for indoor use, while mineral paints work best outdoors, mainly on walls. These products, which are odorless and high performance, can be applied by anyone, following basic instructions and taking necessary precautions.

When a project is started in CLT, everything is completely decided and predetermined at the factory, and it's not possible to make adjustments on site. So, more than builders, the people who workwith CLT are assemblers, who must articulate virtually perfect pieces. CLT behaves with the precision of a piece of furniture, working with margins of error of 2 millimeters.

When a project is started in CLT, everything is completely decided and predetermined at the factory, and it's not possible to make adjustments on site. So, more than builders, the people who workwith CLT are assemblers, who must articulate virtually perfect pieces. CLT behaves with the precision of a piece of furniture, working with margins of error of 2 millimeters.

While the project stage can take a little longer, the assembly is of an amazing speed: in the case of a house of 200 m2, the assembly can take 5 days and occupy a minimum workforce (around 4 instructed people).

While the project stage can take a little longer, the assembly is of an amazing speed: in the case of a house of 200 m2, the assembly can take 5 days and occupy a minimum workforce (around 4 instructed people).

Regarding the regulations, there are regulations in the world that guide the design and construction with CLT, but they are the sum of different aspects present in the Standards commonly used in concrete and laminated timber. In 2017, the standard currently used in the United States was published, which is simply a summary of European Standards.

Regarding the regulations, there are regulations in the world that guide the design and construction with CLT, but they are the sum of different aspects present in the Standards commonly used in concrete and laminated timber. In 2017, the standard currently used in the United States was published, which is simply a summary of European Standards.

As previously mentioned, it is essential to understand that the entire pre-construction process with CLT must be carefully developed.Design, planning, and permanent collaboration between the different actors are fundamental since the construction itself will be carried out exactly as defined in the previous stages.

As previously mentioned, it is essential to understand that the entire pre-construction process with CLT must be carefully developed.Design, planning, and permanent collaboration between the different actors are fundamental since the construction itself will be carried out exactly as defined in the previous stages.

During its manufacture, CLT must be made with structural wood knowing the structural grade of each board since the quality of the panel will be the result of the quality of the wood used. In addition, it's necessary to consider that the high precision of CLT must be able to be combined with the foundations that will receive it, avoiding, for example, concrete slabs that present imperfections. Even millimetric variations could generate huge headaches during installation.

During its manufacture, CLT must be made with structural wood knowing the structural grade of each board since the quality of the panel will be the result of the quality of the wood used. In addition, it's necessary to consider that the high precision of CLT must be able to be combined with the foundations that will receive it, avoiding, for example, concrete slabs that present imperfections. Even millimetric variations could generate huge headaches during installation.

CLT panels are currently allowing the construction of buildings with up to 30 floors, in Canada, and up to 40 floors in Finland. The future is promising and we will remain attentive to your progress. Perhaps in some years,our cities will be transformed based on the warmth and texture of the wood, also changing the way in which the design and construction of our works are conceived.

CLT panels are currently allowing the construction of buildings with up to 30 floors, in Canada, and up to 40 floors in Finland. The future is promising and we will remain attentive to your progress. Perhaps in some years,our cities will be transformed based on the warmth and texture of the wood, also changing the way in which the design and construction of our works are conceived.

[1] Exhibition by Jorge Caldern, delivered at the inaugural seminar of the technological dissemination program "Proyectar, manufacturar y construir de forma sostenible con sistema de madera contralaminada (CLT)" | 07.11.2017. Available on Youtube

[1] Exhibition by Jorge Caldern, delivered at the inaugural seminar of the technological dissemination program "Proyectar, manufacturar y construir de forma sostenible con sistema de madera contralaminada (CLT)" | 07.11.2017. Available on Youtube

## concrete weight calculator | volume vs. weight of concrete

The concrete calculator is calibrated to exactly 23.60 kN/m3 unit weight per concrete volume. Which is, as Internationally defined, how heavy is normal reinforced concrete. In USCS units (United States Customary System units), its weight comes to ~150lb/ft3 and ~2,400 kg/m3 if measured in Metric SI system. The concrete converter can be applied in construction and structural engineering for exchange from volumes of concrete quantities into their equivalents in mass. Extensive list of concrete measuring units. You may enter whole numbers, decimals or fractions ie: 5, 75.33, 45 1/4

Where: kN = kilo Newton (gravity force on concrete on the Earth) cu mtr = m^3 = m3 = cubic meter cu ft = ft^3 = ft3 = cubic foot/feet 1000 N = 1 kN 4.45 N = 1 lb (0.454 kg 9.81 ... to get 4.45 Newtons) 1 meter = 3.281 feet

The weight of concrete can vary slightly depending on the mix type. The most typical value widely used is 150 lb/ft^3 for the most common/ordinary concrete strength at ~ 4,000 psi = 4000 lbf / (sq in). The aggregate used, strength of concrete and how thin or semi dry the concrete is prepared are the aspects for concrete weight. Even though the aggregate is denser and heavier than water (4 parts of the aggregate is contained within the concrete - add 1 part dry cement + water, 4:1 always in volume sense is the usual standard concrete mixing ratio), wet fresh concrete before it sets will not be much heavier nor lighter per volume unit because the water presence is adding to its total weight. Though, to be exact, there is the marginal drying shrinkage caused by the water evaporation from the fresh concrete which causes a slight weight difference between the soft and set concrete state ... read further down.

The difference in weight between wet runny concrete just mixed and the concrete in a solid state? Count with ~5% weight reduction once water evaporates. There is the concrete shrinkage aspect to consider. At first it is plastic and soft. Later it sets and hardens. After concrete had fully cured it keeps around ~95% of its original weight compared to the wet state time - hence the marginal dimensional concrete setting shrinkage (percentage converter if needed). Which is important to know about, very easy to solve, how to deal with this was fully covered in previous pages.

Answer: Boxing shores or props underneath need to be in place as to support the heavy concrete. Because when it is fresh, or new, concrete does not have any strength, except its heavy weight. Concrete needs to properly cure first, then all shoring can be dissembled to be removed.

Concrete volume into weight converter, cubic measures, mass measures, US, Metric Si and Asian units. Privacy policy | Terms of Use & Disclaimer | Contact | Advertise | Site map 2019 www.traditionaloven.com

## hedland | badger meter

Our line of Hedland products features over 18,000 inline variable area flow meters suitable for oil, phosphate esters, water, water-based liquids and compressed gases. Capable of operating in any position in high-temperature and corrosive applications, Hedland meters are easy to read and built for use in rugged environments.

Our line of Hedland products features over 18,000 inline variable area flow meters suitable for oil, phosphate esters, water, water-based liquids and compressed gases. Capable of operating in any position in high-temperature and corrosive applications, Hedland meters are easy to read and built for use in rugged environments.

Badger Meter offers innovative flow metering and control solutions for smart water management, smart buildings and smart industrial processes, to help measure and protect resources for a smarter world.

## concrete 1 cubic meter volume to kilograms converter

This general purpose concrete formulation, called also concrete-aggregate (4:1 - sand/gravel aggregate : cement - mixing ratio w/ water) conversion tool is based on the concrete mass density of 2400 kg/m3 - 150 lbs/ft3 after curing (rounded). Unit mass per cubic centimeter, concrete has density 2.41g/cm3. The main concrete calculator page.

The 4:1 strength concrete mixing formula applies the measuring portions in volume sense (e.g. 4 buckets of concrete aggregate, which consists of gravel and sand, with 1 bucket of cement.) In order not to end up with a too wet concrete, add water gradually as the mixing progresses. If mixing concrete manually by hand; mix dry matter portions first and only then add water. This concrete type is commonly reinforced with metal rebars or mesh.

With the above mentioned two-units calculating service it provides, this concrete converter proved to be useful also as an online tool for: 1. practicing cubic meters and kilograms of concrete ( m3 vs. kg - kilo ) measuring values exchange. 2. concrete amounts conversion factors - between numerous unit pairs. 3. working with - how heavy is concrete - values and properties.

How many kilograms of concrete are in 1 cubic meter? The answer is: The change of 1 m3 ( cubic meter ) unit of concrete measure equals = to 2,406.53 kg - kilo ( kilogram ) as the equivalent measure for the same concrete type.

In principle with any measuring task, switched on professional people always ensure, and their success depends on, they get the most precise conversion results everywhere and every-time. Not only whenever possible, it's always so. Often having only a good idea ( or more ideas ) might not be perfect nor good enough solution. If there is an exact known measure in m3 - cubic meters for concrete amount, the rule is that the cubic meter number gets converted into kg - kilo - kilograms or any other concrete unit absolutely exactly.

Conversion for how many kilograms ( kg - kilo ) of concrete are contained in a cubic meter ( 1 m3 ). Or, how much in kilograms of concrete is in 1 cubic meter? To link to this concrete cubic meter to kilograms online converter simply cut and paste the following.
The link to this tool will appear as: concrete from cubic meter (m3) to kilograms (kg - kilo) conversion.

The concrete converter from m3 ( cubic meters ) measure to kg - kilo ( kilograms ) equivalent. Privacy policy | Terms of Use & Disclaimer | Contact | Advertise | Site map 2021 www.traditionaloven.com

## how much quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete - civil sir

How much quantity of steel is required for 1m3 concrete , hi guys in this article we know about quantity of steel is required for 1m3 concrete. Actual Steel calculation is based on as per design but if design is not given then Steel calculation is based on Thumb Rule on experience basis.

Steel required for 1 M3 concrete calculation is based on Thumb Rules, it is essential for any civil engineer, Site engineer or civil supervisor. They play and help a crucial role while taking quick decisions on site.

How much is steel is required for 1m3 concrete not only based on quantity of concrete but it also depend on other factor, such common factors are discussed here. Quantity of steel required for 1 M3 concrete is based on following factors:-

For general residential building of ground floor house we have to calculate Steel quantity. We use different types of Thumb Rule for steel calculation all type of RCC structure footing, column, beam & RCC slab.

Minimum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete slab is 1%, now 1% of 1m3 = 0.01 m3, and we know that 1m3 steel weight is 7850 Kg, so weight of 0.01m3 steel = 0.01 7850 = 78.50 kg, so minimum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete slab is 78.50 Kg.

Maximum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete slab is 1.5%, now 1.5% of 1m3 = 0.015m3, and we know that 1m3 steel weight is 7850 Kg, so weight of 0.015m3 steel = 0.015 7850 = 118 kg, so maximum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete slab is 118 Kg.

Minimum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete beam is 1%, now 1% of 1m3 = 0.01 m3, and we know that 1m3 steel weight is 7850 Kg, so weight of 0.01m3 steel = 0.01 7850 = 78.50 kg, so minimum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete beam is 78.50 Kg.

Maximum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete beam is 2%, now 2% of 1m3 = 0.02m3, and we know that 1m3 steel weight is 7850 Kg, so weight of 0.02m3 steel = 0.02 7850 = 157 kg, so maximum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete beam is 157 Kg.

Minimum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete column is 2%, now 2% of 1m3 = 0.02 m3, and we know that 1m3 steel weight is 7850 Kg, so weight of 0.02m3 steel = 0.02 7850 = 157 kg, so minimum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete column is 157 Kg.

Maximum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete column is 4%, now 4% of 1m3 = 0.04m3, and we know that 1m3 steel weight is 7850 Kg, so weight of 0.04m3 steel = 0.04 7850 = 314 kg, so maximum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete column is 314 Kg.

Minimum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete footing is 0.5%, now 0.5% of 1m3 = 0.005 m3, and we know that 1m3 steel weight is 7850 Kg, so weight of 0.005m3 steel = 0.005 7850 = 39.25 kg, so minimum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete footing is 39.25 Kg.

Maximum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete footing is 1%, now 1% of 1m3 = 0.01m3, and we know that 1m3 steel weight is 7850 Kg, so weight of 0.01m3 steel = 0.01 7850 = 78.50 kg, so maximum quantity of steel required for 1m3 concrete footing is 78.50 Kg.

## what is mass concrete | properties of mass concrete | advantage of mass concrete | disadvantage of mass concrete |how much mass density of concrete

Large bridge piers, foundations, and such as dams like the massive structure, the mass concreting technique is used. For also, mass concrete strength, economy, uniformity, and other factors considered should take into account.

To the concrete mix to improve water tightness, some pozzolana should be added.By using good quality aggregate, low water-cement ratio, good consolidation during placing, and proper curing, Lean mixes used in mass concrete.Concrete should be impermeable, and also this can achieve.

The prevention ability of concrete from chemical attack, weathering action, and abrasion is known as durability.The durability of concrete depends upon some factors like mix design, workmanship, placing, and curing.

A properly cured and concrete with a low water-cement ratio correctly consolidated provides durable concrete.By careful selection of materials, we can improve the chemical resistance of concrete.And by entrainment of a minute are bubbled into the concrete weathering durability can be improved.

To avoid failure, the strength of concrete defines as the resistance that concrete provides against a load.Instead of ordinary cement concrete, Sometimes it is economical to add pozzolana or use portland pozzolana cement.

The concrete specification is that It is defining as a with dimensions large enough to require measures to be taken.Large size aggregates are preferred for mass concrete; it is concrete with a higher proportion of cement with a lesser proportion of cement.

The size of 20-30 mm aggregate is suitable for large beams and columns in the case of structural concrete. A 40 mm aggregate can use for dams.If the fine aggregate to the total aggregate ratio should below.

For the mass concrete retarding and the water-reducing admixture is very useful.After the addition of superplasticizers, Mass concrete to the pump should provide with high range water reducing and retarding admixture to provide 12-18 mm.

A mass concrete foundation is defining as a dimension large enough to require measures to be taken.Large bridge piers foundation, and such as dams like the massive structure the mass concrete is used.

The heat of hydration of mass concrete is more than of other concrete because of the large amount of concrete.To cope with the generation of heat from the hydration of the cement and attendant volume change to minimize cracking.

A mass density of concrete is a normal concrete weight is 2400 kg per cubic meter.The water and cement content, amount of entrained air, and the density of aggregate upon these factors, the density of mass concrete is depending.

Mass concreteis any volume ofconcretewith dimensions large enough to require that measures be taken to cope with the generation of heat from hydration of thecementand attendant volume change to minimize cracking. The one characteristic that distinguishesmass concretefrom otherconcretework is thermal behavior.

Mass concrete is defined by American Concrete Institute Committee 207 as any volume of concrete with dimensions large enough to require that measures be taken to cope with the generation of heat from hydration of cement and attendant volume change to minimize cracking.

Mass concreteis the most common form ofunderpinning, and involves excavating a segment of ground below the existing buildingfoundationin controlled stages, to a depth where suitable bearing strata exists. The excavation is then filled withconcreteand allowed to cure before the next pin is excavated.

Mass concrete is defined by the American Concrete Institute as: anyvolume of concrete in which a combination of dimensions of the member being cast, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the concrete mixture, and the ambient conditions can lead to undesirable thermal stresses, cracking, deleterious chemical.

Structuralmass concreteis defined as anyconcretefooting with a least dimension greater than 5 feet (1.5 m) or otherconcreteplacements with a least dimension greater than 4 feet (1.2 m). Additional constraints are required on placements with a least dimension greater than 6.5 feet (2 m).

Mass concreteis defined by AmericanConcreteInstitute Committee 207 as any volume ofconcretewith dimensions large enough to require that measures be taken to cope with the generation of heat from hydration of cement and attendant volume change to minimize cracking.

Mass concreteis made with solid structures (> 80 cm). These structures frequently contain a greater volume. It signifies that large volumes ofconcreteshould be set up in a short time. It needs highly well-organized planning and competent methods.

Disadvantagesof this system include: There are large amounts of excavated material to be disposed of. There are large amounts ofconcreteto be imported to construct the bases. Excavations and bases are difficult to construct in unstable or water-logged ground.

Mass concreteis basicallyconcretewith a higher proportion of coarse aggregate and a lesser proportion ofcement, Large size aggregates are preferred formass concrete. Strength, economy, uniformity, and all other factors considered for normalconcreteshould take into account for alsomass concrete.

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## how to price/quote for concrete works - structville

In civil engineering construction works, contractors bidding for a job are always required to specify the rate they will use in executing a given item of work. In a competitive bidding, the client will review the rates supplied by the bidders, and award the contract to the person he finds most suitable. Concrete is a common construction material that is basically made from cement, sand, gravel, and water. The main aim of this article is to teach you how to build up your rate, and quote for concrete in construction works.

The unit of concrete in construction is specified in cubic metres (m3). For instance, if a floor slab has a net area of 250 m2, and a thickness of 150 mm, the volume of concrete required will be stated as (250 x 0.15 = 37.5 m3). In the bill, a contractor is expected to state the cost of casting a cubic metre of the specified grade concrete (say grade 25), which can be used to relate the cost of casting the entire slab. Note that the rate supplied by the contractor is expected to include the cost of materials, plant, transportation, labour, and contractors profits.

There are basic considerations to make while quoting for concrete because you should not bid too high or too low. It is possible for contractors to have a wide difference in their rates for the same job. For a competitive tender without bias, a company that is going to hire equipment will likely bid higher than a company that has its own equipment. The same goes with labour, transport facilities, etc. Bidding for a job should be an intelligent process, and the contractor should know his capacity as it will likely influence his cost and profitability. The cost of casting concrete in one day is not the same with casting it for two days. Therefore, a contractors capacity can enable him bid higher or lower depending on the context.

In the past, we have made a post on how you can achieve grade 25 concrete on site. We were able to show that the mix ratio of 1:2.5:3.5 can yield grade 25 concrete. Let us assume you wish to use this mix ratio in building your rate.The total volume in the mix ratio is given by;1 + 2.5 + 3.5 = 7CementRatio of cement by volume = 1/7 Density = mass/volume Mass of cement required = (1/7) x 1440 = 205.7 kgMaking allowance for shrinkage = 1.54 x 205.7 = 316.77 kgNumber of bags of cement required per of concrete = 316.77/50 = 6.33 bags (use 7 bags)SandRatio of sand by volume = 2.5/7 Density = mass/volume Mass of sand required = (2.5/7) x 1650 = 589.285 kgMaking allowance for shrinkage = 1.54 x 589.285 = 907.498 kgMaking allowance for waste = 1.2 x 907.498 = 1088.99 kg/m3 GraniteRatio of granite by volume = 3.5/7 Density = mass/volume Mass of granite required = (3.5/7) x 1650 = 825 kgMaking allowance for shrinkage = 1.54 x 825 = 1270.5 kgMaking allowance for waste = 1.15 x 1270.5 = 1461.075 kg/m3

Cost of materialsCost of cement per cubic metre concrete = 7 x 2,700 = 18,900Cost of sharp sand per cubic metre of concrete = 2.25 x 1088.99 = 2,451Cost of granite per cubic metre of concrete = 4.167 x 1461.075 = 6,089Total Material Cost = 27,440 per cubic metre of concrete

Structville is a media channel dedicated to civil engineering designs, tutorials, research, and general development. At Structville, we stop at nothing in giving you new dimensions to the profession of civil engineering.

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