china liner plate for cement grinding machine manufacturers, suppliers, factory - customized liner plate for cement grinding machine price - cic

china liner plate for cement grinding machine manufacturers, suppliers, factory - customized liner plate for cement grinding machine price - cic

Liner is to protect shell from direct impact and frication of grinding materials and also used to modulate motion of grinding material. It could improve grinding efficiency and productivity, as well as reduce liner wear. CIC's manufacturing ability is not only embodied in the supplying of mill liners for certain mills with detailed specification, but also and especially in the on-site mapping, model changing and efficiency improving....

Introduction:CIC is a leading comprehensive mill liner supplier in China. For years, CIC's mill liner spread to all over the world along with CITIC's mills. With the property of leading technology and unique expertise, lower cost and higher availability, CIC's liner have won high approval from the customers.The mill liners are used to protect the shell in order to avoid the impact and abrasion from the materials and grinding medium. Different types of mill liner can be used to adjust the movement of materials. CIC's mill liners are produced by CIC owned Special Steel Workshop and have a large share in the world market with the fine design and excellent performance.CIC's manufacturing ability is not only embodied in the supplying of mill liners for certain mills with detailed specification, but also, and especially in the on-site mapping, model changing and efficiency improving. CIC hasability to offer solutions for all kinds of mills, such as cement mill, mine mill, ball mill, rod mill, AG mill, SAG mill, and etc.Features:Material: High Manganese Steel, Super-High Manganese Steel, High Chromium Casting Iron, Alloy Steel, Chromium-molybdenum Steel, Low Carbon Steel, or as per the customer requests.Hardness: as per your request.Impact Value: as per your request.Tensile Strength: as per your request.Heat Treatment Process: Normalizing, Tempering, Quenching & Tempering.Surface treatment: rust preventive oil, or as per your requests.Process: raw material purchasing - casting- rough machining - heat treatment - semi-machining - finish machining - painting and packing. Various process conditions are available.Standard: ANSI, API, ASTM, BSI, DIN, GB, ISO, JIS.QA and DOC: Chemical Composition Report, Mechanical Properties Report, SpheroidizatioRate Report, UT Report, PT Report, Heat Treatment Report, Dimensions Check Report, Hardness Report and etc.Quality Control: UT Test, MT Test, Visual Inspection, Third Party Inspection, Customer On-site Inspection.Advantages:More than 30 years experienceISO9001:2008 Standard certifiedCustom-made designHigh abrasion resistanceLong service durationEasy and fast installation and replacementOEM and ODM are available.HMCB04 New Type Chromium-molybdenum Steel Mill Liners are a kind of new liners self-improved by CIC. With better performance and property than the common mill liners, HMCB04 Chromium-molybdenum Steel Mill Liners have won great reputation from the final users.Performance ComparisonHMCB04 Chromium-molybdenum SteelCommon Chromium-molybdenum SteelHardnessHB 350-400HB350-375Impact Value80J45JTensile Strength1300J1200JCompetitive Advantages:Self-improved propertyCompetitive Advantages:Self-improved propertyOf longer service lifeOf higher hardnessOf better property of impact value and tensile strengthOf higher hardenabilityWidely used and commonly acceptedOEM and ODM are available.With several decades of development, CIC has become the Manufacturing Base of Liner of Semi-autogenous mills1. Optimizing Manufacturing Process, Guarantee Liner QualityOur high quality liners manufactured by advanced process have covered a wide marketing of semi-autogenous mills.2. Optimizing Liner Design, Eliminating Break of Liner A main working function of the liner is to lift the milling ball to a reasonable height, then fall along right rack and smash against the material enrichment area at the bottom of the mill in order to crush the material effectively. So it is greatly important of reasonable optimizing the liner design and correct guiding the milling ball running track in order that guarantee the optimized operation condition in the mill and effectively protect the shell liner of semi-autogenous mill, meanwhile, can eliminate liner break, prolong the service life and decrease effectively unit wear of liners and milling ball, and improve the hour production per machine.3. Focusing on Detailed Operating Condition, Improving Users' Benefits Optimizing the liner design based on the wear forms of liners in different operating conditions maximally decrease the crashing function of the liners, and effectively decrease the weight of scrap liners. Improving the shape of liners can effectively improve the relative motion state between milling balls and liners, then decrease liner wear by material and milling balls and prolong the liner service life while reducing the users' production cost.

CIC is a leading comprehensive mill liner supplier in China. For years, CIC's mill liner spread to all over the world along with CITIC's mills. With the property of leading technology and unique expertise, lower cost and higher availability, CIC's liner have won high approval from the customers.

The mill liners are used to protect the shell in order to avoid the impact and abrasion from the materials and grinding medium. Different types of mill liner can be used to adjust the movement of materials. CIC's mill liners are produced by CIC owned Special Steel Workshop and have a large share in the world market with the fine design and excellent performance.

CIC's manufacturing ability is not only embodied in the supplying of mill liners for certain mills with detailed specification, but also, and especially in the on-site mapping, model changing and efficiency improving. CIC hasability to offer solutions for all kinds of mills, such as cement mill, mine mill, ball mill, rod mill, AG mill, SAG mill, and etc.

HMCB04 New Type Chromium-molybdenum Steel Mill Liners are a kind of new liners self-improved by CIC. With better performance and property than the common mill liners, HMCB04 Chromium-molybdenum Steel Mill Liners have won great reputation from the final users.

2. Optimizing Liner Design, Eliminating Break of Liner A main working function of the liner is to lift the milling ball to a reasonable height, then fall along right rack and smash against the material enrichment area at the bottom of the mill in order to crush the material effectively. So it is greatly important of reasonable optimizing the liner design and correct guiding the milling ball running track in order that guarantee the optimized operation condition in the mill and effectively protect the shell liner of semi-autogenous mill, meanwhile, can eliminate liner break, prolong the service life and decrease effectively unit wear of liners and milling ball, and improve the hour production per machine.

3. Focusing on Detailed Operating Condition, Improving Users' Benefits Optimizing the liner design based on the wear forms of liners in different operating conditions maximally decrease the crashing function of the liners, and effectively decrease the weight of scrap liners. Improving the shape of liners can effectively improve the relative motion state between milling balls and liners, then decrease liner wear by material and milling balls and prolong the liner service life while reducing the users' production cost.

grinding mill liners

grinding mill liners

There are basically two groups of Grinding Mill Liners. Ones with a HIGH PROFILE and those with a LOW PROFILE. The high profile liner is designed to give the media the higher lift. This type will be used in mills that are designed for primary grinding and as a result require the impact of the higher cascade. Ball mills working as the secondary portion of a grinding circuit will utilize the lower profile liners. The reason is as lift decreases, friction increases. To function effectively they need this type of grinding action to obtain the maximum contact of their high surface area. There are two other factors that the liner design must accommodate other than the degree of lift. The TYPE of grinding media and the SIZE of the media. To do this, there have been developed different liner profiles, RIPPLE LINERS, WAVE LINERS, SINGLE STEP LINERS, DOUBLE STEP LINERS, SHIPLAP LINERS and LIFTER BARS. These are also known as a KICKER BAR LINERS. The important measurements being the WIDTH of the valleys, the HEIGHT of the lifting portion of the liner and the overall THICKNESS of the liner.

(A liner takes up space and will reduce the tonnage accordingly.) When a mill is being designed, the type of liner that will be used is very important. The wrong liner design will increase power and steel consumption, as well as reduce the grind and throughput of the mill.

Liners not only come in different designs, they are available constructed from different materials. Liners may he built from MANGANESE STEEL for rod mills and ball mills that use bigger than two inch balls. Or they may be what is known as CHILLED CAST IRON LINERS. This type of liner have their own content formulas and are cast in their own manner as well. An example of such a liner is the NIHARD LINERS. In the last few years RUBBER LINERS for secondary grinds have also been used with some success.

For an operator the biggest effect that the liners will have on his job will be the result of wear.As the liners wear out the lifting portion of the liner will be reduced until the liner has a lower profile.

This means that the cascade of the media will become flatter as the as the leading edge of the lifter wears away. The amount of unground material will slowly increase until the mill can no longer grind the bigger ore. When this happens the liners will have to be changed.

If you ever have to start up a mill that has had a complete liner change I would suggest starting at a reduced tonnage and slowly bring the tonnage up to its maximum. This is because the new liners may have too much lift and literally throw the media across the mill spoiling the cascade action. Once the LEADING- EDGE of the liner has worn off a bit you will be able to increase the tonnage again. You will notice that the grind will continue to improve due to the liners slowly wearing away providing a longer retention time for the ore to be processed in. This of course has a limit, once the liners wear past a critical size the efficiency of the mill will slowly deteriorate until the liners are completely worn out requiring replacement.

This system combined rubber plates with cast manganese lifter bars which assures that the major portion of the surface of the mill will be protected with an abrasion -resistant resilient surface under compression and that the remaining portion of the lining will be capable of sustaining the lifting load, will maintain a uniform lift and will resist abrasion .

Todays rubber mill liners have built up from these origins and rubber liner manufacturers have worked closely with the mill operators to develop better compounds and better designs to provide the best liner system for each application.

Abrasion Resistance: Todays rubber compounds are specifically designed to resist wear by abrasion. The success has been well documented in regrind mill applications where rubber has outlasted cast metal liners and given better cost effectiveness.

Impact Resistance: This feature is more important in the larger grinding mills. Rubber liners absorb the impact of the larger grinding media and thus protecting the mill structure and prolonging its life.

Weight: Rubber weighs about 15% of an equivalent volume of steel. This means that a rubber liner system reduces the load on the mill structure and also reduces the basic power draw. Another benefit is that liner components are lighter, easier and safer to handle. A major factor in todays milling operation where fewer people are available for liner changeouts.

Tight Seal: Because rubber liners can be produced to relatively close tolerances and rubber is deformable, a rubber liner system is designed as a tight liner. This protects the structure of the mill from any abrasive or corrosive wear. Another very important side benefit for gold operations is that the amount of free gold trapped between or underneath the liners is significantly reduced.

Flexibility: This feature of rubber is particularly significant in the use of rubber for grate discharge mills. The natural flexibility of rubber reduces the potential of blinding the grates. This will be discussed in greater detail later in this paper.

The design of rubber mill liners is very specific to the grinding application and will not be covered in this paper. Instead, three design concepts based on rubber as a lining material will be discussed. These are combination liners, rubber grates and rubber covered pulp lifters.

Long ago, it was recognized that there were grinding applications where rubber alone was not effective. The patent for the combination liner was issued for a design that extended the use of rubber into those applications. Although rubber technology has improved, there are still applications today where rubber alone is not effective and the combination liner is successfully used. These applications include semi autogenous mills and primary single stage ball mills.

The revised and updated design of a combination liner is a rubber plate with a separate metal lifter bar. Most of the volume of the liner is rubber so that the features and benefits of a rubber liner are retained. This plate can be either a plain contoured slab liner plate as shown or it may have a molded intermediate rubber lifter if required due to the chordal spacing, the size of the grinding media and feed.

The rubber plate is held in place by the metal lifter bars. A metal spacer sits between the rubber slabs and lifters to keep the liner from shifting. This spacer is usually made of low cost mild steel and is a one time item as it does not experience any wear and does not need replacing. This results in significant cost reduction of the liner system.

The metal lifter bar design is generally a function of the grinding application and mill size. The cross section however must retain two critical dimensions. The first is that the lips or edges of the lifter that extend over the rubber plates must be kept at a minimum of 25 mm to provide adequate clamping of the liner plates by the lifter.

The second critical dimension is the depth of the base. This should also be a minimum of 25 mm to prevent any lateral displacement. The base of the metal lifter must also be a flat smooth surface in order to properly seat on top of the metal spacer. The lifter bar is bolted through the shell with oval head taper grade 5 forged bolts.

This design has several important benefits. First, the amount of scrap loss in metal lifter bars at change out is kept to a minimum through the use of the mild steel spacer. The spacer also provides a solid base for the lifter so that the liner bolts can be properly torqued down. The second benefit of this design is that there is no metal in the rubber plates, as the lifter is supported by the permanent metal spacer. This simplifies the manufacturing of the rubber liners, and makes the plates lighter and easier to handle on installation.

The metallurgy of the lifter bars must be carefully matched to the grinding application. In mills with high impact such as large SAG mills, a high impact resistant Cr-Mo steel is required. In applications of low impact, the more abrasion resistant, castings such as Nihard are utilized to achieve maximum life through high abrasion resistance.

grinding mill liner market 2020-2029 | outlines of cement and mining industry across the globe

grinding mill liner market 2020-2029 | outlines of cement and mining industry across the globe

Pune, Maharashtra, November 22, 2019 (Wired Release) Prudour Pvt. Ltd. A new market research study titled, Global Grinding Mill Liner Market provides insightful knowledge to the clients enhancing their basic leadership capacity explores several significant facets related to Grinding Mill Linermarket covering industry environment, segmentation analysis, and competitive landscape. Pragmatic ideas of the market are mentioned in an easy and plain manner in this report. A precise and elaborate primary analysis report highlights various facts such as development factors, business enhancement strategies, statistical growth, financial gain or loss to help readers and clients to understand the market on a global scale.

The industry analysis report Grinding Mill Linermarket, which will help to expand operations in the existing markets. The prime goal of the market study is to give a detailed assessment of the Grinding Mill Linerbusiness based on type, sector as well as geography. It also offers geological study into several regions with market growth, production, consumption, and revenue. An in-depth study examining the potential of the market and also offers data and estimates on the market structure, dynamics, and trends. The research report looks into growth strategies employed by key players, and how these strategies are poised to change the competitive dynamics in the Grinding Mill Liner market over the forecast period.

The Grinding Mill Liner market report firstly introduced the definitions, classifications, applications and market overview, product specifications, manufacturing processes, cost structures, raw materials and so on. Then it analyzed the worlds main region market conditions, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, supply, demand and market growth rate and forecast etc. In the end, the report introduced new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis.

Recent news stories show how the Grinding Mill Liner market report presents a top to the bottom picture of product specification, innovation, product type, and production analysis considering major factors, such as revenue, cost, gross, and gross margin. It mainly concentrates on market competition, segmentation, leading shareholders, and industry conditions. The Competitive landscape mapping the trends and outlook of the report which highlights a clear insight about the market share analysis of major top industry players. Our analysts use the latest primary and secondary research techniques and tools to prepare complete and detailed market research reports. In addition, market regulatory structure, technological advancements in concerned sectors, and tactical avenues are also covered in the Grinding Mill Liner market report.

The Elite objective of Grinding Mill Liner Marketreport is to help the user know the market in terms of its definition, segmentation, market potential, important trends, and the difficulties that the market is facing. step by step analysis of Grinding Mill Liner market provides an exhaustive outlook on the market trends from 2020 to 2029 covering key information on product demand, industry segmentation and market summary in each region. We have given a deep study of the vendor landscape to provide you with a complete picture of current and future competitive scenarios of the Grinding Mill Liner market. The report covers data on Grinding Mill Liner markets including historical and future trends for supply, prices, trading, competition, and value chain. Additionally, the report also includes a SWOT analysis that concludes the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats impacting the segments of the overall market.

The future of the industries is predicted on the basis of the current scenario, profit, and growth opportunities. A variety of graphical presentation techniques are used to demonstrate the facts. In the end, we discuss some internal and external factors that drive or limit the Grinding Mill Linerplant market. The study is a comprehensive mixture of qualitative and quantitative information including market size, revenue, and volume (if applicable) by important segments. It also examines the performance of the leading market players involved in the industry including their corporate summary, financial review. The report determines market segmentation based upon the types in addition to thepreeminent regions featuringNorth America, Asia-Pacific, UK, Europe, Centraland South America, Middle Eastand Africa.

The leading companies referred to in the market research report are: Weir Group, Trelleborg, Honyu Material, Teknikum, Magotteaux, Rema Tip Top, Bradken, Metso, Multotec, Tega Industries, Fengxing, Flsmidth, Polycorp and Me Elecmetal

North America is dominating the market of Grinding Mill Linerdue to the presence of global players in the U.S. Growing Organization sizes and increasing application area of Grinding Mill Lineris supporting the market Grinding Mill Linerin north America. Europe holds the second position in the global market whereas Asia-Pacific has emerged as a faster-growing market. The growing economy of Asian countries India and China.

Finally, All the fragments have been dependent on present and future patterns and the Grinding Mill Linermarket is assessed from 2020 to 2029. Appropriately, the report and associates profiles determine the key drivers that are affecting the interest in the global Grinding Mill Linermarket.

eb castworld cement grinding mill liner plate - % mill liner plate

eb castworld cement grinding mill liner plate - % mill liner plate

Leading supplier of high alloy castings and forgings. There are 4 companies with sales of more than 100 million yuan, across the 4 major areas of wear resistance, heat resistance, corrosion resistance, and machinery

cement ball mill - jxsc machine

cement ball mill - jxsc machine

The cement ball mill is mainly used for grinding the finished products and raw materials of cement plants, and is also suitable for grinding various ore and other grindable materials in industrial and mining enterprises such as metallurgy, chemical industry, and electric power. Cement grinding is the last process of cement production, it is to mix cement clinker and a small amount of gypsum, and then grind the mixture to a certain fineness, that is cement. You may also interest in the ball mill product price, lime ball mill, quartz ball mill. Cement grinder types Cement ball mills can be divided according to discharge method: grate ball mills and overflow mills, and can be divided into wet mills and dry mills according to their processing conditions.

The main working part of the cement grinding mill is a rotary cylinder mounted on two large bearings and placed horizontally. The cylinder is divided into several chambers by a partition plate, and a certain shape and size of grinding bodies are installed in each chamber. The grinding bodies are generally steel balls, steel forgings, steel rods, pebbles, gravel, and porcelain balls. In order to prevent the cylinder from being worn, a liner is installed on the inner wall of the cylinder. When the cement grinding machine rotates, the grinding media adheres to the lining surface of the inner wall of the cylinder under the action of centrifugal force and frictional force with the lining surface of the inner surface of the cylinder, and rotates with the cylinder and is brought to a certain height. Under the action of gravity, it falls freely. When falling, the grinding media acts as a projectile and impacts the material at the bottom to crush the material. The cyclic motion of the abrasive body rising and falling is repeated. In addition, during the rotation of the mill, the grinding body also slides and rolls, so the grinding action occurs between the grinding body, the liner and the material, making the material fine. As new materials are continuously fed at the feed end, there is a material level difference between the feed and discharge end materials to force the material to flow, and the axial thrust of the impact material when the grinding body falls also breaks the material flow. Air movement also helps material flow. Therefore, although the mill barrel is placed horizontally, the material can slowly flow from the feed end to the discharge end to complete the grinding operation.

Ball mill liner The liner of cement dry-type ball mill can be divided into ceramic, granite, rubber, high manganese, magnetic liner and other materials. The function of liner is mainly to protect the cylinder from the direct impact of materials and steel balls and extend the service life. At the same time, the liner plate can also adjust the running track of materials. Generally, the head grinding bin is equipped with hard liner plate, which can enhance the impact force of materials and accelerate grinding. The liner plate of the fine grinding bin is corrugated liner plate or flat liner plate, which can enhance the grinding effect of materials.

Ball mill grinding medium The grinding medium of cement dry ball mill includes steel ball, steel rod, steel pipe, stone, porcelain ball, etc. the steel ball is divided into cast iron, bearing steel, carbon steel and other materials, and the diameter of steel ball varies from 15mm to 125mm. The steel bar is short cylindrical or conical, which has line surface contact with the material and strong grinding effect.

Cement ball mill advantages 1. It has strong adaptability to materials, continuous production and large processing capacity. The equipment has stable performance, is convenient for large-scale production, and meets the needs of large-scale production of modern enterprises. 2. The crushing ratio is large, the feeding size can reach 50 mm, the discharging particle size can be controlled, and the particle quality is good. 3. Cement dry-type ball mill is mainly used for grinding raw materials and clinker (finished products and raw materials) in cement plant, and also for grinding various ores and other grindable materials in metallurgy, chemical industry, electric power and other industrial and mining enterprises. It can be used for open flow grinding and circular flow grinding composed of powder concentrator. 4. The structure is reasonable, firm and can be operated under negative pressure. Cement dry ball mill has good sealing performance, environmental protection, simple maintenance, safe and reliable operation. Disadvantages But at present, the overall efficiency of cement dry-type ball mill grinding is low and energy consumption is large. Although the rolling bearing transmission mode is used now, the cement mill process is still the most power consuming part of the enterprise. Moreover, the cement dry-type ball mill is generally medium and long grinding, with large investment and high cost.

The application of ball mill in cement industry dates back more than 100 years. The ball mill for cement grinding plant is mainly of high fineness, dry grinding method, and the process is mainly of open circuit process and closed circuit process. The equipment of ball mill used in cement plant includes vertical cement mill, roller press and ball mill, etc.

The cement ball mill in cement plant is usually divided into 2-4 silos, the most representative of which are the new type of high fineness cement ball mill and open flow high fineness cement ball mill. There are three cement processing circuits. 1. Open circuit grinding The ball mill in the cement plant for open circuit grinding consists of grinding bin, dust collector and ball mill. Advantages: the cement plant process is the simplest, with less investment and simple operation and maintenance. Disadvantages: serious over grinding in the mill, low efficiency, difficulty in fineness adjustment of finished products, high power consumption.

2. Closed circuit grinding Closed-circuit grinding is widely used in cement mills all over the world. Cement grinding unit is widely used in the United States, Germany, France, Japan and other developed countries. For example, 95% of cement in Japan comes from closed-circuit grinding. The cement plant machinery of closed-circuit grinding consists of feeding system, finished product bin, powder concentrator and dust collection equipment. The process is relatively complete. The disadvantages are a large investment, many equipment and complex operation.

According to many years of practical production experience, JXSC summarizes that cement producers with a production capacity of fewer than 30 tons per hour are suitable for open circuit grinding, and closed-circuit grinding for large-scale production can be more economical.

Matters need attention 1. Cement has corrosion, which affects the service life of steel ball and increases the production cost. 2. Different wear-resistant microelements in different materials of wear-resistant steel balls will be damaged, which will cause poor wear-resistant effect and serious waste of clinker grinding mill. 3. During cement grinding, the material temperature may be higher than 100 , leading to dehydration of most gypsum or complete dehydration, causing coagulate of cement, which requires corresponding cooling measures, including mill ventilation, cylinder water cooling, etc. 4. After each clinker grinding, clean the cement grinding system, so as to avoid inconvenience to the next start-up due to slag material deposition.

Cement mill price Cement ball mill specially used for grinding cement clinker and other materials in building materials, cement production, metallurgical ceramics, electric power and petrochemical industry. JXSC can design and manufacture special cement ball mill equipment according to the output and fineness requirements of users. Contact us for machine selection and a price quotation.

cement vertical mill parts

cement vertical mill parts

Collapse All | Expand All Cement Tube Mill Internals Introduction Grinding Media Shell Liners Diaphragm Vertical Mill Parts HRCS Casting Crusher Parts Mining Introduction Tube Mill Internals Grinding Media Inlet/Outlet Head Liners Shell Liners Diaphragms Rod Mill Internals Inlet / Outlet Head Liners Power Introduction Tube Mill Internals Introduction Grinding media Shell liners Vertical mill parts HPMS Services Aggregate Introduction

The operating parameters of vertical mills are seldom altered once optimum productivity is established. But efficiency improvements and therefore cost savings can still be achieved with developments in metallurgy of the grinding element.

Abrasion is the most dominant factor in determining the working life of Vertical Mill grinding elements and The Group supplies three types of alloy to cope with the different abrasion conditions. In line with the trend towards ever larger mills, the company can produce individual castings of up to 20 metric tonnes in weight.

The grinding rolls are produced using the company's unique centrifugal casting facility, which ensures consistently high quality components. Its Sintercast products offer significant improvements in working life compared to components using conventional alloys.

Please contact your regional representative to find out more about the improved cost-effectiveness of The Groups grinding rolls. For more information about the company's other products, please return to the Cement Industries page.

cement | magotteaux

cement | magotteaux

Magotteaux is the only supplier offering the full range of grinding balls in particular and grinding media in general: cast and forged, low and high chromium, balls/boulpebs/rods and ceramic grinding beads and balls.

Magotteaux is the only supplier offering the full range of grinding balls in particular and grinding media in general: cast and forged, low and high chromium, balls/boulpebs/rods and ceramic grinding beads and balls.

To increase the efficiency of your tube mills, Magotteaux developed the widest range of liners and diaphragms. With more than 7,100 tube mills equipped all over the world, you will benefit from the best experience in the cement industry. Our focus: reducing energy consumption and optimizing performance!

To increase the efficiency of your tube mills, Magotteaux developed the widest range of liners and diaphragms. With more than 7,100 tube mills equipped all over the world, you will benefit from the best experience in the cement industry.

Magotteaux, market leader in the design and manufacturing of wear parts, has also become the leader for both Horizontal and Vertical Shaft Impactor applications. Our multibusiness experience incrushing benefits to our customers as we offer safer and technology proven solutions to all applications.

As the kiln is considered the heart of thecement plant, any failure of heat resistingcastings installed in the kiln or directly connected equipmentwill lead to an immediate plant shutdown. The recent trend to increase the usage of abrasive and corrosive alternative fuelshas let usto develop new solutions. These solutions optimize wear partslifetime and process efficiency, reduce energy consumption, ensure safe handling, reduce inventory leading to significant savings.

Magotteaux is the only supplier offering the full range of grinding balls in particular and grinding media in general: cast and forged, low and high chromium, balls/boulpebs/rods and ceramic grinding beads and balls.

Magotteaux is the only supplier offering the full range of grinding balls in particular and grinding media in general: cast and forged, low and high chromium, balls/boulpebs/rods and ceramic grinding beads and balls.

To increase the efficiency of your tube mills, Magotteaux developed the widest range of liners and diaphragms. With more than 7,100 tube mills equipped all over the world, you will benefit from the best experience in the cement industry. Our focus: reducing energy consumption and optimizing performance!

To increase the efficiency of your tube mills, Magotteaux developed the widest range of liners and diaphragms. With more than 7,100 tube mills equipped all over the world, you will benefit from the best experience in the cement industry.

Magotteaux, market leader in the design and manufacturing of wear parts, has also become the leader for both Horizontal and Vertical Shaft Impactor applications. Our multibusiness experience incrushing benefits to our customers as we offer safer and technology proven solutions to all applications.

As the kiln is considered the heart of thecement plant, any failure of heat resistingcastings installed in the kiln or directly connected equipmentwill lead to an immediate plant shutdown. The recent trend to increase the usage of abrasive and corrosive alternative fuelshas let usto develop new solutions. These solutions optimize wear partslifetime and process efficiency, reduce energy consumption, ensure safe handling, reduce inventory leading to significant savings.

mill liner solutions | flsmidth

mill liner solutions | flsmidth

Built to last longer and occupy less volume within your mill. A longer lasting mill liner means less downtime for maintenance or new liner installation. A mill liner that occupies less space allows increased volume within the mill and leads to greater grinding capacity and throughput potential.

50% lighter and have 50% fewer parts on average when compared to traditional cast steel liners. This results in faster relining and quicker installation, keeping your workers inside a hazardous work environment for a shorter time period. The liners are easy to remove and dont require the use of dangerous equipment like thermal lances. This not only enhances worker safety, but also keeps your mine assets free from potential damage and risk caused by removal equipment.

Built with high-abrasion and impact-resistant materials.Manufactured to meet your plants unique operational conditions and ore characteristics, the liners are engineered to last longer. This allows you to extend periods between scheduled maintenance times.

In addition to being the OEM supplier of composite, cast steel, and rubber mill liners, we provide the process know-how and service today's mining operations need for peak productivity. With over 135 years of experience in helping customers achieve their goals, let us improve your milling with:

FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.

boltless grinding mill liners for grinding fine , cement mill liners

boltless grinding mill liners for grinding fine , cement mill liners

Boltless Grinding Mill Liners For Grinding Fine , Cement Mill Liners Quick Details Ni-hard Discharge End Liners for 2.6m Rod Mill 1. Hardness: More than HRC53 2. International Standard: AS 2027-2002/Ni hard 1. 3. Microstructure: Eutectic Carbide + Martensite + Residual Austenite Description: Ni-hard Discharge End Liners for 2.6m Rod Mill 1. The Ni-hard End liners are used for grinding feldspar. 2. Hardness: More than HRC53. 3. International Standard:GB/T 8263-1999 AS 2027/Ni-Cr1-550 AS 2027/Ni-Cr2-500 AS 2027/Ni-Cr4-500 AS 2027/Ni-Cr4-600 AS 2027/Ni-Cr4-630 ASTM A 532 1-A,B,C,D ASTM A 532 2-A,B,C,D,E ASTM A 532 3-A 4. Microstructure: Eutectic Carbide + Martensite + Residual Austenite. 5. Heat treatment : Air quenching and tempering. 6. The liners are cleaned, sandblasted with a nice surface without any obvious visual defects. 7. Better wear performance & better reliability & cost effective in dry grinding process. Product Details: Application :Mine mill Material:Ni-hard Cast Iron Dimensions:As per drawings Hardness :More than HRC53 Impact Value :More than 5J Technical Parameters Wuxi Orient Anti-wear Engineering Co., Ltd. Chemical Composition & Mechanical Property of Wear-resistant Castings Item Cr-Mo Alloy Steel I Cr-Mo Alloy Steel II Cr-Mo Alloy Steel III High Cr white iron High Cr Alloy Steel High Manganese Steel Ni-Hard cast iron C 0.30~0.50 0.65~0.90 0.40~0.90 2.40~3.20 1.1~2.2 0.90~1.30 2.40~3.60 Si 0.50~1.20 0.75 0.70~1.20 0.60~1.20 0.60~1.20 0.08 0.80 Mn 0.40~1.20 0.50~1.20 0.60~1.00 0.50~1.00 0.50~1.00 11.00~18.00 2.0 Cr 1.70~2.50 1.50~2.50 4.00~7.00 12.00~30.00 11.00~30.00 1.50~2.50 1.5~10 S 0.04 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.15 P 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.15 Mo 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.10~3.0 0.10~3.0 1.0 0.10 Cu 0.10~0.60 0.25 0.20~0.40 0.10~1.00 0.10~1.00 - - Ni 0.50 0.30 0~0.30 0~0.30 0~0.30 - 3.3~10 Re 0.02 0.02 0.02 - - - - Equivalent Specifications DL/T 681-1999 GB/T26651-2011 AS 2074 L2B Mod DL/T 681-1999 GB/T 8263-1999 AS 2027 Cr27 AS 2027 CrMo 15/3 AS 2027 CrMo 20/2/1 ASTM A532 Class III type A 25% Cr ASTM A532Class II type B 15% Cr-Mo BS 4844 3E DIN1695 NFA32401. GB/T 5680-1998 DL/T 681-1999 JIS G 5153-1999 ASTM A 128 DIN GX120Mn12 AFNOR:Z120Mn12 GB/T 8263-1999 AS 2027/Ni-Cr1-550 AS 2027/Ni-Cr2-500 AS 2027/Ni-Cr4-500 AS 2027/Ni-Cr4-600 AS 2027/Ni-Cr4-630 ASTM A 532 1-A,B,C,D ASTM A 532 2-A,B,C,D,E ASTM A 532 3-A Material Type Martensite Steel Martensite or Pearlitic Cr Mo Steel Martensite Steel Martensite matrix Austenitic Mn Steel - Hardness HRc48 HB470 & HB 321~370 HRc50 HRc56 HB300 HRc56 Impact Value Ak40J - Ak10J Ak4J Ak80J - Ourfoundryhascompletemelting,heattreatmentandtestequipments,suchasmid-frequencyinduction electricalfurnaces,quenchingandtemperingfurnaces,blastshot,spectrometer,RockwellandBrinell Hardnesstester,impactor,UTtesterandmetallographicmicroscope.Weachievedthecertificateofquality managementsystemISO9001:2008.Wehavebeenexportingcastingstooverseamarkets,suchasBrazil, AustraliaandSouthAfrica.

ball mill maintenance & installation procedure

ball mill maintenance & installation procedure

Am sure your BallMill is considered the finest possible grinding mill available. As such you will find it is designed and constructed according to heavy duty specifications. It is designed along sound engineering principles with quality workmanship and materials used in the construction of the component parts. YourBallMill reflects years of advancement in grinding principles, materials, and manufacturing techniques. It has been designed with both the operators and the erectors viewpoints in mind. Long uninterrupted performance can be expected from it if the instructions covering installation and maintenance of the mill are carried out. You may be familiar with installing mills of other designs and manufacture much lighter in construction. YourBallis heavy and rugged. It should, therefore, be treated accordingly with due respect for its heavier construction.

The purpose of this manual is to assist you in the proper installation and to acquaint you a bit further with the assembly and care of this equipment. We suggest that these instructions be read carefully and reviewed by everyone whenever involved in the actual installation and operation of the mill. In reading these general instructions, you may at times feel that they cover items which are elementary and perhaps not worthy of mention; however in studying hundreds of installations, it has been found that very often minor points are overlooked due to pressure being exerted by outside influences to get the job done in a hurry. The erection phase of this mill is actually no place to attempt cost savings by taking short cuts, or by-passing some of the work. A good installation will pay dividends for many years to come by reduced maintenance cost.With the modern practice of specialized skills and trades, there is often a line drawn between responsibilities of one crew of erectors and another. Actually the responsibility of installation does not cease with the completion of one phase nor does it begin with the starting of another. Perhaps a simple rule to adopt would be DO NOT TAKE ANYTHING FOR GRANTED. This policy of rechecking previously done work will help guarantee each step of the erection and it will carefully coordinate and tie it into subsequent erection work. To clarify or illustrate this point, take the example of concrete workers completing their job and turning it over to the machinist or millwright. The latter group should carefully check the foundation for soundness and correctness prior to starting their work.

Sound planning and good judgement will, to a great extent, be instrumental in avoiding many of the troublesome occurrences especially at the beginning of operations. While it is virtually impossible to anticipate every eventuality, nevertheless it is the intention of this manual to outline a general procedure to follow in erecting the mill, and at the same time, point out some of the pitfalls which should be avoided.

Before starting the erection of the mill, adequate handling facilities should be provided or made available, bearing in mind the weights and proportions of the various parts and sub-assemblies. This information can be ascertained from the drawings and shipping papers.

The gearing, bearings, and other machined surfaces have been coated with a protective compound, and should be cleaned thoroughly with a solvent, such as Chlorothene, (made by Dow Chemical). Judgement should be exercised as to the correct time and place for cleaning the various parts. Do not permit solvents, oil or grease to come in contact with the roughened top surfaces of the concrete foundation where grouting is to be applied; otherwise proper bonding will not result.

After cleaning the various parts, the gear and pinion teeth, trunnion journals and bearings, shafting and such, should be protected against rusting or pitting as well as against damage from falling objects or weld splatter. All burrs should be carefully removed by filing or honing.

Unless otherwise arranged for, the mill has been completely assembled in our shop. Before dismantling, the closely fitted parts were match marked, and it will greatly facilitate field assembly to adhere to these match marks.

The surfaces of all connecting joints or fits, such as shell and head flanges, trunnion flanges, trunnion liner and feeder connecting joints, should be coated with a NON-SETTING elastic compound, such as Quigley O-Seal, or Permatex to insure against leakage and to assist in drawing them up tight. DO NOT USE WHITE LEAD OR GREASE.

Parts which are affected by the hand of the mill are easily identified by referring to the parts list. In general they include the feeder, feed trunnion liner, discharge trunnion liner if it is equipped with a spiral, spiral type helical splitter, and in some cases the pan liners when they are of the spiral type. When both right and left hand mills are being assembled, it is imperative that these parts which involve hand be assembled in the correct mill.

Adequate foundations for any heavy equipment, and in particular grinding mills, are extremely important to assure proper operation. The foundation should preferably be in one piece, that is, with a reinforced slab footing (so called mat) extending under both trunnion bearing foundations as well as the pinion bearing foundation. If possible or practical, it should be extended to include also the motor and drive. With this design, in the event of some movement, the mill and foundation will tend to move as a unit. ANY SLIGHT SETTLING OF FOUNDATIONS WILL CAUSE BEARING AND GEAR MISALIGNMENT, resulting in excessive wear and higher maintenance costs. It has been found that concrete foundations on a weight basis should be at least 1 times the total weight of the grinding mill with its grinding media.

Allowable bearing pressure between concrete footings and the soil upon which the foundation rests should first be considered. The center of pressure must always pass through the center of the footing. Foundations subject to shock should be designed with less unit pressure than foundations for stationary loads. High moisture content in soils reduces the amount of allowable specific pressure that the ground can support. The following figures may be used for preliminary foundation calculations.

Portland cement mixed with sand and aggregate in the proper proportions has come to be standard practice in making concrete. For general reference cement is usually shipped in sacks containing one cubic foot of material. A barrel usually holds 4 cubic feet. Cement will deteriorate with age and will quickly absorb moisture so it should be stored in a dry place. For best results the sand and gravel used should be carefully cleaned free of humus, clay, vegetal matter, etc.

Concrete may be made up in different mixtures having different proportions of sand and aggregate. These are expressed in parts for example a 1:2:4 mixture indicates one bag of cement, 2 cubic feet of sand, and 4 cubic feet of gravel. We recommend a mixture of 1:2:3 for ball mill and rod mill foundations. The proper water to sand ratio should be carefully regulated since excess water increases the shrinkage in the concrete and lends to weaken it even more than a corresponding increase in the aggregate. Between 5 to 8 gallons of water to a sack of cement is usually recommended, the lower amount to be used where higher strength is required or where the concrete will be subject to severe weathering conditions.

Detailed dimensions for the concrete foundation are covered by the foundation plan drawing submitted separately. The drawing also carries special instructions as to the allowance for grouting, steel reinforcements, pier batter, foundation bolts and pipes. During concrete work, care should be taken to prevent concrete entering the pipes, surrounding the foundations bolts, which would limit the positioning of the bolts when erecting the various assemblies. Forms should be adequately constructed and reinforced to prevent swell, particularly where clearance is critical such as at the drive end where the gear should clear the trunnion bearing and pinion bearing piers.

For convenience in maintenance, the mill foundations should be equipped with jacking piers. These will allow the lifting of one end of the mill by use of jacks in the event maintenance must be carried out under these conditions.

Adequate foundations for any heavy equipment, and in particular Marcy grinding mills, are extremely important to assure proper operation of that equipment. Any slight settling of foundations will cause bearing and gear misalignment, resulting in excessive wear and higher maintenance costs. It has been found that concrete foundations on a weight basis should be approximately 1 times the total weight of the grinding mill with its grinding media.

Allowable bearing pressure between concrete footings and the soil upon which the foundation rests should first be considered. The center of pressure must always pass through the center of the footing. Foundations subject to shock should be designed with less unit pressures than foundations for stationary loads. High moisture content in soils reduces the amount of allowable pressure that that material can support. The following figures may be used for quick foundation calculations:

Portland cement mixed with sand and aggregate in the proper proportions has come to be standard practice in making concrete. For general reference cement is usually shipped in sacks containing one cubic foot of material. A barrel usually consists of 4 cubic feet. Cement will deteriorate with age and will quickly absorb moisture so it should be stored in a cool, dry place. The sand and gravel used should be carefully cleaned for best results to be sure of minimizing the amount of sedimentation in that material.

Concrete may be made up in different mixtures having different proportions of sand and aggregate. These are expressed in parts for example a 1:2:4 mixture indicates one bag of cement, 2 cubic feet of sand, and 4 cubic feet of gravel. We recommend a mixture of 1:2:3 for ball mill and rod mill foundations. The proper water to sand ratio should be carefully regulated since excess water will tend to weaken the concrete even more than corresponding variations in other material ratios. Between 5 to 8 gallons of water to a sack of cement is usually recommended, the lower amount to be used where higher strength is required or where the concrete will be subject to severe weathering conditions.

We recommend the use of a non-shrinking grout, and preferably of the pre-mixed type, such as Embeco, made by the Master Builders Company of Cleveland, Ohio. Thoroughly clean the top surfaces of the concrete piers, and comply with the instructions of the grouting supplier.

1. Establish vertical and horizontal centerline of mill and pinion shaftagainst the effects of this, we recommend that the trunnion bearing sole plate be crowned so as to be higher at the center line of the mill. This is done by using a higher shim at the center than at the endsand tightening the foundation bolts of both ends.

After all shimming is completed, the sole plate and bases should be grouted in position. Grouting should be well tamped and should completely fill the underside of the sole plate and bases. DO NOT REMOVE THE SHIMS AFTER OR DURING GROUTING. When the grout has hardened sufficiently it is advisable to paint the top surfaces of the concrete so as to protect it against disintegration due to the absorption of oil or grease.

If it is felt that sufficient accuracy in level between trunnion bearing piers cannot be maintained, we recommend that the grouting of the sole plate under the trunnion bearing opposite the gear end be delayed until after the mill is in place. In this way, the adjustment by shimming at this end can be made later to correct for any errors in elevation. Depending on local climatic conditions, two to seven days should he allowed for the grouting to dry and set, before painting or applying further loads to the piers.

Pinion bearings are provided of either the sleeve type or anti-friction type. Twin bearing construction may use either individual sole plates or a cast common sole plate. The unit with a common sole plate is completely assembled in our shop and is ready for installation. Normal inspection and cleaning procedure should be followed. Refer to the parts list for general assembly. These units are to be permanently grouted in position and, therefore, care should be taken to assure correct alignment.

The trunnion bearing assemblies can now be mounted on their sole plates. If the bearings are of the swivel type, a heavy industrial water-proof grease should be applied to the spherical surfaces of both the swivels and the bases. Move the trunnion bearings to their approximate position by adjustment of the set screws provided for this purpose.

In the case of ball mills, all internal wearing parts will pass through the manhole, whereas in the case of open end rod mills they will pass through the discharge trunnion opening. When lining the shell, start with the odd shaped pieces around the manhole opening if manholes are furnished. Rubber shell liner backing should be used with all cast type rod mills shell liners. If the shell liners are of the step type, they should be assembled with the thin portion, or toe, as the leading edge with respect to rotation of the mill.

Lorain liners for the shell are provided with special round head bolts, with a waterproof washer and nut. All other cast type liners for the head and shell are provided with oval head bolts with a cut washer and nuts. Except when water proof washers are used, it is advisable to wrap four or five turns of candle wicking around the shank of the bolt under the cut washer. Dip the candle wicking in white lead. All liner bolt threads should be dipped in graphite and oil before assembly. All liner bolt cuts should be firmly tightened by use of a pipe extension on a wrench, or better yet, by use of a torque wrench. The bolt heads should be driven firmly into the bolt holes with a hammer.

In order to minimise the effect of pulp race, we recommend that the spaces between the ends of the shell liners and the head liners or grates be filled with suitable packing. This packing may be in the form of rubber belting, hose, rope or wood.

If adequate overhead crane facilities are available, the heads can be assembled to the shell with the flange connecting bolts drawn tightly. Furthermore, the liners can be in place, as stated above, and the gear can be mounted, as covered by separate instructions. Then the mill can be taken to its location and set in place in the trunnion bearings.

If on the other hand the handling facilities are limited it is recommended that the bare shell and heads be assembled together in a slightly higher position than normal. After the flange bolts are tightened, the mill proper should be lowered into position. Other intermediate methods may be used, depending on local conditions.

In any event, just prior to the lowering of the mill into the bearings the trunnion journal and bushing and bases should be thoroughly cleaned and greased. Care should be taken not to foul the teeth in the gear or pinion. Trunnion bearing caps should be immediately installed, although not necessarily tightened, to prevent dirt settling on the trunnions. The gear should be at least tentatively covered for protection.

IMPORTANT. Unless the millwright or operator is familiar with this type of seal, there is a tendency to assume that the oil seal is too long because of its appearance when held firmly around the trunnion. It is not the function of the brass oil seal band to provide tension for effective sealing. This is accomplished by the garter spring which is provided with the oil seal.

Assemble the oil seal with the spring in place, and with the split at the top. Encircle the oil seal with the band, keeping the blocks on the side of the bearing at or near the horizontal center line so that when in place they will fit between the two dowel pins on the bearing, which are used to prevent rotation of the seal.

Moderately tighten up the cap screws at the blocks, pulling them together to thus hold the seal with its spring in place. If the blocks cannot be pulled snuggly together, then the oil seal may be cut accordingly. Oil the trunnion surface and slide the entire seal assembly back into place against the shoulder of the bearing and finish tightening. Install the retainer ring and splash ring as shown.

In most cases the trunnion liners are already mounted in the trunnions of the mills. If not, they should be assembled with attention being given to match marks or in some cases to dowel pins which are used to locate the trunnion liners in their proper relation to other parts.

If a scoop feeder, combination drum scoop feeder or drum feeder is supplied with the mill, it should be mounted on the extended flange of the feed trunnion liner, matching the dowel pin with its respective hole. The dowel pin arrangement is provided only where there is a spiral in the feed trunnion liner. This matching is important as it fixes the relationship between the discharge from the scoop and the internal spiral of the trunnion liner. Tighten the bolts attaching the feeder to the trunnion liner evenly, all around the circle, seating the feeder tightly and squarely on its bevelled seat. Check the bolts holding the lips and other bolts that may require tightening. The beveled seat design is used primarily where a feeder is provided for the trunnion to trunnion liner connection, and the trunnion liner to feeder connection. When a feeder is not used these connecting joints are usually provided by a simple cylindrical or male and female joint.

If a spout feeder is to be used, it is generally supplied by the user, and should be mounted independently of the mill. The spout should project inside the feed trunnion liner, but must not touch the liner or spiral.

Ordinarily the feed box for a scoop tender is designed and supplied by the user. The feed box should be so constructed that it has at least 6 clearance on both sides and at the bottom of the scoop. This clearance is measured from the outside of the feed scoop.

The feed box may be constructed of 2 wood, but more often is made of 3/16 or plate steel reinforced with angles. In the larger size mills, the lower portion is sometimes made of concrete. Necessary openings should be provided for the original feed and the sand returns from the classifiers when in closed circuit.

A plate steel gear guard is furnished with the mill for safety in operation and to protect the gear and pinion from dirt or grit. As soon as the gear and pinion have been cleaned and coated with the proper lubricant, the gear guard should be assembled and set on its foundation.

Most Rod Mills are provided with a discharge housing mechanism mounted independently of the mill. This unit consists of the housing proper, plug door, plug shaft, arm, and various hinge pins and pivot and lock pins. The door mechanism is extra heavy throughout and is subject to adjustment as regard location. Place the housing proper on the foundation, level with steel shims and tighten the foundation bolts. The various parts may now be assembled to the housing proper and the door plug can be swung into place, securing it with the necessary lock pins.

After the mill has been completely assembled and aligned, the door mechanism centered and adjusted, and all clearances checked, the housing base can be grouted. The unit should be so located both vertically and horizontally so as to provide a uniform annular opening between the discharge plug door and the head liners.

In some cases because of space limitation, economy reasons, etc., the mill is not equipped with separate discharge housing. In such a case, the open end low discharge principal is accomplished by means of the same size opening through the discharge trunnion but with the plug door attached to lugs on the head liner segments or lugs on the discharge trunnion liner proper. In still other cases, it is sometimes effected by means of an arm holding the plug and mounted on a cross member which is attached to the bell of the discharge trunnion liner. In such cases as those, a light weight sheet steel discharge housing is supplied by the user to accommodate the local plant layout in conjunction with the discharge launder.

TRUNNION BEARING LUBRICATION. For the larger mills with trunnion bearings provided with oil seals, we recommend flood oil lubrication. This can be accomplished by a centralized system for two or more mills, or by an individual system for each mill. We recommend the individual system for each mill, except where six or more mills are involved, or when economy reasons may dictate otherwise.

In any event oil flow to each trunnion bearing should be between 3 to 5 gallons per minute. The oil should be adequately filtered and heaters may be used to maintain a temperature which will provide proper filtration and maintain the necessary viscosity for adequate flow. The lines leading from the filter to the bearing should be of copper tubing or pickled piping. The drain line leading from the bearings to the storage or sump tank should be of adequate size for proper flow, and they should be set at a minimum slope of per foot, perferably per foot. Avoid unnecessary elbows and fittings wherever possible. Avoid bends which create traps and which might accumulate impurities. All lines should be thoroughly cleaned and flushed with a solvent, and then blown free with air, before oil is added.

It is advisable to interlock the oil pump motor with the mill motor in such a way that the mill cannot be started until after the oil pump is operating. We recommend the use of a non-adjuslable valve at each bearing to prevent tampering.

When using the drip oil system it is advisable to place wool yarn or waste inside a canvas porous bag to prevent small pieces of the wool being drawn down into the trunnion journal. If brick grease is used, care should be taken in its selection with regard to the range of its effective temperature. In other words, it should be pointed out that brick grease is generally designed for a specific temperature range. Where the bearing temperature does not come up to the minimum temperature rating of the brick grease, the oil will not flow from it, and on the other hand if the temperature of the bearing exceeds the maximum temperature rating of the brick grease, the brick is subject to glazing; therefore, blinding off of the oil. This brick should be trimmed so that it rests freely on the trunnion journal, and does not hang up, or bind on the sides of the grease box.

When replacing the brick grease, remove the old grease completely. Due to the extended running time of brick grease, there is usually an accumulation of impurities and foreign matter on the top surface, which is detrimental to the bearing.

Where anti-friction bearings are supplied, they are adequately sealed for either grease or oil lubrication. If a flood system is used for the trunnion bearings and it is adequately filtered, it can then be used for pinion bearings with the same precautions taken as mentioned above, with a flow of to 1 gallons per minute to each bearing.

These lubricants can be applied by hand, but we highly recommend some type of spray system, whether it be automatic, semi-automatic or manually operated. It has been found that it is best to lubricate gears frequently with small quantities.

Start the lubrication system and run it for about ten minutes, adjusting the oil flow at each bearing. Check all of the bolts and nuts on the mill for tightness and remove all ladders, tools and other obstructions prior to starting the mill.

Before starting the mill, even though it is empty, we recommend that it be jogged one or two revolutions for a check as to clearance of the gear and its guard, splash rings, etc. The trunnion journal should also be checked for uniform oil film and for any evidence of foreign material which might manifest itself through the appearance of scratches on the journal. If there are any scratches, it is very possible that some foreign material such as weld splatter may have been drawn down into the bushing, and can be found imbedded there. These particles should be removed before proceeding further.

If everything is found to be satisfactory, then the mill should be run for ten to fifteen minutes, and stopped. The trunnion bearings should be checked for any undue temperature and the gear grease pattern can be observed for uniformity which would indicate correct alignment.

It should be noted that with an empty mill the reactions and operating characteristics of the bearings and gearing at this point are somewhat different than when operating with a ball or rod charge. Gear noises will be prominent and some vibration will occur due to no load and normal back-lash. Furthermore, it will be found that the mill will continue to rotate for some time after the power is shut off. Safety precautions should therefore he observed, and no work should be done on the mill until it has come to a complete stop.

We have now reached the point where a half ball or rod charge can be added, and the mill run for another six to eight hours, feeding approximately half the anticipated tonnage. The mill should now be stopped, end the gear grease pattern checked, and gear and pinion mesh corrected, if necessary, according to separate instructions.

The full charge of balls or rods can now be added, as well as the full amount of feed, and after a run of about four to six days, ALL BOLTS SHOULD AGAIN BE RETIGHTENED, and the gear and pinion checked again, and adjusted if necessary.

Where starting jacks are provided for the trunnion bearings of the larger sized mills, they should be filled with the same oil that is used for the lubrication of the trunnion bearings. Before starting the mill they should be pumped so as to insure having an oil film between the journal and the bushing.

When relining any part of the mill, clean away all sand from the parts to be relined before putting in the new liners. For the head liners and shell liners you may then proceed in the same manner used at the time of the initial assembly.

Before relining the grate type discharge head, it is advisable to refer to the assembly drawings and the parts list.Because of such limitations as the size of the manhole opening, and for various other reasons, it will be found that the center discharge liner and cone designs vary. The cone may be a separate piece or integral with either the trunnion liner, or the router discharge liner. Furthermore, it will be found in some mills that the center discharge liner is held by bolts through the discharge head, whereas in other cases it depends upon the clamping effect of grates to hold it in position. In any event, the primary thing to remember in assembling the discharge grate head parts is the fact that the grate should be first drawn up tightly towards the center discharge liner by adjusting the grate set screws located at the periphery of the discharge head. This adjustment should be carried out in progressive steps, alternating at about 180 if possible and in such a manner that, the center discharge liner does not become dislodged from its proper position at the center of the mill. These grate set screws should be adjusted with the side clamp bar bolts loosened. After the grates have been completely tightened with the set screws, check for correct and uniform position of each grate section. The side clamp bar bolts may now be lightened, again using an alternate process. This should result in the side clamp bars firmly bearing against the beveled sides of the grates. The side clamp bars should not hear against the lifter liners.

When new pan liners are installed, they should be grouted in position so as to prevent pulp race in the void space between the discharge head and the pan liner. Another good method of preventing this pulp race is the use of the sponge rubber which can be cemented in place.

After the mill is erected, in order to avoid overlooking both obvious and obscure installation details, we recommend the use of a check list. This is particularly recommended for multiple mill installations where it is difficult to control the different phases of installation for each and every mill. Such a check list can be modeled after the following:

No. 1 Connecting Bolts drawn tight. A. Head and Shell flange bolts. B. Gear Connecting, bolts. No. 2 Trunnion studs or bolts drawn up tight. No. 3 Trunnion liner and feeder connecting bolts or studs drawn up tight. No. 4 Feeder lip bolts tightened. No. 5 Liner bolts drawn up tight. No. 6 Gear. A. Concentric B. Backlash C. Runout D. Joint bolts drawn up tight. No. 7 Coupling and Drive alignment and lubrication. No. 8 Bearings and Gearing cleaned and lubricated. No. 9 Lubrication system in working order with automatic devices including alarms and interlocking systems.

We further recommend that during the first thirty to sixty days of operation, particular attention be given to bolt tightness, foundation settlement and condition of the grouting. We suggest any unusual occurrence be recorded so that should trouble develop later there may be a clue which would simplify diagnosing and rectifying the situation.

As a safety precaution, and in many cases in order to comply with local safety regulations, guards should be used to protect the operators and mechanics from contact with moving parts. However, these guards should not be of such a design that will prevent or hinder the close inspection of the vital parts. Frequent inspection should be made at regular intervals with particular attention being given to the condition of the wearing parts in the mill. In this way, you will be better able to anticipate your needs for liners and other parts in time to comply with the current delivery schedules.

When ordering repair or replacement parts for your mill, be sure to identify the parts with the number and description as shown on the repair parts list, and specify the hand and serial number of the mill.

By following the instructions outlined in this manual, mechanical malfunctions will be eliminated. However, inadvertent errors may occur even under, the most careful supervision. With this in mind, it is possible that some difficulties may arise. Whenever any abnormal mechanical reactions are found, invariably they can be attributed to causes which though sometimes obvious are often hidden. We sight herewith the most common problems, with their solutions.

Cause A GROUT DISINTEGRATION. Very often when the grouting is not up to specification the vibration from the mill tends to disintegrate the grouting. In most instances the disintegration starts between the sole plate and the top surface of the grouting near or at the vertical centerline of the mill. As this continues, the weight of the mill causes the sole plate and trunnion bearing base to bend with a resultant pinching action at the side of the bearing near the horizontal center line of the mill. This pinching will cut off and wipe the oil film from the journal and will manifest itself in the same manner as if the lubrication supply had been cut off. If the grout disintegration is limited to about . 050 and does not appear to be progressing further, the situation can be corrected by applying a corresponding amount of shimming between the trunnion bearing base and the sole plate near the centerline of the mill in such a fashion that the trunnion bearing base has been returned to its normal dimensional position. If, on the other hand, the grouting is in excess of . 050 and appears to be progressing further, it is advisable to shut down operations until the sole plate has been re grouted.

Cause B HIGH SPOT ON THE BUSHING. While all BallMill bushings are scraped in the shop to fit either a jig mandrel or the head proper to which it is to be fitted, nevertheless there is a certain amount of seasoning and dimensional change which goes on in the type of metals used. Therefore if high spots are found, the mill should be raised, the bushings removed and rescraped. Bluing may be used to assist in detecting high spots.

Cause C INSUFFICIENT OIL FLOW. Increase the oil supply if it is a flood oil system. If brick grease is used, it is possible that the particular grade of brick may not be applicable to the actual bearing temperature. Refer to the remarks in this manual under the paragraph entitled Lubrication.

Cause E EXCESSIVE RUBBING ON THE SIDE OF THE BUSHING. This comes about due to the improper setting of the bearings in the longitudinal plane. In some cases, particularly on dry grinding or hot clinker grinding mills, the expansion of the mills proper may account for this condition. In any event, it can be remedied by re-adjusting the bearing base on the sole plate longitudinally at the end opposite the drive.

There are many more lubricant suppliers, such as E. F. Houghton and Co. , or Lubriplate Division of Fiske Bros. Refining Co. In making your final selection of lubricants, you should consider the actual plant conditions as well as the standardization of lubricants. New and improved lubricants are being marketed, and we, therefore, suggest that you consult your local suppliers.

advanced mill liner wear measurement and prediction service

advanced mill liner wear measurement and prediction service

Your mill is the heart of your processing plant. And central to the productivity of your mill is the wear life of its liners. Understand liner wear and you can better control your mills performance. Which is the insight that our advanced liner profiling and 3D scanning solutions provide. Putting you in the drivers seat to better results.

Our advanced liner profiling and scanning services use cutting-edge technology to give you the most accurate and actionable information about the condition of your mill liners. We also let you know the steps that can be taken to optimise the liner wear life empowering you to extend the life of your equipment and better plan maintenance shutdowns.

How do we do this? Our deep process and product expertise built on more than 135 years of history in the mining industry gives us unparalleled insight into the causes of wear and how to combat it. Add into the mix our advanced 3D scanning, liner profiling, and wear prediction technologies, and you have a winning package. We make wear measurement simpler and faster while keeping it comprehensive to provide you with the most appropriate solutions to reduce the total cost of ownership of your mill.

Our approach is centred on partnership. We approach each project not as suppliers with products to sell but as partners with solutions to offer, ready to work with you to support your milling operations achieve their full potential:

Our state-of-the-art 3D scanning technology and profiling techniques provide an accurate view of the condition of your mill liners. We follow this up with expert analysis and a detailed report, letting you know how your mill running and how it can be improved.

The insights provided by the model and subsequent analysis are automatically compiled into report, which is usually delivered in two phases. A basic summary is sent within two days of the scan, detailing mill charge, reline date (7 days accuracy), minimum remaining liner thickness and the liner wear trend.

A detailed report then follows within the next three days with liner longitudinal and cross-sectional wear profiles, colour-coded wear map, cross-sectional profile thickness comparison with new liners, profile diagrams for each liner, functional replacement date for liner performance, and expert recommendations.

FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.

low cast cement grinding mill liners side liners for wet mill

low cast cement grinding mill liners side liners for wet mill

Low Cast Cement Grinding Mill Liners Side Liners For Wet Mill Quick Details Ni-hard Discharge End Liners for 2.6m Rod Mill 1. Hardness: More than HRC53 2. International Standard: AS 2027-2002/Ni hard 1. 3. Microstructure: Eutectic Carbide + Martensite + Residual Austenite Description: Ni-hard Discharge End Liners for 2.6m Rod Mill 1. The Ni-hard End liners are used for grinding feldspar. 2. Hardness: More than HRC53. 3. International Standard:GB/T 8263-1999 AS 2027/Ni-Cr1-550 AS 2027/Ni-Cr2-500 AS 2027/Ni-Cr4-500 AS 2027/Ni-Cr4-600 AS 2027/Ni-Cr4-630 ASTM A 532 1-A,B,C,D ASTM A 532 2-A,B,C,D,E ASTM A 532 3-A 4. Microstructure: Eutectic Carbide + Martensite + Residual Austenite. 5. Heat treatment : Air quenching and tempering. 6. The liners are cleaned, sandblasted with a nice surface without any obvious visual defects. 7. Better wear performance & better reliability & cost effective in dry grinding process. Product Details: Application :Mine mill Material:Ni-hard Cast Iron Dimensions:As per drawings Hardness :More than HRC53 Impact Value :More than 5J Technical Parameters Wuxi Orient Anti-wear Engineering Co.,Ltd. Chemical Composition & Mechanical Property of Wear-resistant Castings Item Cr-Mo Alloy Steel I Cr-Mo Alloy Steel II Cr-Mo Alloy Steel III High Cr white iron High Cr Alloy Steel High Manganese Steel Ni-Hard cast iron C 0.30~0.50 0.65~0.90 0.40~0.90 2.40~3.20 1.1~2.2 0.90~1.30 2.40~3.60 Si 0.50~1.20 0.75 0.70~1.20 0.60~1.20 0.60~1.20 0.08 0.80 Mn 0.40~1.20 0.50~1.20 0.60~1.00 0.50~1.00 0.50~1.00 11.00~18.00 2.0 Cr 1.70~2.50 1.50~2.50 4.00~7.00 12.00~30.00 11.00~30.00 1.50~2.50 1.5~10 S 0.04 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.15 P 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.15 Mo 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.10~3.0 0.10~3.0 1.0 0.10 Cu 0.10~0.60 0.25 0.20~0.40 0.10~1.00 0.10~1.00 - - Ni 0.50 0.30 0~0.30 0~0.30 0~0.30 - 3.3~10 Re 0.02 0.02 0.02 - - - - Equivalent Specifications DL/T 681-1999 GB/T26651-2011 AS 2074 L2B Mod DL/T 681-1999 GB/T 8263-1999 AS 2027 Cr27 AS 2027 CrMo 15/3 AS 2027 CrMo 20/2/1 ASTM A532 Class III type A 25% Cr ASTM A532Class II type B 15% Cr-Mo BS 4844 3E DIN1695 NFA32401. GB/T 5680-1998 DL/T 681-1999 JIS G 5153-1999 ASTM A 128 DIN GX120Mn12 AFNOR:Z120Mn12 GB/T 8263-1999 AS 2027/Ni-Cr1-550 AS 2027/Ni-Cr2-500 AS 2027/Ni-Cr4-500 AS 2027/Ni-Cr4-600 AS 2027/Ni-Cr4-630 ASTM A 532 1-A,B,C,D ASTM A 532 2-A,B,C,D,E ASTM A 532 3-A Material Type Martensite Steel Martensite or Pearlitic Cr Mo Steel Martensite Steel Martensite matrix Austenitic Mn Steel - Hardness HRc48 HB470 & HB 321~370 HRc50 HRc56 HB300 HRc56 Impact Value Ak40J - Ak10J Ak4J Ak80J - Ourfoundryhascompletemelting,heattreatmentandtestequipments,suchasmid-frequencyinduction electricalfurnaces,quenchingandtemperingfurnaces,blastshot,spectrometer,RockwellandBrinell Hardnesstester,impactor,UTtesterandmetallographicmicroscope.Weachievedthecertificateofquality managementsystemISO9001:2008.Wehavebeenexportingcastingstooverseamarkets,suchasBrazil, AustraliaandSouthAfrica.

liners for the grinders | e & mj

liners for the grinders | e & mj

The introduction of rotating ball, tube and rod mills into mineral processing in the late 1800s was quickly followed by the realization that continuous operation with abrasive feed leads to erosion of the mill shell. Early liner designs were crude, to say the least. Individual panels were held in place by timber or metal wedges and, not surprisingly, mill liners of this era needed frequent maintenance and replacement.

A fascinating insight into historical practice appeared in a paper presented to the Chemical, Metallurgical & Mining Society of South Africa in 1907. The author, Ralph Stokes, described the liners then in use at the Waihi gold mines in New Zealand, where the ore was broken first by stamp mills, with subsequent grinding using tube mills. The hardness of the ore, Stokes explained in his paper, took its toll on the mill liners, the mills themselves being charged with 5 tons of flints as the grinding medium.

As supplied two years earlier, the mills were designed to be lined using trimmed rectangular silex or stone blocks. However, the mine had had problems in sourcing suitable materials locally, and H. P. Barry, the operations general superintendent, had invented a replacement system that allowed the use of irregular rock fragments.

The home-built liners consisted of cast-iron frames, 18 in. high, 15 in. wide and 3 in. deep, divided into four or six compartments into which quartzite pieces could be bedded using a cement-based mortar reinforced with flint fragments from the mills. Among the advantages of this system was the speed with which individual sections could be replaced when they were worn out or if a section fell out during operation. However, the cost of liners was significant, Stokes said, citing running costs of the mills at 1s 2d per ton of sand, with flints and liners accounting for half of this. The remainder was presumably accounted for by the energy input to turn the mill. Purely for interest, that milling cost converts to the equivalent of US$7.20 per ton in May 2010 dollars.

Fast forward to the present, and in a paper presented at the Comminution 10 conference in Cape Town in April, Johan Dahner and Alfred van den Bosch from Magotteaux reported on their perceptions of the split between energy, grinding media and liners in both primary and secondary ball-milling operations. Where an optimized liner design is used, they said, media account for over 57% of the total milling cost, energy 25.5% and the liner around 17% in primary milling. For secondary milling, the relative proportions are 59%, 33% and 8% respectively, although in neither case were actual milling costs specified.

What is clear, however, is that while the proportion of total costs incurred by energy use has fallen over the past 100 years, and media costs have increased in relative terms, liners still make up a significant cost item. What is more, Dahner and van den Bosch noted, a mill that has been fitted with an inappropriate liner can cost considerably more to operate than a comparable unit with a liner that has been optimized for the specific duty required, taking the type of ore, tonnage, mill geometry and other factors into account.

Why Line?Installing replaceable liners in a grinding mill is not just a question of protecting the outer shell; the design of the liner and the materials used in its construction both play a critical role in the mills performance. Use the correct material and an appropriate lifter design, and the mill will grind effectively. Conversely, the wrong choices can lead to poor grinding, excess energy usage and high liner maintenance costs.

In addition, liner segments help remove pulp from the discharge end of the mill, here acting more as a pump for the slurry than as a lifting mechanism for the mill-body contents, comprising rock and grinding media. The difference between a mill designed to operate in overflow mode or with a grate and pulp lifters is also important in this context, since the duty imposed on the liner is not the same.

While the physical characteristics of the ore being ground, such as its abrasiveness and the distribution of mineral within the rock, have a major influence on the choice of liner material, other factors also come into play. For instance, the rotational speed of the mill, and hence the relationship between gravity and the centrifugal forces acting on the rock particles and the grinding media, has a significant effect. The charge within a mill being run at 90% of its critical rotational speed will behave differently from that in one running at 75%, in which gravity has a greater influence. The trajectories of media and rock particles will be different, as will be the potential for grinding balls to impact directly on to the liner rather than the pulp, so what might have been a suitable selection for liner material under one set of conditions may well be inappropriate if operating conditions change.

Liner Materials: The ChoicesIn their contributed section on liner selection and design in the SMEs 2006 publication, Advances in Comminution, Professor Malcolm Powell and his co-authors provided a succinct resum of current material options for mill-liner components. The choice, they noted, is principally between various iron and steel alloys, and elastomer liners that are based on both natural and synthetic rubbers.

They noted austenitic manganese steel and chrome-moly steels have been materials of choice for SAG- and ball-mill liners, although the trend has been toward the use of higher-carbon chrome-moly steels for SAG mills. Where ball mills are concerned, the most durable alloys are now high-chrome irons and chrome-moly white irons, both of which exhibit better abrasion resistance than any other liner materials yet developed.

In a paper presented to the 9th Mill Operators conference in 2007, Dr. David Royston of Royston Process Technology said, chrome-moly alloy steel combines high impact resistance and good wear life and is still the dominant material of construction for SAG mill liners. White iron continues to be a material of choice for non-impact highly-abrasive wear-zones.

One interesting development, is the bi-metallic liner using a white-iron insert that can give increased wear-life in low-impact abrasion-prone locations such as end liners. In addition, metal-faced rubber Poly-met-type products, with designs resistant to damage through ball impacts, are growing in application in SAG mills, he said.

This interest in rubber-based liners for SAG milling flies in the face of the previous belief that a SAG mill, using large-diameter grinding media, was just too tough an environment for rubber. Indeed, while that remains true in the majority of situationsbig balls kill rubber liners, said one industry expert interviewed by E&MJthe combination of metals resistance to abrasion with rubbers resilience to shock loading has opened new avenues for liner technology in some circumstances.

Rubber DevelopmentsExpanding on this theme, the director of Polycorp Ltd.s mining division, Prasod Kumar, said there have been some significant improvements made to both the quality of rubber available and the design of liner segments. Headquartered in Canada, Polycorp is the successor to B.F. Goodrich in the country, and claims to have supplied rubber-based liners to more than 300 mills world-wide.

The theory was that rubber was good for lining secondary mills, but not for primary milling applications, he said. Now, rubber liners are being used in SAG and AG mills up to 32 feet in diameter, with modifications such as steel facing. The big advance here is that using rubber enhances the mill throughput, he added, while admitting that rubber may not be the universal panacea. Rod mills in particular are less suitable for rubber lining, especially in areas of the mill where the rod ends could tear into the surface.

Discussing the different compounds that are now available, Kumar pointed out that it is not necessarily the case that a harder compound is better for mill liners. The main criterion is how the compound can handle the abrasiveness of the rock, he said.

With operators in base-metal and gold operations all looking for higher throughput, there will inevitably be greater demand for liners. Liners in bigger mills wear out quicker, often only after a year or so, whereas liners in smaller mills are still useable after two-to-three years. Because of this, there is more demand for replacement liners from big mills, which means that companies have to get these in stock ahead of time, said Kumar.

Steel liners will keep wearing out, and they are heavy to move around and store. With rubber liners, you dont need so much inventory, so companies can plan better. And, of course, the other big advantage is that rubber-lined mills make less noise than ones with steel liners, he said.

Practice Trends Affect Liner RequirementsE&MJ asked one of Australias experts in SAG-mill liner technology, Dr. David Royston, about recent trends in SAG milling practice and how this has affected the design of liners. In recent years, the trend to smaller top-size ore feed into SAG mills has been matched by a trend toward smaller but more balls in the SAG mill charge. High ball-to-rock ratios and low overall mill charge levels are now widely used. These practices can result in periodic loss of rock charge and ball-on-liner damage, said Royston.

Royston went on to explain that large shell-lifter face angles, used to impact the lifter ball into the toe of the charge, can maximize ball energy transfer to the charge and avoid damaging ball-on-liner impacts. Wider liner spacing (say 44 rows in a 33-ft mill) can reduce packing and increase the lifting rate, especially with smaller feed sizes, he added. The feed-head outer liner life can be extended by increasing the size of the plate bar that sits between the lifters.

Royston also noted new grates can slow milling rates: some mills change every second grate at relines, while others use alternating high and low grate-lifter bars, to maintain milling performance. The backflow of non-discharged rocks can limit the pulp-lifting performance and add to wear at the base of the pulp lifters. Adequate front-to-back depth in pulp lifters is necessary to ensure good pulp-lifting performance, with some SAG-mill operators having adopted curved pulp lifters, especially of the hockey stick shape. These help the pulp discharge, especially of larger pebbles, and substantially reduce any backflow.

The issue of whether to use grates or an overflow system of pulp discharge is not, however, confined to SAG milling. Alfred van den Bosch of the Belgian-based wear-parts specialist, Magotteaux, provided E&MJ with a rundown of work that the company has been undertaking in this area, with specific interest in milling practice in South Africas gold industry.

According to van den Bosch, Magotteauxs testwork has shown thatcontrary to popular beliefthere is little practical difference in performance between overflow and grate designs of secondary and regrind mills in this application, although this is not the case for SAG milling, where the primary criterion is throughput rather than the fineness of the grind.

In an effort to demonstrate to South African mill operators that overflow grinding practice can save costs by doing away with the need for grate parts and their replacement, Magotteaux has now designed an interchangeable outflow system. By simply undoing a few bolts, van den Bosch said, the mill outflow can be changed from one mode to the other, and back again if that proves more effective at any time. The company has also been working on the design of the lifters at the discharge end of the mill, with a new design that can operate under overflow, semi-overflow or grate conditions now under test in a pilot mill.

The Logistics of Liner HandlingRelining a mill is an arduous task, not only on account of the sheer weight of the individual liner segments but also because of the precision with which the liner has to be installed if the mill is to operate efficiently. And while the home made liner sections used at Waihi 100 years ago were probably manageable because of their relative lack of sophistication, relining a modern mill presents a completely different set of challenges.

Take, for example, the 18-MW SAG mill that is now operating at Equinox Minerals Lumwana copper mine in Zambia. Commissioned in 2008, the 38- 20-ft mill is the largest in Africa, with a design throughput of 20 million mt/y. At the time, the company reported that it contains 600 mt of liners, with the heaviest individual section weighing 2.2 mt, while a reline takes about four days to complete at a cost of $1.5 million.

Clearly, manipulating a liner section weighing more than 2 mt is beyond the capabilities of manual handling within the awkward, yet confined mill interior. In consequence, Equinox has turned to Russell Mineral Equipment (RME), the Australian company that claims an approximate 80% share of the world market for mill relining machines, with units sold to over 160 mines in more than 40 countries.

With downtime a critical factor, especially where a mine relies on a single large mill for its primary grinding, the focus is often on keeping a reline as short as possible. According to RME, its top-of-the-range liner handler, a twin eight-axis relining machine, has cut the time needed by around three-quarters for large mills, representing a major cost saving.

The companys product range extends from its Millmast system, which is designed for use in smaller mills and can handle liner segments up to 400 kg in weight, to the twin eight-axis machine, capable of manipulating segments of up to 10 mt. The ability to maneuver liner parts of this size safely and accurately has had a knock-on effect in terms of overall liner design, since fewer, larger segments are now needed.

Speaking at an export award ceremony in 2008, RMEs Managing Director John Russell said its mill-relining system has removed any constraint to liner size. RMEs Thunderbolt recoilless hammers can knock out any liner remnant, and a mill-relining machine can place any size liner to millimeter precision, necessary for easy liner bolt placement. A 5 ton liner places as quickly as a 1 ton liner, and replaces the additional four liner placement maneuvers, he said, emphasizing the benefits of now being able to use larger individual liner segments.

The Foundry Manufacturers ViewpointEric Herbst, international sales manager for the U.S.-based liner manufacturer, ME Elecmetal said from the liner suppliers point of view, there is an emphasis on continuing to develop processes, alloys, designs and wear tracking. In particular, he added, alloy development is an ongoing part of the companys business, and one of its main R&D focuses.

Most of our customers are extremely interested in testing new alloys in their mills, because by the time we are ready to test an alloy, there is a very good chance that our customers will benefit, said Herbst. For example, we have recently developed a new alloy for high impact applications such as SAG mills that has increased our customers liner life by up to 20% compared to the alloys that are currently being used in those applications.

We continue to regularly optimize our customers liner designs. This is an iterative process where we make incremental improvements to the liner design over time. A regular presence on site during shutdowns is extremely important part of this process.

Herbst makes a particularly important point in relation to the concepts behind current liner practice. A typical 38-foot SAG mill today has 50% of the number of castings compared to five years ago, he said. Fewer castings to be installed means that downtime will be minimized. At the same time, castings are lasting longer, further reducing mill downtime.

According to ME Elecmetal, an important aspect of the optimization process is to have a very good understanding of how a given liner is wearing. Herbst said the company has developed a Web-based application that tracks the wear and performance of shell liners. We chose to focus on shell liners initially, as they generally have the highest consumption and usage of any liner in the mill. The application stores wear profiles and mill operating parameters, and analyses the wear and performance of the liners, he said.

Striking the Right BalanceAs with most things in life, selecting the most appropriate liner for a specific milling operation can be a balancing act between longevity, cost and several other factors. As a number of people interviewed by E&MJ here noted, the aims of the maintenance manager and the mill superintendent may not always be the same, especially where there are separate cost centers. Lower-cost liners may keep the maintenance budget down, but will certainly have an impact on a mills downtime and hence its availability.

Mill operators and liner manufacturers have simulation software packages such as Milltraj and MillSoft at their disposalpackages that can analyze the optimum combinations of mill size and speed, liner and lifter configurations and media charging for a given set of conditions. Determining the best trajectory for the grinding balls can have a major influence on liner life; by minimizing physical ball-to-liner impacts, wear and damage to both is reduced. In addition, there are material trade-offs, since liner alloys with a high wear resistance also tend to be more brittle. On the other hand, pay more and get more; as Alfred van den Bosch from Magotteaux pointed out, high-chrome liners are more expensive, but in an overflow mill will typically last twice as long as chrome-moly segments.

The general picture to emerge, however, is that liner selection is a team job, and not just one for an individual. Too many factors are at play to be able to take that risk, so by adopting a holistic approach, mill operators can better optimize their overall performance and, hence, a mines profitability.

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