bihar foundary & casting limited, ramgarh - exporter of silico manganese and ferro manganese

bihar foundary & casting limited, ramgarh - exporter of silico manganese and ferro manganese

Silico manganese is an alloy with 60% to 68% manganese, 14% to 21% silicon , and 5% to 2.5% carbon. It is produced by smelting of slag from high-carbon Ferro Manganese or of Manganese ore with coke and a quartz flux in a submerged electric arc furnace.the process requires power consumption of about 3,800 to 4,800 kilowatt-hours per tonne.

Reduced iron derives its name from the chemical change that iron ore undergoes when it is heated in a furnace at high temperatures in the presence of hydrocarbon-rich gases, carbon monoxide or elementary carbon. Direct reduction refers to processes which reduce iron oxides to metallic iron at temperatures below the melting point of iron. The product of such solid state processes are called direct reduced iron. The reducing gas is a mixture of gases, primarily hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO). The process temperature is typically 800 to 1200 C.

Direct reduction processes can be divided roughly into two categories, gas-based, and coal-based. In both cases, the objective of the process is to drive off the oxygen contained in various forms of iron ore (sized ore, concentrates, pellets, mill scale, furnace dust etc.), in order to convert the ore, without melting it (below 1200 C), to metallic iron.Currently BFCL has the manufacturing capacity of 1 Lac Ton per Annam which is self consumed.

tmt bar manufacturing plants and process with latest technology

tmt bar manufacturing plants and process with latest technology

Shyam Steel has best quality steel manufacturing Integrated Steel Plants located in West Bengal. Our state-of-the-art Integrated steel plant includes manufacturing setup like DRI Unit, EAF, Continuous Billet Casting Mill, sophisticated and high-speed Rolling Mill, microprocessor-based product technologies and fully-equipped Quality Assurance & Testing laboratories. Our Best Quality TMT Bar is most preferred for all type of construction purposes across India.

Best TMT Bar Manufacturing Plants India In the Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) plant, production of sponge iron using a solid reductant involves reducing iron ore (lumps/pellets) with a carbonaceous material such as coal. The reduction is carried out in a rotary kiln (which is inclined and rotates at a predetermined range of speeds) at a stipulated temperature (8500C 10500C). The inclination and the rotary motion of the kiln ensure that the raw materials move from the feed end to the discharge end of the kiln and during this movement the actual reduction of iron ore to iron takes place. The material discharged from the kiln is taken to a rotary cooler for cooling and the cooled product is separated from the coal char.

Melting is accomplished by injecting energy to the charge materials in the form of electrical energy through three numbers graphite electrodes. Carbon injected inside the furnace reacts with oxygen producing CO, which bubbles through the bath creating foamy slag. The excess CO reacts with oxygen, converting to CO2, again generating heat. Oxygen will react with several components present in the bath including silicon; manganese; phosphorus and sulphur. The oxides thus formed will end up in the slag. In arc furnace charged materials get melted at about 1800C.

Once sufficient charge has been melted and enough space has been created, the second charge can be taken and the process is repeated. Once the final charge has been melted and is reached at melt stage, Temperature measurement is taken and the sample is drawn for determining the amount of oxygen to be blown during refining.

Phosphorus and sulphur which cannot be removed from Induction Furnace can be easily removed in EAF. Phosphorous is removed in the early stage of refining. Sulphur is removed as sulphides in slag and is better achieved during the reducing stage.

Aluminum, silicon, and manganese react with oxygen before carbon to form oxides which go into the slag. CO, which is produced due to the reaction of carbon with oxygen, bubbles through the bath causing the slag to foam and has many beneficial effects. The foaming also helps in bringing down nitrogen and hydrogen levels in steel. At the end of the refining stage temperature measurement is done and the sample is drawn for analysis.

The furnace is tilted towards the slag door for slag removal. Phosphorus is transferred to the slag, during the early stage of the heating while the temperature is relatively low. The first de-slagging (at the beginning of refining) removes the substantial portion of the phosphorous (as P2O5) thus preventing phosphorous reversal to the metal. Typically during the refining state, the furnace may be de-slagged several times.

After reaching the required temperature and composition, the tap hole is opened and metal is tapped into the ladle and sent to continuous casting unit for the casting of billets, during the tapping process bulk alloys are based on the bath analysis for the desired steel grade. De-oxiders may be added to the steel to control the oxygen content, prior to further processing. This is commonly referred to as killing of steel. This is done by adding aluminum or silicon in the form of ferrosilicon or silicon manganese.

Molten Steel from EAF is tapped into a laddle and taken to the continuous casting machine. Liquid steel flows out of the laddle into the tundish and then into water-cooled mold. Solidification begins in the mold. The continuous Billets coming out from the CCM is sized according to the length required.

The billets manufactured are re-heated at a temp of 1200C in the re-heating furnace and rolled into specific sections of finished material in the Rolling Mill Unit. In the case of manufacturingTMT Re-bars, from the finishing stand of the rolling Mill, the Re-Bars are guided through a specially designed propriety Thermex pipes to obtain special property Thermax Process as explained below:

The hot rolled bar from the finished mill stand enters into the Thermex System and is rapidly cooled by a special water spray system. This rapid cooling hardens the surface of the TMT Re-bars to a depth optimized for each section, forming a martensitic rim while the core remains hot and & Austenitic. This rapid cooling is called quenching.

After Re-bars leave the quenching box, the core remains hot compared to the surface allowing heat to flow from the core to the surface causing Tempering of the outer Martensite layer thus forming a structure called Tempered Martensite.

This takes place on the cooling bed, where the Austenitic core is transformed into ductile Ferrite-Perlite structure. Thus the final structure consist of stronger outer layer (Tempered Mastensite) with ductile core (Ferrite-Pearlite). This process increases the tensile strength of the material while keeping high ductile and weldability. Best TMT Bar Manufacturing Plants India This whole process is a patented technology from HSE, Germany under the brand name of Thermex.

effluent and emission standards for sponge iron plant

effluent and emission standards for sponge iron plant

If De-dusting unit is connected to After Burner Chamber (ABC), emission shall be emitted through common stack (minimum height 30.0 meters) having separate arrangements for emission monitoring for de-dusting unit.

Suitable Air Pollution Control System shall be installed to achieve the prescribed stack emission standards. The following air pollution control system/combination of the system is most commonly used in such type of industry:

All Pollution control equipment may be provided with separate electricity meter and totalizer for continuous recording of power consumption. The amperage of the ID fan may also be recorded continuously. Non-functioning of pollution control equipment should be recorded in the same logbook along with the reason for not running the Pollution Control Equipment.

The safety cap/emergency stack of rotary kiln type plant, which is generally installed above the After Burner Chamber (ABC) of feed end column, should not be used for discharging untreated emission, bypassing the air pollution control device.

In order to prevent bypassing of emission through safety cap and non-operation of pollution control device, software controlled interlocking facility should provided on the basis of real-time data from the plant control system, to ensure stoppage of feed conveyor, so that, feed to the kiln would stop automatically, if safety cap of the rotary kiln is opened or Air Pollution Control System is not in operation. The system should be able to take care of multiple operating parameters and their interrelations to prevent any possibility of defeating the basic objective of the interlock. The system should be floor proof to prevent any kind of tempering. The software-based interlocking system proposed to be installed by industry should be get approved by the concerned State Pollution Control Board (SPCB), for its adequacy, before installation by the industry.

All de-dusting units should be connected to a stack having a minimum stack height of 30 m. However, in specific stack height can be reduced as specified in the notified standards. Sampling porthole and platform etc. shall be provided as per Central Pollution Control Board( CPCB ) emission regulation to facilitate stack monitoring. De-dusting units can also be connected to ABC chamber and finally emitted through the stack with Kiln off-gas emission.

Char should be mixed with coal or coal washery rejects and used as fuel for generation of power. It is a viable option for plants having capacity 200 TPD and above. the smaller capacity individual Sponge Iron Plants (capacity up to 100 TPD) and operating in the can collectively install unit for power generation. The Sponge Iron Plant are free to explore other options/ possibilities to use char for generation of power. Char can be sold to local entrepreneurs for making coal briquettes. It can also be mixed with coal fines, converted to briquettes and used in brick kilns. The industry can explore other reuse/recycling techniques for char.

Under no char should be disposed in agriculture fields/other areas. Logbook for the record, of Char production and usage must be maintained by the industry and the record shall be made available to officials of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/State Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/ Pollution Control Committee (PCC) during the .

The kiln accretions are heavy solid lumps and can be used as sub-base material for road construction or landfill, after ascertaining the composition for its suitability and ensuring that it should not have any adverse environmental impact. The industry can explore other reuse/recycling techniques for Kiln Accretions.

The sludge should be compacted and suitably disposed off after ascertaining the composition for its suitability and ensuring that it should not have any adverse environmental impact. The industry can explore other reuse/recycling techniques for Gas Cleaning Plant(GCP)/Scrubber Sludge

Flue dust is generated from the air pollution control system installed with the kiln. Secondary flue dust is also generated from air pollution control equipment installed with Raw Material Handling, Coal Crusher, Cooler Discharge and Product house unit. The reuse/recycling of the flue dust generated/Collected may be explored and suitably implemented.

Fly ash is generated from Char/Coal based Captive Power Plant if any. Fly ash brick making plant may be installed for fly ash utilization. Fly ash can be utilized in cement making by Cement Industry also. The industry can explore other reuse/recycling techniques for Flue Dust/Fly ash.

Bottom Ash is generated from Char/Coal based Captive Power Plant if any. Bottom ash may have objectionable metallic compounds, therefore should be stored in properly designed landfills as per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) guidelines to prevent leaching to the sub-soil and underground aquifer.

Solid waste management program should be prepared with thrust on reuse and recycling. Solid waste disposal site should be earmarked within the plant premises. The storage site of solid waste should be scientifically designed keeping in view that the storage of solid waste should not have any adverse impact on the air quality or water regime, in any way.

The various types of solid wastes generated should be stored separately as per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) guidelines so that it should not adversely affect the air quality, becoming airborne by wind or water regime during the rainy season by flowing along with the stormwater.

Unloading of coal by trucks or wagons should be carried out with proper care avoiding dropping off the materials from a height. It is advisable to moist the material by sprinkling water while unloading.

Crushing and screening operation should be carried out in an enclosed area. Centralized de-dusting facility (collection hood and suction arrangements followed by suitable de-dusting units such as bag filter or ESP or equally effective method or wet scrubber or any other de-dusting unit and finally discharge of emission through a stack) should be provided to control Fugitive Particulate Matter Emissions. The stack should confirm to the stack should be provided at raw material heaps and on land around the crushing and screening units.

The above enclosures shall be rigid and permanent (and not of flexible/cloth type enclosure) and filled with self-closing doors and close fitting entrances and exits, where conveyors pass through the enclosures. Flexible covers shall be installed at entry and exit of the conveyor to the enclosures, minimizing the gaps around the conveyors.

Sponge Iron Plants of capacity more than 100 TPD kilns may use Waste Heat Boiler (WHRB) for generation of power. Installation of Waste Heat Recovery Boiler (WHRB) may qualify the industry for CDM benefits

The permanent and rigid enclosure shall be provided for belt conveyors and transfer points of belt conveyors. A dust extraction cum control system to arrest product loss in cooler discharge and product separation area may be installed.

For plant having capacity of 200 TPD of cumulative Kiln capacity, the power generation using char as a part of the is a viable option. Power generation using char as a part of the a viable option. Power generation using char as a part of fuel may be implemented in a phased manner targeting for 100% utilization of char.

No new Sponge Iron Plant will be commissioned without installation of Pollution control system to achieve the stipulated standards. The concerned State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) will accord consent to operate only after physical verification of the adequacy of the installed pollution control systems for meeting the standards and stipulated conditions in the consent to establish.

For plants having a of 200 TPD or more, Power generation using char as part of the in the is techno-economics viable option, therefore, new plants may install power generation unit at the time of installation of the .

Extensive plantation/greenbelt shall be developed along the roads and the boundary line of the industry. A minimum 15 m width green belt along the boundary shall be maintained. However, the green belt may be designed scientifically depending upon the requirement and local and mix species of plants may be selected for the green belt.

Monitoring of stack emission, fugitive emissions, trade effluent and noise level shall be done as per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) regulations. Online stack monitoring facilities shall be provided and operated continuously to ensure compliance to stack emission standards. Calibration of the system to be carried out by a third party accredited laboratory. List of the accredited laboratory may be obtained from Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/ State Pollution Control Board (SPCB).

Pollution control system shall be operated as an integral part of production to ensure minimum emission. Pollution Control System shall start before conveyor operation/operation of the plant. Similarly, pollution control system shall be stopped only after completion of conveyor operation/operation of the plant so that possibility of dust settlement in ducts can be eliminated. Continuous evacuation of dust from air pollution control systems such as dust catchers, ESPs, Bag filter hopper etc. shall be organized.

If any plant/clusters of plants are located within 1 Km from any residential area/village they may be shifted by State Pollution Control Board(SPCB)/State Government in a phased manner for which a time-bound action plan is to be prepared by State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs).

Saurav is a Content Marketer at corpseed. When hes not busy wearing down the keys on her keyboard, he's found listening to podcasts, reading or drinking tea. he can be reached at [email protected]

steel pellets manufacturer in kolkata, iron pellets supplier and dealer

steel pellets manufacturer in kolkata, iron pellets supplier and dealer

Pellets are a type of agglomerated iron ore fines which has better tumbler index when compared with that of parent iron ore and can be used as a substitute of lump ore for the production of sponge iron and in blast furnaces for the production of hot metal. The iron pellets are produced with cold crushing strength (CCS) of 210+ and porosity of 24+ which helps to maintain grade in DRI fem 80+ and our product mean particle size (MPS) is ~9.5-10 which assists in reducing oxygen in kiln and maintain consistency in grade. Iron Pellets are used as raw material for sponge iron and blast furnace.

Shyam Metalics can produce various grades/quality of pellet because of having rotary kiln where the pellets are heated and fired uniformly. The process can use multiple ores simultaneously by applying the art of raw material blending. Pellet process helps save energy i.e. power because of excellent heat recuperation and lower drop in pressure of gases.Apart from using items as input for our finished products, we also sell iron pellets, an intermediate product, primarily in the states of West Bengal, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Jharkhand.

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