how to make concrete: 13 steps (with pictures) - wikihow

how to make concrete: 13 steps (with pictures) - wikihow

This article was co-authored by Gerber Ortiz-Vega. Gerber Ortiz-Vega is a Masonry Specialist and the Founder of GO Masonry LLC, a masonry company based in Northern Virginia. Gerber specializes in providing brick and stone laying services, concrete installations, and masonry repairs. Gerber has over four years of experience running GO Masonry and over ten years of general masonry work experience. He earned a BA in Marketing from the University of Mary Washington in 2017. There are 9 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 1,382,755 times.

Concrete is a building material that's comprised of fine and coarse materials bound together with cement. If you need to do improvements on your home, you may want to make some concrete yourself. To create your own concrete, youll need to make or purchase cement and mix it with other materials to create a soft concrete that you can work with. Alternatively, you can purchase pre-mixed concrete and add water to create workable concrete. Regardless of what you decide to do, creating concrete is easy as long as you have the right materials and tools.

To make your own concrete from limestone cement, mix 2 parts all-purpose sand to 1 part cement in a wheelbarrow with a shovel or in a cement mixture. Mix in 4 parts of gravel or crushed brick to the mixture, then slowly add water into the dry ingredients. Mix the water and dry concrete mixture together until its stiff, then thoroughly spray off your mixing tools so the concrete doesnt harden on them. Keep reading for tips from our contracting reviewer on how to make your own limestone cement! Did this summary help you?YesNo

the differences between cement, concrete, and mortar

the differences between cement, concrete, and mortar

The terms cement, concrete, and mortar can be confusing to DIYers, who may lump them all together as being messy substances used in masonry that harden to form a flat surface or to bind one object to another. The terms are often used interchangeablyand inaccurately. Though the terms are often used synonymously, cement, concrete, and mortar are actually three distinctly different materials:

Cement is the binding element in both concrete and mortar. It is commonly made of limestone, clay, shells, and silica sand, with limestone being the most prevalent ingredient. These materials are crushed and combined with other ingredients (including iron ore), and then heated to about 2,700 F. This material, called clinker, is ground into a fine powder and packaged to use for mixing various cementitious building materials, including mortar and concrete.

You might see cement referred to as Portland cement. This is because it was first made in the 1800s in England by a mason, Joseph Aspdin of Leeds, who likened the color to the stone from the quarries on the island of Portland, off the coast of England.

Concrete is a complete building material used for foundation walls, concrete slabs, patios, and many other masonry structures. It is uniquely versatile because it starts out as a simple, dry mixture, then becomes a flexible, semi-liquid material capable of forming into any mold or shape, and which dries into the hard-as-rock material we know as concrete. In many concrete structures, metal reinforcement, such as wire mesh or rebar, is added for strength and to minimize the cracking that can occur in solid concrete.

Concrete is composed of cement, sand, and gravel or other fine and coarse aggregate. The addition of water activates the cement, which is the element responsible for binding the mix together to form a solid.

You can purchase ready-made concrete mixes in bags that combine cement, sand, and gravel so that all you need to do is add water. These are useful for small projects, such as anchoring fence posts or building small pads. For large projects, you can either buy bags of cement and mix them with sand and gravel yourself, using a wheelbarrow or other large container; or you can order premixed concrete delivered by a truck (commonly called "ready-mix" concrete).

Mortar is yet another building material composed of cement, which in this case is mixed with fine sands and water, with lime added to improve the durability of the product. Adding water to this mix activates the cement so that it hardens, or cures, just as with concrete. Mortar is not as strong as concrete and typically is not used as a sole building material. Rather, it is the "glue" that holds together bricks, concrete block, stone, and other masonry materials.

Mortar is commonly sold in bags, in a dry pre-mixed form that you combine with water. It can also be mixed on-site, using a cement mixer or simply mixing with a shovel or hoe in a wheelbarrow or mixing tub. There are many different types of mortar designed for different applications. When working with brick and other masonry units, it is important to use the right type of mortar for the masonry, as some mortars are too hard for some types of masonry and can crack if used improperly.

Grout is a similar product that can be seen as a form of mortar, but formulated without the lime additive. Mortar has a higher water content to allow it to flow and fill gaps between ceramic and stone tiles. Because of its high water content, grout is not a binding material, but serves merely to fill gaps.

Thin-set is a related product made of cement and very fine sands, along with a water-retaining agent such as an alkyl derivative of cellulose. It is used to attach ceramic and stone tile to a substrate, such as cement board. Some thin-sets have latex and polymer additives to increase bonding strength. Thin-set has a pronounced adhesive quality, and is sometimes referred to as thin-set adhesive.

what is cement? types of cement - the concrete network

what is cement? types of cement - the concrete network

The words cement and concrete are often used interchangeably. However, cement is actually an ingredient of concrete, not the final product. Cement is important becasue it binds, or holds, the concrete mix together, giving it strength.

Portland Cement is a type of cement, not a brand name. Many cement manufacturers make Portland Cement. It is a basic ingredient of concrete, made using a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron and small amounts of other ingredients to which gypsum is added in the final grinding process to regulate the setting time of the concrete. The Portland Cement Association's How cement is made provides detailed information of the process. To find out more about what concrete is made of, concrete mix designs, admixtures, and water to cement ratios, read our section "What Is Concrete?" Portland Cement Association Type 1 - Normal portland cement. Type 1 is a general use cement. Type 2 - Is used for structures in water or soil containing moderate amounts of sulfate, or when heat build-up is a concern. Type 3 - High early strength. Used when high strength are desired at very early periods. Type 4 - Low heat portland cement. Used where the amount and rate of heat generation must be kept to a minimum. Type 5 - Sulfate resistant portland cement. Used where the water or soil is high in alkali. Types IA, IIA and IIIA are cements used to make air-entrained concrete. They have the same properties as types I, II, and III, except that they have small quantities of air-entrained materials combined with them. Types IL, IS, IP and It are blended hydraulic cements that offer a variety of special performance properties. A cement factory (Juan Enrique del Barrio / Shutterstock). These are very short descriptions of the basic types of cement. There are other types for various purposes such as architectural concrete and masonry cements, just to name two examples. Your ready mix company will know what the requirements are for your area and for your particular use. Simply ask them what their standard type of cement is and if that will work fine for your conditions. WATER TO CEMENT RATIO: THE #1 ISSUE AFFECTING CONCRETE QUALITY A low water to cement ratio is the number one issue effecting concrete quality. The ratio is calculated by dividing the water in one cubic yard of the mix ( in pounds) by the cement in the in the mix (in pounds). So if one cubic yard of the mix has 235 pounds of water and 470 pounds of cement- the mix is a .50 water to cement ratio. If the mix lists the water in gallons, multiply the gallons by 8.33 to find how many pounds there are in the mix. Low water cement ratio impacts all the desired properties of hardened concrete listed in desired properties of concrete. Use a maximum .50 water to cement ratio when concrete is exposed to freezing and thawing in a moist condition or to deicing chemicals per the 1997 Uniform Building Code. (Table 19-A-2) Use a maximum .45 water to cement ratio for concrete with severe or very severe sulfate conditions per the 1997 Uniform Building Code (Table 19-A-4) Water permeability increases exponentially when concrete has a water cement ratio greater than .50. Durability increases the less permeable the concrete mix is. Strength improves with lower water cement ratios. A .45 water cement ratio most likely will hit 4500 psi (pounds per square inch) or greater. A .50 water cement ratio will likely reach 4000 psi or greater. For complete Uniform Building Code information regarding concrete construction, review with your architect, your ready mix supplier, or at your local library.

Types IA, IIA and IIIA are cements used to make air-entrained concrete. They have the same properties as types I, II, and III, except that they have small quantities of air-entrained materials combined with them. Types IL, IS, IP and It are blended hydraulic cements that offer a variety of special performance properties.

Your ready mix company will know what the requirements are for your area and for your particular use. Simply ask them what their standard type of cement is and if that will work fine for your conditions.

The ratio is calculated by dividing the water in one cubic yard of the mix ( in pounds) by the cement in the in the mix (in pounds). So if one cubic yard of the mix has 235 pounds of water and 470 pounds of cement- the mix is a .50 water to cement ratio.

Strength improves with lower water cement ratios. A .45 water cement ratio most likely will hit 4500 psi (pounds per square inch) or greater. A .50 water cement ratio will likely reach 4000 psi or greater.

how cement mixers work | howstuffworks

how cement mixers work | howstuffworks

Most construction equipment is easy to understand. Cranes move things up and down. Dump trucks load up, move out and unload. Bulldozers push and graders grade. The one exception to this is the humble cement mixer, beloved by children, hated by in-a-hurry drivers, and misunderstood by most people outside the cab of the 30,000-pound (13,608-kilogram) behemoths.

While concrete has been around in one form or another since before the Romans built the Appian Way, the transit mixer is a child of the 20th century. But recent invention or not, the mixer is here to stay.

The misunderstanding begins with the name. What people refer to as a cement mixer is known in the construction industry as a concrete mixer and comes in a large number of types, sizes and configurations to handle the many tasks set before it each day. That need to fill so many roles means the machine is dynamic, changing shape and form as the needs of the people using concrete change as well.

In this article we'll examine some of the major types of mixers, from the traditional drum-shaped ready-mix transit mixer to the less-common but growing in popularity volumetric mixer, essentially a concrete plant on wheels. How cement mixers work and why they work the way they do is a fascinating combination of old and new technology. You'll never see a cement mixer the same way again.

But before we begin, let's clarify the difference between cement and concrete. In baking terms, the difference between concrete and cement is the difference between flour and a loaf of bread. Concrete is a generic term for a mix of aggregate -- usually stone or gravel, water and cement. Modern cement is a complex blend of finely ground minerals, and goes by the generic name of "portland." Concrete is made by combining the three ingredients in a mixer, whether that mixer is stationary or driving down the road, and the water is absorbed by the cement, which then binds the aggregate together, creating concrete.

Stephen Stepanian developed and applied to patent the first motorized transit mixer in 1916, in an effort to replace the horse-drawn concrete mixer used at the time. Wooden paddles churned the mixture as the cart wheels turned, but the design was of limited use -- it was cumbersome and slow. The same, however, could be said of the engines and trucks during that period. But by the 1940s, engines and truck-frame construction caught up to the need for a rugged vehicle capable of hauling thousands of pounds of wet, or unset, concrete. As the building boom following World War II went into full swing, mixer trucks came into their own.

The large drum mixer seen on roads today hasn't changed much from Stepanian's vision of a better concrete hauler. Mobile transit mixers are a mix-and-match selection of engine, truck frame and rotating mixer. The mixer is similar, though larger in scale, than the smaller ones found on construction sites. A large motor, separate from the engine, rotates the drum on the truck body, and a series of blades or a screw powered by the same motor keeps the aggregate, water and cement in constant motion. This keeps the premixed concrete from setting, though the clock is often ticking to get the load to the construction site, road section or parking lot. Most cement manufacturers suggest keeping the time between mixing and pouring to 90 minutes at most. It's even better to get it to the site in less than an hour.

As technology has changed, so has the basic mixer design. While many transit mixers still have rotating drums, most don't simply pick up a load of wet cement and transport it. The few that still do head mostly to road sites where it's possible to pour the mixture immediately.

Most transit mixers have a separate water tank in the truck. The spinning drum keeps the dry ingredients, aggregate and cement mixing during most of the trip. When the driver is within a few miles of the site, water is added to create concrete fresh for delivery.

This is considered "batch" delivery of ready-mixed concrete, mixing ingredients off site and trucking them where they're needed. Advances in technology have made it possible to mix concrete at the job site, though transit mixers are still the workhorse of the field.

Volumetric and metered mixers are becoming more common. Both types are essentially on-site custom concrete plants. Separate holding tanks of aggregate, cement and water are contained in one truck with a computer hooked to augers and pumps. At the site, the customer can order a specific type of concrete (there are more than a dozen) that can be mixed by the truck.

Some form of concrete -- the mix of a binder, aggregate and water -- has existed since the dynasties of the Egyptian pharaohs when water, sand and lime were mixed to use as mortar in building sections of the pyramids. Romans also used a form of concrete in constructing their aqueducts, the Coliseum and other major constructions. Scientists in the 1800s began experimenting and perfecting hydraulic cement, which is what the construction industry still uses today. The name for portland cement came from the Isle of Portland, off the English coast, where deposits of the mineral components used in modern concrete were first found and chemically isolated. By 1908, Thomas Edison was experimenting with building pre-cast concrete houses in Union, N.J. Most of those houses are still standing and being used. Then there are the famed Hoover and Grand Coulee dams, built in 1936, that stand among the wonders of the world.

While concrete comes in bewildering array of types, one thing is certain -- it's heavy. A large batch of concrete can weigh more than 30,000 pounds (13,608 kilograms), not counting the weight of the truck itself, anywhere from 10,000 to 30,000 pounds (4,536 to 13,608 kilograms). For a truck to haul that weight, it has to be powerful. And to get that load over the rough terrain of a construction site, the truck has to be tough.

The trucks come in three separate parts -- engine, frame and mixer. Most truck companies provide the engine and frame, with amenities ranging from sleeper cab to computer navigation. The mixer, or volumetric plant, is added on at a later time. The mix-and-match approach to building trucks is aimed at giving a company -- spending anywhere from $30,000 to more than $100,000 -- a new truck built to order. Each company has specific wants and needs and requires a truck tailored to those. For example, some may need a truck with a heavier engine and a lighter drum, which could be removed at a later time and turned into a trash hauler with a few modifications.

Most truck engines range from 250 to 300 horsepower, depending on the application. Some companies offer engines with more than 400 horsepower. Horsepower is a measure of power, an engine's "oomph," in other words. The "oomph" is usually supplied by a diesel engine, most commonly manufactured by Cummins or Caterpillar. Diesel engines produce more torque at lower engine RPM than a similar gas engine, making them ideal for low-speed, high-power applications like towing or hauling. Diesels are also preferred for their longevity -- many can go for a million miles (1,609,000 kilometers) or more with routine maintenance -- as well as their ruggedness.

Unlike gas engines, diesel engines operate using compression ignition and require a heavy engine block to withstand the tremendous forces at play inside them. That same compression ignition means the engine function with a higher compression ratio within the cylinders, thereby producing more power. That power is translated to torque, or rotational power, through special gearing in the transmission -- mixers have anywhere from 7 to 18 gears and can be manual or automatic, and differentials.

Most concrete trucks produce anywhere from 1,000 to 3,000 foot-pounds of torque. What this means, in layman's terms, is a concrete truck will never beat a street car at a quarter-mile race, but it will be able to break through the concrete crash barrier at the end without a blip in engine RPM and keep going.

Gas engines develop torque at higher RPM than diesel engines. Anyone who has ever towed a boat or trailer behind a gas-powered vehicle has experienced the need to press the gas pedal to make it up a hill. Diesel engines, because of their design, actually produce better torque at lower revolutions per minute. So slowing on a hill actually provides more torque.

But even a truck with the most power and torque can't control a 60,000-plus-pound load with ease. That's where the truck's axles come in, and these play a larger role than simply keeping the wheels and tires in their correct places.

Most of the newer trucks are equipped with live axles. Live axles are generally non-drive axles and are equipped with air brakes. Those brakes can be used to help steer the truck. There are usually at least three axles behind the cab, though some larger volumetric mixers can have up to six. Some of those axles are lifted and lowered to help distribute the weight of the truck and load.

The defining factor in truck type is a given state's bridge laws. Each state puts bridge crossing weight restrictions on construction vehicles. Contractors who break those laws face fines and penalties, and each state has different legal requirements, including many that require a bridge axle, or an extra axle off the back of the truck used to further distribute weight when making crossings.

The rumbling and grumbling of mixer trucks, with the seeming magic of pouring cement, has led the machine to play a role in several children's shows and become popular toys. Perhaps the most notable mixer truck is Tumbler, a yellow and green truck featured on the "Bob the Builder" series. Patrick, another transit mixer, made a brief appearance in the "Thomas and Friends" videos, based on the Thomas the Tank Engine character, claiming he was the most important piece of equipment at the construction site. The machines learn they all need to work together to get the job done and one isn't more important than the other.

Most of the mixer fleet, especially older batch model trucks, uses a simple tip-and-pour method to get the concrete out of the mixer. A chute attaches to a port and the concrete oozes (or pours, depending on its consistency) out of the mixer to the project. Usually, the driver of the truck operates the machinery and aims the chute. Many transit mixers are coupled to a hydraulic lift bed that can tip up the drum, similar to a dump truck, if needed.

Other trucks, many of them volumetric and the newer transit mixers, use a pump to move the concrete from the truck to the project. The pumps, usually reciprocating piston pumps, can be mounted on the front or the rear of the truck. Having the pump in front allows the driver to maneuver to a section of the work site and direct the concrete from inside the cab. The controls can be mechanical, electro-mechanical, hydraulic or purely electronic. Newer trucks are employing more on-board computers to monitor pumps and other components of the mixers.

Before the concrete is pumped or poured, a number of simpler machines act in concert to keep the concrete from setting, and even mix the concrete at the site. Some of the older portions of the fleet, like early mixers, used paddles to stir the concrete and keep it from "settling out," or separating into its component pieces. This technology has been largely replaced by the use of augers and fins. Inside a traditional batch mixer is a concentric series of fins with a slight corkscrew pattern. The direction of the drum's spin squishes the wet concrete into the back of the mixer. When the mixer arrives at the site, the driver reverses the direction of the machine to push it out of the mixer to the chute. From there, gravity does the rest.

Volumetric mixers use augers to move concrete. These are similar to the blades in the batch mixer but smaller. Inside the mixer, an operator feeds data into the mixer and several augers feed aggregate and cement together. Water is added to the mix and larger augers blend the components.

The Greek mathematician, engineer and inventor Archimedes is credited with inventing a pump that used a long, helical screw rotating inside an enclosed tube to lift water from a source to where it was wanted. The screw pump is essentially an inclined plane, one of the simple machines, curled around a central axis. This idea led to the development of augers to move dry ingredients, and the fins set in a corkscrew shape to direct liquids. These machines are used extensively in the processing and mixing of concrete at plants and in volumetric mixers, as well as in traditional transit mixers.

"Breaking up is hard to do" is more than a song lyric to concrete-truck owners. The simple truth of the matter is, once the last of the concrete trickles out of the drum or dribbles out of the pump, the truck isn't empty. A small amount of concrete always remains inside the truck, especially in drum mixers. You can wash the truck out, run water through the drum while it rotates and even pressure-wash the inside. But some concrete is always left. And it dries. The next trip a little more is left. And it dries. Over time, this becomes a problem, reducing the volume of the mixer and its capacity.

Several companies offer pre-treatments, chemical and acid baths and high-pressure washes for drums and interiors. But eventually, the concrete will build to a point where the only viable alternative is mechanical removal. Many smaller companies handle this on their own, sending in a worker with a jackhammer to chip out the hardened concrete. This job, largely unknown outside of the construction field, got its 15 minutes of fame during an episode of the Discovery Channel's "Dirty Jobs" series, which sent host Mike Rowe to work with Jim's Chipping Service, one of the few companies specializing in cleaning hardened concrete.These highly specialized vehicles are essential to the construction business and it doesn't look like they're going away any time soon. But what will cement mixers look like in the future? Read on to find out.

These highly specialized vehicles are essential to the construction business and it doesn't look like they're going away any time soon. But what will cement mixers look like in the future? Read on to find out.

What the future holds for the concrete mixer is unclear. Like many industries, concrete is going "green." The manufacturers of volumetric concrete mixers say their products are more environmentally friendly because they save fuel by mixing materials at the construction site -- the trucks don't have to run their engines to keep the concrete from setting. In addition, truck operators can create only the amount of concrete needed to finish a job -- not only does this save materials, but this method also prevents dumping of excess concrete [source: Modern Contractor Solutions].

Truck manufacturer Peterbilt is experimenting with compressed air "push" systems. The truck would be started using compressed air, and when it reached a certain speed, the diesel engine would kick in. Since an engine requires a larger amount of fuel to overcome inertia, getting it up to speed with relatively inexpensive compressed air would show fuel savings over time. This developing technology is now aimed at inner-city delivery trucks rather than larger trucks like mixers.

IVECO Trucks of Australia is working to perfect a compressed natural gas (CNG) engine for heavy truck use. The CNG trucks have comparable mileage, but release 40 percent less carbon dioxide than diesel and the natural gas is less expensive than diesel fuel [source: IVECO]. Like many of the new generation engine systems, CNG is paired with state-of-the-art electronics designed to get the most out of every tank of fuel.

how to make cement in the wild: 6 steps (with pictures) - wikihow

how to make cement in the wild: 6 steps (with pictures) - wikihow

wikiHow is a wiki, similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors. To create this article, 11 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. This article has been viewed 55,844 times. Learn more...

Mankind has been using cement to make concrete for hundreds of years to build strong and permanent structures. By following the steps in the article, you will be able to make cement in the backyard or in a survival situation.

what is cement and an example of how cement can be made

what is cement and an example of how cement can be made

Cement is a fine, soft, powdery-type substance. It is made from a mixture of elements that are found in natural materials such as limestone, clay, sand and/or shale. When cement is mixed with water, it can bind sand and gravel into a hard, solid mass called concrete.Cement can be purchased from most building supply stores in bagsRelated topics: [Whatisconcrete] [Reinforcinginconcrete] [Makingaconcreteslab]Did you know? Four essential elements are needed to make cement. They are Calcium, Silicon, Aluminum and Iron.Calcium (which is the main ingredient) can be obtained from limestone, whereas silicon can be obtained from sand and/or clay. Aluminum and iron can be extracted from bauxite and iron ore, and only small amounts are needed.Cement is usually gray. White cement can also be found but it is usually more expensive than gray cement.Cement mixed with water, sand and gravel, forms concrete.Cement mixed with water and sand, forms cement plaster.Cement mixed with water, lime and sand, forms mortar.Cement powder is very, very fine. One kilo (2.2 lbs) contains over 300 billion grains, although we havent actually counted them to see if that is completely accurate! The powder is so fine it will pass through a sieve capable of holding water.Tip: Cement should be stored in a dry area. If it gets wet or damp the powder will turn into a hard lump.An example of how cement can be made1.) Limestone is taken from a quarry. It is the major ingredient needed for making cement. Smaller quantities of sand and clay are also needed. Limestone, sand and clay contain the four essential elements required to make cement. The four essential elements are calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron.2.) Boulder-size limestone rocks are transported from the quarry to the cement plant and fed into a crusher which crushes the boulders into marble-size pieces.3.) The limestone pieces then go through a blender where they are added to the other raw materials in the right proportion.4.) The raw materials are ground to a powder. This is sometimes done with rollers that crush the materials against a rotating platform.5.) Everything then goes into a huge, extremely hot, rotating furnace to undergo a process called sintering. Sintering means: to cause to become a coherent mass by heating without melting. In other words, the raw materials become sort of partially molten. The raw materials reach about 2700 F (1480C) inside the furnace. This causes chemical and physical changes to the raw materials and they come out of the furnace as large, glassy, red-hot cinders called clinker.6.) The clinker is cooled and ground into a fine gray powder. A small amount of gypsum is also added during the final grinding. It is now the finished product Portland cement.The cement is then stored in silos (large holding tanks) where it awaits distribution.The cement is usually shipped in bulk in purpose-made trucks, by rail or even by barge or ship. Some is bagged for those who want small quantities.

Cement can be purchased from most building supply stores in bagsRelated topics: [Whatisconcrete] [Reinforcinginconcrete] [Makingaconcreteslab]Did you know? Four essential elements are needed to make cement. They are Calcium, Silicon, Aluminum and Iron.Calcium (which is the main ingredient) can be obtained from limestone, whereas silicon can be obtained from sand and/or clay. Aluminum and iron can be extracted from bauxite and iron ore, and only small amounts are needed.Cement is usually gray. White cement can also be found but it is usually more expensive than gray cement.Cement mixed with water, sand and gravel, forms concrete.Cement mixed with water and sand, forms cement plaster.Cement mixed with water, lime and sand, forms mortar.Cement powder is very, very fine. One kilo (2.2 lbs) contains over 300 billion grains, although we havent actually counted them to see if that is completely accurate! The powder is so fine it will pass through a sieve capable of holding water.Tip: Cement should be stored in a dry area. If it gets wet or damp the powder will turn into a hard lump.An example of how cement can be made1.) Limestone is taken from a quarry. It is the major ingredient needed for making cement. Smaller quantities of sand and clay are also needed. Limestone, sand and clay contain the four essential elements required to make cement. The four essential elements are calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron.2.) Boulder-size limestone rocks are transported from the quarry to the cement plant and fed into a crusher which crushes the boulders into marble-size pieces.3.) The limestone pieces then go through a blender where they are added to the other raw materials in the right proportion.4.) The raw materials are ground to a powder. This is sometimes done with rollers that crush the materials against a rotating platform.5.) Everything then goes into a huge, extremely hot, rotating furnace to undergo a process called sintering. Sintering means: to cause to become a coherent mass by heating without melting. In other words, the raw materials become sort of partially molten. The raw materials reach about 2700 F (1480C) inside the furnace. This causes chemical and physical changes to the raw materials and they come out of the furnace as large, glassy, red-hot cinders called clinker.6.) The clinker is cooled and ground into a fine gray powder. A small amount of gypsum is also added during the final grinding. It is now the finished product Portland cement.The cement is then stored in silos (large holding tanks) where it awaits distribution.The cement is usually shipped in bulk in purpose-made trucks, by rail or even by barge or ship. Some is bagged for those who want small quantities.

Related topics: [Whatisconcrete] [Reinforcinginconcrete] [Makingaconcreteslab]Did you know? Four essential elements are needed to make cement. They are Calcium, Silicon, Aluminum and Iron.Calcium (which is the main ingredient) can be obtained from limestone, whereas silicon can be obtained from sand and/or clay. Aluminum and iron can be extracted from bauxite and iron ore, and only small amounts are needed.Cement is usually gray. White cement can also be found but it is usually more expensive than gray cement.Cement mixed with water, sand and gravel, forms concrete.Cement mixed with water and sand, forms cement plaster.Cement mixed with water, lime and sand, forms mortar.Cement powder is very, very fine. One kilo (2.2 lbs) contains over 300 billion grains, although we havent actually counted them to see if that is completely accurate! The powder is so fine it will pass through a sieve capable of holding water.Tip: Cement should be stored in a dry area. If it gets wet or damp the powder will turn into a hard lump.An example of how cement can be made1.) Limestone is taken from a quarry. It is the major ingredient needed for making cement. Smaller quantities of sand and clay are also needed. Limestone, sand and clay contain the four essential elements required to make cement. The four essential elements are calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron.2.) Boulder-size limestone rocks are transported from the quarry to the cement plant and fed into a crusher which crushes the boulders into marble-size pieces.3.) The limestone pieces then go through a blender where they are added to the other raw materials in the right proportion.4.) The raw materials are ground to a powder. This is sometimes done with rollers that crush the materials against a rotating platform.5.) Everything then goes into a huge, extremely hot, rotating furnace to undergo a process called sintering. Sintering means: to cause to become a coherent mass by heating without melting. In other words, the raw materials become sort of partially molten. The raw materials reach about 2700 F (1480C) inside the furnace. This causes chemical and physical changes to the raw materials and they come out of the furnace as large, glassy, red-hot cinders called clinker.6.) The clinker is cooled and ground into a fine gray powder. A small amount of gypsum is also added during the final grinding. It is now the finished product Portland cement.The cement is then stored in silos (large holding tanks) where it awaits distribution.The cement is usually shipped in bulk in purpose-made trucks, by rail or even by barge or ship. Some is bagged for those who want small quantities.

Did you know? Four essential elements are needed to make cement. They are Calcium, Silicon, Aluminum and Iron.Calcium (which is the main ingredient) can be obtained from limestone, whereas silicon can be obtained from sand and/or clay. Aluminum and iron can be extracted from bauxite and iron ore, and only small amounts are needed.

Cement is usually gray. White cement can also be found but it is usually more expensive than gray cement.Cement mixed with water, sand and gravel, forms concrete.Cement mixed with water and sand, forms cement plaster.Cement mixed with water, lime and sand, forms mortar.Cement powder is very, very fine. One kilo (2.2 lbs) contains over 300 billion grains, although we havent actually counted them to see if that is completely accurate! The powder is so fine it will pass through a sieve capable of holding water.Tip: Cement should be stored in a dry area. If it gets wet or damp the powder will turn into a hard lump.An example of how cement can be made1.) Limestone is taken from a quarry. It is the major ingredient needed for making cement. Smaller quantities of sand and clay are also needed. Limestone, sand and clay contain the four essential elements required to make cement. The four essential elements are calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron.2.) Boulder-size limestone rocks are transported from the quarry to the cement plant and fed into a crusher which crushes the boulders into marble-size pieces.3.) The limestone pieces then go through a blender where they are added to the other raw materials in the right proportion.4.) The raw materials are ground to a powder. This is sometimes done with rollers that crush the materials against a rotating platform.5.) Everything then goes into a huge, extremely hot, rotating furnace to undergo a process called sintering. Sintering means: to cause to become a coherent mass by heating without melting. In other words, the raw materials become sort of partially molten. The raw materials reach about 2700 F (1480C) inside the furnace. This causes chemical and physical changes to the raw materials and they come out of the furnace as large, glassy, red-hot cinders called clinker.6.) The clinker is cooled and ground into a fine gray powder. A small amount of gypsum is also added during the final grinding. It is now the finished product Portland cement.The cement is then stored in silos (large holding tanks) where it awaits distribution.The cement is usually shipped in bulk in purpose-made trucks, by rail or even by barge or ship. Some is bagged for those who want small quantities.

Cement mixed with water, sand and gravel, forms concrete.Cement mixed with water and sand, forms cement plaster.Cement mixed with water, lime and sand, forms mortar.Cement powder is very, very fine. One kilo (2.2 lbs) contains over 300 billion grains, although we havent actually counted them to see if that is completely accurate! The powder is so fine it will pass through a sieve capable of holding water.Tip: Cement should be stored in a dry area. If it gets wet or damp the powder will turn into a hard lump.An example of how cement can be made1.) Limestone is taken from a quarry. It is the major ingredient needed for making cement. Smaller quantities of sand and clay are also needed. Limestone, sand and clay contain the four essential elements required to make cement. The four essential elements are calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron.2.) Boulder-size limestone rocks are transported from the quarry to the cement plant and fed into a crusher which crushes the boulders into marble-size pieces.3.) The limestone pieces then go through a blender where they are added to the other raw materials in the right proportion.4.) The raw materials are ground to a powder. This is sometimes done with rollers that crush the materials against a rotating platform.5.) Everything then goes into a huge, extremely hot, rotating furnace to undergo a process called sintering. Sintering means: to cause to become a coherent mass by heating without melting. In other words, the raw materials become sort of partially molten. The raw materials reach about 2700 F (1480C) inside the furnace. This causes chemical and physical changes to the raw materials and they come out of the furnace as large, glassy, red-hot cinders called clinker.6.) The clinker is cooled and ground into a fine gray powder. A small amount of gypsum is also added during the final grinding. It is now the finished product Portland cement.The cement is then stored in silos (large holding tanks) where it awaits distribution.The cement is usually shipped in bulk in purpose-made trucks, by rail or even by barge or ship. Some is bagged for those who want small quantities.

Cement mixed with water and sand, forms cement plaster.Cement mixed with water, lime and sand, forms mortar.Cement powder is very, very fine. One kilo (2.2 lbs) contains over 300 billion grains, although we havent actually counted them to see if that is completely accurate! The powder is so fine it will pass through a sieve capable of holding water.Tip: Cement should be stored in a dry area. If it gets wet or damp the powder will turn into a hard lump.An example of how cement can be made1.) Limestone is taken from a quarry. It is the major ingredient needed for making cement. Smaller quantities of sand and clay are also needed. Limestone, sand and clay contain the four essential elements required to make cement. The four essential elements are calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron.2.) Boulder-size limestone rocks are transported from the quarry to the cement plant and fed into a crusher which crushes the boulders into marble-size pieces.3.) The limestone pieces then go through a blender where they are added to the other raw materials in the right proportion.4.) The raw materials are ground to a powder. This is sometimes done with rollers that crush the materials against a rotating platform.5.) Everything then goes into a huge, extremely hot, rotating furnace to undergo a process called sintering. Sintering means: to cause to become a coherent mass by heating without melting. In other words, the raw materials become sort of partially molten. The raw materials reach about 2700 F (1480C) inside the furnace. This causes chemical and physical changes to the raw materials and they come out of the furnace as large, glassy, red-hot cinders called clinker.6.) The clinker is cooled and ground into a fine gray powder. A small amount of gypsum is also added during the final grinding. It is now the finished product Portland cement.The cement is then stored in silos (large holding tanks) where it awaits distribution.The cement is usually shipped in bulk in purpose-made trucks, by rail or even by barge or ship. Some is bagged for those who want small quantities.

Cement mixed with water, lime and sand, forms mortar.Cement powder is very, very fine. One kilo (2.2 lbs) contains over 300 billion grains, although we havent actually counted them to see if that is completely accurate! The powder is so fine it will pass through a sieve capable of holding water.Tip: Cement should be stored in a dry area. If it gets wet or damp the powder will turn into a hard lump.An example of how cement can be made1.) Limestone is taken from a quarry. It is the major ingredient needed for making cement. Smaller quantities of sand and clay are also needed. Limestone, sand and clay contain the four essential elements required to make cement. The four essential elements are calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron.2.) Boulder-size limestone rocks are transported from the quarry to the cement plant and fed into a crusher which crushes the boulders into marble-size pieces.3.) The limestone pieces then go through a blender where they are added to the other raw materials in the right proportion.4.) The raw materials are ground to a powder. This is sometimes done with rollers that crush the materials against a rotating platform.5.) Everything then goes into a huge, extremely hot, rotating furnace to undergo a process called sintering. Sintering means: to cause to become a coherent mass by heating without melting. In other words, the raw materials become sort of partially molten. The raw materials reach about 2700 F (1480C) inside the furnace. This causes chemical and physical changes to the raw materials and they come out of the furnace as large, glassy, red-hot cinders called clinker.6.) The clinker is cooled and ground into a fine gray powder. A small amount of gypsum is also added during the final grinding. It is now the finished product Portland cement.The cement is then stored in silos (large holding tanks) where it awaits distribution.The cement is usually shipped in bulk in purpose-made trucks, by rail or even by barge or ship. Some is bagged for those who want small quantities.

Cement powder is very, very fine. One kilo (2.2 lbs) contains over 300 billion grains, although we havent actually counted them to see if that is completely accurate! The powder is so fine it will pass through a sieve capable of holding water.Tip: Cement should be stored in a dry area. If it gets wet or damp the powder will turn into a hard lump.An example of how cement can be made1.) Limestone is taken from a quarry. It is the major ingredient needed for making cement. Smaller quantities of sand and clay are also needed. Limestone, sand and clay contain the four essential elements required to make cement. The four essential elements are calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron.2.) Boulder-size limestone rocks are transported from the quarry to the cement plant and fed into a crusher which crushes the boulders into marble-size pieces.3.) The limestone pieces then go through a blender where they are added to the other raw materials in the right proportion.4.) The raw materials are ground to a powder. This is sometimes done with rollers that crush the materials against a rotating platform.5.) Everything then goes into a huge, extremely hot, rotating furnace to undergo a process called sintering. Sintering means: to cause to become a coherent mass by heating without melting. In other words, the raw materials become sort of partially molten. The raw materials reach about 2700 F (1480C) inside the furnace. This causes chemical and physical changes to the raw materials and they come out of the furnace as large, glassy, red-hot cinders called clinker.6.) The clinker is cooled and ground into a fine gray powder. A small amount of gypsum is also added during the final grinding. It is now the finished product Portland cement.The cement is then stored in silos (large holding tanks) where it awaits distribution.The cement is usually shipped in bulk in purpose-made trucks, by rail or even by barge or ship. Some is bagged for those who want small quantities.

1.) Limestone is taken from a quarry. It is the major ingredient needed for making cement. Smaller quantities of sand and clay are also needed. Limestone, sand and clay contain the four essential elements required to make cement. The four essential elements are calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron.2.) Boulder-size limestone rocks are transported from the quarry to the cement plant and fed into a crusher which crushes the boulders into marble-size pieces.3.) The limestone pieces then go through a blender where they are added to the other raw materials in the right proportion.4.) The raw materials are ground to a powder. This is sometimes done with rollers that crush the materials against a rotating platform.5.) Everything then goes into a huge, extremely hot, rotating furnace to undergo a process called sintering. Sintering means: to cause to become a coherent mass by heating without melting. In other words, the raw materials become sort of partially molten. The raw materials reach about 2700 F (1480C) inside the furnace. This causes chemical and physical changes to the raw materials and they come out of the furnace as large, glassy, red-hot cinders called clinker.6.) The clinker is cooled and ground into a fine gray powder. A small amount of gypsum is also added during the final grinding. It is now the finished product Portland cement.The cement is then stored in silos (large holding tanks) where it awaits distribution.The cement is usually shipped in bulk in purpose-made trucks, by rail or even by barge or ship. Some is bagged for those who want small quantities.

2.) Boulder-size limestone rocks are transported from the quarry to the cement plant and fed into a crusher which crushes the boulders into marble-size pieces.3.) The limestone pieces then go through a blender where they are added to the other raw materials in the right proportion.4.) The raw materials are ground to a powder. This is sometimes done with rollers that crush the materials against a rotating platform.5.) Everything then goes into a huge, extremely hot, rotating furnace to undergo a process called sintering. Sintering means: to cause to become a coherent mass by heating without melting. In other words, the raw materials become sort of partially molten. The raw materials reach about 2700 F (1480C) inside the furnace. This causes chemical and physical changes to the raw materials and they come out of the furnace as large, glassy, red-hot cinders called clinker.6.) The clinker is cooled and ground into a fine gray powder. A small amount of gypsum is also added during the final grinding. It is now the finished product Portland cement.The cement is then stored in silos (large holding tanks) where it awaits distribution.The cement is usually shipped in bulk in purpose-made trucks, by rail or even by barge or ship. Some is bagged for those who want small quantities.

3.) The limestone pieces then go through a blender where they are added to the other raw materials in the right proportion.4.) The raw materials are ground to a powder. This is sometimes done with rollers that crush the materials against a rotating platform.5.) Everything then goes into a huge, extremely hot, rotating furnace to undergo a process called sintering. Sintering means: to cause to become a coherent mass by heating without melting. In other words, the raw materials become sort of partially molten. The raw materials reach about 2700 F (1480C) inside the furnace. This causes chemical and physical changes to the raw materials and they come out of the furnace as large, glassy, red-hot cinders called clinker.6.) The clinker is cooled and ground into a fine gray powder. A small amount of gypsum is also added during the final grinding. It is now the finished product Portland cement.The cement is then stored in silos (large holding tanks) where it awaits distribution.The cement is usually shipped in bulk in purpose-made trucks, by rail or even by barge or ship. Some is bagged for those who want small quantities.

4.) The raw materials are ground to a powder. This is sometimes done with rollers that crush the materials against a rotating platform.5.) Everything then goes into a huge, extremely hot, rotating furnace to undergo a process called sintering. Sintering means: to cause to become a coherent mass by heating without melting. In other words, the raw materials become sort of partially molten. The raw materials reach about 2700 F (1480C) inside the furnace. This causes chemical and physical changes to the raw materials and they come out of the furnace as large, glassy, red-hot cinders called clinker.6.) The clinker is cooled and ground into a fine gray powder. A small amount of gypsum is also added during the final grinding. It is now the finished product Portland cement.The cement is then stored in silos (large holding tanks) where it awaits distribution.The cement is usually shipped in bulk in purpose-made trucks, by rail or even by barge or ship. Some is bagged for those who want small quantities.

5.) Everything then goes into a huge, extremely hot, rotating furnace to undergo a process called sintering. Sintering means: to cause to become a coherent mass by heating without melting. In other words, the raw materials become sort of partially molten. The raw materials reach about 2700 F (1480C) inside the furnace. This causes chemical and physical changes to the raw materials and they come out of the furnace as large, glassy, red-hot cinders called clinker.6.) The clinker is cooled and ground into a fine gray powder. A small amount of gypsum is also added during the final grinding. It is now the finished product Portland cement.The cement is then stored in silos (large holding tanks) where it awaits distribution.The cement is usually shipped in bulk in purpose-made trucks, by rail or even by barge or ship. Some is bagged for those who want small quantities.

6.) The clinker is cooled and ground into a fine gray powder. A small amount of gypsum is also added during the final grinding. It is now the finished product Portland cement.The cement is then stored in silos (large holding tanks) where it awaits distribution.The cement is usually shipped in bulk in purpose-made trucks, by rail or even by barge or ship. Some is bagged for those who want small quantities.

The cement is then stored in silos (large holding tanks) where it awaits distribution.The cement is usually shipped in bulk in purpose-made trucks, by rail or even by barge or ship. Some is bagged for those who want small quantities.

dear brain dead morons. cement is a mix of portland cement and sand without gravel. lime can be added to make mortar, stucco, or a stronger mix of cement. ratio for cement can be 1 sand 1 amount portland cement. sometimes 2 to 1 3 to 2 depends on project. If you are without knowledge of what Cement is YOU SHOULD NOT PRETEND YOU DO>this page should be removed.END.

seti alpha Why the uninformed outburst ?Cement is cement, water, sand, lime and aggregate are added to produce plaster , mortar, concrete etc ! Keep yourself civil mate , people are asking legitimate questions, which doesnt make them morons

Wow, I never knew before that limestone is a common component of cement. Im planning to find a ready mix cement supplier soon because Im currently making my own rock garden at home. having some round cement plats to serve as a walkway will make it easier to navigate the area without having to deal with the uneven gravel.

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how to make a concrete countertop | how-tos | diy

how to make a concrete countertop | how-tos | diy

Making your own concrete countertop is one of the more challengingand rewardingDIY projects. If youre a rookie, keep your goals simple. Plan for basic color treatments and plain edges, and also plan to spend a few weekends on the project. This project is a simple, 2' x 6', 2" thick countertop island with a smooth surface and a cutout for a square cooktop.

Making your own concrete countertop is one of the more challengingand rewardingDIY projects. If youre a rookie, keep your goals simple. Plan for basic color treatments and plain edges, and also plan to spend a few weekends on the project.

Watch video of this step. To determine the size of your countertop, measure the base cabinets or your existing countertop. If measuring the base cabinets, add an extra 3/4" for an overhang. Our island countertop will be 3 x 4. The key to a great countertop is a well-built mold to pour the concrete into. Start with a 4' x 6' piece of 1" thick melamine particleboard. Set firmly on a pair of sawhorses. Measure and mark the exact dimensions on the mold base, then cut using a circular saw (image 2). Cut the sides of the mold. Measure and mark four 2-3/4-inch strips. Use a table saw to make the cuts. Each strip should be 4-feet long. Then attach the sides by drilling 2-inch pilot holes every 6 inches. Join two of these 4-foot strips to the 4-foot sides of the base, using two-inch wood screws. Trim the ends strips and attach them in the same way to the remaining sides of the mold. Use a square to check corners, and the outer mold is complete.

To determine the size of your countertop, measure the base cabinets or your existing countertop. If measuring the base cabinets, add an extra 3/4" for an overhang. Our island countertop will be 3 x 4. The key to a great countertop is a well-built mold to pour the concrete into. Start with a 4' x 6' piece of 1" thick melamine particleboard. Set firmly on a pair of sawhorses. Measure and mark the exact dimensions on the mold base, then cut using a circular saw (image 2). Cut the sides of the mold. Measure and mark four 2-3/4-inch strips. Use a table saw to make the cuts. Each strip should be 4-feet long. Then attach the sides by drilling 2-inch pilot holes every 6 inches. Join two of these 4-foot strips to the 4-foot sides of the base, using two-inch wood screws. Trim the ends strips and attach them in the same way to the remaining sides of the mold. Use a square to check corners, and the outer mold is complete.

The key to a great countertop is a well-built mold to pour the concrete into. Start with a 4' x 6' piece of 1" thick melamine particleboard. Set firmly on a pair of sawhorses. Measure and mark the exact dimensions on the mold base, then cut using a circular saw (image 2). Cut the sides of the mold. Measure and mark four 2-3/4-inch strips. Use a table saw to make the cuts. Each strip should be 4-feet long. Then attach the sides by drilling 2-inch pilot holes every 6 inches. Join two of these 4-foot strips to the 4-foot sides of the base, using two-inch wood screws. Trim the ends strips and attach them in the same way to the remaining sides of the mold. Use a square to check corners, and the outer mold is complete.

Cut the sides of the mold. Measure and mark four 2-3/4-inch strips. Use a table saw to make the cuts. Each strip should be 4-feet long. Then attach the sides by drilling 2-inch pilot holes every 6 inches. Join two of these 4-foot strips to the 4-foot sides of the base, using two-inch wood screws. Trim the ends strips and attach them in the same way to the remaining sides of the mold. Use a square to check corners, and the outer mold is complete.

Then attach the sides by drilling 2-inch pilot holes every 6 inches. Join two of these 4-foot strips to the 4-foot sides of the base, using two-inch wood screws. Trim the ends strips and attach them in the same way to the remaining sides of the mold. Use a square to check corners, and the outer mold is complete.

If you need to have a cutout in your countertop for a cooktop or sink, measure and mark it on the mold's base. To start the cut, drill pilot holes on the inside corners of the portion that will be removed. Then insert a jigsaw into the holes and cut from hole to hole along the edge marks. Then measure and cut the sides for the cutout, attaching them by butting them against the edges of the base inside the cutout. Carefully clean the mold of sawdust and other materials. The bottom of the mold will be the top of the countertop, so its important the concrete sets on a debris-free surface. Run a small uniform bead of 100-percent silicone caulk in all the inside corners and seams of the mold. Smooth the bead with a caulk tool and let dry thoroughly for 24 hours. You can also use the tip of your finger to smooth out the caulk. The silicone will seal the joints of the mold and prevent the wet concrete from leaking.

Then measure and cut the sides for the cutout, attaching them by butting them against the edges of the base inside the cutout. Carefully clean the mold of sawdust and other materials. The bottom of the mold will be the top of the countertop, so its important the concrete sets on a debris-free surface. Run a small uniform bead of 100-percent silicone caulk in all the inside corners and seams of the mold. Smooth the bead with a caulk tool and let dry thoroughly for 24 hours. You can also use the tip of your finger to smooth out the caulk. The silicone will seal the joints of the mold and prevent the wet concrete from leaking.

Carefully clean the mold of sawdust and other materials. The bottom of the mold will be the top of the countertop, so its important the concrete sets on a debris-free surface. Run a small uniform bead of 100-percent silicone caulk in all the inside corners and seams of the mold. Smooth the bead with a caulk tool and let dry thoroughly for 24 hours. You can also use the tip of your finger to smooth out the caulk. The silicone will seal the joints of the mold and prevent the wet concrete from leaking.

Run a small uniform bead of 100-percent silicone caulk in all the inside corners and seams of the mold. Smooth the bead with a caulk tool and let dry thoroughly for 24 hours. You can also use the tip of your finger to smooth out the caulk. The silicone will seal the joints of the mold and prevent the wet concrete from leaking.

Watch video of this step. Once the outer mold is done, youll need to build a support frame to surround it. The concrete youll be pouring is heavy about 10 to 15 pounds per-square foot and you dont want the edges of the mold to bend with the weight. Measure the mold and cut a series of 2x4s for a support frame around it. Lay three boards underneath the mold - lengthwise, each a bit longer than the actual mold. Youll use this under hang to support the end 2x4s. Attach them with 2-inch screws. Then add the remaining two side pieces and attach them to the first two, completing the frame. The frame should be tight against the mold, to prevent the heavy concrete from pushing the mold out of shape. But do NOT attach the frame to the mold itself. Rather, the 2x4s the frame should be attached to each other and the mold should lie within the frame. The last step in preparing the mold for the concrete is to cut a section of galvanized structural stucco wire. This will be added to the concrete during the pour to add strength and prevent cracking. Use metal snips to cut the wire to the shape of the mold so that it comes about 1 inch off the edges all around. You can find galvanized structural stucco wire at most concrete supply stores. Once cut, set the wire aside until youre ready to pour the concrete.

Once the outer mold is done, youll need to build a support frame to surround it. The concrete youll be pouring is heavy about 10 to 15 pounds per-square foot and you dont want the edges of the mold to bend with the weight. Measure the mold and cut a series of 2x4s for a support frame around it. Lay three boards underneath the mold - lengthwise, each a bit longer than the actual mold. Youll use this under hang to support the end 2x4s. Attach them with 2-inch screws. Then add the remaining two side pieces and attach them to the first two, completing the frame. The frame should be tight against the mold, to prevent the heavy concrete from pushing the mold out of shape. But do NOT attach the frame to the mold itself. Rather, the 2x4s the frame should be attached to each other and the mold should lie within the frame. The last step in preparing the mold for the concrete is to cut a section of galvanized structural stucco wire. This will be added to the concrete during the pour to add strength and prevent cracking. Use metal snips to cut the wire to the shape of the mold so that it comes about 1 inch off the edges all around. You can find galvanized structural stucco wire at most concrete supply stores. Once cut, set the wire aside until youre ready to pour the concrete.

Measure the mold and cut a series of 2x4s for a support frame around it. Lay three boards underneath the mold - lengthwise, each a bit longer than the actual mold. Youll use this under hang to support the end 2x4s. Attach them with 2-inch screws. Then add the remaining two side pieces and attach them to the first two, completing the frame. The frame should be tight against the mold, to prevent the heavy concrete from pushing the mold out of shape. But do NOT attach the frame to the mold itself. Rather, the 2x4s the frame should be attached to each other and the mold should lie within the frame. The last step in preparing the mold for the concrete is to cut a section of galvanized structural stucco wire. This will be added to the concrete during the pour to add strength and prevent cracking. Use metal snips to cut the wire to the shape of the mold so that it comes about 1 inch off the edges all around. You can find galvanized structural stucco wire at most concrete supply stores. Once cut, set the wire aside until youre ready to pour the concrete.

Youll use this under hang to support the end 2x4s. Attach them with 2-inch screws. Then add the remaining two side pieces and attach them to the first two, completing the frame. The frame should be tight against the mold, to prevent the heavy concrete from pushing the mold out of shape. But do NOT attach the frame to the mold itself. Rather, the 2x4s the frame should be attached to each other and the mold should lie within the frame. The last step in preparing the mold for the concrete is to cut a section of galvanized structural stucco wire. This will be added to the concrete during the pour to add strength and prevent cracking. Use metal snips to cut the wire to the shape of the mold so that it comes about 1 inch off the edges all around. You can find galvanized structural stucco wire at most concrete supply stores. Once cut, set the wire aside until youre ready to pour the concrete.

The frame should be tight against the mold, to prevent the heavy concrete from pushing the mold out of shape. But do NOT attach the frame to the mold itself. Rather, the 2x4s the frame should be attached to each other and the mold should lie within the frame. The last step in preparing the mold for the concrete is to cut a section of galvanized structural stucco wire. This will be added to the concrete during the pour to add strength and prevent cracking. Use metal snips to cut the wire to the shape of the mold so that it comes about 1 inch off the edges all around. You can find galvanized structural stucco wire at most concrete supply stores. Once cut, set the wire aside until youre ready to pour the concrete.

The last step in preparing the mold for the concrete is to cut a section of galvanized structural stucco wire. This will be added to the concrete during the pour to add strength and prevent cracking. Use metal snips to cut the wire to the shape of the mold so that it comes about 1 inch off the edges all around. You can find galvanized structural stucco wire at most concrete supply stores. Once cut, set the wire aside until youre ready to pour the concrete.

Watch video of this step. For our 12-square-foot countertop, we needed three 60-pound bags of ready-mix concrete. Add water to the concrete and mix with a shovel per the manufacturer's instructions. If you want to add color to the countertop, nows the time to add pigment to the mix. Pigment additives come in powder or liquid. Liquid pigments are easy to measure and mix, especially with small concrete batches like this one. But dont forget to account for the amount of water in the pigment when measuring the water for the concrete. Controlling the amount of water added to the concrete mix is critical to producing consistent color. Refer to the manufacturer's guidelines. Mixing the concrete correctly is critical to its strength and durability. When it achieves the texture of peanut butter its time to add it to the mold. Remember that the concrete at the bottom of mold will become the top of the concrete slab. Using a small spade or bucket, pour the concrete into the mold, pressing and compacting it as you fill the mold to a depth of about 1 inch or halfway full. Set the galvanized wire into the concrete, taking care that it does not touch the edges of the mold. The wire will keep the concrete from cracking as it dries and it will also add strength. Continue to fill the mold on top of the wire, tamping the concrete with a trowel, as you go along to ensure it is well-packed. Your objective is to slightly overfill the mold. The level of concrete will drop slightly in the mold as it settles. Smooth the concrete surface with a hand trowel. This will draw the aggregates to the top. To settle the concrete, use an orbital sander without sandpaper against the sides of the mold. The vibrations will help bring air bubbles in the concrete up to the surface. When finished, gently cover the countertop with a sheet of plastic or damp burlap to protect it from dust and dirt. Let the concrete cure at least a weekthe more it cures, the stronger it gets.

For our 12-square-foot countertop, we needed three 60-pound bags of ready-mix concrete. Add water to the concrete and mix with a shovel per the manufacturer's instructions. If you want to add color to the countertop, nows the time to add pigment to the mix. Pigment additives come in powder or liquid. Liquid pigments are easy to measure and mix, especially with small concrete batches like this one. But dont forget to account for the amount of water in the pigment when measuring the water for the concrete. Controlling the amount of water added to the concrete mix is critical to producing consistent color. Refer to the manufacturer's guidelines. Mixing the concrete correctly is critical to its strength and durability. When it achieves the texture of peanut butter its time to add it to the mold. Remember that the concrete at the bottom of mold will become the top of the concrete slab. Using a small spade or bucket, pour the concrete into the mold, pressing and compacting it as you fill the mold to a depth of about 1 inch or halfway full. Set the galvanized wire into the concrete, taking care that it does not touch the edges of the mold. The wire will keep the concrete from cracking as it dries and it will also add strength. Continue to fill the mold on top of the wire, tamping the concrete with a trowel, as you go along to ensure it is well-packed. Your objective is to slightly overfill the mold. The level of concrete will drop slightly in the mold as it settles. Smooth the concrete surface with a hand trowel. This will draw the aggregates to the top. To settle the concrete, use an orbital sander without sandpaper against the sides of the mold. The vibrations will help bring air bubbles in the concrete up to the surface. When finished, gently cover the countertop with a sheet of plastic or damp burlap to protect it from dust and dirt. Let the concrete cure at least a weekthe more it cures, the stronger it gets.

If you want to add color to the countertop, nows the time to add pigment to the mix. Pigment additives come in powder or liquid. Liquid pigments are easy to measure and mix, especially with small concrete batches like this one. But dont forget to account for the amount of water in the pigment when measuring the water for the concrete. Controlling the amount of water added to the concrete mix is critical to producing consistent color. Refer to the manufacturer's guidelines. Mixing the concrete correctly is critical to its strength and durability. When it achieves the texture of peanut butter its time to add it to the mold. Remember that the concrete at the bottom of mold will become the top of the concrete slab. Using a small spade or bucket, pour the concrete into the mold, pressing and compacting it as you fill the mold to a depth of about 1 inch or halfway full. Set the galvanized wire into the concrete, taking care that it does not touch the edges of the mold. The wire will keep the concrete from cracking as it dries and it will also add strength. Continue to fill the mold on top of the wire, tamping the concrete with a trowel, as you go along to ensure it is well-packed. Your objective is to slightly overfill the mold. The level of concrete will drop slightly in the mold as it settles. Smooth the concrete surface with a hand trowel. This will draw the aggregates to the top. To settle the concrete, use an orbital sander without sandpaper against the sides of the mold. The vibrations will help bring air bubbles in the concrete up to the surface. When finished, gently cover the countertop with a sheet of plastic or damp burlap to protect it from dust and dirt. Let the concrete cure at least a weekthe more it cures, the stronger it gets.

Mixing the concrete correctly is critical to its strength and durability. When it achieves the texture of peanut butter its time to add it to the mold. Remember that the concrete at the bottom of mold will become the top of the concrete slab. Using a small spade or bucket, pour the concrete into the mold, pressing and compacting it as you fill the mold to a depth of about 1 inch or halfway full. Set the galvanized wire into the concrete, taking care that it does not touch the edges of the mold. The wire will keep the concrete from cracking as it dries and it will also add strength. Continue to fill the mold on top of the wire, tamping the concrete with a trowel, as you go along to ensure it is well-packed. Your objective is to slightly overfill the mold. The level of concrete will drop slightly in the mold as it settles. Smooth the concrete surface with a hand trowel. This will draw the aggregates to the top. To settle the concrete, use an orbital sander without sandpaper against the sides of the mold. The vibrations will help bring air bubbles in the concrete up to the surface. When finished, gently cover the countertop with a sheet of plastic or damp burlap to protect it from dust and dirt. Let the concrete cure at least a weekthe more it cures, the stronger it gets.

Using a small spade or bucket, pour the concrete into the mold, pressing and compacting it as you fill the mold to a depth of about 1 inch or halfway full. Set the galvanized wire into the concrete, taking care that it does not touch the edges of the mold. The wire will keep the concrete from cracking as it dries and it will also add strength. Continue to fill the mold on top of the wire, tamping the concrete with a trowel, as you go along to ensure it is well-packed. Your objective is to slightly overfill the mold. The level of concrete will drop slightly in the mold as it settles. Smooth the concrete surface with a hand trowel. This will draw the aggregates to the top. To settle the concrete, use an orbital sander without sandpaper against the sides of the mold. The vibrations will help bring air bubbles in the concrete up to the surface. When finished, gently cover the countertop with a sheet of plastic or damp burlap to protect it from dust and dirt. Let the concrete cure at least a weekthe more it cures, the stronger it gets.

Set the galvanized wire into the concrete, taking care that it does not touch the edges of the mold. The wire will keep the concrete from cracking as it dries and it will also add strength. Continue to fill the mold on top of the wire, tamping the concrete with a trowel, as you go along to ensure it is well-packed. Your objective is to slightly overfill the mold. The level of concrete will drop slightly in the mold as it settles. Smooth the concrete surface with a hand trowel. This will draw the aggregates to the top. To settle the concrete, use an orbital sander without sandpaper against the sides of the mold. The vibrations will help bring air bubbles in the concrete up to the surface. When finished, gently cover the countertop with a sheet of plastic or damp burlap to protect it from dust and dirt. Let the concrete cure at least a weekthe more it cures, the stronger it gets.

Continue to fill the mold on top of the wire, tamping the concrete with a trowel, as you go along to ensure it is well-packed. Your objective is to slightly overfill the mold. The level of concrete will drop slightly in the mold as it settles. Smooth the concrete surface with a hand trowel. This will draw the aggregates to the top. To settle the concrete, use an orbital sander without sandpaper against the sides of the mold. The vibrations will help bring air bubbles in the concrete up to the surface. When finished, gently cover the countertop with a sheet of plastic or damp burlap to protect it from dust and dirt. Let the concrete cure at least a weekthe more it cures, the stronger it gets.

Smooth the concrete surface with a hand trowel. This will draw the aggregates to the top. To settle the concrete, use an orbital sander without sandpaper against the sides of the mold. The vibrations will help bring air bubbles in the concrete up to the surface. When finished, gently cover the countertop with a sheet of plastic or damp burlap to protect it from dust and dirt. Let the concrete cure at least a weekthe more it cures, the stronger it gets.

To settle the concrete, use an orbital sander without sandpaper against the sides of the mold. The vibrations will help bring air bubbles in the concrete up to the surface. When finished, gently cover the countertop with a sheet of plastic or damp burlap to protect it from dust and dirt. Let the concrete cure at least a weekthe more it cures, the stronger it gets.

Watch video of this step. Remove the 2x4 support frame from the sides and ends of the mold. Carefully drill two 2-inch screws equal distance apart, halfway into each of the melamine sides. Be careful not to drill all the way through you dont want to disturb the mold edge. Remove the screws holding the mold sides to the base. Then use a hammer and the new screws to pry each side away from the concrete slab. Take your time with this step. You dont want a misstep that will cause a chip or any breakage. Get help from another person or two to flip the slab over. Remove the cutout sides using the same technique. The weight of the slab usually makes removing the melamine base an easier task.

Remove the 2x4 support frame from the sides and ends of the mold. Carefully drill two 2-inch screws equal distance apart, halfway into each of the melamine sides. Be careful not to drill all the way through you dont want to disturb the mold edge. Remove the screws holding the mold sides to the base. Then use a hammer and the new screws to pry each side away from the concrete slab. Take your time with this step. You dont want a misstep that will cause a chip or any breakage. Get help from another person or two to flip the slab over. Remove the cutout sides using the same technique. The weight of the slab usually makes removing the melamine base an easier task.

Carefully drill two 2-inch screws equal distance apart, halfway into each of the melamine sides. Be careful not to drill all the way through you dont want to disturb the mold edge. Remove the screws holding the mold sides to the base. Then use a hammer and the new screws to pry each side away from the concrete slab. Take your time with this step. You dont want a misstep that will cause a chip or any breakage. Get help from another person or two to flip the slab over. Remove the cutout sides using the same technique. The weight of the slab usually makes removing the melamine base an easier task.

Remove the screws holding the mold sides to the base. Then use a hammer and the new screws to pry each side away from the concrete slab. Take your time with this step. You dont want a misstep that will cause a chip or any breakage. Get help from another person or two to flip the slab over. Remove the cutout sides using the same technique. The weight of the slab usually makes removing the melamine base an easier task.

Watch video of this step. When the slab comes out of the mold, its going to have imperfections. Use an orbital sander to remove any imperfections along the surface and edges. Wearing a respirator, start with 100-grit sandpaper. You want a standard, smooth edge. Keep one hand on the top of the sander as you polish the edges. Be prepared; youll go through plenty of sandpaper and this is a dusty process. Work to progressively finer grits, finishing with 220-grit. Sand evenly, checking the smoothness with your hand. Keep sanding and testing until each edge and surface feels smooth to the touch. When done, wipe the slab with a damp rag to remove any loose grit and concrete dust. Prepare the surface for finishing by etching it with a solution made from 1 ounce of muriatic acid mixed in 1 gallon of water. Wipe the surface thoroughly with a sponge dipped in the acid solution. Wear eye protection, a respirator and acid-proof gloves. If youre working inside, open doors and windows for better ventilation. Rinse the slab with fresh water to remove the acid mixture, and let it dry completely. Apply a concrete sealer using a sponge or brush. Work in long strokes from one edge to the other. Let the sealer dry then apply a second coat, working at right angles to the first. Keep applying coats until the concrete wont absorb any more. Let it dry thoroughly, about thirty minutes.

When the slab comes out of the mold, its going to have imperfections. Use an orbital sander to remove any imperfections along the surface and edges. Wearing a respirator, start with 100-grit sandpaper. You want a standard, smooth edge. Keep one hand on the top of the sander as you polish the edges. Be prepared; youll go through plenty of sandpaper and this is a dusty process. Work to progressively finer grits, finishing with 220-grit. Sand evenly, checking the smoothness with your hand. Keep sanding and testing until each edge and surface feels smooth to the touch. When done, wipe the slab with a damp rag to remove any loose grit and concrete dust. Prepare the surface for finishing by etching it with a solution made from 1 ounce of muriatic acid mixed in 1 gallon of water. Wipe the surface thoroughly with a sponge dipped in the acid solution. Wear eye protection, a respirator and acid-proof gloves. If youre working inside, open doors and windows for better ventilation. Rinse the slab with fresh water to remove the acid mixture, and let it dry completely. Apply a concrete sealer using a sponge or brush. Work in long strokes from one edge to the other. Let the sealer dry then apply a second coat, working at right angles to the first. Keep applying coats until the concrete wont absorb any more. Let it dry thoroughly, about thirty minutes.

Wearing a respirator, start with 100-grit sandpaper. You want a standard, smooth edge. Keep one hand on the top of the sander as you polish the edges. Be prepared; youll go through plenty of sandpaper and this is a dusty process. Work to progressively finer grits, finishing with 220-grit. Sand evenly, checking the smoothness with your hand. Keep sanding and testing until each edge and surface feels smooth to the touch. When done, wipe the slab with a damp rag to remove any loose grit and concrete dust. Prepare the surface for finishing by etching it with a solution made from 1 ounce of muriatic acid mixed in 1 gallon of water. Wipe the surface thoroughly with a sponge dipped in the acid solution. Wear eye protection, a respirator and acid-proof gloves. If youre working inside, open doors and windows for better ventilation. Rinse the slab with fresh water to remove the acid mixture, and let it dry completely. Apply a concrete sealer using a sponge or brush. Work in long strokes from one edge to the other. Let the sealer dry then apply a second coat, working at right angles to the first. Keep applying coats until the concrete wont absorb any more. Let it dry thoroughly, about thirty minutes.

Sand evenly, checking the smoothness with your hand. Keep sanding and testing until each edge and surface feels smooth to the touch. When done, wipe the slab with a damp rag to remove any loose grit and concrete dust. Prepare the surface for finishing by etching it with a solution made from 1 ounce of muriatic acid mixed in 1 gallon of water. Wipe the surface thoroughly with a sponge dipped in the acid solution. Wear eye protection, a respirator and acid-proof gloves. If youre working inside, open doors and windows for better ventilation. Rinse the slab with fresh water to remove the acid mixture, and let it dry completely. Apply a concrete sealer using a sponge or brush. Work in long strokes from one edge to the other. Let the sealer dry then apply a second coat, working at right angles to the first. Keep applying coats until the concrete wont absorb any more. Let it dry thoroughly, about thirty minutes.

Prepare the surface for finishing by etching it with a solution made from 1 ounce of muriatic acid mixed in 1 gallon of water. Wipe the surface thoroughly with a sponge dipped in the acid solution. Wear eye protection, a respirator and acid-proof gloves. If youre working inside, open doors and windows for better ventilation. Rinse the slab with fresh water to remove the acid mixture, and let it dry completely. Apply a concrete sealer using a sponge or brush. Work in long strokes from one edge to the other. Let the sealer dry then apply a second coat, working at right angles to the first. Keep applying coats until the concrete wont absorb any more. Let it dry thoroughly, about thirty minutes.

Rinse the slab with fresh water to remove the acid mixture, and let it dry completely. Apply a concrete sealer using a sponge or brush. Work in long strokes from one edge to the other. Let the sealer dry then apply a second coat, working at right angles to the first. Keep applying coats until the concrete wont absorb any more. Let it dry thoroughly, about thirty minutes.

Apply a concrete sealer using a sponge or brush. Work in long strokes from one edge to the other. Let the sealer dry then apply a second coat, working at right angles to the first. Keep applying coats until the concrete wont absorb any more. Let it dry thoroughly, about thirty minutes.

Watch video of this step. Prepare the installation by running a thick bead of silicone caulk around the upper edge of the cabinet. Bring the countertop in, set it in place, and press down gently to seal the caulk.

how cement tiles are made (video) | villa lagoon tile

how cement tiles are made (video) | villa lagoon tile

Overview These rock hard, durable tiles are made from a centuries old process. These tiles are made from marble and Portland cement and natural mineral pigments. The tiles are made in three layers which undergo intense pressure from a mechanical hydraulic press. Our tile are not fired. The pressed tiles are soaked and cure naturally like structural concrete. Each tile is hand made individually and is a work of art. There will always be slight subtle variations in each tile and that is a part of the charm. History of Cement Tile Technical Details Making a Cement Tile Play One of the master artisans of Villa Lagoon Tile's Moroccan team makes a tile. Encaustic Cement Tile Molds Before any cement tiles can be made, you need molds. A shape mold, sometimes called a "frame" is required to hold the shape of the tile. These usually come in three to four pieces. Cement tiles are build up-side-down, so the base plate of the mold will contact the surface layer of the new tile. These are usually polished flat, but some are given relief patterns, to form textured tiles for better slip prevention on sidewalks, and other uses as outdoor pavers. A frame attaches to the base to shape the sides. These are often made in two pieces that clamp together against the base. A top piece sometimes called a "cork" acts as a cap after the tile is assembled to evenly distribute the pressure of the hydraulic press. A Cement Tile Pattern Mold The magic of making encaustic cement tiles comes from the hand-crafted pattern mold that is used to form the colorful design in the tile. Similar to an elaborate cookie-cutter, the pattern grid has different sections into which the colorful mixes are poured. This pattern grid is securely set into a mold framework that defines the boundaries of the tile. While a tile-maker may have very few shape molds... perhaps one 8"x8" frame per workstation, and even fewer of the other shapes, each shop will have hundreds and perhaps a thousand or more pattern molds. Most shops will have at least one full-time artisan devoted to crafting pattern molds. Mixing The Colors Creating the color slurries requires more skill and artistry than perhaps anyone else in the shop, rivaled only by the mold-maker. The pigmented surface layer begins as a very wet concrete slurry. Exact formulas are often family secrets. This layer uses white Portland cement, rather than the standard gray cement used in the tile body. The sand used as an aggregate is also the finest in the tile. Coarser aggregates are used in the deeper layers. The slurry is pigmented with natural mineral pigments such as iron, cobalt and chromium oxides. To add a little more difficulty, the color will change slightly as the cement cures, and will be affected again when sealed. This is the reason we always seal our sample tiles, to provide our clients with the best representation of their finished installation. Creating the Surface Layer Once the station is prepared with the needed materials, tile production begins. The base of the mold is oiled (for a clean release, and a better surface texture), the frame assembled, and the pattern mold is inserted. The artisan carefully pours the appropriate color slurry into each region. I have seen three distinct styles at this stage. Shown in the video is a tool that can best be described as a stoppered funnel. The color slurry is held in the funnel, with a rod holding a stopper. As the artisan positions the funnel over a color region, he lifts the stopper-rod long enough to release the correct amount of pigmented cement. Another very common tool resembles a cross between a garden trowel and a gravy boat, with a deep trough and a very narrow pour spout. Finally I have also seen implements that resemble cooking ladles, with the handle extending straight out from the cupped end. When all of the regions are poured, the mold is shaken, twisted, vibrated, or pounded to help distribute the color and allow potential air bubbles to work themselves out. The pattern mold is then lifted out of the frame for the next step. Creating the Cement Tile Body Depending on who you ask, cement tiles can have two or three layers. We tend to refer to only two: the color layer and the tile body, but production does require three different formulas. After the pattern mold is removed, a very fine mix of sand and cement are added to the mold with a sifter. When pressed, much of the moisture from the color layer will be pushed up into this layer, drying the color layer enough to hold a solid shape. This layer is applied very carefully, so that the color layer is not disturbed. Next, the remainder of the body material is added, often by hand. This will include the same basic components for concrete, with much coarser aggregate than the surface and intermediate forumlas. This layer provides strength, and should have a course texture to help the thinset mortar adhere to the tile during installation. At every step of the process, the tile maker can be seen cleaning excess, and working towards a consistent density and level. You may notice some slight packing along the edges and corners. This helps produce sharper, more resilient edges in the finished tile. Our exclusive Ikat patterns curing on racks. Pressing and Finishing After the tile is constructed and the frame is capped by the cork, it is compacted by a hydraulic press. The pressure drives out air, and equalizes the moisture from the color layer. The compacted tile will be solid enough for gentle handling. The tile is removed from the mold. First the pressure of the clamps of the frame are released, allowing the tile maker to lift the frame away from the sandwich of tile and steel. The pressure of the cork helps prevent any of the material on the edges from lifting away from the tile. The cork is removed, and then the tile is carefully separated from the base, and placed on a rack. Good tile makers are very fastidious, and remind me of good interior painters. Tile makers often have smudges of cement and marble dust on their shirts and aprons by the end of the day, but they are constantly brushing and cleaning their molds and workstations. At each stage they collect excesses, to make their way into the next tile with as little waste as possible. The completed tiles now only lack moisture and time. Concrete is a mixture of cement, aggregate (sand, gravel, etc), and water. Cement tiles may use more precisely controlled ingredients than structural concrete, but the basic process is the same. Cement cures and hardens chemically over time. It is not that the cement dries, but that it goes through hydration and carbonation, chemical reactions that converts the calcium oxide in the Portland cement to calcium hydroxide, and eventually calcium carbonate. After pressing, encaustic cement tiles are soaked in water to ensure propper hydration for curing. It takes about 4 weeks for the cement to reach 90% of its potential strength, and it will continue to gain strength for decades. More Resources About Encaustic Cement Tile The History of Cement Tile In-Stock Cement Tile Custom Cement Tile "Cement Style" Blog

These rock hard, durable tiles are made from a centuries old process. These tiles are made from marble and Portland cement and natural mineral pigments. The tiles are made in three layers which undergo intense pressure from a mechanical hydraulic press. Our tile are not fired. The pressed tiles are soaked and cure naturally like structural concrete. Each tile is hand made individually and is a work of art. There will always be slight subtle variations in each tile and that is a part of the charm.

Before any cement tiles can be made, you need molds. A shape mold, sometimes called a "frame" is required to hold the shape of the tile. These usually come in three to four pieces. Cement tiles are build up-side-down, so the base plate of the mold will contact the surface layer of the new tile. These are usually polished flat, but some are given relief patterns, to form textured tiles for better slip prevention on sidewalks, and other uses as outdoor pavers. A frame attaches to the base to shape the sides. These are often made in two pieces that clamp together against the base. A top piece sometimes called a "cork" acts as a cap after the tile is assembled to evenly distribute the pressure of the hydraulic press.

The magic of making encaustic cement tiles comes from the hand-crafted pattern mold that is used to form the colorful design in the tile. Similar to an elaborate cookie-cutter, the pattern grid has different sections into which the colorful mixes are poured. This pattern grid is securely set into a mold framework that defines the boundaries of the tile. While a tile-maker may have very few shape molds... perhaps one 8"x8" frame per workstation, and even fewer of the other shapes, each shop will have hundreds and perhaps a thousand or more pattern molds. Most shops will have at least one full-time artisan devoted to crafting pattern molds.

Creating the color slurries requires more skill and artistry than perhaps anyone else in the shop, rivaled only by the mold-maker. The pigmented surface layer begins as a very wet concrete slurry. Exact formulas are often family secrets. This layer uses white Portland cement, rather than the standard gray cement used in the tile body. The sand used as an aggregate is also the finest in the tile. Coarser aggregates are used in the deeper layers. The slurry is pigmented with natural mineral pigments such as iron, cobalt and chromium oxides. To add a little more difficulty, the color will change slightly as the cement cures, and will be affected again when sealed. This is the reason we always seal our sample tiles, to provide our clients with the best representation of their finished installation.

Once the station is prepared with the needed materials, tile production begins. The base of the mold is oiled (for a clean release, and a better surface texture), the frame assembled, and the pattern mold is inserted. The artisan carefully pours the appropriate color slurry into each region.

I have seen three distinct styles at this stage. Shown in the video is a tool that can best be described as a stoppered funnel. The color slurry is held in the funnel, with a rod holding a stopper. As the artisan positions the funnel over a color region, he lifts the stopper-rod long enough to release the correct amount of pigmented cement. Another very common tool resembles a cross between a garden trowel and a gravy boat, with a deep trough and a very narrow pour spout. Finally I have also seen implements that resemble cooking ladles, with the handle extending straight out from the cupped end.

When all of the regions are poured, the mold is shaken, twisted, vibrated, or pounded to help distribute the color and allow potential air bubbles to work themselves out. The pattern mold is then lifted out of the frame for the next step.

After the pattern mold is removed, a very fine mix of sand and cement are added to the mold with a sifter. When pressed, much of the moisture from the color layer will be pushed up into this layer, drying the color layer enough to hold a solid shape. This layer is applied very carefully, so that the color layer is not disturbed.

Next, the remainder of the body material is added, often by hand. This will include the same basic components for concrete, with much coarser aggregate than the surface and intermediate forumlas. This layer provides strength, and should have a course texture to help the thinset mortar adhere to the tile during installation.

At every step of the process, the tile maker can be seen cleaning excess, and working towards a consistent density and level. You may notice some slight packing along the edges and corners. This helps produce sharper, more resilient edges in the finished tile.

After the tile is constructed and the frame is capped by the cork, it is compacted by a hydraulic press. The pressure drives out air, and equalizes the moisture from the color layer. The compacted tile will be solid enough for gentle handling.

The tile is removed from the mold. First the pressure of the clamps of the frame are released, allowing the tile maker to lift the frame away from the sandwich of tile and steel. The pressure of the cork helps prevent any of the material on the edges from lifting away from the tile. The cork is removed, and then the tile is carefully separated from the base, and placed on a rack.

Good tile makers are very fastidious, and remind me of good interior painters. Tile makers often have smudges of cement and marble dust on their shirts and aprons by the end of the day, but they are constantly brushing and cleaning their molds and workstations. At each stage they collect excesses, to make their way into the next tile with as little waste as possible.

The completed tiles now only lack moisture and time. Concrete is a mixture of cement, aggregate (sand, gravel, etc), and water. Cement tiles may use more precisely controlled ingredients than structural concrete, but the basic process is the same. Cement cures and hardens chemically over time. It is not that the cement dries, but that it goes through hydration and carbonation, chemical reactions that converts the calcium oxide in the Portland cement to calcium hydroxide, and eventually calcium carbonate.

After pressing, encaustic cement tiles are soaked in water to ensure propper hydration for curing. It takes about 4 weeks for the cement to reach 90% of its potential strength, and it will continue to gain strength for decades.

how to make concrete smooth and shiny (finishing options)

how to make concrete smooth and shiny (finishing options)

There is something very attractive about a smooth, shiny surface, so its no surprise that a lot of people want their concrete to display these qualities. After all, if youve gone to all the effort to lay down a piece of concrete, it only seems right to make sure you get the look that you want.

To achieve a smooth and shiny concrete finish first requires proper leveling, floating, and troweling before it cures. After attaining a relatively smooth concrete surface, and once the concrete is dry, you can utilize either mechanical or chemical polishing methods to achieve a nice, glossy shine.

There are right and wrong ways in which to go about creating the perfect finish for your concrete, and its essential to know the types of tools and methods that are available to you. Weve divided the process into what to do before curing and what to do after curing.

Your finish affects the texture and durability of your concrete. How you choose to finish your concrete is entirely up to you, but it will largely depend on the location of the slab and what your intended use for it is (source).

Exterior concrete usually requires some texture to make it slip-resistant, while interior concrete needs to be durable but also flat and smooth. If you plan on covering your concrete with a floor cover, like a carpet, then its not as imperative that you have a perfectly smooth finish.

For smooth and shiny concrete, you are going to employ both the troweling process as well as the polishing process to achieve the finish that you desire. The final polishing process involves a specialized polishing machine that utilizes a penetrating chemical and/or abrasives.

The screed can be a strip of aluminum or merely a flat board that you draw over the wet concrete. A darby is essentially a large trowel with a long, narrow strip and one or two handles to cover a wide area.

The first thing is to level your concrete by taking your screed board and pushing it across the surface of the concrete. The screed will help fill any gaps in the surface and also remove any excess concrete. Afterward, you can employ your darby to smooth out the concrete further.

You should now wait for the excess water to rise to the top of the concrete before you move on to the next step in smoothing out the concrete. The bleed water will evaporate on its own, but how long it takes will depend on the qualities of the concrete as well as environmental conditions.

Floating concrete is a critical step to achieve a smooth surface. While using a screed and darby gives you a roughly smooth surface, floating helps smooth out further imperfections, compact the concrete, and prepare for additional finishing steps. You can float concrete by hand or by using a machine.

When floating concrete by hand, you can use small hand floats or larger bull floats. While a simple magnesium hand float will work fine for smaller surfaces, you may want to use a bull float for larger surfaces to ensure the aggregates settle properly.

The mechanical floating method is increasingly popular, but the concrete has to be firmer before you can attempt it. These machines have large, flat floats made out of metal that smooth out the concrete, leaving very light circular marks (source).

Be careful that you dont tilt the trowel as you go along, or youll create a chatter texture, which will not give you a smooth surface. Also, remember never to add any water to your concrete while finishing it.

Achieving a nice shine on a piece of concrete does not come from a single product or sealer, but instead by having it polished and polished well. In most cases, a mechanical polish can achieve the shiniest surface with the least amount of effort (source).

You can see diamond-polished floors in malls, airports, and the like. It is now the most popular way to achieve a gleaming surface as a method that has both the benefits of long life and low-maintenance costs (source).

Polishing concrete involves up to nine different steps using a variety of different grinding tools. There are also different levels that you can achieve, depending on how shiny you wish your surface to be.

Polishing floors by mechanical means is considered highly sustainable, durable, and doesnt require harmful chemicals or solvents. The good news is that this method of polishing can be used to spruce up old concrete as well as on new surfaces.

Back in the day, I had an old Finnish man pour and finish a new detached garage floor for me. He spent all night troweling the concrete with his power trowel spraying water and making the final floor shiny and smooth. It sure looked nice but should you make your garage floor shiny and smooth?

No, you shouldnt make your concrete garage floor shiny and smooth, it does not hold up to chemicals and salt especially in northern climates. It is also dangerous and slippery when you have water, ice, or snow on your feet or from your vehicle. Shiny smooth concrete may look nice but it is not the best for garage concrete floors.

There are exceptions to every rule but we live in a northern climate and found out all too fast how much we disliked our new shiny garage floor especially once winter set in. It was just too slippery when it got wet and full of snow.

To achieve a smooth and shiny surface, you need to pay careful attention to the finish of your concrete. This means making sure that you float and trowel your concrete correctly and also give it a good mechanical polish.

Hey, this is Brian and Gene Luoma. Since the two of us have pretty much been self-employed our entire lives, we have a lot of experience designing and creating all sorts of DIY projects for businesses and homesprojects that have helped us make money or save money through the years!

Gizmoplans is our way to share our culmination of years of experience, along with our catalog of projectsboth new and oldthat we hope will help you, too. If youre interested in saving or making money, browse on through. We hope you find something here that inspires and helps you to DIY!

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how to make concrete planters - what you need to know | artsy pretty plants

how to make concrete planters - what you need to know | artsy pretty plants

Some of the links on this page have been provided as a convenience for finding materials. These links may also be affiliate links. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases, at no extra cost to you. For each project, I do lots of tests and if a material or tool doesnt work, I wont list it. Click here to read my full disclosure policy.

how to color concrete - learn all the different methods used to color concrete

how to color concrete - learn all the different methods used to color concrete

If you want to learn how to color concrete, this page will cover the most popular ways concrete coloring is used.One of the most popular methods to achieve colored concrete is to use an integral coloring pigment. This coloring admixture when mixed with concrete will give you a rich, long lasting, fade resistant color.We use colored concrete for stamped concrete patios, stamped concrete driveways, and interior concrete floors all the time.The integral color works great on its own or it can be used as a back drop to be accented with concrete stain or concrete dye.The layering of multiple colors allows many variegated tones to be produced that can mimic natural stone, brick, wood, and tile.One main advantage of integrally colored concrete is the color extends throughout the entire concrete slab. If surface abrasion occurs or the concrete is chipped the color will not wear away.Integral colors come in powdered, granular, and liquid form. They are added to the concrete mix at the concrete plant or on the job-site. It's mixed right in the concrete truck making the process very easy.You can purchase the color from a concrete supply store and bring it to the concrete plant the day before the pour. Adding it at the plant allows the color to mix while in transit to the job-site.We use a lot of Butterfield colors integral concrete color. It comes in bags like these. You throw the whole bag into the concrete truck, the paper dissolves and the color mixes with the concrete.Cost is one drawback for integrally colored concrete. A bag of color will cost about $40 - $50 dollars US on average. You usually add one bag of color per yard of concrete. A 10 yard load would cost you about $500 dollars U.S. just for the color.Color hardener is used to color the surface of the concrete. It's used a lot for stamped concrete. This powdered color is broadcast over the surface of the concrete soon after it is placed. The moisture in the concrete wets the powder and it is then floated into the surface with a hand float or a fresno.Knowing how to color concrete and the techniques that are used to color concrete should help you decide which process will work best for your colored concrete project.We also color a lot of existing concrete floors. To learn how to color concrete with stain or dye please click on those links above. Coloring concrete this way will give you a very different look with a wide range of colors to choose from.Go from How To Color Concrete to Home Page

One of the most popular methods to achieve colored concrete is to use an integral coloring pigment. This coloring admixture when mixed with concrete will give you a rich, long lasting, fade resistant color.We use colored concrete for stamped concrete patios, stamped concrete driveways, and interior concrete floors all the time.The integral color works great on its own or it can be used as a back drop to be accented with concrete stain or concrete dye.The layering of multiple colors allows many variegated tones to be produced that can mimic natural stone, brick, wood, and tile.One main advantage of integrally colored concrete is the color extends throughout the entire concrete slab. If surface abrasion occurs or the concrete is chipped the color will not wear away.Integral colors come in powdered, granular, and liquid form. They are added to the concrete mix at the concrete plant or on the job-site. It's mixed right in the concrete truck making the process very easy.You can purchase the color from a concrete supply store and bring it to the concrete plant the day before the pour. Adding it at the plant allows the color to mix while in transit to the job-site.We use a lot of Butterfield colors integral concrete color. It comes in bags like these. You throw the whole bag into the concrete truck, the paper dissolves and the color mixes with the concrete.Cost is one drawback for integrally colored concrete. A bag of color will cost about $40 - $50 dollars US on average. You usually add one bag of color per yard of concrete. A 10 yard load would cost you about $500 dollars U.S. just for the color.Color hardener is used to color the surface of the concrete. It's used a lot for stamped concrete. This powdered color is broadcast over the surface of the concrete soon after it is placed. The moisture in the concrete wets the powder and it is then floated into the surface with a hand float or a fresno.Knowing how to color concrete and the techniques that are used to color concrete should help you decide which process will work best for your colored concrete project.We also color a lot of existing concrete floors. To learn how to color concrete with stain or dye please click on those links above. Coloring concrete this way will give you a very different look with a wide range of colors to choose from.Go from How To Color Concrete to Home Page

We use colored concrete for stamped concrete patios, stamped concrete driveways, and interior concrete floors all the time.The integral color works great on its own or it can be used as a back drop to be accented with concrete stain or concrete dye.The layering of multiple colors allows many variegated tones to be produced that can mimic natural stone, brick, wood, and tile.One main advantage of integrally colored concrete is the color extends throughout the entire concrete slab. If surface abrasion occurs or the concrete is chipped the color will not wear away.Integral colors come in powdered, granular, and liquid form. They are added to the concrete mix at the concrete plant or on the job-site. It's mixed right in the concrete truck making the process very easy.You can purchase the color from a concrete supply store and bring it to the concrete plant the day before the pour. Adding it at the plant allows the color to mix while in transit to the job-site.We use a lot of Butterfield colors integral concrete color. It comes in bags like these. You throw the whole bag into the concrete truck, the paper dissolves and the color mixes with the concrete.Cost is one drawback for integrally colored concrete. A bag of color will cost about $40 - $50 dollars US on average. You usually add one bag of color per yard of concrete. A 10 yard load would cost you about $500 dollars U.S. just for the color.Color hardener is used to color the surface of the concrete. It's used a lot for stamped concrete. This powdered color is broadcast over the surface of the concrete soon after it is placed. The moisture in the concrete wets the powder and it is then floated into the surface with a hand float or a fresno.Knowing how to color concrete and the techniques that are used to color concrete should help you decide which process will work best for your colored concrete project.We also color a lot of existing concrete floors. To learn how to color concrete with stain or dye please click on those links above. Coloring concrete this way will give you a very different look with a wide range of colors to choose from.Go from How To Color Concrete to Home Page

The integral color works great on its own or it can be used as a back drop to be accented with concrete stain or concrete dye.The layering of multiple colors allows many variegated tones to be produced that can mimic natural stone, brick, wood, and tile.One main advantage of integrally colored concrete is the color extends throughout the entire concrete slab. If surface abrasion occurs or the concrete is chipped the color will not wear away.Integral colors come in powdered, granular, and liquid form. They are added to the concrete mix at the concrete plant or on the job-site. It's mixed right in the concrete truck making the process very easy.You can purchase the color from a concrete supply store and bring it to the concrete plant the day before the pour. Adding it at the plant allows the color to mix while in transit to the job-site.We use a lot of Butterfield colors integral concrete color. It comes in bags like these. You throw the whole bag into the concrete truck, the paper dissolves and the color mixes with the concrete.Cost is one drawback for integrally colored concrete. A bag of color will cost about $40 - $50 dollars US on average. You usually add one bag of color per yard of concrete. A 10 yard load would cost you about $500 dollars U.S. just for the color.Color hardener is used to color the surface of the concrete. It's used a lot for stamped concrete. This powdered color is broadcast over the surface of the concrete soon after it is placed. The moisture in the concrete wets the powder and it is then floated into the surface with a hand float or a fresno.Knowing how to color concrete and the techniques that are used to color concrete should help you decide which process will work best for your colored concrete project.We also color a lot of existing concrete floors. To learn how to color concrete with stain or dye please click on those links above. Coloring concrete this way will give you a very different look with a wide range of colors to choose from.Go from How To Color Concrete to Home Page

The layering of multiple colors allows many variegated tones to be produced that can mimic natural stone, brick, wood, and tile.One main advantage of integrally colored concrete is the color extends throughout the entire concrete slab. If surface abrasion occurs or the concrete is chipped the color will not wear away.Integral colors come in powdered, granular, and liquid form. They are added to the concrete mix at the concrete plant or on the job-site. It's mixed right in the concrete truck making the process very easy.You can purchase the color from a concrete supply store and bring it to the concrete plant the day before the pour. Adding it at the plant allows the color to mix while in transit to the job-site.We use a lot of Butterfield colors integral concrete color. It comes in bags like these. You throw the whole bag into the concrete truck, the paper dissolves and the color mixes with the concrete.Cost is one drawback for integrally colored concrete. A bag of color will cost about $40 - $50 dollars US on average. You usually add one bag of color per yard of concrete. A 10 yard load would cost you about $500 dollars U.S. just for the color.Color hardener is used to color the surface of the concrete. It's used a lot for stamped concrete. This powdered color is broadcast over the surface of the concrete soon after it is placed. The moisture in the concrete wets the powder and it is then floated into the surface with a hand float or a fresno.Knowing how to color concrete and the techniques that are used to color concrete should help you decide which process will work best for your colored concrete project.We also color a lot of existing concrete floors. To learn how to color concrete with stain or dye please click on those links above. Coloring concrete this way will give you a very different look with a wide range of colors to choose from.Go from How To Color Concrete to Home Page

One main advantage of integrally colored concrete is the color extends throughout the entire concrete slab. If surface abrasion occurs or the concrete is chipped the color will not wear away.Integral colors come in powdered, granular, and liquid form. They are added to the concrete mix at the concrete plant or on the job-site. It's mixed right in the concrete truck making the process very easy.You can purchase the color from a concrete supply store and bring it to the concrete plant the day before the pour. Adding it at the plant allows the color to mix while in transit to the job-site.We use a lot of Butterfield colors integral concrete color. It comes in bags like these. You throw the whole bag into the concrete truck, the paper dissolves and the color mixes with the concrete.Cost is one drawback for integrally colored concrete. A bag of color will cost about $40 - $50 dollars US on average. You usually add one bag of color per yard of concrete. A 10 yard load would cost you about $500 dollars U.S. just for the color.Color hardener is used to color the surface of the concrete. It's used a lot for stamped concrete. This powdered color is broadcast over the surface of the concrete soon after it is placed. The moisture in the concrete wets the powder and it is then floated into the surface with a hand float or a fresno.Knowing how to color concrete and the techniques that are used to color concrete should help you decide which process will work best for your colored concrete project.We also color a lot of existing concrete floors. To learn how to color concrete with stain or dye please click on those links above. Coloring concrete this way will give you a very different look with a wide range of colors to choose from.Go from How To Color Concrete to Home Page

Integral colors come in powdered, granular, and liquid form. They are added to the concrete mix at the concrete plant or on the job-site. It's mixed right in the concrete truck making the process very easy.You can purchase the color from a concrete supply store and bring it to the concrete plant the day before the pour. Adding it at the plant allows the color to mix while in transit to the job-site.We use a lot of Butterfield colors integral concrete color. It comes in bags like these. You throw the whole bag into the concrete truck, the paper dissolves and the color mixes with the concrete.Cost is one drawback for integrally colored concrete. A bag of color will cost about $40 - $50 dollars US on average. You usually add one bag of color per yard of concrete. A 10 yard load would cost you about $500 dollars U.S. just for the color.Color hardener is used to color the surface of the concrete. It's used a lot for stamped concrete. This powdered color is broadcast over the surface of the concrete soon after it is placed. The moisture in the concrete wets the powder and it is then floated into the surface with a hand float or a fresno.Knowing how to color concrete and the techniques that are used to color concrete should help you decide which process will work best for your colored concrete project.We also color a lot of existing concrete floors. To learn how to color concrete with stain or dye please click on those links above. Coloring concrete this way will give you a very different look with a wide range of colors to choose from.Go from How To Color Concrete to Home Page

You can purchase the color from a concrete supply store and bring it to the concrete plant the day before the pour. Adding it at the plant allows the color to mix while in transit to the job-site.We use a lot of Butterfield colors integral concrete color. It comes in bags like these. You throw the whole bag into the concrete truck, the paper dissolves and the color mixes with the concrete.Cost is one drawback for integrally colored concrete. A bag of color will cost about $40 - $50 dollars US on average. You usually add one bag of color per yard of concrete. A 10 yard load would cost you about $500 dollars U.S. just for the color.Color hardener is used to color the surface of the concrete. It's used a lot for stamped concrete. This powdered color is broadcast over the surface of the concrete soon after it is placed. The moisture in the concrete wets the powder and it is then floated into the surface with a hand float or a fresno.Knowing how to color concrete and the techniques that are used to color concrete should help you decide which process will work best for your colored concrete project.We also color a lot of existing concrete floors. To learn how to color concrete with stain or dye please click on those links above. Coloring concrete this way will give you a very different look with a wide range of colors to choose from.Go from How To Color Concrete to Home Page

We use a lot of Butterfield colors integral concrete color. It comes in bags like these. You throw the whole bag into the concrete truck, the paper dissolves and the color mixes with the concrete.Cost is one drawback for integrally colored concrete. A bag of color will cost about $40 - $50 dollars US on average. You usually add one bag of color per yard of concrete. A 10 yard load would cost you about $500 dollars U.S. just for the color.Color hardener is used to color the surface of the concrete. It's used a lot for stamped concrete. This powdered color is broadcast over the surface of the concrete soon after it is placed. The moisture in the concrete wets the powder and it is then floated into the surface with a hand float or a fresno.Knowing how to color concrete and the techniques that are used to color concrete should help you decide which process will work best for your colored concrete project.We also color a lot of existing concrete floors. To learn how to color concrete with stain or dye please click on those links above. Coloring concrete this way will give you a very different look with a wide range of colors to choose from.Go from How To Color Concrete to Home Page

Cost is one drawback for integrally colored concrete. A bag of color will cost about $40 - $50 dollars US on average. You usually add one bag of color per yard of concrete. A 10 yard load would cost you about $500 dollars U.S. just for the color.Color hardener is used to color the surface of the concrete. It's used a lot for stamped concrete. This powdered color is broadcast over the surface of the concrete soon after it is placed. The moisture in the concrete wets the powder and it is then floated into the surface with a hand float or a fresno.Knowing how to color concrete and the techniques that are used to color concrete should help you decide which process will work best for your colored concrete project.We also color a lot of existing concrete floors. To learn how to color concrete with stain or dye please click on those links above. Coloring concrete this way will give you a very different look with a wide range of colors to choose from.Go from How To Color Concrete to Home Page

Color hardener is used to color the surface of the concrete. It's used a lot for stamped concrete. This powdered color is broadcast over the surface of the concrete soon after it is placed. The moisture in the concrete wets the powder and it is then floated into the surface with a hand float or a fresno.Knowing how to color concrete and the techniques that are used to color concrete should help you decide which process will work best for your colored concrete project.We also color a lot of existing concrete floors. To learn how to color concrete with stain or dye please click on those links above. Coloring concrete this way will give you a very different look with a wide range of colors to choose from.Go from How To Color Concrete to Home Page

Knowing how to color concrete and the techniques that are used to color concrete should help you decide which process will work best for your colored concrete project.We also color a lot of existing concrete floors. To learn how to color concrete with stain or dye please click on those links above. Coloring concrete this way will give you a very different look with a wide range of colors to choose from.Go from How To Color Concrete to Home Page

We also color a lot of existing concrete floors. To learn how to color concrete with stain or dye please click on those links above. Coloring concrete this way will give you a very different look with a wide range of colors to choose from.Go from How To Color Concrete to Home Page

Hi, I am Mike Day, owner of Days Concrete Floors, Inc. in Maine, where I've been working with concrete for 40 years now, and this website is where I can share with you all the knowledge and wisdom I've gained from installing all kinds of decorative concrete, concrete floors, concrete overlays, stained concrete and also fixing cracked or spalled concrete.Theres a lot to cover, so if you have any questions, contact me!JOIN MY PRIVATETRAINING ACADEMY HERESEE ME ON YOUTUBE!USE THE SAME TOOLS I DO!LEARN HOW TO EPOXY A GARAGE FLOORFREE CONCRETE FINISHING TRAINING TUTORIAL VIDEORecent ArticlesConcrete Yardage Calculators - How Much Do I Need For Any Type of JobFind the perfect concrete calculator to figure cubic yardage (and cubic meters) for any type of concrete project. Floors, slabs, walls and much more.Read MoreThe Formula To Calculate Concrete Yardage - How Much Do I Need?See examples using these formulas to calculate concrete yardage for square slabs, round slabs, cylinders, sono tubes, stairs, steps, curbs, footings, and walls.Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read MoreAdvertise hereLANGUAGE TRANSLATOR

Theres a lot to cover, so if you have any questions, contact me!JOIN MY PRIVATETRAINING ACADEMY HERESEE ME ON YOUTUBE!USE THE SAME TOOLS I DO!LEARN HOW TO EPOXY A GARAGE FLOORFREE CONCRETE FINISHING TRAINING TUTORIAL VIDEORecent ArticlesConcrete Yardage Calculators - How Much Do I Need For Any Type of JobFind the perfect concrete calculator to figure cubic yardage (and cubic meters) for any type of concrete project. Floors, slabs, walls and much more.Read MoreThe Formula To Calculate Concrete Yardage - How Much Do I Need?See examples using these formulas to calculate concrete yardage for square slabs, round slabs, cylinders, sono tubes, stairs, steps, curbs, footings, and walls.Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read MoreAdvertise hereLANGUAGE TRANSLATOR

JOIN MY PRIVATETRAINING ACADEMY HERESEE ME ON YOUTUBE!USE THE SAME TOOLS I DO!LEARN HOW TO EPOXY A GARAGE FLOORFREE CONCRETE FINISHING TRAINING TUTORIAL VIDEORecent ArticlesConcrete Yardage Calculators - How Much Do I Need For Any Type of JobFind the perfect concrete calculator to figure cubic yardage (and cubic meters) for any type of concrete project. Floors, slabs, walls and much more.Read MoreThe Formula To Calculate Concrete Yardage - How Much Do I Need?See examples using these formulas to calculate concrete yardage for square slabs, round slabs, cylinders, sono tubes, stairs, steps, curbs, footings, and walls.Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read MoreAdvertise hereLANGUAGE TRANSLATOR

TRAINING ACADEMY HERESEE ME ON YOUTUBE!USE THE SAME TOOLS I DO!LEARN HOW TO EPOXY A GARAGE FLOORFREE CONCRETE FINISHING TRAINING TUTORIAL VIDEORecent ArticlesConcrete Yardage Calculators - How Much Do I Need For Any Type of JobFind the perfect concrete calculator to figure cubic yardage (and cubic meters) for any type of concrete project. Floors, slabs, walls and much more.Read MoreThe Formula To Calculate Concrete Yardage - How Much Do I Need?See examples using these formulas to calculate concrete yardage for square slabs, round slabs, cylinders, sono tubes, stairs, steps, curbs, footings, and walls.Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read MoreAdvertise hereLANGUAGE TRANSLATOR

USE THE SAME TOOLS I DO!LEARN HOW TO EPOXY A GARAGE FLOORFREE CONCRETE FINISHING TRAINING TUTORIAL VIDEORecent ArticlesConcrete Yardage Calculators - How Much Do I Need For Any Type of JobFind the perfect concrete calculator to figure cubic yardage (and cubic meters) for any type of concrete project. Floors, slabs, walls and much more.Read MoreThe Formula To Calculate Concrete Yardage - How Much Do I Need?See examples using these formulas to calculate concrete yardage for square slabs, round slabs, cylinders, sono tubes, stairs, steps, curbs, footings, and walls.Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read MoreAdvertise hereLANGUAGE TRANSLATOR

USE THE SAME TOOLS I DO!LEARN HOW TO EPOXY A GARAGE FLOORFREE CONCRETE FINISHING TRAINING TUTORIAL VIDEORecent ArticlesConcrete Yardage Calculators - How Much Do I Need For Any Type of JobFind the perfect concrete calculator to figure cubic yardage (and cubic meters) for any type of concrete project. Floors, slabs, walls and much more.Read MoreThe Formula To Calculate Concrete Yardage - How Much Do I Need?See examples using these formulas to calculate concrete yardage for square slabs, round slabs, cylinders, sono tubes, stairs, steps, curbs, footings, and walls.Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read MoreAdvertise hereLANGUAGE TRANSLATOR

LEARN HOW TO EPOXY A GARAGE FLOORFREE CONCRETE FINISHING TRAINING TUTORIAL VIDEORecent ArticlesConcrete Yardage Calculators - How Much Do I Need For Any Type of JobFind the perfect concrete calculator to figure cubic yardage (and cubic meters) for any type of concrete project. Floors, slabs, walls and much more.Read MoreThe Formula To Calculate Concrete Yardage - How Much Do I Need?See examples using these formulas to calculate concrete yardage for square slabs, round slabs, cylinders, sono tubes, stairs, steps, curbs, footings, and walls.Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read MoreAdvertise hereLANGUAGE TRANSLATOR

Find the perfect concrete calculator to figure cubic yardage (and cubic meters) for any type of concrete project. Floors, slabs, walls and much more.Read MoreThe Formula To Calculate Concrete Yardage - How Much Do I Need?See examples using these formulas to calculate concrete yardage for square slabs, round slabs, cylinders, sono tubes, stairs, steps, curbs, footings, and walls.Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read More

Read MoreThe Formula To Calculate Concrete Yardage - How Much Do I Need?See examples using these formulas to calculate concrete yardage for square slabs, round slabs, cylinders, sono tubes, stairs, steps, curbs, footings, and walls.Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read More

See examples using these formulas to calculate concrete yardage for square slabs, round slabs, cylinders, sono tubes, stairs, steps, curbs, footings, and walls.Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read More

Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read More

Learn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read More

Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read More

See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read More

Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read More

how do they build an inground swimming pool

how do they build an inground swimming pool

On this page we will show you some actual construction photos from a few inground swimming pool installations. These photos cover steel wall pools, polymer (plastic) wall pools, vinyl liner inground pools, and gunite (plaster/cement) pools.

Well give you a brief description of each photo to explain each stage of pool construction. This should give you a better idea of the construction process when buying a pool. Please note that the installation process for each type of pool (vinyl, steel, polymer, gunite, plaster, cement) is significantly different.

Lets discuss price: Below is a chart of rough prices for various sized inground pools. Please realize that these are only rough prices and that building costs do vary greatly from state to state and pricing also depends a lot on the specific features and options you decide to add to your pool.

Here you can see a lonely skimmer that has been installed toward the end of the pool wall. You can also see that the Aluminum Receptor Coping that the homeowner picked out has been started (the white metal piece screwed to the top of the wall).

The braces must be attached to each pool panel. They are the metal pieces you see here at an angle to the pool wall. Cement must be poured on each brace after the wall has been set to the right height and is plumb. The cement helps to keep the wall in place when it is being backfilled. It also adds strength for when the water is put into the pool. Later on, a solid concrete collar is poured around the bottom of all of the panels to ensure stability.

The pool floor must have sand added to it to make a nice smooth, comfortable pool bottom. In this photo, you can see that the deep end of the pool (the hopper) has already been floated. This means that the sand is smoothed out with trowels. This is actually the step where your pool shape comes to life and you can finally get an idea what your pool may look like when it is done! Notice the difference in the pool floor in the photo between where the Pool Guy is standing and in the hopper.

Once the pool floor is ready, it is time to get ready to put the pool liner in. In this photo, you can see it rolled up at the end of the pool ready to be installed. This is usually a nervous time for both the installation crew and the pool owner! Hope it fits. Hope it is the right color. Hope it doesnt rip!

Once the liner is put into the pool (otherwise known as dropping the bag), the installers will hang into the pool to make the fine adjustments necessary to guard off wrinkles in the liner. In a new pool, there should not be that many wrinkles (although sometimes a few cannot be helped).

Now it is time to fill the pool up with water. If you are friendly with your neighbors, it doesnt hurt to ask them if you could borrow a little water. The more neighbors and hoses the faster the pool will fill!

After the dirt around the pool has settled for a few weeks, the cement, bricks or other deck-work can be added to the pool area. After that, the ladder, rails, diving board, landscaping and other finishing touches can be installed. Then its time to jump in and enjoy your brand new pool!

The actual surface of the pool walls and floor then get installed. You can chose tile, Diamond Bright, gunite, marble dust, plaster or paint for your surface. The cost of the surface can vary greatly.

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