new sponge iron rotary kiln design in sponge iron manufacturing process

new sponge iron rotary kiln design in sponge iron manufacturing process

Sponge iron rotary kiln is professional equipment for smelting sponge iron. Due to its high degree of mechanization and low labor intensity, many sponge iron plants around the world use the rotary kiln process to produce sponge iron. This time we introduce a new design sponge iron rotary kiln energy comprehensive utilization system, no matter from the sponge iron kiln design, or the improvement of production links, make the sponge iron manufacturing process energy utilization rate has been improved.

Sponge iron is also known as direct reduced iron. Using high-quality ore, using the principle of an oxidation-reduction reaction, in a rotary kiln, shaft kiln, or other reactors, the iron ore undergoes a reduction reaction and becomes porous sponge iron. Sponge iron has a low content of harmful impurities such as sulfur and phosphorus and non-ferrous metals. It is mainly used as a raw material for electric furnace steelmaking, especially as a raw material for high-quality steel and clean steel.

1- Sponge iron rotary kiln 2- Central burner system 3- Cooling rotary kiln 4- Crushing magnetic separation system 5- Warehouse 6- Metering pneumatic conveying device 7- Mingled storehouse 8- Air supply equipment 9- Airnozzle 10- Coarse coal pipe 11- Fine coal pipe 12- Dust settling chamber 13- Scraper machine 14- Waste heat boiler 15- Turbine generator 16- Oxygen tube

In the newly designed sponge iron rotary kiln system, a coarse coal branch pipe and fine coal branch pipe are added at the kiln head. The original way of adding 100% coal at the kiln head is changed to 50-70% coal is added together with fine iron ore and dolomite through the mixing mode at the kiln tail, and the remaining 30-50% coal is added by the kiln head. The coarse coal in this part of coal passes through the coarse coal branch into the 30%-60% of the sponge iron rotary kiln body for combustion and heating, and the fine coal passes through the fine coal branch for combustion and heating at the kiln head.

The air nozzle and the air pipe are used together to improve the control of the combustion rhythm. The air pipe is used as a combustion air supplement device and is evenly arranged along the kiln body to achieve the control of the combustion in the sponge iron rotary kiln. At the same time, each air pipe is equipped with a separate air supply device, which flows in parallel with the gas in the rotary kiln to form a vortex.

By changing the energy input port of the sponge iron rotary kiln, the problem of uneven temperature distribution in the kiln and loop formation is solved, and the temperature in the entire kiln can be controlled at multiple points and distributed evenly. In order to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy consumption, a new waste heat recovery system was added to save energy and protect the environment.

sponge iron - an overview | sciencedirect topics

sponge iron - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Four sponge iron (SI1, SI2, SI3, and SI4) plants with different installed capacity and sponge iron (SI) production have been considered for studies based on the baseline methodology. Figure 3.3.18 shows the annual SI production across sample plants. The production varies from 0.06 (SI1) to 0.2Mt (SI4).

Figure 3.3.19 compares the thermal energy consumption of sample plants. The thermal SEC ranges from 0.9 to 1.8MGcal. This is mainly due to variation in capacity, raw material composition, and vintage of the plant.

Figure 3.3.20 shows the steel production across different plants. The steel production ranges from 30,000tons to 0.14Mt. This may be due to the export of SI and scrap utilization in the steel melting shops (SMS).

Figures 3.3.21 and 3.3.22 show the purchased electricity and electricity exported to grid for different sample plants. The excess electricity from waste heat recovery system or CPP is usually exported to grid. From the figure, it is observed that SI3 is neither purchasing electricity from grid nor exporting electricity to grid.

Figures show the comparative performance of four plants. The overall SEC of the sample plants is in the range of 7.587.86Gcal/ton steel. The total electrical SEC up to SI making ranges from 77 to 135kWh/ton of SI. The total SEC up to SI making is in the range of 6.58.0Gcal/ton SI and is normalized based on major parameters.

DRI, also known as sponge iron, is the product of reducing iron oxide in the form of iron ore and steel plant wastes into metallic iron, below the melting point of iron and typically in the range of 8001200C. Iron oxide is charged into shaft furnace, rotary kiln, or fluidized beds in the form of pellet, iron ore lumps, or fines. The reduction takes place using gaseous reductants (CO+H2) which are generated through partial oxidation of coal (Reaction 3.3.1), reforming of methane by CO2/H2O (Reactions 3.3.2 and 3.3.3), or partial combustion of natural gas (Reaction 3.3.4).

DRI is a highly metallized iron-bearing material with some iron being present as cementite and wustite, in addition to gangue. Table 3.3.2 shows a range of compositions for DRI products based on the reductants used.

It is evident from this table that 48% of the DRI iron is nonmetallic, in the form of FeO. Carbon is also present in two forms, primarily as cementite and the remainder as elemental carbon deposited in the pores of DRI.

Several smelting reduction processes are in development and only one process is currently operating on a commercial basis: COREX. Other process variants differ in the number of reactors, the amount of calorific gas produced, the ore feed (pellet, lump ore, or fines), and examples are HIsmelt, DIOS, ROMELT, AISI-DOE/CCF, and HIsarna [43,50].

The COREX process is a two-stage process, as is shown in Figure 1.1.40. In the first step, iron ore is reduced to sponge iron in a shaft furnace by means of reducing gas. In the second step, the reduced iron is melted in the meltergasifier vessel. Reducing gas (CO and H2) used in the reduction shaft is supplied by gasification of coal by means of oxygen, forming a fixed or fluidized bed in the meltergasifier. The partial combustion of the coal in the meltergasifier generates the heat to melt the reduced iron. Liquid iron and slag are discharged at the bottom, by a conventional tapping procedure similar to that used in blast furnace operation.

Because of the separation of iron reduction and iron melting/coal gasifying in two steps, a high degree of flexibility is achieved and a wide variety of coals can be used. The process is designed to perform at elevated pressure, up to 5bar. Charging of coal and iron ore is performed through a lock hopper system. The reducing gas contains 6570% CO, 2025% H2, and 24% CO2. After leaving the meltergasifier, the hot gas is mixed with cooling gas to adjust the temperature to approximately 850C. The gas is then cleaned in hot cyclones and fed into the shaft furnace as a reducing gas. When the gas leaves the shaft furnace, it still has a relatively high calorific value and may be used as an export gas where the opportunity exists.

The COREX process was developed in the late 1970s at Alpine Industrieanlagenbau (VAI, now Siemens-VAI), and its feasibility was confirmed during the 1980s. Following the first industrial application of a COREX C-1000 plant (nominal production of 1000THM/day) at Iscor Pretoria, South Africa, four C-2000 plants (nominal production of 2000THM/day) were subsequently put into operation at Posco/Korea, Mittal Steel/South Africa and at JSW Limited/India. In early November 2007, the first COREX C-3000 plant was started up at Baosteel, China. It has a nominal production capacity of 1.5 millionTHM/year.

Recently a variant of COREX process, FINEX, is codeveloped by VAI and Posco for the production of hot metal based on the direct use of iron ore fines and noncoking coal. Fine iron ore is charged into a series of fluidized-bed reactors together with fluxes. The iron ore fines pass in a downward direction through four reactors where they are heated and reduced to DRI by means of a reduction gasderived from the gasification of the coalthat flows in the counter-current direction to the ore. The first commercial FINEX plant with a capacity of 1.5-million-ton/year started operation at the Pohang Works since early 2007.

As shown in Figure 16.14, all metallurgical reactions in the COREX process are carried out in two separate process reactorsthe reduction shaft and the melter gasifier. In the first step, iron ore is reduced to sponge iron in a shaft furnace by means of reducing gas. In the second step, the reduced iron is completely reduced and melted in the melter-gasifier vessel. The combustion and gasification of the coal in the melter gasifier generate the heat to melt the reduced iron and the hot reducing gas containing 6570% CO, 2025% H2, and 24% CO2. After leaving the melter gasifier, the hot reducing gas is mixed with cooling gas to a gas temperature of approximately 850C. The gas mixture is then cleaned in hot cyclones and fed into the shaft furnace as the reducing gas. When the gas leaves the top of shaft furnace, it still has a relatively high calorific value and may be used as an export gas where the opportunity exists. Liquid iron and slag are discharged at the bottom of melter gasifier by a conventional tapping procedure similar to that used in BF operation.

Because of the separation of iron reduction and iron melting/coal gasification in two steps in the COREX process, a high degree of flexibility is achieved and a wide variety of coals can be used. Since coking and sintering plants are not required for the COREX process, substantial cost savings of up to 20% can be achieved in the production of hot metal. Regarding environmental concerns, COREX plant emissions contain only insignificant amounts of NOX, SO2, dust, phenols, sulfides, and ammonia, which are well below the maximum limits allowed by future European standards. Furthermore, waste water emissions from the COREX process are far less than those in the conventional BF route.

Following the first industrial application of a COREX C-1000 plant with a nominal production of 1000 tHM/day at Iscor Pretoria, South Africa, four C-2000 plants (nominal production of 2000 tHM/day) were subsequently put into operation at POSCO in south Korea, Mittal Steel in South Africa, and JSW Limited in India. The first of the two planned COREX C-3000 plants was started up in early November 2007 at Baosteel, China. It has a nominal production capacity of 1.5 million tHM/year. Recently, a variant of the COREX process, FINEX, was codeveloped by VAI and POSCO for the production of hot metal based on the direct use of iron ore fines and noncoking coal. Unlike the COREX process, fine iron ore is charged into a series of fluidized bed reactors together with fluxes. A commercial FINEX plant with a capacity of 1.5 million tHM/year started operation at Pohang Works, POSCO, in early 2007.

Composite pellets or briquettes are formed from intimate mixtures of finely ground iron oxide (iron ore) and carbon (coal or charcoal). When heated to 12501400C, the iron oxides are reduced to form metallic sponge iron, and the other mineral components form a slag phase. Fast reduction kinetics is achievable because of the close proximity of the carbon and iron oxide particles. Depending on the raw materials, reduction can be complete in as little as 10min at 1300C.

Unreduced composites (green) may be charged into the BF as part of the ferrous burden. They are also the feed material for a new generation of ironmaking processes that use an RHF to produce DRI, such as the FASTMET or ITmk3 processes. Reduced composites have applications as a metallized feed to an EAF, BOF, or BF or in other melting operations such as a SAF, where pig iron is produced.

For practical operations, both the green composites and the DRI are required to have significant physical strength to withstand abrasion and impacts, for example, compressive strength minima of 500 or 1000N before yield or fracture.

As indicated in Section 19.2, composites containing charcoal as the carbon source can be a convenient way of introducing renewable carbon into the ironmaking process. However, a number of challenges need to be overcome. For example, during investigations into the reduction of composite pellets containing charcoal, coal, or coke, Gupta and Misra (2001) found that charcoal resulted in higher reduction rates and higher extents of reaction, but the pellets tended to break open due to the formation of iron whiskers.

The reduction of iron oxide in composite mixtures is believed to occur via a two-stage process. First, carbon is gasified by CO2 to produce CO gas (Equation19.1), the Boudouard reaction. In the second stage, CO gas reduces iron oxides to produce CO2. These reactions are shown as Equations (19.219.4) (after Ghosh (1999)). Hence, the reduction occurs via CO and CO2 gaseous intermediates.

Several other workers have observed an increase in the rate of reduction of composites when charcoal is substituted for coal or coke. Halder and Fruehan (2008) and Fortini and Fruehan (2005) showed that the rate constants for carbon oxidation were an order of magnitude higher for charcoal than for coal char. They attributed this increase to the higher reactivity of charcoal with CO2 caused by higher internal pore surface area. The rate-determining step in the reduction process is usually the gasification of carbon by CO2 (Equation19.1).

The reduction of composites occurs as a nonisothermal system or process. Temperature gradients occur within the briquettes/pellets because of many factors, for example, uneven heating, slow heat transfer, and the endothermic Boudouard and metal reduction reactions. These can limit briquette internal heating and hence the overall reduction rate. The use of charcoal as a reductant in composite briquettes or pellets increases the reduction rate through the enhancement of the Boudouard reaction. However, in some cases, the reduction limitation can change from carbon gasification to heat transfer.

The strength and density of green composite briquettes increased with die pressure and starch binder content. For briquettes made with coal, the optimum moisture content was about 10%, but with charcoal, it rose to between 20% and 25%. Also, 2% binder in the mix and a C/Fe ratio of about 0.25 were found to maximize the green strength. Under these conditions, composite green briquettes were produced with a compressive strength of 6kN and a density of about 2000kg/m3.

For composites made with charcoal, the density of fired briquettes increased with increasing furnace temperature (12501350C). Figure 19.5a shows that the strength of briquettes fired at either 1300 or 1350C was satisfactory, but at 1300C, strength tended to decrease with increasing time at temperature. The strength of briquettes fired at 1350C was independent of time. Figure 19.5b indicates that the degree of iron metallization was high at both temperatures and at all times studied.

An examination of the microstructures of the fired briquettes showed that the dominant phases were metallic iron, which can be seen as rounded globules, and a continuous slag phase often containing secondary crystal phases such as spinel and wstite dendrites. The slag phase forms from the fusion of the nonferrous components of the iron ore, the charcoal ash, unreduced iron oxides, and any flux added to the briquette mix. The strength of the fired briquettes is largely due to the formation of a continuous and coherent slag phase. This slag layer is most apparent near the outer surface of the briquette. The center regions of the briquettes contain many pores and generally lack the coherent nature of the outer region. The changes of strength with firing time at 1300C (Figure 19.5a) are attributed to ongoing annealing processes of both the slag and iron phases. At 1350C, it appears that the final microstructure and strength have already been reached at 10min. Figure 19.6 shows typical microstructures of (a) the dense outer region and (b) the porous central region of a fired briquette made with charcoal.

Removing oxygen from the ore by a natural process produces a relatively small percentage of steels in the world. This process uses less energy and is a natural chemical reaction method. The process involves heating the naturally occurring iron oxide in the presence of carbon, which produces sponge iron. In this process, the oxygen is removed without melting the ore.

Iron oxide ores extracted from the Earth are allowed to absorb carbon by a reduction process. In this natural reduction reaction, as the iron ore is heated with carbon, it results in a pop-marked surface, hence the name sponge iron. The commercial process is a solid solution reduction, also called direct-reduced iron (DRI). In this process, the iron ore lumps, pellets, or fines are heated in a furnace at 8001500C (14702730F) in a carburizing environment. A reducing gas produced by natural gas or coal, and a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gas, provides the carburizing environment.

The resulting sponge iron is hammered into shapes to produce wrought iron. The conventional integrated steel plants of less than one million tons annual capacity are generally not economically viable, but some of the smaller capacity steel plants use sponge iron as a charge to convert iron into steel. Because the reduction process of sponge iron is not energy intensive, the steel mills find it a more environmentally acceptable process. The process also tends to reduce the cost of steelmaking. The negative aspect of the process is that it is slow and does not support large-scale steel production.

Powder metallurgy (P/M) can be simply defined as the cost-effective process of manufacturing of components and tools starting from metallic, ceramic, or composite powders. In fact, P/M is not a new process in our world of materials science; it dated back to 3000BC, when the Egyptian employed it for preparing iron powder from sponge iron to make their tools.[1] At that time high-temperature furnaces were not available yet. Since then, P/M has been considered as a practical process that can be successfully used for net-shape or near-net-shape forming of high melting point metals, metal oxides, and cemented carbides without any needs of melting and casting castings processes. The development of this process has led today to produce high-quality iron powder by grinding and then ball milling of the sponge iron into fine particles and followed by heating the as-milled iron powders in hydrogen to remove the oxides. Modern P/M technology has started in the 2nd decade of the last century with a glorious achievement at that time, when a mass production of qualified tungsten carbide powders could be produced in industrial scale. During the period of time between 1920s and 1940s, the worldwide interest in P/M technology was monotonically increased, especially after the mass production of porous bronze brushes for bearings in 1920s.[2] During the World War II and till 1960s, a wide varieties of new composites, ferrous- and nonferrous-based materials were developed. Within the last 50years, glorious progress in the area of powder consolidation has been achieved and new powder pressing techniques, such as cold/hot isostatic pressing, spark plasma sintering, shock-wave consolidation, induction hot pressing, etc., have been introduced. Accordingly, P/M has been drastically grown due to its capability of producing large-scale volume of powders and consolidated precision and complex near-net-shaped dense components. Fig.1.4 presents a flow sheet of a typical powder metallurgical process. Ball milling and gas atomization are typical examples of P/M techniques used for fabrication of advanced materials powders with fine particle size.

In this case, sheets of Alloy 800 suffered a very strong attack (see Fig. 6.6a, b, c) within about six months, after 20 years of operation with only minor attack. These sheets guide the cooling gas from the lower part of the shaft furnace into the upper part, where the reduction gas enters. The ore is reduced on its way from the top of the furnace and leaves as iron sponge at the bottom. In the region in question the temperature is 400500 C and the H2COCO2H2O atmosphere has carbon activities between aC = 2000 to 100. The material Alloy 800 is fairly susceptible, but the sulphur content ~ 1012 ppm H2S should effectively retard the metal dusting attack so that the 2025 mm thick sheet could serve for many years. Some additional attack must have caused the acceleration. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the corrosion products indicated presence of chlorides, and it was known that chlorine had been introduced in the process line for controlling the growth of algae in a cooling unit. Obviously the presence of chlorine and the formation of chlorides hindered the formation of protective oxide scale and the very severe attack is due to the combined action of chloridation and metal dusting.

6.6. Severe metal dusting attack on a steel sheet (Alloy 800) from a direct reduction furnace: (a) piece of the steel sheet with vast erratic pitting; (b) and (c) metallographic cross-sections, showing pits with carburized zone and coke.

The principle of a sodiumsulfur cell is shown in Fig. 12. The solid electrolyte is a Na+ ion conductor, consisting of -Al2O3. It is generally used as a tube closed at one end and filled with liquid sodium as the anode. An iron sponge, which absorbs the liquid sodium, serves to improve the wetting of the electrolyte and to improve safety. A metal wire leads out of the anode to carry the current. The cathode consists of liquid sodium polysulfide and sulfur inserted in porous graphite. The working temperature of the sodiumsulfur cell is around 300C.

In the cell reaction sodium ions pass through the electrolyte and electrons through the external circuit, so that sodium is dissolved in sodium polysulfide. In this way electrical energy can be liberated. The energy density of the sodiumsulfur cell is many times greater than that of the customary lead batteries, and the materials needed for the electrolytes and electrodes are available in large quantities. The cell can be recharged by changing the direction of the current. The sodiumsulfur cell is of great interest for large-scale energy storage and for electrotraction for electric vehicles. Prototypes have already been built. In addition to the sodiumsulfur cell other cell systems have been developed using other solid electrolytes.

download sponge iron production in rotary kiln | [pdf] female refugee

download sponge iron production in rotary kiln | [pdf] female refugee

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This book provides a fascinating study of the very important emerging field of direct reduction in which iron ore is directly reduced in the solid-state, using either natural gas or non-coking coal, to produce a highly metallised material, referred to as sponge iron (or direct reduced iron). This intermediate product is subsequently melted in electric arc furnaces or induction furnaces (sometimes even in basic oxygen furnaces) to produce liquid steel. Such a process combination enables steel to be produced without using coking coal, which is an expensive input in the normal blast furnacebasic oxygen furnace route of steelmaking adopted in integrated steel plants. The book offers comprehensive coverage and critical assessment of various coal-based and gas-based direct reduction processes. Besides dealing with the application of the theoretical principles involved in the thermodynamics and kinetics of direct reduction, the book also contains some worked-out examples on sponge iron production. The concluding part of this seminal book summarises the present and future scenario of direct reduction, including the use of gas generated from coal in direct reduction processes. The book is primarily intended for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of metallurgical engineering. It is also a must-read for researchers, technologists and process metallurgists engaged in the rapidly developing field of direct reduction of iron oxides, which is of critical importance for India and other developing nations that are beginning to play a major role in global steelmaking.

About the Book: Now that India is virtually the only player in this field, an elaboration is needed with respect to more fundamental understanding as well as future prospects and needs, which this edition has tried to fulfill. It can now fulfill the need of a reference textbook in alternate iron making area for undergraduate and post graduate students in Metallurgical, Production, Manufacturing, Chemical, Materials and to a minor extent Mechanical Engineering disciplines. The aim of fulfilling the needs of entrepreneurs and plant operators has not only been retained; it has been elaborated. Further, the basic aspects have been presented in a way that is lucid and simple to understand and should serve as an incentive to the operators and entrepreneurs to develop a deeper understanding of the process. The project engineering section now gives guidelines sufficient to make a project report. Opportunities available to this process and the competition it faces has also been highlighted. A chapter on reaction kinetics has been included as also a section on iron ore and pellets. Other sections included are on Aerodynamics, Auto Ignition, Coal Throwing, etc. Rest of the text has been updated to the extent possible. Some advanced features have been introduced such as Mathematical Modeling, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Reduction Mechanism, etc. to give researchers in the area of food for thought.Contents: IntroductionRotary Kiln Process of Making Sponge IronThermodynamic Considerations: Feasibility of ReactionAerodynamics inside a Sponge Iron Rotary KilnMathematical Modelling in Rotary Kiln Sponge Iron MakingPhysical Movement of Solids inside a Rotary Kiln: Charge Movement and Coal Throwing/SlingingRequirement, Generation and Transfer of Heat in a Sponge Iron Rotary KilnReaction KineticsRaw Materials for Sponge Iron MakingAccretion or Ring Formation inside a Rotary KilnSponge Iron Properties: Re-oxidation and Auto-Ignition of Sponge IronUses of Sponge IronProcess Design, Engineering & Operational Aspects of an RK-DR PlantOther Uses of Rotary Kiln for Reduction PurposesEnvironmental Aspects of Sponge Iron Making in Rotary Kiln and Future Prospect

With a boom in the steel industry all over the world today, the demand of sponge iron has considerably increased as a feed (raw) material to steel making. The increase in the demand of sponge iron is also due to the fact that it is used for replacing coke making required for blast furnace processing. The primary objective of this book is to provide the basis, principles, fundamentals and theory of sponge iron production. This book, earlier titled as Sponge Iron Production in Rotary Kiln, is revised as per the feedback from students, faculty members and professionals. It, now, covers broad spectrum of alternative routes of iron making, therefore, the book is renamed as Alternative Routes to Iron Making. In this revised edition of the book, three new chapters have been added to fulfil the requirement of a textbook for various universities. NEW TO THIS EDITION New chapters on: o Utilization of Sponge Iron o Environmental Pollution and Control in Sponge Iron Industries o Smelting Reduction Process Inclusion of principle of fluidisation in fluidised bed processes Description of Hyl III process with recent development of the process Primarily intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students of metal-lurgical engineering, this book is equally beneficial for researchers, and professionals engaged in DR processes and steel industries.

Rotary Kilnsrotating industrial drying ovensare used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This professional reference book will be the first comprehensive book in many years that treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including a thorough grounding in the thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution & Phenomenon Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns Chapter 5: Mixing & Segregation Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed Chapter 9: Mass & Energy Balance Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications Covers fluid flow, granular flow, mixing and segregation, and aerodynamics during turbulent mixing and recirculation Offers hard-to-find guidance on fuels used for rotary kilns, including fuel options such as natural gas versus coal-fired rotary kilns Explains principles of combustion and flame control, heat transfer and heating and material balances

At present, a lot of metallurgical solid wastes have not been timely and effectively recycled, resulting in serious problems of environmental pollution and waste of resources. As a result, large-scale comprehensive utilization technologies have been initiated, including slag dry granulation technology, steel slag cement technology, slag wool technology, slag waste heat recovery technology, etc. The comprehensive utilization of metallurgical solid waste has attracted worldwide attention. It is an effective way to improve the utilization efficiency of resources and the added value of products by using scientific metallurgical solid waste recycling methods. This book intends to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of metallurgical solid wastes comprehensive utilization technology. The comprehensive utilization methods of four representative metallurgical solid wastes are emphatically described, such as blast furnace slag, steel slag, tailings and metallurgical dust.

This two-volume book presents outcomes of the 7th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving, SocProS 2017. This conference is a joint technical collaboration between the Soft Computing Research Society, Liverpool Hope University (UK), the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, the South Asian University New Delhi and the National Institute of Technology Silchar, and brings together researchers, engineers and practitioners to discuss thought-provoking developments and challenges in order to select potential future directions The book presents the latest advances and innovations in the interdisciplinary areas of soft computing, including original research papers in the areas including, but not limited to, algorithms (artificial immune systems, artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, genetic programming, and particle swarm optimization) and applications (control systems, data mining and clustering, finance, weather forecasting, game theory, business and forecasting applications). It is a valuable resource for both young and experienced researchers dealing with complex and intricate real-world problems for which finding a solution by traditional methods is a difficult task.

This book describes the available technologies that can be employed to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse emissions in the steel- and ironmaking industries. Ironmaking and steelmaking are some of the largest emitters of carbon dioxide (over 2Gt per year) and have some of the highest energy demand (25 EJ per year) among all industries; to help mitigate this problem, the book examines how changes can be made in energy efficiency, including energy consumption optimization, online monitoring, and energy audits. Due to negligible regulations and unparalleled growth in these industries during the past 15-20 years, knowledge of best practices and innovative technologies for greenhouse gas remediation is paramount, and something this book addresses. Presents the most recent technological solutions in productivity analyses and dangerous emissions control and reduction in steelmaking plants; Examines the energy saving and emissions abatement efficiency for potential solutions to emission control and reduction in steelmaking plants; Discusses the application of the results of research conducted over the last ten years at universities, research centers, and industrial institutions.

This authoritative account covers the entire spectrum from iron ore to finished steel. It begins by tracing the history of iron and steel production, right from the earlier days to todays world of oxygen steelmaking, electric steelmaking, secondary steelmaking and continuous casting. The physicochemical fundamental concepts of chemical equilibrium, activity-composition relationships, and structure-properties of molten metals are introduced before going into details of transport phenomena, i.e. kinetics, mixing and mass transfer in ironmaking and steelmaking pro-cesses. Particular emphasis is laid on the understanding of the fundamental principles of the processes and their application to the optimisation of actual processes. Modern developments in blast furnaces, including modelling and process control are discussed along with an introduction to the alternative methods of ironmaking. In the area of steelmaking, BOF plant practice including pre-treatment of hot metal, metallurgical features of oxygen steelmaking processes, and their control form part of the book. It also covers basic open hearth, electric arc furnace and stainless steelmaking, before discussing the area of casting of liquid steelingot casting, continuous casting and near net shape casting. The book concludes with a chapter on the status of the ironmaking and steelmaking in India. In line with the application of theoretical principles, several worked-out examples dealing with fundamental principles as applied to actual plant situations are presented. The book is primarily intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students of metallurgical engineering. It would also be immensely useful to researchers in the area of iron and steel.

This book provides the multidisciplinary reading audience with a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of research and innovations in the relationship between iron ores and iron ore materials. The book covers industrial sectors dealing with exploration and processing of iron ores as well as with advanced applications for iron ore materials and therefore entails a wide range of research fields including geology, exploration, beneficiation, agglomeration, reduction, smelting, and so on, thus encouraging life cycle thinking across the entire production chain. Iron remains the basis of modern civilization, and our sustainable future deeply depends upon our ability to satisfy the growing demand for iron and steel while decoupling hazardous emissions from economic growth. Therefore, environmental sustainability aspects are also broadly addressed. In response to socioeconomic and climatic challenges, the iron ore sector faces, this book delivers a vision for the new opportunities linked to deployment of the best available, innovative and breakthrough technologies as well as to advanced material applications.

This book comprehensively deals with all of the key topics of iron making including blast furnace plants, operations and processes, raw materials, preparation, chemical processes, and more. It includes the latest information on US and global iron making statistics, published by the USGS. The book is full of illustrative examples and diagrams, charts, and figures to make complex concepts easy to understand. FEATURES: * Includes latest USGS information, tables, and statistics for US and global production * Deals with all of the key topics of iron making including blast furnace plants, operations and processes, raw materials, preparation, chemical processes, and more

This book presents the fundamentals of iron and steel making, including the physical chemistry, thermodynamics and key concepts, while also discussing associated problems and solutions. It guides the reader through the production process from start to finish, covers the raw materials, and addresses the types of processes and reactions involved in both conventional and alternative methods. Though primarily intended as a textbook for students of metallurgical engineering, the book will also prove a useful reference for professionals and researchers working in this area.

Steel is a critical material in our societies and will remain an important one for a long time into the future. In the last two decades, the world steel industry has gone through drastic changes and this is predicted to continue in the future. The Asian countries (e.g. China, India) have been dominant in the production of steel creating global over-capacity, while the steel industry in the developed countries have made tremendous efforts to reinforce its global leadership in process technology and product development, and remain sustainable and competitive. The global steel industry is also facing various grand challenges in strict environmental regulation, new energy and materials sources, and ever-increasing customer requirements for high quality steel products, which has been addressed accordingly by the global iron and steel community. This Special Issue, Ironmaking and Steelmaking, released by the journal Metals, published 33 high quality articles from the international iron and steel community, covering the state-of-the-art of the ironmaking and steelmaking processes. This includes fundamental understanding, experimental investigation, pilot plant trials, industrial applications and big data utilization in the improvement and optimization of existing processes, and research and development in transformative technologies. It is hoped that the creation of this special issue as a scientific platform will help drive the iron and steel community to build a sustainable steel industry.

This unique book presents an in-depth analysis of all the emerging ironmaking processes, supplementing the conventional blast furnace method. Various processes for producing solid and liquid iron are discussed, including important features such as process outline, techno-economics, and process fundamentals. The present global status of each process is examined, projections for the future are made, and processes are compared. Beyond the Blast Furnace is valuable reading for process developers, because it gives them a complete picture of various process options. Conventional iron- and steelmakers as well as researchers and practitioners working in the area of alternative processes of ironmaking will also benefit from this ready reference. The book is an ideal text for undergraduate and postgraduate students in metallurgy.

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