cement process & quality control - page 1 of 1

cement process & quality control - page 1 of 1

Dear Sir, I want to Answers of Following Questions Q: Cement Process & Quality Control 1. Mineralogy of Raw Material used for manufacturing of Cement. 2. What is Pyroprocessing in Cement Plant? 3. Why we check residue of Raw Mix & Cement only through 90 & 212 Mic in raw mill & also for Cement Mill through 45 micron. 4.What are an impacts of Minor Element(MgO,Na2O & K2O,Chloride,Mn2O,P2O5,TiO2 etc ) of Raw Mix in Kil 5. What is meant by Closed circuit Cement Mill & Open circuit Cement Mill 6. What is Rosin Rammler curve & Particle Size Distribution & difference between them. 7. Difference between Particle Size Distribution & Residue 8. Difference between Compressive Strength & Setting Time of Cement. 9. How to defective by visual or by touching the cement sample or any other method to defected cement. My Email ID is [email protected] Thanking You Regards Ravi Chauhan +9

1. Mineralogy of Raw Material used for manufacturing of Cement. You need a good deal of reasonably pure limestone (or marble of chalk or othe form of CaCO3); some shale, clay, schist or other material that is mainly composed of compounds of silicon, iron andaluminium. (And if the resulting raw mis is somewhat deficient in one or more of these substances, usually expressed as oxides, for convenience, then suplementary raw materials will be needed.) The raw material mineralogy is not all that important because the manufacturing process involves finely grinding the raw materials so that they combine to form different compounds when heat treated in a semi-molten state. 2. What is Pyroprocessing in Cement Plant?This is the kiln treatment stage, when the finely ground raw meal is raised up to a temperature at which it is semi-molten. After decomposition of some clay compounds and dearbonation of the calcium carbonate, further temperature increases result in the formation of hydraulically active calcium sillcates and aluminates, and alumino-ferrite compounds. 3. Why we check residue of Raw Mix & Cement only through 90 & 212 Mic in raw mill & also for Cement Mill through 45 micron.The raw mix residue is checked to confirm that the materials are ground finely enough to combine in the kiln burning zone. The coarse particles are the most difficult to combine, and exact target residue figure will depend upon the chemical composition of that residue. 4.What are an impacts of Minor Element(MgO,Na2O & K2O,Chloride,Mn2O,P2O5,TiO2 etc ) of Raw Mix in Kiln. Mg, Mn, P and Ti are among the elements that can chemically substitute for Ca. Al, Si or Fe and so affect the mineralogy of the clinker produced from the kiln, perhaps affecting the setting time and/or strength growth of concrete and mortar or resulting in unsound concrete, if present at too high a level. Cl, Na, K and S and/or their compounds evaporate or decompose to a greater or lesser extent during pyroprocessing and are carried back by in the gas stream to condense at lower temperatures and potentially cause more or less severe blockages. In addition, their presence in significant quantities in cement may result in quality problems that affect some or all users of the product. 5. What is meant by Closed circuit Cement Mill & Open circuit Cement Mill. Exactly what it says - coarse material goes in at one end of an O/C Mill and comes in a finer state at the other end; in a C/C system, the coarser fraction of the product is separated in a classifier and returned to the mill input for further processing. 6. What is Rosin Rammler curve & Particle Size Distribution & difference between them. PSD is a graphical curve that represents the proportions by wieght of particles in various size fractions and the RR curve is a mathematical formula that providesa useful description of that curve. 7. Difference between Particle Size Distribution & Residue. PSD is described at 6, above; a residue is the percentage of material with a particle size greater than (say) 90 microns - it is the residue that would be left upon a seive with a 90 micron mesh size. 8. Difference between Compressive Strength & Setting Time of Cement. Setting time is how long (in minutes) a fresh sample of mortar takes to become firm (as judged by dropping a standardised probe on to its surface), whereas the compressive strength of mortar or concrete (in Mega-Pascals, or kg per sq metre) is the mass that can be supported by a unit area of the set and hardened material after various periods of curing. 9. How to defective by visual or by touching the cement sample or any other method to defected cement. The presence of soft or hard lumps is undesirable.

1. Mineralogy of Raw Material used for manufacturing of Cement. You need a good deal of reasonably pure limestone (or marble of chalk or othe form of CaCO3); some shale, clay, schist or other material that is mainly composed of compounds of silicon, iron andaluminium. (And if the resulting raw mis is somewhat deficient in one or more of these substances, usually expressed as oxides, for convenience, then suplementary raw materials will be needed.) The raw material mineralogy is not all that important because the manufacturing process involves finely grinding the raw materials so that they combine to form different compounds when heat treated in a semi-molten state.

2. What is Pyroprocessing in Cement Plant?This is the kiln treatment stage, when the finely ground raw meal is raised up to a temperature at which it is semi-molten. After decomposition of some clay compounds and dearbonation of the calcium carbonate, further temperature increases result in the formation of hydraulically active calcium sillcates and aluminates, and alumino-ferrite compounds.

3. Why we check residue of Raw Mix & Cement only through 90 & 212 Mic in raw mill & also for Cement Mill through 45 micron.The raw mix residue is checked to confirm that the materials are ground finely enough to combine in the kiln burning zone. The coarse particles are the most difficult to combine, and exact target residue figure will depend upon the chemical composition of that residue.

4.What are an impacts of Minor Element(MgO,Na2O & K2O,Chloride,Mn2O,P2O5,TiO2 etc ) of Raw Mix in Kiln. Mg, Mn, P and Ti are among the elements that can chemically substitute for Ca. Al, Si or Fe and so affect the mineralogy of the clinker produced from the kiln, perhaps affecting the setting time and/or strength growth of concrete and mortar or resulting in unsound concrete, if present at too high a level. Cl, Na, K and S and/or their compounds evaporate or decompose to a greater or lesser extent during pyroprocessing and are carried back by in the gas stream to condense at lower temperatures and potentially cause more or less severe blockages. In addition, their presence in significant quantities in cement may result in quality problems that affect some or all users of the product.

5. What is meant by Closed circuit Cement Mill & Open circuit Cement Mill. Exactly what it says - coarse material goes in at one end of an O/C Mill and comes in a finer state at the other end; in a C/C system, the coarser fraction of the product is separated in a classifier and returned to the mill input for further processing.

6. What is Rosin Rammler curve & Particle Size Distribution & difference between them. PSD is a graphical curve that represents the proportions by wieght of particles in various size fractions and the RR curve is a mathematical formula that providesa useful description of that curve.

7. Difference between Particle Size Distribution & Residue. PSD is described at 6, above; a residue is the percentage of material with a particle size greater than (say) 90 microns - it is the residue that would be left upon a seive with a 90 micron mesh size.

8. Difference between Compressive Strength & Setting Time of Cement. Setting time is how long (in minutes) a fresh sample of mortar takes to become firm (as judged by dropping a standardised probe on to its surface), whereas the compressive strength of mortar or concrete (in Mega-Pascals, or kg per sq metre) is the mass that can be supported by a unit area of the set and hardened material after various periods of curing.

top 20 manufacturing production interview questions & answers (2021)

top 20 manufacturing production interview questions & answers (2021)

BOM stands for Bill Of Materials; it is a list of item or parts that makeup a product assembly. For example, a lawn mower requires a handle assembly, metal deck assembly, a control assembly, motor and blade assembly.

Kanban is scheduling system which advises manufacturers about how much to produce, what to produce and when to produce. In this system, inventory is re-filled only when visual cues like an empty bin or cart is seen.

QMS stands for Quality Management System; it documents all necessary information about companys design and operational controls, including issue reporting, monitoring, continuous improvement and training, to make sure that company delivers continuous product.

Batch production is a manufacturing technique, where components or goods are produced in groups and not in a continuous stream. This methodology is mainly used when similar items are produced together.

Main challenge in manufacturing is to develop better production processes, ensure the right material and component supplies at the least cost, decrease production time, eliminate wastage and maintain quality in the final product.

Manufacturing work in progress is when manufacturing firm transforms material into the work in process which includes raw material, labour and factory overhead. You can calculate all the below factors to know the costing for the manufacturing work in progress.

RMA stands for Return Material Authorization; it is a financial and work order tracking used to determine a returned items origination. It is often used in a transaction where a customer returns goods to the manufacturer for replacement or repair purpose.

Manufacturers are highly dependent on their raw material suppliers, to communicate with them effectively SCAR is used. It is a change request that mentions the issues with the process or material from a supplier and ask for a resolution. It sometimes also includes the details about how the complaint should be addressed.

In manufacturing unit, software that can be useful are Manufacturing ERP and Material Management. Some of the companies that provide the manufacturing software solution are SAP, Oracle ERP system, etc.

the five types of manufacturing processes | katana

the five types of manufacturing processes | katana

When you think of thedifferenttypes of manufacturingdoes your mind wonder to images of endless assembly lines in factories? Or maybe Greasy and oily overalls being worn by dirtier mechanics tolling away on some complex machine?

Amanufacturing processis the way a business will establish how it will produceitsproducts for its customers. When a company begins manufacturing a product the process will be determined by factors such as consumer demand of products, themanufacturing techniqueof how a final product is completed (is it assembled by various components, involve raw material or chemicals?) and the available resources at the companys disposal.

Each process is different, and all have their advantages when completing a certain task. For example, manufacturing in batches can be done in bulk, in a continuous stream of products, or smaller batches to meet customer demand and minimize waste.

PRO TIP:Depending on your type of business, one manufacturing process will be best for you. Weve put together an essential guide for modern manufacturers and investigatedwhat is manufacturingwhich will help you decide.

Like repetitivemanufacturing,discrete manufacturingalso utilizes an assembly or production line. However, this process is extremely diverse, with a variation of setups and changeover frequencies. This is due to factors based on whether the products in production are similar or discordant in design.

Job shopmanufacturing, unlike repetitive or discretemanufacturing, makes use of production areas rather than assembly lines. This is because this process will produce smaller batches of custom products, which can be either made-to-order (MTO) or made-to-stock (MTS).

These workstations are organized to make one version of a custom product, or even a couple of dozen. If customer demand requires it, the operation can become a discretemanufacturingline with selected labor operations being, potentially, replaced by automated equipment.

Process manufacturing(also called continuous manufacturing) is similar to repetitive manufacturing as it too also runs 24/7. However, the difference is that this manufacturing process productions raw materials are gases, liquids, powders, or slurries. But, in areas like mining, the products can be granule materials.

Process manufacturing(also called batch manufacturing) shares similarities with discrete and job shop processes. Depending on consumer demand, one batch could be enough to meet that demand. Once a batch is completed, the equipment is cleaned, ready to produce the next batch when needed. Batch processes are continuous in nature.

Continuous batch processes are achievable when the ingredients or raw materials cannot be made to a strict standard. Just like Process manufacturing (continuous) the product ingredients are similar, and the production process is more diverse.

Theres been an875% growthin the last five years and although in its still in its infancy, 3D printing promises to be a potential avenue as a manufacturing technique in the future. With the possibility of even being able to make food!

We hope that you were able to find this blog useful in better understanding the manufacturing industry as a whole and the types of manufacturing processes out there, ready to be incorporated by a manufacturer such as yourself.

Once youve contemplated the types of manufacturing processes and decided which is most beneficial to your company for keeping up with customer demand and minimizing waste, you can go ahead and incorporateKatanainto your business. Our Smart Manufacturing Software will see that your manufacturing output is at its most efficient.

what is the cement manufacturing process? (with pictures)

what is the cement manufacturing process? (with pictures)

The cement manufacturing process involves several key steps, including preparing the raw materials, grinding the materials together, heating the newly formed clinker in a kiln, and finishing the cement with fine grinding. Some of the main ingredients used to make cement include limestone, clay, shale, iron, and sand. Different manufacturing techniques will use either wet or dry grinding, but each cement manufacturing process will culminate in heating and fine grinding to finish the product.

Preparing the raw materials is often the first step in the cement manufacturing process, and involves mining the limestone or obtaining safe industrial waste products. Drilling, blasting, and crushing machinery convert mined limestone to fragments about 0.39 inches (about 1 cm) in diameter, after which it is stored until needed. Crushing practices will sometimes be used on the other materials as well, especially if they contain large or irregularly sized fragments.

Grinding is the next step in the cement manufacturing process, and it can occur in either wet or dry forms. Wet grinding involves combining all of the materials in a mill with water and grinding it into slurry. In contrast, dry grinding processes combine and grind the materials without water, creating a substance known as kiln feed. Both types of grinding will yield material that contains an average particle size of about 75 micrometers. After each process, the materials are further mixed for proper homogeneity and placed in storing units.

Heating occurs next, and it takes place in a rotary kiln that is fired at high temperatures. The kiln heats the clinker, the name for the dried material formed after the grinding process, until it reaches upwards of 2732F (about 1500C). Afterward, the material is sent to a clinker cooler where the temperature lowers to a reasonable level, at which point the material can be stored once again.

The cement manufacturing process is completed when the cooled clinker is ground once again in a rotating finishing mill. A combination of gypsum and limestone will usually be added in small amounts to the heated cement during this last grinding step, and coloring agents can also be added here. The fineness of the finished particles will vary according to individual preferences, and the cement can reach a level of fineness where it will travel through liquid sieves. Completion of the finishing step means that the cement is ready to be packaged and distributed to builders and consumers.

what is cement? history- chemistry- industries - civil engineering

what is cement? history- chemistry- industries - civil engineering

Cement, one of the most important building materials, is a binding agent that sets and hardens to adhere to building units such as stones, bricks, tiles, etc. Cement generally refers to a very fine powdery substance chiefly made up of limestone (calcium), sand or clay (silicon), bauxite (aluminum) and iron ore, and may include shells, chalk, marl, shale, clay, blast furnace slag, slate. The raw ingredients are processed in cement manufacturing plants and heated to form a rock-hard substance, which is then ground into a fine powder to be sold. Cement mixed with water causes a chemical reaction and forms a paste that sets and hardens to bind individual structures of building materials.

Cement is an integral part of the urban infrastructure. It is used to make concrete as well as mortar, and to secure the infrastructure by binding the building blocks. Concrete is made of cement, water, sand, and gravel mixed in definite proportions, whereas mortar consists of cement, water, and lime aggregate. These are both used to bind rocks, stones, bricks, and other building units, fill or seal any gaps, and to make decorative patterns. Cement mixed with water silicates and aluminates, making a water repellant hardened mass that is used for water-proofing.

Cement, though different from the refined product found nowadays, has been used in many forms since the advent of human civilization. From volcanic ashes, crushed pottery, burnt gypsum and hydrated lime to the first hydraulic cement used by the Romans in the middle ages, the development of cement continued to the 18th century, when James Parker patented Roman cement, which gained popularity but was replaced by Portland cement in the 1850s.

In the 19th century, Frenchman Louis Vicat laid the foundation for the chemical composition of Portland cement and in Russia, Egor Cheliev published the methods of making cement,uses of cement and advantages. Joseph Aspdin brought Portland cement to the market in England and his son, William Aspdin, developed the modern Portland cement, which was soon in quite high demand. But the real father of Portland cement is considered to be Isaac Charles Johnson, who contributed immensely by publishing the process of developing meso-Portland cement in the kiln.

In the 19th century, Rosendale cement was discovered in New York. Though its rigidity made it quite popular at first, the market demand soon declined because of its long curing time and Portland cement was again the favorite. However, a new blend of Rosendale-Portland cement, which is both highly durable and needs less curing time, was synthesized by Catskill Aqueduct and is now often used for highway or bridge construction.

The cement used today has undergone experimentation, testing and significant improvements to meet the needs of the present world, such as developing strong concretes for roads and highways, hydraulic mortars that endure sea water and stucco for wet climates. Different kinds of modern cement, most of them known as Portland cement or blends, including blast furnace cement, Portland fly-ash cement, Portland pozzolan cement, pozzolan-lime cement, slag-lime cement, etc.

Cement is chiefly of two kinds based on the way it is set and hardened: hydraulic cement, which hardens due to the addition of water, and non-hydraulic cement, which is hardened by carbonation with the carbon present in the air, so it cannot be used underwater.

The most commonly used cement nowadays is a hydraulic cement (i.e. hardens when water is added) known as Portland cement or Portland cement blends. These are usually the basic ingredient in making concrete, which is a construction material used as a load-bearing element. Portland cement is suitable for wet climates and can be used underwater. Different types or blends of Portland cement include Portland blast furnace slag cement, Portland fly-ash cement, Portland pozzolan cement, Portland-silica fume cement, masonry cement, expansive cement, white blended cement, colored cement and very finely ground cement.

85% Portland cement clinker (37-72% of 3CaO.SiO2; 6-47% 2CaO.SiO2; 2-20% 2CaO.Al2O3; 2-19% 4CaO. Al2O3.Fe2O3), 1.5-3.5% gypsum by SO3 content, up to 15% admixtures. For more information read: 8 Main Cement Ingredients & Their Functions

In a cement production plant, limestone and other raw materials such as silicate, bauxite, iron ore, etc. are heated so that molecules of carbon dioxide are liberated from the limestone to form quicklime, which combines with the other ingredients, resulting in the formation of calcium silicates and other products. Thus clinker, a rock-hard substance, is made. Gypsum is added to the clinker and then ground into a fine powder, which is the final product known as Portland cement.

The top three cement producers of the world as recorded in 2010 are the USA, China, and India. Among these countries, China alone manufactures about 45% of the total worldwide production of cement. Global consumption of cement continues to rise since it is a non-recyclable product and so every new construction or repair needs new cement. Especially in the economies of Asia and Eastern Europe, cement production is an important element of progress.

According to the global cement directory, there are about 2273 active cement production plants in the world. Some of the leading cement manufacturers are LafargeHolcim, Anhui Conch, China National Building Materials, HeidelbergCement, Cemex, Italcementi, China Resources Cement, Taiwan Cement, Eurocement, and Votorantim. The total global consumption of cement, as indicated by statistics in 2015, measures up to 18 million metric tons, most of which is attributed to the rising national economy of North America.

Among the developed capitalist countries, the leading producers of cement are USA, France, Italy, and Germany. Iran, now the top producer in the Middle-East, occupies the third position in the world for cement manufacture. Asian and African countries are also progressive in the production of cement.

The kiln process in cement plant causes the emission of carbon dioxide, which is one of the major greenhouse gases responsible for global warming. With a view to reducing, even eliminating, the harmful environmental impacts of cement usage, leading industries are now trying to implement technologies that utilize recycled materials and renewable energy sources. Green cement is such a sustainable construction material that is the result of extensive research related to the check the effects of global warming.

Please note that the information in Civiltoday.com is designed to provide general information on the topics presented. The information provided should not be used as a substitute for professional services.

what is process costing? definition and features - business jargons

what is process costing? definition and features - business jargons

Definition: Process Costing is defined as a branch of operation costing, that determines the cost of a product at each stage, i.e. process of production. It is an accounting method which is adopted by the factories or industries where the standardized identical product is produced, as well as it passes through multiple processes for being transformed into the final product.

In simple words, process costing is a cost accounting technique, in which the costs incurred during production are charged to processes and averaged over the total units manufactured. For this purpose, process accounts are opened in the books of accounts, for each process and all the expenses relating to the process for the period is charged to the respective process account.

Hence, it ascertains the total cost and unit cost of a process, for all the processes carried out in industry. Further, the average cost represents the cost per unit, wherein the total cost is divided by the total number of outputs produced during the period to arrive at the cost per unit. The cost per unit can be calculated using First in First Out Method (FIFO), Average Method and Weighted average Method.

Process costing is employed by the industries whose production process is continuous and repetitive, as well as the output of one process is the input of another process. So, chemical industry, oil refineries, cement industries, textile industries, soap manufacturing industries, paper manufacturing industries use this method.

cement manufacturing process | phases | flow chart | cement | engineering intro

cement manufacturing process | phases | flow chart | cement | engineering intro

Cement is the basic ingredient of construction and the most widely used construction material. It is a very critical ingredient, because only cement has the ability of enhancing viscosity of concrete which in returns provides the better locking of sand and gravels together in a concrete mix.

Cement uses raw materials that cover calcium, silicon, iron and aluminum. Such raw materials are limestone, clay and sand. Limestone is for calcium. It is combined with much smaller proportions of sand and clay. Sand & clay fulfill the need of silicon, iron and aluminum.

Generally cement plants are fixed where the quarry of limestone is near bye. This saves the extra fuel cost and makes cement somehow economical. Raw materials are extracted from the quarry and by means of conveyor belt material is transported to the cement plant.

There are also various other raw materials used for cement manufacturing. For example shale, fly ash, mill scale and bauxite. These raw materials are directly brought from other sources because of small requirements.

Before transportation of raw materials to the cement plant, large size rocks are crushed into smaller size rocks with the help of crusher at quarry. Crusher reduces the size of large rocks to the size of gravels.

The raw materials from quarry are now routed in plant laboratory where, they are analyzed and proper proportioning of limestone and clay are making possible before the beginning of grinding. Generally, limestone is 80% and remaining 20% is the clay.

Now cement plant grind the raw mix with the help of heavy wheel type rollers and rotating table. Rotating table rotates continuously under the roller and brought the raw mix in contact with the roller. Roller crushes the material to a fine powder and finishes the job. Raw mix is stored in a pre-homogenization pile after grinding raw mix to fine powder.

After final grinding, the material is ready to face the pre-heating chamber. Pre-heater chamber consists of series of vertical cyclone from where the raw material passes before facing the kiln. Pre-heating chamber utilizes the emitting hot gases from kiln. Pre-heating of the material saves the energy and make plant environmental friendly.

Kiln is a huge rotating furnace also called as the heart of cement making process. Here, raw material is heated up to 1450 C. This temperature begins a chemical reaction so called decarbonation. In this reaction material (like limestone) releases the carbon dioxide. High temperature of kiln makes slurry of the material.

The series of chemical reactions between calcium and silicon dioxide compounds form the primary constituents of cement i.e., calcium silicate. Kiln is heating up from the exit side by the use of natural gas and coal. When material reaches the lower part of the kiln, it forms the shape of clinker.

After passing out from the kiln, clinkers are cooled by mean of forced air. Clinker released the absorb heat and cool down to lower temperature. Released heat by clinker is reused by recirculating it back to the kiln. This too saves energy.

Final process of 5th phase is the final grinding. There is a horizontal filled with steel balls. Clinker reach in this rotating drum after cooling. Here, steel balls tumble and crush the clinker into a very fine powder. This fine powder is considered as cement. During grinding gypsum is also added to the mix in small percentage that controls the setting of cement.

Material is directly conveyed to the silos (silos are the large storage tanks of cement) from the grinding mills. Further, it is packed to about 20-40 kg bags. Only a small percent of cement is packed in the bags only for those customers whom need is very small. The remaining cement is shipped in bulk quantities by mean of trucks, rails or ships.

Widely used in highways, utilities, construction and other industries washing, grading, cleaning, as well as fine-grained and coarse-grained materials processing and other operations, the construction and gravel roads are particularly suitable. We feel proud to present ourselves as the well renowned importer and exporter of different Optimum Quality Engineering Equipments. Each and every product, forming part of our exquisite collection, has to go through different stringent quality checks so as to ensure that only finest quality product ultimately reaches the market.

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