cement manufacturing technologies - dsmac

cement manufacturing technologies - dsmac

Cement can be not only hardened in the air, but also better hardened in the water in which it will maintain and develop strength. So cement is kind of cementitious material which will be of stronger hardness in water. Cement mill is used for cement grinding. Cement crusher is applied for cement crushing. In cement mining, you need to choose suitable cement grinding mill and cement crusher.

All over the world, cement is one of the most important building materials. Whether for houses, bridges or tunnels. Join us for a short tour to experience how cement is made: starting with the extraction of raw materials and ending with the finished product.

Typically, cement raw materials crushing plant locations are based upon the availability of good quality limestone in the vicinity. The quarrying operations are done by the cement producer using the open cast mining process.

The quarried limestone is normally in the form of big boulders, ranging from a few inches to meters in size. These varying sizes of limestone need to be crushed to a size of about 10 mm in order to be prepared for finish-grinding.

There are many types of crushers can be used to primary crushing & secondary crushing, such as jaw crusher, impact crusher, hammer crusher, cone crusher. Hammer crusher is usually used for crushing limestone.

The desired raw mix of crushed raw material and the additional components required for the type of cement, e.g. silica sand and iron ore, is prepared using metering devices. Roller grinding mills and ball mills grind the mixture to a fine powder at the same time as drying it, before it is conveyed to the raw meal silos for further homogenisation.

In direct firing system, coal is milled on line and is directly fed to the kiln. Coal fineness has a direct relationship with its reactivity. Hence in the cement plant a special significance has been given to the grinding behavior of coal.

Coal crushing and grinding is the process of providing power for pre-heating and calcining cement raw materials . Ring hammer crusher is often used for crushing coal, while ball mill is used for grinding coal.

Limestone and others burned in the kiln are called clinkers. Clinkers are cooled and transported to the hopper. A feeder with draws clinkers from the hopper and sends them to the pre-grinding crusher, a vertical roll mill, where the clinkers are preliminarily crushed.

A stable grinding bed is usually easily obtained in raw material grinding in a vertical roller mill with a high efficiency separator. However, in cement grinding it becomes more difficult to form a stable grinding bed as:

During the final stage of portland cement production known as finish milling, the clinker is ground with other materials into a fine powder. Many plants use a roll crusher to achieve a preliminary size reduction of the clinker and gypsum.

These materials are then sent through ball or tube mills. The grinding process occurs in a closed system that divides the cement particles according to size. Material that has not been completely ground is sent through the system again.

A stable grinding bed is usually easily obtained in raw material grinding in a vertical roller mill with a high efficiency separator. However, in cement grinding it becomes more difficult to form a stable grinding bed as:

rock crusher history

rock crusher history

History tells us,it was in 1830, the firstUS patent was issued on a rock crushing machine. It covered a device which, in a crude way, incorporated the drop hammer principle later used in the famous stamp mill, whose history is so intimately linked with that of the golden age of mining. In 1840,another patent was issued, which comprised a wooden box containing a cylindrical drum apparently of wood also on which a number of iron knobs, or hammers, were fastened; the expectation was that this drum, when revolved at about 350 RPM, would shatter the rock fed into the top of the box. This device, although it was conceived as an impact crusher and thus would rate as a forerunner of the hammermill, bore a somewhat closer resemblance to the single sledging-roll crusher. There is no evidence that either of these early inventors carried their work through to fruition. Eli Whitney Blake invented the first successful mechanical rock breaker, the Blake jaw crusher patented in 1858. Blake adopted a mechanical principle familiar to all students of mechanics, the powerful toggle linkage. That his idea was good is attested to by the fact that the Blake type jaw crusher is today the standard by which all jaw crushers are judged, and the leading machine of the class for heavy duty primary crushing service.

The gyratory principle was the basis of several rudimentary designs, patented between 1860 and 1878, noneof which embodied practical mechanical details at least, not in the light of our present-day knowledge of the art. Then, in 1881, Philetus W. Gates was granted a patent on a machine which included in its design all of the essential features of the modern gyratory crusher. The first sale on record antedates the patent by several months, a No. 2 crusher, sold to the Buffalo Cement Co. in 1880. That was the first of several thousand gyratory crushers which carried the name of Gates to the far corners of the earth. An interesting sidelight of these early days occurred in 1883 when a contest was staged between a Blake jaw crusher and a Gates gyratory crusher. Each machine was required to crush 9 cubic yard of stone, the feed-size anddischarge settings being similar. The Gates crusher finished its quota in 21 minutes, the Blake crusher in 65 minutes, which must have been a sad disappointment to the proponent of the Blake machine, who happened to be the challenger.

For some years after these pioneer machines were developed, requirements, viewed in the light of present practice, were very simple. Mining and quarrying, whether underground or open-pit, was done by hand; tonnages generally were small, and product specifications simple and liberal. In the milling of precious metal ores, stamp mills were popular as the final reduction machine. These were generally fed with an ore size that could be produced handily by one break through the small gyratory and jaw crushers which served as primary breakers. Even in large underground mining operations there was no demand for large crushers; increased tonnage requirements were met by duplicating the small units. For example, in 1915, at the huge Homestake operation, there were no less than 20 Gates small gyratory crushers sizes No. 5 and 6 to prepare the ore for the batteries of >2500 stamp mills.

Most commercial crushed stone plants were small, and demand for small product sizes practically non-existent. Many plants limited output to two or three products. Generally the top size was about 2.5 to 3 ring-size; an intermediate size of about 1.5 or thereabouts, might be made, and the dust, or screenings, removed through openings of about 0.25. In ballast plants the job was even more simple, one split and an oversize re-crush being all that was needed.

Many small process plants consisted of one crusher, either jaw or gyratory rock crushers, one elevator and one screen. Recrushing, if done, was taken care of by the same machine handling the primary break. The single crusher, when of the gyratory type, might be any size from the No. 2 (6 opening) to the No. 6 with 12-in. opening.

When demand grew beyond the capabilities of one crusher, it was generally a simple matter to add a second machine to take care of the recrushing or secondary crushing work. A popular combination, for example, consisted of a No. 6 primary and a No. 4 secondary, or possibly a 20- x 10-in., or 24- x 12-in. primary jaw, followed by one of the small gyratories. When the business outgrew the capacity of this sort of plant, it was not unusual to double up, either in the same building, or by erecting an entirely separate plant adjacent to the original one. Crusher manufacturers were not standing still during these early years. In the gyratory line, for example, the No. 2 was the first popular size, and larger machines were developed from time to time up to the No. 6, then the No. 7.5

The steam shovel began to change the entire picture of open-pit working. With the steam shovel came the really huge No. 8 crusher, with its 18 receiving opening. Up to this time the jaw crusher had kept pace with the gyratory, both from the standpoint of receiving opening and capacity, but now the gyratory stepped into the leading position, which it held for some 15 years. Once the ice was broken, larger and larger sizes of the gyratory type of crusher were developed rapidly, relegating the once huge No. 8 machine to the status of a secondary crusher. This turn toward really large primary crushers started just a few years before the turn of the century, and in 1910 crushers with 48 receiving openings were being built.Along about this time the jaw crusher suddenly came back to life and stepped out in front with a great contribution to the line of mammoth-size primary crushers: the 84 x 60 machine built by the now Joy Mining Machinery for a trap rock quarry in eastern Pennsylvania. This big crusher was followed by a No. 10 (24 opening) gyratory crusher for the secondary break. Interest created by this installation reawakened the industry to the possibilities of the jaw crusher as a primary breaker, and lines were brought up-to-date to parallel the already developed gyratory lines.

Although his machines never came into general use in the industry, Thomas A. Edison ranks as a pioneer in the development of the large primary breaker and credited with the announcement of a very interesting and constructive bit of reasoning, which was the basis of his development. Concerned at the time with the development of a deposit of lean magnetic iron ore where he was using a number of the small jaw crushers then available for his initial reduction. Realizing that to concentrate this ore at a cost to permit marketing it competitively meant cutting every possible corner, he studied the problem of mining and crushing the ore as one of the steps susceptible of improvement.

In approaching the problem, Edison reasoned that the recoverable energy in a pound of coal was approximately equal to the available energy in one pound of 50% dynamite; but the cost per pound of the dynamite was about 100 times that of the coal. Furthermore, a large part of the dynamite used in his mining operation was consumed in secondary breaking to reduce the ore to sizes that the small primary crushers would handle. The obvious conclusion was that it would be much cheaper to break the large pieces of ore by mechanical rather than by explosive energy.

With that thesis as a starting point, he set out to develop a large primary breaker, a development which culminated several years later in the huge and spectacular 8 x 7 Edison rolls. A description of the action of this machine will be found in a later section of this series. During the early years of the present century these giant machines created considerable interest, and several were installed in this country. However, they never became popular, and interest swung back to the more versatile gyratory and jaw types. Edison rolls were also developed in smaller sizes for use as secondary and reduction crushers. In his own cement plant Edison used four sets of rolls operating in series to reduce the quarry-run rock to a size suitable for grinding.

stone crushing plant - automatic stone crusher plant | agico

stone crushing plant - automatic stone crusher plant | agico

The stone crushing plant is a kind of special plant for building stone production. AGICO stone crushing production line is a project launched by our company after several years of development and research. Compared with the traditional crushing model, it saves a lot of energy and labor. At the same time, it has the characteristics of reasonable design, reliable operation, convenient operation, high efficiency, and energy-saving. We provide the equipment and design the production line according to the customers specific needs. AGICO has the ability to provide you with the best technical support.

The stone crushing plant manufactured by AGICO mainly consists of a vibrating feeder, jaw crusher, impact crusher, vibrating screen, belt conveyorcentralized electronic control system, and other equipment. The designed output is generally 30-350 tons per hour. According to different technological requirements, we can also equip the dust collector, cone crusher, or other cement crushersto meet the different production needs of customers.

In the production process, large stones are evenly sent to the jaw crusher by a vibrating feeder for coarse crushing (primary crushing), then sent to the impact crusher by the belt conveyor for secondary crushing. After that, all the stones will be divided into three different sizes on the vibrating screen. The large-sized stone which beyond the specification will be sent back to the impact crusher by the belt conveyor for re-crushing, and then sent to the vibrating screen again forming closed-circuit multiple cycles until the completion of production.

Our stone crushing plant has a high degree of automation. Except for equipment start-up, shutdown, and daily maintenance, the whole plant requires almost no manual operation. Besides, our equipment is easy to maintain. The wearing parts are made of high-strength wear-resistant materials, with a small loss, and long service life, which can bring considerable economic benefits to customers.

This plant has been successfully applied in the crushing processing of limestone, basalt, granite, pebble, and other rocks. The product quality completely reaches the GB14685-2001 standard, which can be regarded as aggregate for high-grade highway, railway, water conservancy, concrete mixing plant, and other industries.

The performance of the stone crushing plant can be judged according to the product quality. There are mainly two quality indexes of crushed stone: the ratio of elongated and flaky particles and the content of the powder. If these two indicators exceed the specified range, the product quality is unqualified and cannot be used in large projects. The quality of crushed stones produced by our crushing plant is in line with the relevant standards. The content of elongated and flaky particles and powder in the crushed stone is very small and the product particle size is uniform, the particle shape is good with no internal crack, the compressive strength is high, and the granular composition is reasonable.

AGICO has large manufacturing workshops and professional processing equipment to ensure the fast and high-quality production of related equipment in the automatic stone crusher plant. In addition, we have more than 20 years of production and sales experience, the products are exported to all over the world, therefore, we can ensure the timely and safe delivery, reducing the time cost of customers.

AGICO provides EPC turnkey projects. It not only includes the manufacture of various specialized equipment in the stone crushing plant but also includes the plant design, onsite installation, real-time commissioning, equipment operation training and usual spare parts service.

Customization is the most basic service our company provides for each customer. We will design the production lines and choose equipment according to customers specific needs on stone specification, output, application, construction environment, etc. Every customer will get their satisfied stone crushing production line here.

Jaw crusher is mainly used for raw material coarse and medium crushing in the cement plant and crushing plant. According to the width of the feed port, it can be divided into three types: large type (feed port is larger than 600mm), the medium type (feed port is between 300-600mm), and small type (feed port is smaller than 300mm). It features small noise, small dust, simple structure, low cost, which is the idol choice for raw material crushing.

Impact crusher can handle the material with side length between 100-500mm and the resistance pressure no higher than 350mpa. It has the advantages of large crushing ratio, low power consumption and long service life. Its discharge size is adjustable, and after crushing, the material presents a cubic shape. As a crushing mill that can finely crush materials, it is widely used in building material, tone crushing, railway, cement, and chemical industry.

AGICO Group is an integrative enterprise group. It is a Chinese company that specialized in manufacturing and exporting cement plants and cement equipment, providing the turnkey project from project design, equipment installation and equipment commissioning to equipment maintenance.

aggregate crushing plant-high safety high efficiency stable performance

aggregate crushing plant-high safety high efficiency stable performance

As a result of the great development of the basic construction and the reconstruction of the towns and the rapid rise of the high-rise buildings, the old-style buildings die out, and the waste of the construction wastes is directly buried without treatment, Then it will cause long-lasting harm to our living environment. Crusher plant can deal with construction wastes well.

Our company, a professional construction machinery manufacturer in China, provides top quality crushing plant, asphalt plant, concrete batching plant for sale. If you are interested, just contact with us now!

Compared with the mobile crushing plant, the stationary crushing screen plant has no tires. In view of the present situation of construction waste treatment in our country, crushing plant has strong advantages, but with the increasing maturity of construction waste disposal market, it will slowly be transformed into fixed crushing plant, that is to say, mobile crushing station is transitional equipment, and slowly will be converted into fixed type.

It is mainly used for fields like metallurgical, chemical, building material, hydro-power that needs material processing, especially for highway, railway, hydro-power with the operation of mobile stone. Customers can choose multiple configuration according to types of raw material, size and finished material requirements.

Mobile crusher plant can not only reduce the cost of transportation, but also cooperate with brick making machine to make the raw material into finished products at one time. With the increasing market demand, various types of crushing plant are needed, such as jaw mobile crushing plant, tire mobile crushing plant and other types. These plants can produce product with high quality, high crushing ratio, reliable performance.

Vibration feeder takes eccentric shaft as excitation source, gear transmission, low noise, stable operation, long life, and it can screen fine material in advance to make crusher more efficient. Adjust the gap grid design to prevent material blockage. Customers can selectively install speed-regulating motor, easy to control the feed quantity, no need for frequent start-up of the motor.

Circular vibrating screen is a kind of screening machine, which mainly produces centrifugal inertia force (excitation force) with radial variation because of the unbalanced rotation of the vibrating wheel of the exciter. Itdrives the screen box and makes the screen vibrate. The trajectory of the screen frame is elliptical. The material on the screen is thrown up by the upward movement of the screen surface, and then falls back to the screen surface after a distance. In this way, the screening is completed in the process of moving from the feed end to the discharge end. The amplitude of the vibrating screen can be adjusted by changing the weight and position of the counterweight.

As far as the counterattack crusher is concerned, the rotor rotates at high speed under the drive of the motor while working, and the material entered from the feed port is hit by the plate hammer on the rotor, which is broken by the high speed impact of the plate hammer; the broken material is hit back on the liner and broken again; later, it is discharged from the outlet. Adjusting the gap between counterattack frame and rotor frame can change the particle size and shape of material.

The material is uniformly transported into the crusher through the feeder, and after the crusher is initially broken, the closed circuit system is formed by the circular vibrating screen to realize the cyclic crushing of the material, and the material in accordance with the grain size requirements is output by the conveyor, so as to achieve the production purpose.

Before the operation, check whether the supporting equipment can run normally, such as crusher, feeder, and so on, whether the connection of these supporting equipment is loose or falling off, and whether the transmission device is abnormal. Especially the crusher, ensure that there is no residual materials in the crusher. In addition, because the working environment of the stone crushing plant is complex, the tire of the mobile crushing station is a vulnerable part, the user should also check whether the tires can work normally before carrying out the operation, so as to ensure the overall performance and normal operation.

The circuit problem of the whole machine in the operation process is a problem that the user needs to pay attention to. If there are special noises, odors or sparks in the working process, stop the operation immediately, maintain in time and never work by force. Otherwise, the whole equipment and motor may be damaged, and it is easy to cause inestimable losses to the user.

Before the stop of the crushing plant, the user must ensure that all the equipment can stop after all the materials are discharged. After the mobile crusher stops, the user should also check the circuit of the equipment, the supporting equipment and lubrication in time. For any abnormal condition, repair and maintain in time. In addition, due to the complexity of the working environment of the aggregate crushing plant, users need to clean and maintain the equipment in time after operation.

fives | mineral crushing with fcb vif & fcb rhodax 4d - fives group

fives | mineral crushing with fcb vif & fcb rhodax 4d - fives group

Fives develops equipment and integrated plants for dry process mineral grinding applications. Our solutions are designed for high performance and flexibility, and reduced costs. From stand-alone machines to comprehensive systems, our efficient crushing solutions are equipped with proprietary equipment such as the FCB VIF crusher and FCB Rhodax 4D.

The FCB VIF crusher is an impact crusher equipped with hammers and a non-clogging mobile anvil device. Designed either for primary or secondary applications, it features a high crushing reduction ratio capacity. Thanks to its sturdy design, the FCB VIF crusher offers a long lifetime and reduced maintenance requirements.

The FCB Rhodax 4D is a vibrating cone crusher featuring interparticle compressive grinding for constant product quality, particle size distribution and capacity. It is a more efficient alternative to traditional crushing technologies, reducing the overall number of crushing and grinding stages, thus offering energy savings of up to 30%.

The FCB VIF crusher features a welded steel frame and heavy-duty forged rotor with two double-row self-aligning roller bearings. It offers perfect retraction thanks to slotted discs and single- or double-head hammers in alternate and staggered arrangement. The FCB VIF handles sticky and clogging raw material with 5-15% moisture in raw material.

The FCB Rhodax 4D is the ultimate technology merging crushing and grinding applications within a single machine. This closed circuit operation features a low noise level and zero dust emissions. Product quality is constant regardless of liner wear, and wear parts last three times longer than a cone crusher. The FCB Rhodax 4D also offers a high liberation ratio for greater beneficiation and a low flakiness index.

In primary applications, the crusher accepts blocks over 1 m3 (35 ft3) to obtain a 40 mm (1 1/2 in) product. In secondary application, the 300 mm (12 in) feed size produces a 20 mm (about 3/4 in) product.

As an industrial engineering Group with a heritage of over 200 years, Fives designs and supplies machines, process equipment and production lines for the worlds largest industrial players in various sectors such as steel, aerospace and special machining, aluminium, the automotive and manufacturing industries, cement, energy, logistics and glass.

As part of its R&D initiatives, Fives aims to offer solutions which continually anticipate the needs of industrial companies in terms of profitability, performance, quality, safety and environmental protection. A major figure in the development of the industry of the future, Fives strives every daytohighlightthat industry can do it our motto.

electrostatic precipitator in cement plant | esp electrostatic precipitator

electrostatic precipitator in cement plant | esp electrostatic precipitator

Electrostatic precipitator (ESP), also known as high voltage electrostatic precipitator, electrostatic dust collector, is a dust collector using electric power. It is one of the commonly used environmental protection equipment for dust gas purification. It is widely used in electric power, metallurgy, building materials, chemical industry, and other industries. Compared to other types of dust collectors, the electrostatic precipitator has the advantages of less energy consumption, high dust removal efficiency.

The power supply of the electrostatic precipitator is composed of a control box, a booster transformer, and a rectifier. The output voltage of the power supply also has a great influence on the efficiency of dust collection. Therefore, the operating voltage of the electrostatic precipitator should be kept at 40-75kV, even above 100KV.

Electrostatic precipitators can improve collecting efficiency by lengthening the electric field length. When the dust in the flue gas is in a general state, the collection efficiency can reach more than 99%. Using 4 or 5 electric precipitators will improve efficiency. When the ESP operates for several years, the efficiency of dust collection will decrease due to electrode corrosion and other reasons.

Because the structure is easy to modularize, the dust collector can be scaled up. At present, the smoke handling capacity of a single electrostatic precipitator has reached 200X104m3/h. It is not easy and economical to deal with such a large amount of smoke by bag filter or cyclone dust collector.

The energy consumption of the electrostatic precipitator mainly includes resistance loss, power supply device, heating and insulation, and vibration motor. Because of the low energy consumption, rarely replace the wearing parts, so the operating cost is much lower than the bag filter.

The shell of the ESP adopts a frame structure with high strength, good stability. And it can be designed according to different pressure and temperature resistance requirements. The air inlet and outlet can be designed into various forms according to the process layout and flue gas characteristics, and the process layout is flexible.

The electrostatic precipitator can collect high-temperature flue gas with particle size less than 0.1um and 300 ~ 400~C. Electrostatic precipitators also can be used for high temperatures and high pressure of flue gas. The practice shows that the higher the amount of smoke, the more economical the investment and operation cost of the electrostatic precipitator.

Blocking and diversion type airflow is adopted. The airflow is evenly distributed and there is no ash blocking phenomenon. The discharge electrode is properly connected to the frame, without any disconnection.

The electrostatic precipitator uses high voltage to separate the gas and dust. The electric field is designed with a linear discharge electrode (cathode) and a platy dust-collecting electrode (anode). When dc high voltage is added between the electrodes, an uneven electric field will be generated between the electrodes due to the different forms of discharge electrode and dust-collecting electrode. When the applied DC voltage reaches a certain value, the electric field in the local area around the discharge electrode is strong enough to ionize the gas and generate electrons and positive and negative ions. The positive ions quickly reach the discharge electrode and are neutralized, while a large number of electrons and negative ions move towards the dust collecting electrode under the action of electric field force, which are corona discharge and corona current.

When the dusty gas passes through the channel between the electrodes, the electrons and negative ions in the corona current (because positive ions have a small area of action, most of the dust is adsorbed by electrons and negative ions) will be adsorbed on the dust, making the dust charged. Under the action of electric field force, the charged dust moves towards the dust collecting electrode, depositing on the dust collector plate and releasing the charge. When the dust is deposited to a certain thickness, the dust is cleaned into the dust hopper and discharged through the vibration device, and the separation process is completed.

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