Humboldt's concrete compression frames are designed to handle the daily demands of testing concrete cylinders, beams, blocks and cubes. Humboldt's compression machines span a testing range from 30,000 to 500,000 lbs. (1112 to 2,224kN). All compression frames are built in the U.S. to specifications exceeding current industry standards. more
These compression machines are known for their versatility, rigid construction, dependability and compact design. All Humboldt load frames are manufactured with structural steel side members and solid steel cross heads, which feature a unique wrap-around, box construction design. Each corner is fully-welded on both the inside and outside cross head seams, providing the rugged stability needed for accurate and repeatable test results year afteryear.
Built to last, and when compared to the many lighter machines of competitors; you'll find the cross heads of these machines to be thicker than their competition's. Our compression machines have a larger diameter piston with a longer stroke and dust shield. They provide a thicker, lower platen table, which is through-hardened to exceed HRC 55 standards, as well as having steel, fragment guarddoors.
Other features include a frame design that positions the hydraulic cylinder assembly on the top cross head, which applies the load force in a downward direction, eliminating the build up of foreign material around the cylinder area for longer seal life. A quick-change platen system allows for fast and easy switching of testplatens.
Automatic ControllersHumboldt's line of controllers include the HCM-5080, an automatic controller and the HCM-5070, a console version of the HCM-5080. The HCM-5080 and HCM-5070 utilize an integral hydraulic pump, which is automatically controlled by thecontroller.
Humboldt's HCM-5080 and HCM-5070 compression machine controllers incorporate these standard tests in their design: ASTM C39, C78, C293, C469, C496, C1019, C109/C109M and EN 12390-3. Just pick the test you want to run as you configure your test and the controller will guide you through setup from where you can proceed with yourtest.
Manual ControllersHumboldt also offers the HCM-5090, a digital indicator for use with manually-operated machines. This controller features many of the features of our automatic controllers except that it is designed for use with a manually-operated pump. The HCM-5090 incorporates the same standard test setups as the automatic controllers. Just pick the test you want to run as you configure your test and the controller will guide you through setup from where you can proceed with yourtest.
HXJQ engineers are often asked to make a recommendation regarding the type of gravel we would use on a driveway. Theres a couple of considerations such as a drainage consideration and an aesthetic consideration.
Typically, there is one or two products crushed by concrete jaw crushers that you would use, the first being three-quarter inch road base which the particle sizes are 3/4 inch, right down to quite a fine sand or powder and this product will compact very nicely, it may have to be the top dress over the years depending on the weather conditions and the driving conditions on your driveway.
Another product that is maybe a little more aesthetically appealing could be the three-quarter inch clear crush which is exactly what it says it does not have any particles in it, it is just three quarter inch angular gravel and another choice could be a half inch clear crush as well, in my estimation, the half inch clear crush tends to knit a little better together and does not spread as much you know, with heavy traffic. Some people may opt to have three or four inches of road base down first and have it leveled and compacted and then top dress with a three-quarter or a half inch or you can just leave the three-quarter inch road base as once its been properly compacted.
This is 1/2 inch clear crush gravel, its used commonly for either pathways and/ or driveways. its a nice size and I find it quite aesthetically appealing once its been washed and the dust is off. it looks quite good.So, those are some of your choices for driveways in terms of gravel. Sure there exists other choice for driveway such as driveway paved with ashalt concrete or only with concrete.
Central Valley Trucking is proud not only of the quality of service that we provide, but also of the quality of material we haul. Below are some of the materials that we haul on a regular basis. If you have a type of material that you wish to have hauled that is not on the list, please give us a call so our staff can help assist you.
Did you know that crushed stone and gravel are not the same? Although both come from the same material and the same local stone quarries, these two stone products are produced differently and have different uses in construction and landscaping projects.
Crushed stone and gravel suppliers keep these two aggregates in separate categories because of their differing production methods, sizes, and uses. When deciding on which type to use for your construction project needs, consider these differences when speaking with yourlocal gravel supplier.
Crushed stone is a product of rocks being broken down using a crushing machine. Crushed stone is sourcedalso known as quarriedfrom a parent rock. The most common parent rocks used for crushed stone are:
Limestone is the most common rock type used to make crushed stone in North America due to its wide availability and versatility. It is also easy to crush because it is soft. And it causes less wear on equipment compared to harder rocks.
Ranging in particle size from largest to smallest, limestone is available as coarse aggregate, crushed limestone, mine run limestone, and limestone fines. Limestone is a key ingredient in concrete and is also used to make cement.
After limestone, granite is the second most popular rock used for crushed stone. It is durable and resistant to acidic water and soil. Crushed granite is also a suitable and durable substitute for limestone in concrete.
Scoria is a vesicular rock, meaning it has voids in it that formed from gas bubbles that were trapped in the rock as it solidified from a melt. These voids make scoria and other vesicular rocks weaker, unable to withstand heavy loads. The voids also make these rocks less durable during freeze-thaw cycles.
But these voids also make scoria more lightweight. And its rough surfaces help it bind well as a concrete aggregate. Scoria is an ideal crushed stone for lightweight aggregates, lightweight concrete, and even roofing granules.
Scoria and other lightweight vesicular rocks, like volcanic cinder, are easy to handle and are also ideal for use in landscaping, garden planters, saunas, grills, filter stone, and traction on snow-covered roads.
Composed mostly of quartz, sandstone is a durable material. However, it does have its drawbacks. Sandstone naturally forms from sand grains that have been cemented together by clay, calcite, or silicate minerals. But since this natural cement doesnt fill all the voids between the sand grains, sandstone is porous.
The porous spaces in sandstone allow this rock to absorb water easily. As a result, water absorbed in sandstone will expand every time it freezes. Over time, the freeze-thaw cycle will take its toll on sandstone, causing the sand grains to dislodge and the rock to break. As such, sandstone is not ideal for use in cold climates that experience extreme freeze-thaw cycles.
When heated, the sand particles in sandstone weld together. This heated sandstone is known as quartzite. Quartzite is extremely durable, even during freeze-thaw cycles. But this hard rock is more difficult to mine, handle, and transport, making it unpopular for construction use.
Gravel is fragmented rock sourced from deposits of weathered rock found in rivers, streams, and gravel pits. Although gravel is a natural product of erosion and weathering, gravel suppliers can mine gravel in quarries using the same crushing equipment for crushed stone.
Due to the crushing process, crushed stone typically has more angular surfaces. Gravel tends to have a rounder shape due to the natural weathering process, and is usually much smaller than crushed stone. However, gravel that is crushed will have a more angular shape.
Crushed stone ranges in size from fine stone dust (screenings) to larger and heavier stones. Gravel comes in various sizes that are larger than 2 mm in diameter, starting from about a inch, and going up to 2 inches or more.
The most common use for crushed stone is as an aggregate for construction projects. The angular surface of crushed stone makes it easy to tamp, roll, and vibrate into place, locking and forming a stable surface.
Oftentimes, both crushed stone and gravel are used together in both small and large construction projects to make the most of their qualities. Crushed stone, sand and gravel are commonly used as key ingredients for mixing concrete. These aggregates are also used as:
Both the base and sub-base layers can be a mixture of large (3/4 inch), medium (3/8 inch), and small (less than 1/8 inch) aggregates. The medium-sized particles fill the void of the large aggregates, and the small particles fill the voids of the medium aggregates, making for a dense and sturdy layer.
If you originally considered these two aggregates to be the same, you are not alone. They are often confused for one another since both gravel and crushed stone come from rocks and are aggregates used for construction projects.
But these two aggregates serve different uses. Ultimately, if you want an aggregate for construction, such as building, paving, and any hardscaping, go with crushed stone. If you are looking for decorative stones for your landscape, garden, walkway, and driveway, go for gravel.
Over the past 30 years in the Ready Mix Concrete business TRP Ready Mix has completed several commercial and residential projects, both large and small. Some of the more notable projects completed include;
QEM Solutions provided project services and management consultancy to ensure that all internal processes associated with quality / risk mitigation during design were successfully developed and implemented. QEM Solutions managed all activities associated with quality, technical writing, document control and final project handover.
Failure to do this can result in the need to spend even more money undertaking complicated calculations to prove compliance with British Standards or even drilling and crushing cores to prove design and reliability! Why waste so much time and money when its so easy!? What we have here is a sure fast way of doing it properly and getting it right first time. Enjoy!
Concrete is used mostly for structural purposes such as foundations, columns, beams and floors and therefore must be capable in taking the loads that will be applied (unless youre just after a large paperweight!). One of the methods of checking its fit for purpose is to carry out a concrete cube test which measures the compressible cube strength of the concrete and relates directly to the required design strength specified by the designer.
Make sure all people involved are trained and competent to carry out the task at hand and make sure you read and understand the risk assessment and method statement, because if you don't, itll only come back to bite you later. If youre not sure how to do it, ASK!
Never take a sample from the first or last section of the pour, it wont be a true representation of the batch. The concrete is usually sampled after the 1st metre of concrete has been poured to ensure a good sample is taken. As said in BS EN 12350-1, take a few samples throughout the pour for the best representation of the batch and make sure you take 150% of what you think youll need. The sample is taken and used to make the cubes. The sample must be a good cohesive mix, it may require some mixing once taken from the concrete batch to be suitable for a slump test and cubes.
Slump Test always do your slump test before making your cubes to ensure the concrete is usable. If the slump test fails to meet the range limit as dictated by the British Standard (shown in the table below) then the load should be rejected.
Place the damp slump cone on a flat, hard surface. Fill the cone with the concrete sample in three stages. Once each stage is filled, tamp the mix with the tamping rod 25 times. After the third tamping the excess concrete shall be struck off flush to the top of the cone. Lift the mould carefully upwards, to minimise disturbance of the concrete inside. The concrete will slump. Place the cone next to the concrete slump and measure the difference in height in mm between the top of the cone and the top of the highest point of the concrete.
Usually a minimum of 3 cubes are taken from each sample, so make sure you taken enough from the pour before it finishes. Do check the specification you are working to, as sometimes the quantity of cubes you have to take may vary. The frequency of sampling should be identified in client specifications or by the designer. This could be per batch / load or even per volume poured. Check before you start.
Cube moulds are usually 150mm x 150mm x 15 mm (or 100mm x100mm x100mm) and can be made from steel or polyurethane. The cube moulds must be manufactured to the specifications / standards of the relevant body, in the UK it is the British Standards Institute to this specification BS EN 12390-1:2000.
Before the concrete is scooped into the moulds, the moulds must be lightly coated in a mould release agent. This ensures that the concrete does not stick to the mould and makes it easier to remove the cube. When using a 150mm mould, the concrete sample is scooped into the mould in 3 equal layers (50mm) and compacted between each layer. There are various methods to compact the concrete into the moulds.
When using a 150mm mould, each layer compacted is tampered using a certified compacting rod /bar, 35 tamps per layer is required. Once the 3 layers have been tampered, tap the side of the mould with a hammer. Tampering and tapping removes trapped air in the concrete and allows compaction of the sample.
Each layer is filled and vibrated till no more bubbles are on the surface of the layer, this is repeated for the 3 layers. It is very important not to over vibrate the layers as it may lead to segregation / disruption of the concrete mix.
Its very important to uniquely identify each of the cubes (and moulds) and to record where they have come from. Usually companies will have a process of labelling or tracking the cubes so make sure you ask first and record it properly.
The cubes should be covered with a damp cloth and a plastic sheet and stored in dry environment at a temperature range of 20 5 degrees. The concrete cubes are removed from the moulds between 16 to 72 hours, usually this done after 24 hours. Make sure the cube ID is transferred to the cube from the mould before placing into a curing tank. The curing tank needs to operate at a temperature between 20 2 degrees and provides a moist environment that allows the cubes to hydrate properly. Ensure the cubes are fully submersed at all times and record the tank water temperature at least daily.
The cubes are generally tested at 7 & 28 days unless specific early tests are required, for example to remove a concrete shutter safely prior to 7 days. Usually 1 cube will be tested at 7 days and 2 cubes at 28 days, however this may vary depending of the requirements, check the design first. The cubes are removed from the curing tank, dried and grit removed. The cubes are tested using a calibrated compression machine. This can be carried out internally by competent personnel or by a certified test house.
The cubes are tested on the face perpendicular to the casting face. The compression machine exerts a constant progressing force on the cubes till they fail, the rate of loading is 0.6 0.2 M/Pas (N/mm/s). The reading at failure is the maximum compressive strength of the concrete. BS EN 12390-2: 2009 / BS EN 12390-3:2009.
The 40 is the compressive requirement of 40 N/mm of a crushed 100m concrete core and the 50 is a compressive requirement of 50 N/mm for a crushed concrete cube. Therefore using the method of testing using concrete cubes, the tested compressive strength should be compared to the second number.
Once the cubes have reached failure, the shape of the cube has been altered due to the compression. The failure shape can indicate whether its a satisfactory / unsatisfactory failure. The image below shows the various failures of a cube as show in BS EN 12390-3:2009.
Concrete cube testing as with all methods of testing, fresh / hard concrete are governed by standards set by the British Standards Institute and or the client in-house specifications. These standards specify all aspects involved in the process of carrying out tests, from the equipment to the method of testing.
We cant stress enough the value of carrying out cubes tests on concrete within the construction industry. Not only does it verify compliance with design soon after construction but also can save time and costly investigations later if things go wrong.
From the editor: We have tried to make sure the above article is as accurate and up-to-date as possible. If you think we have something wrong, or you feel we need to update it, please get in touch here.
First of all Concrete Compression Testing Machines or probably better know as a Cube Press seems like a old technology. Protsurv provides a complete selection of concrete testing equipment, Rebar Locators, Concrete Test Hammers, Cube Moulds & Slump Cones,and even more for fresh and in-place concrete structures in accordance with SANS, TMH1 and other standards. This includes: fresh concrete tests for entrained air, slump and maturity, as well as non-destructive testing, corrosion and strength. Furthermore concrete air meters and rebound hammers to rebar locators and tests for corrosion, youll find the concrete testing equipment you are searching for.
We are excited to add these agates to our selection of tumbling materials in the crushed rock department at the Rock Shed. Here is a very beautiful batch of above average quality Small Mexican Moss Agates from Mexico. The pieces range in size from 3/8" to 3/4" and each has a very unique design and color all its own. This material has a super range of mixed colors exhibiting great Moss detail. The photos were not able to capture the great color and design of these stones, they are quite beautiful. They are great for tumbling, fountains or other decorative purposes.
This is a mixture of different stones for the rock tumbler or other decorative use. This is a smaller size from 1/2" to 1". It would be a nice size for a small tumbler or if you want to tumble polish a batch of smaller stones in any tumbler. This mixture may consist of Rose Quartz, Green Aventurine, Lace Agate, White Quartz, different types of Jasper, Pudding Stone, Moss Agate, Sodalite, India Tree Agate, Petrified Wood, Turritella Agate, Prairie Agate and others.
This is a mixture of different stones for the rock tumbler or other decorative use like in aquariums, flower pots or landscaping. This is a extra small size from 1/4" to 1/2+". It would be a nice size for a small tumbler or if you want to tumble polish a batch of very small stones. This mixture may consist of Rose Quartz, Green Aventurine, Lace Agate, White Quartz, different types of Jasper, Pudding Stone, Moss Agate, Sodalite, India Tree Agate, Petrified Wood, Turritella Agate, Prairie Agate and others.
This is something different for the "Rock Hound" from the crushed rock department at the Rock Shed. Here is a very beautiful batch of above average quality, crushed Small Blue Apatite from Madagascar. The pieces range in size from 1/2" to 1" and each has a very unique design and color all its own. This material has a super range of mostly Blue with a very sparkly, shiny appearance.
Note: This is softer material than most other crushed rock we have available. It's tricky to tumble and polish and not best suited for beginners or click on the link for special instructions for softer material. We suggest running this rock alone and start with the 120-220 Silicon Carbide Grit.
We are excited to add these agates to our selection of tumbling materials in the crushed rock department at the Rock Shed. Here is a very beautiful batch of above average quality, crushed Mozambique also known as Swazi Agates from southeastern Africa. The pieces range in size from 3/4" to 2"+ and each has a very unique design and color all its own. This material has a super range of mixed red, blue and orange colors with lighter bands for a nice appearance.
We are excited to add these agates to our selection of tumbling materials in the crushed rock department at the Rock Shed. Here is a very beautiful batch of above average quality, crushed large sized Mozambique also known as Swazi Agates from southeastern Africa. The pieces range in size from 1 3/4" to 3"+ and each has a very unique design and color all its own. This material has a super range of mixed red, blue and orange colors with lighter bands for a nice appearance.
We are excited to add these agates to our selection of tumbling materials in the crushed rock department at the Rock Shed. Here is a very beautiful batch of above average quality Mexican Moss Agates from Mexico. The pieces range in size from 3/4" to 2"+ and each has a very unique design and color all its own. This material has a super range of mixed colors exhibiting great Moss detail. The photos were not able to capture the great color and design of these stones, they are quite beautiful. They are great for tumbling, cutting or making smaller cabochons.
This is Firework Obsidian from Mexico. It ranger from 3/4" to 2" or so.Obsidian beig a hardness of 5.5 makes this material a little tricky to tumble. Firework Obsidian may be even a little trickier than regular Obsidian. This is not material for a beginner but some may enjoy the challenge. It is also great material for decorative or educational purposes.
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While following a mix design is advised to optimise the material consumption, it is not possible at site to always come up with Mix design. Nominal mix concrete is prepared by approximate proportioning of cement, sand and aggregate to obtain target compressive strength.
Eyeopener :Many popular blogs claim M20 nominal mix as 1:1.5:3 ,however we strongly differ by same.Through this blog,we are also trying to address the same myth which is being carried forward since last 4 decades.
The reason being: With constant research and development in the field of cement technology and its manufacturing process ,a M20 mix of 1:1.5:3(by volume) would be too rich, over engineered and uneconomical (~7.5 bags of cement per cum) and will ultimately result into a M30 concrete and above (IS:456 too have the minimum cement/cementitious content of 06 bags for M20). As the latest generation of 53 grade OPC cement is ultimately giving a strength of 65 to 70 MPa at 28days, 1:2:4 will give a strength of M20.
The DLBD (Dry Loose Bulk Densities) method is anaccurate method to calculate cement, sand and aggregatefor a given nominal mix concrete. This gives accurate results as it takes into account the Dry Loose Bulk Densities of materials like Sand and Aggregate which varies based on the local source of the material
To convert Sand volume into weight we assume, we need the dry loose bulk density (DLBD). This density for practical purposes has to be determined at site for arriving at the exact quantities. We can also assume the following dry loose bulk densities for calculation.
Although empirical method is easy to use in determining the materials requirement for Nominal Concrete mix, it sometimes doesnt give accurate results as it doesnt take into factor the local variations in the materials.
With constant research and development in the field of cement technology and its manufacturing process ,a M20 mix of 1:1.5:3(by volume) would be too rich,over engineered and uneconomical (~7.5 bags of cement per cum) and will ultimately result into a M30 concrete and above, the reason being latest generation of 53 grade OPC cement is ultimately giving a strength of 65 to 70 MPa at 28days.
in my country one bag of cement is 50kg or 0.035cum and for measuring aggregates and sand we use head pans(0.0175cum). for 1cum of concrete the expected materials are cement 6.5bags sand; 0.44cum(26headpans) aggregate;0 0.88(51headpahs).but on site we have to use more material to achieve the expected volume instead of the estimated calculations we arrive here. can i have answers?
In the step 3 of How To Calculate Quantities Of Cement, Sand And Aggregate For Nominal Concrete Mix (1:2:4) you have calculated that: 01 cum of concrete will require Cement required = 1/0.167 = 5.98 Bags ~ 6 Bags Sand required = 115/0.167 = 688 Kgs or 14.98 cft Aggregate required = 209/0.167 = 1251 kgs or 29.96 cft Could you please clear How you have converted The Kgs (Kgs/m3) for Sand & Aggregate in to cft. Thanks & Regds
Thanks a lot for the response, In your claculations in step-3, I tried to put Units to indentify my confusion as mentioned below. One bag of cement and other ingredients can produce = 400/2400 = 0.167 Cum of concrete (1:2:4) 01 bag cement yield = 0.167 cum concrete with a proportion of 1:2:4 01 cum of concrete will require Cement required = 1(m3/bag)/0.167 (m3) = 5.98 Bags ~ 6 Bags OK Sand required = 115(Kgs)/0.167(m3) = 688 (Kgs/m3) or 14.98 cft Aggregate required = 209(Kgs)/0.167(m3) = 1251 (kgs/m3) or 29.96 cft As the units of Sand & Aggregate seem to be in Kgs/m3, therefore multiplication with Bulk Density (Kgs/m3), the result will be unit less. Hence conversion in to cft would not be possible. Please comment Thanks & Regds
We are constructing First floor on existing house having Six Inches RCC slab. We are intended to used marble on the floor. Could you please advise us that what should be: 1- Thickness of cemented part of the floor. 2- Ratio of the concrete. I am sure you will help us in this regard. Thanks & Regds
If the ratio of cement, sand and crushed stone for making the concrete needed for a sidewalk is 2:3:4, how many cubic meters of cement is needed to make 4 cubic.meters of concrete. Please help me to solve this.
We have Portland cement in Nigeria the highest which is grade 42.5 ordinary Portland cement is not available in bags. Kindly give the mix calculations for cement grade 42.5 Portland cement for grade 20 and 25 concrete
We have given the materials requirement for M15, M20, M25 and M30 Grade Concretes in the blog. Please refer. If you want 10 mm and 20 mm aggregate mixed in the concrete, mix it in the ratio of 50:50 (of coarse aggregate volume). PCC should be usually be done with M15, so we havent given the ratio for M10.
Estimate the amount of materials and number of batches (maximum 50kg mixing per batch) for: 1.12 cylinders + 12 cubes (6x6x6) 2.Density can be assumed kg/m^3 3.5% wastage 4.Strength fc = 25Mpa 5.Agg. Size = 10mm 6.OPC 7.Slump 40mm 8.Non Air Entrained 9.Fineness Modulus (Fine) = 2.4 10.RoddedDensity (Coarse) = kg/m3 11.Sp. Gravity of Cement = 3.2 12.Sp. Gravity of Fine = 2.3 13.Sp. Gravity of Coarse = 5.3 14.Water Absorption (Fine) = 5.2% 15.Water Absorption (Coarse) = 0.3% Data is according to ACI comittee report 2011 My question is what are the proportions of Cement:Sand:Crush
Concrete for specific needs has to be properly designed to identify the ratio of cement, sand and aggregate. The mix proportions shown in the table are for general purpose use like concreting for houses, small scale concrete jobs etc., Request you to get a proper mix design based on max aggregate size, strength, durability and workability..
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What is the approximate compressive strength of mix 1:2.5:3 using dalmia dsp (calling as 53 grade cement) and mix 1:2:2.5 using JSW OPC 53 grade. Water cement ratio may be .55-.65. For jsw opc, admixture dr.fixit 100 lw+. All mix in volume Batch.
What is the approximate compressive strength of mix 1:2.5:3 using dalmia DSP (call as 53 grade cement) & another mix 1:2:2.5 using JSW OPC 53 grade. Water cement ratio may be .55-.65. For jsw opc, admixture Dr.fixit 100 lw+. All mix in volume Batch?Get in Touch with Mechanic