Jiangyin Huazheng Metal Technology Co., Ltd. Address: Xiangyang Industrial Zone, Huashi Town, Jiangyin City, Jiangsu Province Domestic Sales Department Tel: International Sales Department Tel: Fax: Contact: Mr Tao Mobile number: Email : [email protected] Website : http://www.jyhzkj.com
Nowadays, there are wide ranges of options available to buy steel balls from the online store. The steel balls are supplied by lots of companies. In the manufacturing industry, we have more years of experience in making balls based on needs of the clients. We are supplying high quality of products to customers at affordable price. Our professionals undergo the possible procedure for creating steel balls. With the advanced marketing process, we manufacture a number of products. We are one of the most reliable suppliers of grinding steel ball over the world at consumable costs. Consumers acquire the quality of goods from our online store. With the manufacturing experience our professional's supply products on required time.
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We are the leading and well-reputed manufacturer of grinding steel balls, we at Allstar available to cover all our customer's needs by producing high-quality materials for different applications. We have more than thirty years of experience in the manufacturing of grinding steel balls, so we only provide best quality products that are perfect for crush or grind materials in a mill. There are different sizes of grinding steel balls available that also selected according to the material. Most importantly we provide grinding steel balls in various sizes; usually, diameter differs from 10mm to 150 mm and these balls also available in different composition, including low or high chromium content for steel as well as iron balls. We use different manufacturing process to produce ground balls. Ourgrinding steel ballsare perfect for various complicated applications in a mill because it has excellent durability and quality, benefits:
We have more years of experience in supplying for thermal power, cement; chemical industries as well as we can also develop our manufacturing process to cover all the expectations. At Allstar, we are available to provide effective solutions to cover particular grinding applications. Of course, the effectiveness of our grinding balls also measured by product efficiency, final cost, etc. most importantly, our product has uniform hardness throughout so it can be perfect for different applications as well as our products designed with quality materials that perfectly suits for various applications.
Grinding steel balls is especially suitable for complicated applications because we use excellent quality materials and advanced techniques to produce products. So it has great density and hardness, for crushing as well as our products plays a major role in mixing heavy and hard materials. Especially, the quality products also have high impacts on grinding or crushing applications. Even grinding balls also find advantage in reducing particle size as well as produces a fine dispersion of highly viscous fluids.
Generally speaking, the end customers of wear-resistant materials companies mainly include mining, cement, construction and power plants. The performance of the wear-resistant steel ball is related to the cost and benefit of the end-user enterprise. At present, with the technical improvement of wear-resistant casting companies, the replacement of low-efficiency steel balls with high-performance and high-grinding efficiency is becoming more and more obvious.
High-chromium steel balls are made by adding trace elements such as gold, chromium, manganese to the original chemical composition, using advanced technology such as anhydrous resin sand molding and oil quenching heat treatment to produce good toughness High performance wear resistant steel ball with high wear resistance. This kind of product performance is good, can prolong wear-resistant steel ball use cycle, reduce wear-resistant material enterprise production cost, labor cost.
Allstar Forged Steel Ball is hammer forged from selected high quality carbon and alloy steels. By hammer forged, the balls have good density and strengthsin favor ofimpact grinding.And rigidly managed forging process ensuring spherical ball shape.
Allstar Hot Rolled Steel Ball rolled direct from selected high quality carbon and alloy steels bar, followed by in-line heat treatment and uniform quenching, tailored to give even hardness throughout.
The forged steel ball is the high quality of our professional experts provides in the marketplace. In addition, we can more assemble for used to advanced technology with some changes to occur in this dynamic global environment. In the main factor, this process is available for firsthand the efforts due to make the absolute customer satisfaction. The forged steel ball is selected from the best quality of carbon and alloy steels as well as forged due to more density and strengths.
Most importantly, we can accept the all grinding with enhanced the forging process ensuring spherical ball shape is very reliable and supplies grinding products for your customer needs. However, we can optimize the many services and we can improve operational efficiency due to allowing the profitability and minimizing costs and losses. On another hand, this raw material is the automatic type of equipment from more development of all access with any treatment technique and strict quality control system.
Are you looking for high quality forged steel ball for wide application? All Star Industry Group Limited is the unique supplier of the optimized product solutions for the mineral processing. All the ball grinding featured by uniform hardness with more resistance to wear and impact for low breakage of supported by advanced manufacturing equipment and scientific manufacturing process. In addition, the best quality of our professional experts and more than the largest markets place. We can assemble for more technology and prepared for the changes to occur in this dynamic global environment. It is also available for people and learns firsthand the efforts due to make the absolute customer satisfaction. The forged steel ball is selected from the high-quality carbon and alloy steels. This hammer forged due to more density and strengths for more impact grinding with enhanced the forging process ensuring spherical ball shape.
We manufacture reliable and supplies grinding products with more performance needs optimizing our services. On another hand, we can improve operational efficiency as well as increasing profitability and minimizing costs and losses. The super raw material is automatic equipment and more treatment technique and strict quality control system. You make the better performance for the whole hardness of our steel ball. There are available for volume hardness as well as impact toughness bigger and breakage rate much lower than 0.5%.
The alloys are recommended from the all type of particulars in order due to arrive with the most cost economic solution. We can be based on the professional experience as well as including the grinding process for a specific application. On another hand, the rolled directly from selected forged steel ball quality and more alloy steels with the line heat treatment and uniform quenching for even hardness throughout.
Skew rolling mill production line used to produce steel balls or steel forging. The angle between the two rolls of the skew rolling mill is generally 2 -6 . The roll has a spiral hole pattern. When the two rolls are rotated in the same direction, the round billet rotates reversely with the roll between the rolls and advances through the spiral hole Round bar rolled into the desired shape. Then after the heat treatment process to meet the requirements of grinding steel ball.
The work principle of helical hole type cross rolling is shown in the figure. Two axes with helical hole cross each other. The rollers rotate in the same direction to rotate and advance the circular piece, under the action of forming rotary parts blanks. Skew rolling deformation is mainly axial compression of the axial extension.
The part has the storage 6000MM long bar steel rack, automatic feeding, automatic feeding, automatic temperature measurement, fault alarm and other functions, the high degree of automation of the furnace, to ensure continuous production of steel ball production line.
Host using the overall ZG35 cast steel frame structure, aging treatment, good rigidity. Roller spindle 40Gr forgings, the whole quenched and tempered HB220 ~ 280; bearing ZG35, after aging. The spindle and bearing seat are connected by tapered roller bearings. The bearings are made of domestic first-class bearings (Hawal brand), lubricated with high-temperature lubricating oil and sealed by mechanical seal. The overall performance is stable and reliable.
Box with Q235-B welding parts, to stress annealing, gear with hardened helical gear and long service life; output shaft material 40Cr, quenched and tempered HB217-255. Motor, reducer, dual output reducer installed in a whole foundation, the power transmission part of the smooth operation.
Electrical control part of the motor start, stop, speed button, with a voltmeter and ammeter, timely monitoring of voltage and current, electrical components using well-known brands. In addition, there are some features such as open the door power-off and motor over-current protection.
The upper and lower guide plate with high quality welding layer to increase the surfacing layer to improve the wear resistance of the guide, after a simple repair wear, grinding can continue to use. Up and down guide adjustment by manual adjustment.
Heating the customized steel until the temperature reaches 1100 (50) in the way of the hot rolling and forging, the rolling forging machinery will put pressure on the metal blank and producing a grinding ball with certain mechanical property, shape, and size. This is our processing methods of the milling media.
Hexin can provide accurate-size, high roundness, high-hard grinding media steel balls. They have great wear resistance, difficult deformation and less broken, uniform hardness distribution, high impact toughness (over 12j/cm2). These steel grinding balls are applicable primarily to SAG ball mill and ball mill mining field, steel, and chemical industry.
A Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P)based heat treatment has been applied to rolled grinding steel (0.75 wt pct C-Mn-Cr) balls of 104-mm diameter to prevent their cracking during heat treatment. The conventional route of ball manufacturing includes rolling, water quenching interrupted when the bulk average temperature is 220 C to 250 C, and self-tempering in a large pile. This technology leads to cracking when the balls are made of steel of high hardenability. To overcome this deficiency, the Q&P principle is herein adopted by (a) adjusting the quenching duration to cool the ball center below the martensite start (Ms) temperature and (b) instead of self-tempering applying furnace tempering. The target bulk temperature of the ball that ensures an optimal martensite/retained austenite ratio inside the ball at the moment of water quenching interruption is determined as 125 C to 170 C. Quenching should be followed by tempering at 200 C to 250 C for stress release at the surface and carbon partitioning from martensite to austenite in the core. The resulting microstructure varies from tempered martensite in the shell layers to a mixture of martensite-bainite and retained austenite (RA) in the inner zones, where the austenite content is 25 to 30 vol pct. The carbon enrichment in austenite toward the core of the ball leads to balanced stresses and prevention of ball cracking. Q&P-heat-treated balls in an industrial-scale trial attained a uniform hardness of approximately 55 HRC through the cross section and a high fracture resistance under repetitive impacts of 6.8 kJ energy each.
The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Hubei Collaborative Center on Advanced Steels, International Research Institute for Steel Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430080, China
Zurnadzhy, V.I., Efremenko, V.G., Wu, K.M. et al. Quenching and PartitioningBased Heat Treatment for Rolled Grinding Steel Balls. Metall Mater Trans A 51, 30423053 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-020-05737-w
In the heat treatment process, the reject rate caused by the quenching process is usually higher. This is mainly in the quenching process, and at the same time, the formation of greater thermal stress and structural stress, in addition, it is easy to be exposed in the quenching and tempering process because of the inherent metallurgical defects, improper material selection, wrong materials, poor structural workability in design, and defects formed during cold and Hot Processing , therefore, the parts and components quenching, tempering defects must be systematic analysis and adjustment.
The most common defects during quenching are quenching deformation, cracking, oxidation, decarburization, insufficient or uneven hardness, surface corrosion, over-burning, over-heating and other disqualification of the metallographic structure according to the quality inspection standard.
When the shape of the workpiece is complex or the section size is different, the deformation is often caused by uneven heating. In order to improve the heating condition of workpieces, we can design the special quenching fixture for some thin-wall ring and other parts. These measures are both conducive to uniform heating and uniform cooling.
When the workpiece is heated in the furnace, it should be placed evenly to prevent one side from being heated, it should be laid out flat to avoid deformation due to self-weight in the high-temperature plastic state. To the slender parts and sleeve parts as far as possible to use well-type furnace or salt furnace vertical suspension heating.
Limit or reduce the heating speed, can reduce the workpiece section temperature, so that heating uniform. Therefore, for large-scale forging die, high-speed steel and high alloy steel parts, as well as parts with a complex shape, uneven thickness, and small deformation, preheating or limiting, heating speed measures, are generally used.
Reasonable choice of quenching heating temperature is also the key to reduce or prevent deformation and cracking. By selecting the lower limit of quenching temperature and reducing the temperature difference between the workpiece and quenching medium, the cooling speed at the high-temperature stage of quenching can be reduced, thus the thermal stress during quenching cooling can be reduced. In addition, grain coarsening can be prevented. This prevents deformation from cracking.
Sometimes in order to adjust the volume deformation before and after quenching, the quenching temperature can also be appropriately increased. For example, Crwmn, CR12MO, and other high carbon alloy steels, the volume deformation of parts can be adjusted by adjusting the heating temperature and the martensite transformation point to change the content of residual austenite.
Mass production, sheet shaped parts, complex shaped cam discs and bevel gears, etc. , are difficult to ensure dimensional accuracy during free cooling. To this end, you can take press quenching, that is, the parts in the special press mold, add a certain pressure after cooling (spray oil or water) due to the shape and size of the parts by the mold, so the deformation of the parts may be limited within the prescribed scope.
Timely and correct tempering in production, a considerable part of the workpiece, not in the quenching of cracking, but rather, because after quenching not timely tempering and cracking. This is because, during the quenching residence process, the micro-cracks existing in the workpiece are fused and expanded under great quenching stress, so that the size of the micro-cracks reaches to the critical size of the fracture, resulting in the delayed fracture. The practice has proved that the quenching is not cold to the end and timely tempering is an effective measure to prevent cracking. For High Carbon Steel and high carbon alloy steel with a complex shape, timely tempering is especially important after quenching.
The distortion of the workpiece can be corrected by straightening, but only within the limits of the plasticity of the workpiece. It may also be corrected by tempering using a special calibration fixture. Volumetric deformation can sometimes be corrected by additional grinding, but only if the hole or groove size is reduced and the field is enlarged. Quenching volume deformation is often inevitable. However, if the defamation law is known by experiment, the deformation can be corrected properly before quenching according to the amount of expansion and contraction, and the desired geometric size can be obtained after quenching. Once the quenching crack occurred in the workpiece, it is scrapped.
(1) the heating temperature is too low and the holding time is insufficient. In the metallographic examination, insoluble ferrite can be found in hypoeutectoid steel and more insoluble carbides can be found in tool steel.
(5) when interrupted quenching is adopted, the residence time in the water is too short, or after being removed from the water, the residence time in the air is too long and then transferred to oil, the hardness is reduced due to insufficient cooling or self-tempering.
When the hardness is insufficient, the reasons should be analyzed and the corresponding measures should be taken. Besides tempering the defects and reheating and quenching the defects, the temperature measuring and controlling instruments should be strictly controlled, and the measurement and transmission system should be corrected and repaired regularly.
(3) when the workpiece is cooled in the quenching medium, the agitation of the cooling medium is not enough, and the soft spot is produced because the groove of the workpiece and the bubbles formed at the large cross-section are not removed in time;
(5) the original microstructure is not uniform before quenching, for example, there is serious carbide segregation, or the original structure is coarse, and the ferrite is distributed as a large block.
In the first three cases, a tempering, re-heating, cooling medium and cooling methods under the conditions of the quenching remedy. On the latter two cases, such as quenching after no longer processing, once there is a notch, it is difficult to remedy. The distribution and shape of the unformed workpiece can be changed by forging in different directions in order to eliminate the carbide segregation or coarseness. The coarse tissue can be annealed or normalized again to refine and homogenize the tissue.
Some parts, according to the service conditions, in addition to a certain hardness, but also on the metallographic structure requirements, such as medium carbon or medium carbon alloy steel quenched martensite size requirements, according to the Standard Atlas Rating. The large size of martensite indicates that the quenching temperature is too high, which is called the overheated structure. There is also a rule for the amount of free iron cable body. Too much indicates insufficient heating or insufficient quenching cooling rate. Other steel, such as tool steel, high-speed steel, corresponding to the austenite grain size, the amount of retained austenite, the amount and distribution of carbides. The causes of these defects should be analyzed according to the quenching conditions, and corresponding measures should be taken to prevent and remedy them. However, it should be noted that some tissue defects are also related to the original structure before quenching. For example, coarse martensite can be produced not only when the quenching temperature is too high, but also because of the heredity of overheated structure left by the heat processing before quenching.
Tempering hardness too high, too low or uneven, mainly due to tempering temperature is too low, too high or furnace temperature caused by uneven. Too high hardness after tempering may also be due to too short tempering time. Such problems can be controlled by adjusting the tempering temperature, etc. The cause of uneven hardness may be due to overloading or improper selection of heating furnace. If the tempering in the gas furnace, the furnace should be airflow circulation fan or furnace temperature cannot be uniform.
The deformation of workpieces after tempering is often due to the stress imbalance before tempering, stress relaxation or stress redistribution during tempering. To avoid tempering deformation, or use multiple straightening multiple heating, or the use of tempering press and other measures.
After decarburization of the surface of high-speed steel, reticular cracks may be formed during tempering. Because after surface decarburization, the specific volume of martensite decreases, resulting in multi-directional tensile stress resulting in a network-like crack. In addition, when high-carbon steel is tempered, if the surface is heated too quickly, the specific volume decreases, resulting in multi-directional tensile stress To produce a network of cracks. The appearance of Brittleness after tempering is mainly due to the improper tempering temperature is chosen or the insufficient cooling rate after tempering (the second kind of tempering Brittleness). Therefore, to prevent the emergence of Brittleness, tempering temperature and cooling methods should be properly selected. Once the temper Brittleness, the first kind of temper Brittleness, only by re-heating quenching, selected temperature tempering; for the second kind of temper Brittleness, can be re-heating tempering, and then accelerate the cooling rate after tempering to eliminate.
Steel ball hot rolling is a brand-new technology of skew rolling, and it is a technological breakthrough in grindingball manufacturing, and it is gradually replacing cast steel balls. With the rapid development of China's national economy, mine, cement, thermal power, refractory material, steel, and phosphate fertilizers industries, and the demand for grinding steel balls is increasing. At present, the annual consumption ofgrinding steel ballsin Chinahasexceeded5 million tons, and there is an increasing trend year by year. In addition, the export market for grindingsteel balls in China is prosperous, mainly exported to Australia, South Africa, Ghana, Brazil, Russia, Mongolia, Indonesia, the United States, and Chile. Algeria and other countries.
In modern industry, the manufacture of steel balls requires very accurate dimensions and surface quality. These steel balls are mainly used in mines, power plants, cement plants, steel mills, silica sand plants, and coal chemical industries. One of the methods for making these steel balls is through skew rolling. Skewrolling isthe forming process bythe use of two specially designed continuously-rotary vertical rollers. The steel bar is fed to the rollers, and through the squeezing and cutting of the rollers, ultra-final round steel balls are formed. It can be said that the rolling process of each steel ball is independent. The skew-rolling process, similar to roll forging, this manufacturing process allows the steel ball to contain the dual qualities of steel ball forging and steel ball rolling.
3. Some well-known mining companies such as Rio Tinto, BHP Billiton, Minmetals, CITIC Pacific SINO Iron Mine, Shougang Peru Iron Mine, Chilean Copper, Vale, McMurray Copper Gold, Baruch Gold, etc., have adoptedrolledsteel balls. They are outstanding leaders in resource conservation, carbon reduction, and green mines.
At present, the product specifications of the skewrolled steel ball range from 20 to 150. The wear-resisting steel balls for gold mines, silver mines, copper mines and iron mines are widely used and promoted in actual mines, savinggreatpurchase costs for customers, greatly increasing the grinding production, and achieving a remarkable economy benefit.
Steel ball rolling mill is a special equipment for producing grindingsteel balls, bearing ball blanks and other metal ball parts (nominal diameter 20-150mm) by adoptingthe spiral roller pass rolling forming process, and can also be used for producing other rotary parts or blanks. The steel ball rolling machine adopts a semi-closed frame, easy to change the rollers, the adjustment function of the rolling mill is complete, the rigidity of the stand is good,and the precision of the rolled product is high. The whole steel ball rolling machineconsists of main motor, reducer, compounddevice, universal coupling, work host and other parts.
The steel ball skew rollingforming process is a new technology for forming rotary partsor parts blanks. It can be used to producegrinding mill steel balls, bearing rollers, automotive parts and circuit hardware and other products, withthe advantages of greatly increasing labor productivity, saving metal, improving product quality, reducing product cost, and improving working conditions.
Hot rolledsteel ball is a new type of rolling technology. It is a process breakthrough of grinding steel ball manufacturing technology, and it has been gradually replacingthe castedball. The hot rolled steel ball has the following characteristics:
3) Stable quality, highhardness, good hardenability, compact microstructure, smallcrystalgrain,homogeneous steel ballwithno deformation, no breaking circle, good wear resistance, impact toughness is as high as 12-35 j/cm2, and the crushing rate is less than 1%.
The wear-resistant steel ball rolling mill production line adopts fully automatic production line operations, without manual intervention, automatic production, and it can guarantee the stability of steel ball quality to the utmost. The production line is environmentally friendly and energy-efficient. The produced steel balls have precise and round geometry, high hardness and good mechanical properties, and have high impact toughness and strong crushing resistance.
3. The red billet is fed into the skew rolling mill, and special spiral groove rollers are used to rotate the billet between the furnace and the skew rolling mill, and the billet is then continuously rolled into steel balls. Each steel ball skew rolling mill can roll 60-360 balls per minute.
4. The steel balls run into the factory specifically designed in-line quenching - tempering heat treatment, the heat treatment equipment enables the steel balls to get a high and uniform hardness, and then the steel balls immediately turn into hot red state.
The steel ball production methods generally include forging steel balls, grinding steel balls and casting steel balls. According to the processing material, the steel ball is divided into bearing steel ball, stainless steel ball, carbon steel ball, copper bearing steel ball, alloy steel ball and so on. Among them, the bearing steel ball is an important basic component of the industry. The alloy steel ball is a ball-shaped ferro-alloy wear-resistant body which is mainly added with carbon, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, etc., and is produced through forging, spinning, rolling and casting, etc. It is used as crushing steel balls in mining industry and cement industry.
For casting steel balls, forging steel balls, and rolling steel balls, due to different production processes, there are many unconquerable disadvantages in casting steel balls and forging steel balls. Rolled steel balls have obvious advantages compared with cast steel balls and forged steel balls, especially in terms of quality.
The direction of development of grinding steel ball industry, according to the Standing Information Center, there are hundreds of big or small steel ball manufacturers currently excluding the exporters, and the annual domestic consumption of grinding balls (forged steel balls, cast steel balls) is over 5 million tons.
As a brand-new rolling process technology, hot rolling ball grinding ball is a technological breakthrough in grinding ball manufacturing industry and is gradually replacing cast grinding steel balls and forged steel balls. In addition to product quality advantages, hot-rolled balls have the following characteristics: 1. Hot-rolled balls have all the advantages of steel, and they become high-quality ball balls after heat treatment. 2. there is no need for manual operation, and less interference from human factors;
Due to the advancement and superiority of hot rolling balls in the production process, product quality, practical use, production costs, energy consumption, environmental protection, etc., together with the current status of grinding steel ball in China, the rolled grinding steel ball will replace the cast steel balls and forged steel balls, has become the development direction of the grinding steel ball industry.
Steel ball hot rolling is a new skewrolling process technology and it is a technological breakthrough in grinding steel ballrolling millmanufacturing, and it has been gradually replacingthecasted steel balls.
Main ProcessRound bar steel Feeding device Induction heating furnace ( 900to 1100) Rolled into formed steel ball Automatic steel ball screening and dividing equipment Annealing device On-line tempering Natural cooling Secondary tempering (optional) Packaging
<4>Rolling: The speed of main rolling motor can be adjusted in variable frequency to meet the production requirements of steel balls of different specifications and match with the induction heating furnace;
<5> Conveyordelivery: The steel ball is conveyedto the screening section; the transmission motor adopts variable frequency speed regulation, which can help adjust the pre-cooling temperature of the steel ball;
<7>Uniform temperature slow-cooling: Slow cooling chain motor adopts variable frequency speed regulation, so that the high temperature steel ball can be cooled and can be cooledto the quenching temperatureby adjustment, meanwhile the steel ball temperaturegetsuniformity;
<9> Quenching:The steel ball is quenched by two parallelinstalledquenching machines, and the quenched spiral-groove motor adopts variable frequency speed regulation, and adjuststheoutletwatertemperature after the ball is quenched;
Main Process Round bar Steel Feeding device Induction heating furnace ( 900 to 1100 ) Rolled into formed steel ball Automatic steel ball screening and dividing equipment Annealing device On-line tempering Natural cooling Secondary tempering (optional) Parking
In order to predict flow instability of wear-resistant steel BTW1, the hot compressions of wear-resistant steel BTW1 were firstly performed at the temperature of 9001150C and at the strain rate of 0.0515s1. Then, the constitutive relation was established based on Arrhenius-type hyperbolic sine equation. The results demonstrated that the flow stress depended on the deformation temperature and strain rate. When the deformation temperature kept constant, the flow stress increased as the strain rate increased. When the strain rate remained constant, the flow stress decreased as the temperature increased. The flow stresses calculated by constitutive equations were in a good agreement with experimental results. The apparent activation energy for deformation in the above processing region was estimated to be 369kJmol1. A processing map could be obtained by the superimposition of an instability map on a power dissipation map. Based on the analysis of processing map and the microstructures, the rheological instability regimes of strain rate and temperature for hot deformation of wear-resistant steel BTW1 had been identified.
Liu, Pt., Huang, Qx., Ma, Lf. et al. Characterization of hot deformation behavior of wear-resistant steel BTW1 using processing maps and constitutive equations. J. Iron Steel Res. Int. 25, 10541061 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42243-018-0154-8
Shandong ShengyeGrinding Ball Co., Ltd. is a professional factory specializing in the production and sale of grinding steel balls and grinding steel bars for ball mills and rod mills. The company covers an area of more than 20,000 square meters, more than 80 professional training staff, annual output of 100,000 tons, the products are exported to more than 30 countries overseas, customers are mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia, South America, Africa, mining, cement plants and The thermal power plant is well received by customers. With a professional technical testing and technology research and development team...
The effect quenching and tempering by different regimes on Rockwell hardness and wear processes of grinding balls 50 and 70 mm in diameter made of two melts of chromium-molybdenum cast iron is studied. The heating temperature for quenching is 850, 950, and 1050C; the tempering temperature is 250, 400, and 600C. Iron is analyzed in an electron microscope. Diffraction patterns are obtained. A model of cast iron wear is suggested and compared to the Davis model and to experimental results. An optimum heat treatment regime is proposed.
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A. Sadeddine, M. A. Bradai, A. Benabbas, et al., Structural and microstructural characterization of an as-cast chromium white iron used for the production of grinding balls, Annales de Chimie et Science des Matriaux, 36(4 6), 259 266 (2011).
A. Sadeddine, S. Aissat, M. A. Bradai, and A. Benabbas, Influence de la vitesse de refroidissement sur la microstructure et la trempabilite des boules de broyage, Metall. Res. Technol., 111, No. 2,107117 (2014).
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The wear resistance of an alloy in heavy mill liner sections may be quite different from that of the same alloy in small balls and other light sections. This fact was established by means of a well standardized laboratory test that was validated for ball mill service. The salient properties of mill liner alloys, including austenitic manganese steels, medium alloy hardenable steels, and abrasion resistance cast irons are described, critically compared, and quantitatively ranked in terms of mill liner service.
Where they are tough enough the high-chromium and other martensitic cast irons (e.g. Ni-Hard) promise maximum economy, but their section sensitivity is a limitation. To overcome this an extensive research program studied over a hundred experimental alloys, ranking them for heavy section abrasion resistance by means of the laboratory test.
There is a widespread tendency to accept hardness as an index of abrasion resistance. Most hardness tests provide a measure of compressive strength, e.g. the common Brinell test is reported in terms of a Brinell Hardness Number (BHN) that is the compressive strength of the metal tested in kilograms per square millimeter. The numbers can be converted to pounds per square inch if desired. Such values are not representative of tensile strength except in those cases where a ductile material has about the same strength under both types of stress. Hardness tests give no measure of toughness, which makes an important contribution to wear resistance in some circumstances. Hardness also has a poor correlation with resistance to grinding abrasion.
Abrasive wear results from the failure of a material under stress, but the stress patterns imposed in service are so varied and complex that test information in addition to hardness- is desirable. Of the three designated types of abrasion erosion is expected to be present in grinding mills, but it is believed that it makes only a minor contribution to the total wear; gouging abrasion is not considered applicable since it is the type observed in large crushers and in dipper teeth; and grinding abrasion is not only recognizable as present but the matching laboratory test has a demonstrable relation to grinding mill service.
Grinding or high stress abrasion typically results when small mineral particles are caught under pressure between two metal faces. Even with low nominal loads on the metal portion of this sandwich the unit stresses in the abrasive, and consequently on its metallic contact areas, may be very high. These stresses crack or crush the abrasive grains. The broken edges are sharp and can scratch effectively. Moreover, the concentrated stress on the metallic face can disrupt the metal or fragment some of its microconstituents and deterioration can occur from scratching, from local plastic flow and from micro- cracking. The presence of high stress abrasion can be deduced from observation of the metal sandwich described and from the fact that an abrasive is ground or crushed on a small scale.
At the very tough extreme, where austenitic manganese steel is preeminent, the area under a tensile stress-strain curve (or the more convenient merit number) can be used for comparative ranking. This area is an indication of the energy required to deform the material. However, complete stress-strain curves are not usually available; the extensometer that shows strain is generally removed after the yield strength is passed, since it has only a limited range of measurement, and thus only the early part of the curve is obtained.
A rough approximation of the area under the stress-strain curve can be obtained by multiplying the tensile strength (in psi) by the elongation at fracture. This is the merit number, which can be conveniently applied to any alloy for which tensile data are available. If due allowance is made for its approximate nature, it is considered a valid measure of toughness for materials where fracture is not complicated by cleavage. It can be applied even to the brittle cast irons, but to do so requires carefully machine ground specimens, almost perfect axial alignment in the tension test, and the use of high precision strain gages, e.g. of the electrical resistance type. Consequently such data for the hard irons are rare.
Compression tests can also show strength and capacity for plastic flow before fracture occurs. They are seldom reported for steels, probably because tension tests are more convenient. For quite ductile materials the values in tension and compression may be quite similar. For brittle alloys like the cast irons they can be vastly different.
Actually we know that both balls and liners of Ni-Hard will spall and fracture in some mills. Discounting those failures that result from poor fit or bolting practice that produces excessive tensile stress on the back side of a poorly supported liner, it can be accepted that Ni-Hard is borderline in toughness for mill liners.
As a result of ball action in a mill,work hardening and high residual compressive stresses occur at the metallic surfaces involved. This implies that the yield strengths have been exceeded, as these phenomena are associated with plastic flow. One aspect of brittleness is the lack of ability to plastically deform under stress. This may be general in a hard metal, the characteristic of a particular phase in an alloy (e.g. the brittle iron carbide in cast iron), or it may be a directional property, perhaps affected by temperature. The crystallographic property of cleavage in some minerals, well known to mining engineers, also occurs in some otherwise ductile metals, especially below a transition temperature. Notched bar impact tests tend to show up this kind of brittleness much better than do tension tests. Even ductile materials may show brittle failure with triaxial stresses, which tend to be produced at the root of a notch.
Austenitic manganese steel, which is also called Hadfields manganese steel after its inventor, is an extremely tough non-magnetic alloy in which the usual hardening transformation has been suppressed by a combination of high manganese content and rapid cooling from a high temperature. It is characterized by high strength, high ductility and excellent wear resistance. In the form of castings or of rolled shapes it serves many industrial requirements economically and has built up an enviable record as the outstanding material.for resisting severe service that combines abrasion and heavy impact. It provides the tough extreme of the alloys available for mill liner service.
Some hundreds of other experimental manganese steels have been studied. From these a few have reached commercial production but not general acceptance. Since the full measure of toughness available is almost never needed in mill liners, there is little incentive to choose from among the modified grades unless better abrasion resistance can be demonstrated in grinding mill service.
Some years ago manganese steel liners were more popular than they are now. Originally adopted because of the excellent wear resistance of this steel in other applications, experience revealed that other materials would outwear it in grinding mills. There was reluctance to change until the questions about adequate toughness in the alternate materials could be answered. It is now known that in some mills even brittle cast irons can stand up; in others the irons will chip or fracture under ball impact while some of the steels that are hardened by heat treatment are tough enough. In a few cases manganese steel is still retained because its toughness (which is far beyond that of the hardened mill liner steels) is considered necessary.
If the questionable concept that work hardening contributes to the abrasion resistance of manganese steel is accepted, it is logical to modify this family of alloys to achieve more rapid work hardening. This can be done, but in the field of grinding abrasion the results are likely to be disappointing. The two 8% Mn steels in Table 8 work-harden considerably faster than the standard grade; indeed they become somewhat magnetic from the deformation that causes the work-hardening, suggesting that the martensitic reaction, often postulated but not proven for the standard 13% Mn grade, is actually occurring. In this case the abrasion resistance is clearly inferior to that of the more stable 13% Mn type. The two 8% Mn steels also lack toughness.
Lowering of either carbon or manganese tends to degrade the properties for which the 13% manganese steels are valued. However, it is possible to counteract this degradation by adding other elements. Such compensation is practiced, chiefly in the field of welding electrodes. Most of these invoke this pattern.
The earliest cast irons used in grinding mill service were simple pearlitic white irons; that is, the composition was adjusted or the castings were chilled in manufacture to produce a mixture of cementite (iron carbide) and pearlite (the lamellar aggregate of cementite and ferrite that is a common constituent of slowly cooled medium and high carbon steels). Slowly solidified cast iron that is high in silicon will have much of its carbon appear as graphite flakes; these are considered undesirable for abrasion resistance and are suppressed by control of the silicon, perhaps by additions of chromium and by means of chills in the mold.
White (graphite free) cast iron has good resistance to low-stress scratching abrasion or erosion, but it has been disappointing in grinding mills. The Abex test provides abrasion factors that are generally between 0.90 and 1.00, indicating that it is very little better for resisting grinding abrasion than soft mild steel. It required some years of experience for this to become well recognized in service, but now a simple white cast iron is seldom considered for mill liners.
Irons alloyed to produce martensite instead of pearlite in the microstructure are a different matter. Following the introduction of Ni-Hard (U.S. Patent 1,988,911 issued in 1935) it became evident that this type (Table 12) had better abrasion resistance than the ordinary white cast iron under a variety of conditions. Wot only for low-stress abrasion but also under the high stress conditions of ball mills it could show superiority. With its excellent potential for resisting wear the matter of toughness became, crucial. Its performance in grinding mills would depend on whether it chipped, thus adding a second deterioration mechanism to that of abrasive wear, and on whether there would be gross breakage under mill impact conditions. Pear of the latter retarded its acceptance as a liner material. It was accepted first for balls.
Promising alloys have been previously introduced into mill liner service only to find that for some reason they cannot compete with existing materials. Unless they cost too much their deficiency has usually been in either toughness or abrasion resistance. The 19% chromium iron aimed at the apex of one of the computer parabolas is now in the field testing stage. To reach this point has required considerable pilot plant and production effort, as processing details and quality controls had to be worked out on a full scale basis. Also, a full set of liner castings is necessarily expensive and thus the initial tests had to be introduced on a guaranteed performance basis. The field testing is still in progress but results have been favorable. Two tests can be reported at this point.
One test was made in a 12 2 diameter x 14 long Nordberg rod mill with medium height overflow discharge and Noranda type shell liners. The grinding media are 4 3/8 inch diameter rods of 1090 steel at about 269 311 Brinell hardness. Mill speed is 13.3 rpm, which is about 59% of the theoretical critical speed. The feed is 1 inch size and the product is about inch; the pulp density at discharge is about 75%. The production rate is 110 long tons per hour or 3000 short tons per day. The ore being ground is taconite. The ore mineral is magnetite, which itself is quite hard, but the abrasiveness of the ore is attributed largely to quartz and hard silicates that are so well interlocked that the material is very tough, with an average compressive strength of around 55,000 psi.
The hot rolled steel ball is the steel ball formed by hot rolling round steel with the hot extrusion times of above 10 times produced by large steel works, which is controlled automatically in the whole process with uniform steel ball hardness, higher core hardness, low crashed rate and big impact value of steel ball.
The hot rolled steel ball is the steel ball formed by hot rolling round steel with the hot extrusion times of above 10 times produced by large steel works, which is controlled automatically in the whole process with uniform steel ball hardness, higher core hardness, low crashed rate and big impact value of steel ball. The performance of steel ball has difference according to different material of raw materials adopted. The hot rolled steel ball is produced with the production line of skew rolling, of which not only the production efficiency is high but also the wear resistance increases successively and quality is stable due to the rapid rise of introduction of new materials and new technologies in recent years.
3. Red-heat billet rotates forwards between 2 special spiral-hole rollers and is continuously rolled into steel ball after being sent into ball rolling mill. Each set of ball rolling mill can be rolled into 40120 steel balls per minute.
4. The rolled red-heat steel ball is immediately put into online heat treatment installation for quenching when it is cooled to hardening heat, after quenching, it is cooled to proper temperature (50 below), and then put into online continuous tempering furnace for destressing tempering, so as to make steel ball obtaining high and even hardness.
Such rolling mill has simple operation and convenient adjustment, cast steel rack is used to solve the problem that welded machine needs frequent adjustment in the operating process due to temperature distortion. Forging technology is applied in roll mandrel to make it greatly improving fatigue resistance, counter bending and fracture resistance. The way of circulating oil injection by filling pump is adopted in the bearing seat of pinion stand to avoid hard wear of bearing. When different specifications of steel ball are rolled in a same production line, variable frequency motor is used for controlling, which effectively utilizes the motor power to improve the output of steel ball.
Steel ball skew-rolling mill is used for producing steel ball. When skew rolling is implemented to steel ball, in order to make spiral direction of roller and spiral direction of rolled piece corresponding, axis of roller and the axis of rolled piece form an included angle, the included angle of two roller is generally 26, as shown in figure I, there is spiral hole in the roller, when the two rollers rotate homonymously, round bar blank rotates opposite to the roller and moves forward, under the action of spiral hole, round steel gradually becomes ball, the connecting neck parts of the balls are thinner and thinner, and finally, break to obtain steel ball.
Through full research and transformation of our company to the rolled production line of the steel ball, and combined with the demands of home and abroad steel ball markets, develop the new-generation steel ball rolled production line, and develop the 20mm-125mm series of complete equipment from heating, rolling to thermal treatment, used for producing various kinds of steel ball with the diameter from 20mm-125mm.
The steel ball produced by the steel ball rolling equipment in our company has accurate size, rounding geometrical shape, high hardness, good mechanical property, and it has excellent properties of wear resistance, do deformation and no cracking. Its characteristics are as shown below:
c. Low breakage rate: peeling resistance and crushing resistance are 10 times above than the general casting-forging steel ball, the frequency of Falling Ball Impact is above 20000 times, actual breakage rate does not exceeds 1%, close to zero crushing.
Hot-rolled steel ball(Grinding steel ball) which are rolled by skew rolling mill produciton line overview: Hot-rolled steel ball(Grinding steel ball) which are rolled by skew rolling mill produciton line is a new rolling technology, which is a breakthrough technology in manufacturing of ball milling, this kind of ball is being gradually replace the casting ball.
hot rolling steel ball(Grinding steel ball) which are rolled by skew rolling mill produciton line has the following characteristics: 1, Hot-rolled steel ball has all the advantages of steel, becoming high quality grinding mill ball after heat treatment. 2, High efficiency, high yield, high mechanization and automation of production, there is no manual operation on the production chain, less employment, smallman-made interference. 3, Stable quality, high hardness, good hardenability, fine microstructure dense, fine grain size, no deformation, the ball does not deform from the verybeginning to end, never lose round shape, good wear resistance, toughness can up 12-35J/cm2, broken rate less than 1%. 4, Low energy consumption, no pollution, low labor intensity, low production costs. 5, Good shape, less geometric tolerances, stable quality. 6, Low wear rate, long life, 2-5 times more than existing cast iron ball, forged steel ball, and the prices are same. 7, Ball hardness up to 60 ~ 67HRC, internal and external balance of hardness is even, hardness difference <5HRC. 8, Impact toughness up to 12 ~ 35J/cm3. 9, Large density (7.8 ~ 7.85g/cm3).
Hot rolled steel ball (Grinding steel ball) which are rolled by skew rolling mill produciton line technology: Ball diameter range 25-125mm. Rolling ball milling is used in a variety of chemical composition billets rolled round bars, its diameter is equal to the nominal diameter of the ball. The main production process of hot rolling steel ball as follows: 1, After the round bar examination, by length cut into steel ball billet. 2, The steel billet heated to a suitable temperature in a continuous heating furnace before rolling. 3, After the red-hot state steel billet feeding into the ball mill, forward rotation in between special spiral grooved rollers, and is continuously rolled into a ball. Each steel skew ball mill can roll 60-360 steel ball per minute. 4, The red hot ball rolled into special designed online heating treatment furnace for quenching tempering heat treatment, so can get high uniform hardness ball. 5, After inspection steel balls sent to the finished goods warehouse, after packaging then sent to customers.
Hot-rolled steel ball(Grinding steel ball) which are rolled by skew rolling mill produciton line advantage: Our Hot rolled steel ball with precise dimensions, round geometry, high hardness and good mechanical properties and with high wear resistance, no distortion, no cracking of excellent quality.
The characteristics of hot-rolled steel ball(Grinding steel ball) which are rolled by skew rolling mill produciton line as following: 1, High overall hardness: the surface hardness can reach 55-65HRC, volume hardness can reach 50-62HRC, and the hardness gradient distribution even. 2, High impact toughness: toughness greater than 12J/cm2. 3, Low broken rate: anti-peel broken and anti-crushing performance is more than 10 times the normal casting and forging steel balls, falling ball impact more than times 20,000, while the actual breakage rate less than 1%, close to no broken. Hot rolling steel ball adopted in all kinds of ball ferrous and nonferrous metals processing plant mines, power plants, cement plants, refractory plants and other industries.
Suchuang Machinery Equipment Co., Ltd(http://skewrollingmill.com) Email: [email protected] facebook: https://www.facebook.com/skewrollingmill youtube: https://www.youtube.com/user/skewrollingmachine Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/skewrolling Blogs: http://www.skewrollingmill.blogspot.com
Forging Steel Balls 75Mr Grinding Media High Chrome Casting Ball Products Name:Forged Grinding Ball, Forging Grinding Ball, Forged Ball, Forging Ball, Forged Steel Ball, Forged Grinding Steel Ball, Forged Steel Grinding Ball. Process features of forged balls: Forging forming---The raw material is forged to a certain deformation by air hammer,increase the compression ration,so that to dense the structure of wear-resistant ball and improve the toughness and hardness. Forgedsteel ball: The Forged ball is made by direct heating at high temperature and forging, and it do not need melting and casting. So this steel ball is called Forged steel ball. 1. Features of forging grinding media balls: 1). Even high hardness 2).Good wear-resistance 3). Unbreakable 4). High impact value 5).Production Capacity: 50,000mt per year 6). Low price 2. Applied fields of forged grinding balls:a) Mines; b) Cement plants; c) Power stations; d) Chemical industry 3. Raw Materials: B2; B3; B4; 60Mn; 4. Specifications of our products as follows: Type and Chenical Composition of Forged Balls Name Material Chemical Composition C Si Mn S/P Cr HRC Forged ball B2 0.72-0.85 0.17-0.37 0.7-1.0 0.04 0.4-0.6 58-6 Name Material Impac test (Ak.j/cm^2) Endurance test times HRC Breakage Forged ball B2 14 10000 58-64 1% Nominal diameter Diametrical Tolerance Approx weigt per ball Average number per MT Microstructure 25mm +1.5-0.5 0.064 15625 M+B+C 30mm +1.5-0.5 0.11 9090 40mm +1.5-0.5 0.26 3846 50mm +1.5-0.5 0.51 1961 5.Package:Steel drums (850kg per drum) or Flexible Container Bags ( 1000kg per bag) a.Dia .20mm-dia.150mm 1000kg per bags , 26bags max for the 20foot container b.Dia.130mm-dia. 150mm 800kg per drum, 30drums max or the 20foot containe Dia. 50mm-dia .127mm 850kg per drum , 28drums max for the 20footcontainer Dia. 20mm-dia .40mm 900kg per drum , 26drums max for the 20foot container Dimensions dia 55cm*88cm Volume 0.23cubic meter tare 15 kgs/teel drum
Forging forming---The raw material is forged to a certain deformation by air hammer,increase the compression ration,so that to dense the structure of wear-resistant ball and improve the toughness and hardness.
a.Dia .20mm-dia.150mm 1000kg per bags , 26bags max for the 20foot container b.Dia.130mm-dia. 150mm 800kg per drum, 30drums max or the 20foot containe Dia. 50mm-dia .127mm 850kg per drum , 28drums max for the 20footcontainer Dia. 20mm-dia .40mm 900kg per drum , 26drums max for the 20foot container Dimensions dia 55cm*88cm Volume 0.23cubic meter tare 15 kgs/teel drum
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For all mining operations reducing consumable costs is one of the most important aspects but not the expense of the product quality One of the hanging fruits for most of the miners is grinding media When it comes to grinding media most people often think about forged steel grindingball Grinding media makes up to...
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Hot rolled abrasive steel ball for ball mill 1 Product Name Hot rolled abrasive steel ball Forged steel ball forged ball forging ball grinding media ball grinding steel ball 2 Application Ball Mill Grinding Media Balls used in mining cement plant power plant
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Description about CASTNNG grinding media balls Casting grinding media balls also called casting grinding ball casting steel grinding ball iron balls chrome ball chromium ball Application Super SAG for SAG mills Grind for ball mills Casting Grinding Media Balls Applied Fields 1 Mining 2 Cement Plants 3 Chemical...
Description about CASTNNG grinding media balls Casting grinding media balls also called casting grinding ball casting steel grinding ball iron balls chrome ball chromium ball Chrome cast iron ball because of the difference in chromium we usually call it high chromium ball medium and low chromium cast iron ball...
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Forged Steel Ball Shandong Shengye Grinding Ball Co Ltd is a professional manufacturer of grinding media balls Owning more than 20 years working experience in grinding media balls R D production quality control sales export service and project solutions Forged steel balls are widely used many areas such as large scale...
Shandong Shengye Grinding Ball Co Ltd we are a professional manufacturer of forged hot rolled steel balls and steel rods for 20 years Our customers are in Southeast Asia Africa Latin America and China s large mining companies cement plants and power plants The raw materials of our products are purchased from well...
Shandong Shengye Grinding Ball Co Ltd we are a professional manufacturer of forged hot rolled steel balls and steel rods for 20 years Our customers are in Southeast Asia Africa Latin America and China s large mining companies cement plants and power plants The raw materials of our products are purchased from well...
Forged Steel Ball The forged grinding steel ball has its advantage in surface impact resistance toughness low breakage and low out of round rate We use the most advanced forging methods and the advanced equipment to press onto the steel raw material so as to obtain the forging piece with certain mechanical properties...
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