double roll crusher|double roller crusher|double roll sand maker_xingyang ju xin machinery co., ltd

double roll crusher|double roller crusher|double roll sand maker_xingyang ju xin machinery co., ltd

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double taper vs weight forward fly lines - for beginners - 101, faol

double taper vs weight forward fly lines - for beginners - 101, faol

Richards has designed fly line tapers for Scientific Anglers for more than 20 years. There are not many in the fly fishing industry who possess Richard's knowledge on fly lines - and he shares the following on the DT vs. WF question. John Mazurkiewicz A lot of generalizations are made about these two tapers based on outdated or incorrect information. All fly anglers have heard that double taper lines are more delicate, give better control, roll cast better, etc. In some cases, these performance features of double taper fly lines are true, but not always. Delicacy of delivery is determined by the mass of the front part of a fly line. This is determined by line diameter (which relates directly to mass), and taper length. A line with a small diameter tip and a long taper has much less mass up front than a line with a large tip and short taper. Don't be mislead by taper length alone -- a line with a long front taper but a large tip diameter will not deliver delicately. A DT and a WF line with the same taper and tip diameter will deliver the same. For many years, most DT and WF lines were made with the same tip diameter and front taper length so there was no difference in how they delivered, although many claimed there was. Today, many of the DT lines are actually designed specifically for use in spring creek-type fishing and do have longer tapers and/or smaller tips. Anytime a fly line (or any product for that matter) is designed to do one thing very well it usually has a shortcoming somewhere else. Lines that are designed to be very delicate have little mass in the front to carry larger or heavier flies, and will not handle windy conditions well. It takes a better caster to throw the kind of loops it takes to make these lines perform their best. And no, DT lines are not a more "accurate" casting line -- that is entirely in the realm of the skill of the caster. It is very true that DT lines are easier to control and roll cast at long distances than WF lines. At shorter distances, there is no difference. The key to line control and roll casting is to make sure the large diameter line belly is in the rod tip. If the small diameter running line is in the tip, it's nearly impossible to transmit enough energy through it to the belly to make the line do what you want. What many fly anglers don't consider is that WF lines control and roll cast as well as DT lines at the distances most of us fish. Almost all WF lines have heads that are 35-40 feet long. Add a 9-foot leader and the distance to the fly from the end of the head is 44- to 49-feet. Up to this distance when both DT and WF lines control and roll cast the same. There are not many typical trout fishing situations that require longer casts. What this all means is that DT and WF lines work pretty much the same at the distances we fish most often. Certainly if someone fishes a big river that requires a good deal of long distance roll casting and mending, a DT or a WF line with a long head should be considered. Either a Mastery Series XPS or GPX double taper or Mastery Series XXD weight forward taper would work well. Everybody knows that WF lines are better for distance than DT lines, but is that really true? Well, yes, but the difference isn't as big as you might think. Because of their small, light running lines, WF lines shoot better. But remember, this benefit starts at 44- to 49-feet when the running line is in the rod. If your fishing situation calls for many long casts, it is certainly a little easier to do with a WF line - but don't think that DT lines won't shoot. They will, just not as far. For most fly anglers in normal fly-fishing situations, it probably doesn't make a lot of difference which taper you use. Most of us fish at distances less than 50 feet, which is where weight forward lines start to shoot better, but with less line control. Most of us don't have the need, or the ability, to roll cast longer than 45 feet. So, how do you decide which is the right taper for you? Double taper or weight forward? For short to medium casting range situations, there is no reason not to have a DT line rigged and ready. If you are consistently throwing longer casts, you can make them with fewer false casts with a WF line. But if the need arises, you lose the ability to do long roll casts and mends. For most, it doesn't make much difference which taper is used most of the time. Base your decision on DT versus WF on how much small fly, short distance fishing you do - when a delicate DT line like a Mastery Series XPS would offer advantages, against how much fishing you do where longer casts are needed - and the advantages of a WF line. Scientific Anglers offers taper diagrams on all its Mastery Series fly lines - providing the length of tip, front taper, belly and rear taper, and the total head length and running line length - on its web site at: www.scientificanglers.com ~ Bruce Richards, Scientific Anglers Have a question? Email me! Beginners Archives

A lot of generalizations are made about these two tapers based on outdated or incorrect information. All fly anglers have heard that double taper lines are more delicate, give better control, roll cast better, etc. In some cases, these performance features of double taper fly lines are true, but not always. Delicacy of delivery is determined by the mass of the front part of a fly line. This is determined by line diameter (which relates directly to mass), and taper length. A line with a small diameter tip and a long taper has much less mass up front than a line with a large tip and short taper. Don't be mislead by taper length alone -- a line with a long front taper but a large tip diameter will not deliver delicately. A DT and a WF line with the same taper and tip diameter will deliver the same. For many years, most DT and WF lines were made with the same tip diameter and front taper length so there was no difference in how they delivered, although many claimed there was. Today, many of the DT lines are actually designed specifically for use in spring creek-type fishing and do have longer tapers and/or smaller tips. Anytime a fly line (or any product for that matter) is designed to do one thing very well it usually has a shortcoming somewhere else. Lines that are designed to be very delicate have little mass in the front to carry larger or heavier flies, and will not handle windy conditions well. It takes a better caster to throw the kind of loops it takes to make these lines perform their best. And no, DT lines are not a more "accurate" casting line -- that is entirely in the realm of the skill of the caster. It is very true that DT lines are easier to control and roll cast at long distances than WF lines. At shorter distances, there is no difference. The key to line control and roll casting is to make sure the large diameter line belly is in the rod tip. If the small diameter running line is in the tip, it's nearly impossible to transmit enough energy through it to the belly to make the line do what you want. What many fly anglers don't consider is that WF lines control and roll cast as well as DT lines at the distances most of us fish. Almost all WF lines have heads that are 35-40 feet long. Add a 9-foot leader and the distance to the fly from the end of the head is 44- to 49-feet. Up to this distance when both DT and WF lines control and roll cast the same. There are not many typical trout fishing situations that require longer casts. What this all means is that DT and WF lines work pretty much the same at the distances we fish most often. Certainly if someone fishes a big river that requires a good deal of long distance roll casting and mending, a DT or a WF line with a long head should be considered. Either a Mastery Series XPS or GPX double taper or Mastery Series XXD weight forward taper would work well. Everybody knows that WF lines are better for distance than DT lines, but is that really true? Well, yes, but the difference isn't as big as you might think. Because of their small, light running lines, WF lines shoot better. But remember, this benefit starts at 44- to 49-feet when the running line is in the rod. If your fishing situation calls for many long casts, it is certainly a little easier to do with a WF line - but don't think that DT lines won't shoot. They will, just not as far. For most fly anglers in normal fly-fishing situations, it probably doesn't make a lot of difference which taper you use. Most of us fish at distances less than 50 feet, which is where weight forward lines start to shoot better, but with less line control. Most of us don't have the need, or the ability, to roll cast longer than 45 feet. So, how do you decide which is the right taper for you? Double taper or weight forward? For short to medium casting range situations, there is no reason not to have a DT line rigged and ready. If you are consistently throwing longer casts, you can make them with fewer false casts with a WF line. But if the need arises, you lose the ability to do long roll casts and mends. For most, it doesn't make much difference which taper is used most of the time. Base your decision on DT versus WF on how much small fly, short distance fishing you do - when a delicate DT line like a Mastery Series XPS would offer advantages, against how much fishing you do where longer casts are needed - and the advantages of a WF line. Scientific Anglers offers taper diagrams on all its Mastery Series fly lines - providing the length of tip, front taper, belly and rear taper, and the total head length and running line length - on its web site at: www.scientificanglers.com ~ Bruce Richards, Scientific Anglers Have a question? Email me! Beginners Archives

Delicacy of delivery is determined by the mass of the front part of a fly line. This is determined by line diameter (which relates directly to mass), and taper length. A line with a small diameter tip and a long taper has much less mass up front than a line with a large tip and short taper. Don't be mislead by taper length alone -- a line with a long front taper but a large tip diameter will not deliver delicately. A DT and a WF line with the same taper and tip diameter will deliver the same. For many years, most DT and WF lines were made with the same tip diameter and front taper length so there was no difference in how they delivered, although many claimed there was. Today, many of the DT lines are actually designed specifically for use in spring creek-type fishing and do have longer tapers and/or smaller tips. Anytime a fly line (or any product for that matter) is designed to do one thing very well it usually has a shortcoming somewhere else. Lines that are designed to be very delicate have little mass in the front to carry larger or heavier flies, and will not handle windy conditions well. It takes a better caster to throw the kind of loops it takes to make these lines perform their best. And no, DT lines are not a more "accurate" casting line -- that is entirely in the realm of the skill of the caster. It is very true that DT lines are easier to control and roll cast at long distances than WF lines. At shorter distances, there is no difference. The key to line control and roll casting is to make sure the large diameter line belly is in the rod tip. If the small diameter running line is in the tip, it's nearly impossible to transmit enough energy through it to the belly to make the line do what you want. What many fly anglers don't consider is that WF lines control and roll cast as well as DT lines at the distances most of us fish. Almost all WF lines have heads that are 35-40 feet long. Add a 9-foot leader and the distance to the fly from the end of the head is 44- to 49-feet. Up to this distance when both DT and WF lines control and roll cast the same. There are not many typical trout fishing situations that require longer casts. What this all means is that DT and WF lines work pretty much the same at the distances we fish most often. Certainly if someone fishes a big river that requires a good deal of long distance roll casting and mending, a DT or a WF line with a long head should be considered. Either a Mastery Series XPS or GPX double taper or Mastery Series XXD weight forward taper would work well. Everybody knows that WF lines are better for distance than DT lines, but is that really true? Well, yes, but the difference isn't as big as you might think. Because of their small, light running lines, WF lines shoot better. But remember, this benefit starts at 44- to 49-feet when the running line is in the rod. If your fishing situation calls for many long casts, it is certainly a little easier to do with a WF line - but don't think that DT lines won't shoot. They will, just not as far. For most fly anglers in normal fly-fishing situations, it probably doesn't make a lot of difference which taper you use. Most of us fish at distances less than 50 feet, which is where weight forward lines start to shoot better, but with less line control. Most of us don't have the need, or the ability, to roll cast longer than 45 feet. So, how do you decide which is the right taper for you? Double taper or weight forward? For short to medium casting range situations, there is no reason not to have a DT line rigged and ready. If you are consistently throwing longer casts, you can make them with fewer false casts with a WF line. But if the need arises, you lose the ability to do long roll casts and mends. For most, it doesn't make much difference which taper is used most of the time. Base your decision on DT versus WF on how much small fly, short distance fishing you do - when a delicate DT line like a Mastery Series XPS would offer advantages, against how much fishing you do where longer casts are needed - and the advantages of a WF line. Scientific Anglers offers taper diagrams on all its Mastery Series fly lines - providing the length of tip, front taper, belly and rear taper, and the total head length and running line length - on its web site at: www.scientificanglers.com ~ Bruce Richards, Scientific Anglers Have a question? Email me! Beginners Archives

For many years, most DT and WF lines were made with the same tip diameter and front taper length so there was no difference in how they delivered, although many claimed there was. Today, many of the DT lines are actually designed specifically for use in spring creek-type fishing and do have longer tapers and/or smaller tips. Anytime a fly line (or any product for that matter) is designed to do one thing very well it usually has a shortcoming somewhere else. Lines that are designed to be very delicate have little mass in the front to carry larger or heavier flies, and will not handle windy conditions well. It takes a better caster to throw the kind of loops it takes to make these lines perform their best. And no, DT lines are not a more "accurate" casting line -- that is entirely in the realm of the skill of the caster. It is very true that DT lines are easier to control and roll cast at long distances than WF lines. At shorter distances, there is no difference. The key to line control and roll casting is to make sure the large diameter line belly is in the rod tip. If the small diameter running line is in the tip, it's nearly impossible to transmit enough energy through it to the belly to make the line do what you want. What many fly anglers don't consider is that WF lines control and roll cast as well as DT lines at the distances most of us fish. Almost all WF lines have heads that are 35-40 feet long. Add a 9-foot leader and the distance to the fly from the end of the head is 44- to 49-feet. Up to this distance when both DT and WF lines control and roll cast the same. There are not many typical trout fishing situations that require longer casts. What this all means is that DT and WF lines work pretty much the same at the distances we fish most often. Certainly if someone fishes a big river that requires a good deal of long distance roll casting and mending, a DT or a WF line with a long head should be considered. Either a Mastery Series XPS or GPX double taper or Mastery Series XXD weight forward taper would work well. Everybody knows that WF lines are better for distance than DT lines, but is that really true? Well, yes, but the difference isn't as big as you might think. Because of their small, light running lines, WF lines shoot better. But remember, this benefit starts at 44- to 49-feet when the running line is in the rod. If your fishing situation calls for many long casts, it is certainly a little easier to do with a WF line - but don't think that DT lines won't shoot. They will, just not as far. For most fly anglers in normal fly-fishing situations, it probably doesn't make a lot of difference which taper you use. Most of us fish at distances less than 50 feet, which is where weight forward lines start to shoot better, but with less line control. Most of us don't have the need, or the ability, to roll cast longer than 45 feet. So, how do you decide which is the right taper for you? Double taper or weight forward? For short to medium casting range situations, there is no reason not to have a DT line rigged and ready. If you are consistently throwing longer casts, you can make them with fewer false casts with a WF line. But if the need arises, you lose the ability to do long roll casts and mends. For most, it doesn't make much difference which taper is used most of the time. Base your decision on DT versus WF on how much small fly, short distance fishing you do - when a delicate DT line like a Mastery Series XPS would offer advantages, against how much fishing you do where longer casts are needed - and the advantages of a WF line. Scientific Anglers offers taper diagrams on all its Mastery Series fly lines - providing the length of tip, front taper, belly and rear taper, and the total head length and running line length - on its web site at: www.scientificanglers.com ~ Bruce Richards, Scientific Anglers Have a question? Email me! Beginners Archives

Anytime a fly line (or any product for that matter) is designed to do one thing very well it usually has a shortcoming somewhere else. Lines that are designed to be very delicate have little mass in the front to carry larger or heavier flies, and will not handle windy conditions well. It takes a better caster to throw the kind of loops it takes to make these lines perform their best. And no, DT lines are not a more "accurate" casting line -- that is entirely in the realm of the skill of the caster. It is very true that DT lines are easier to control and roll cast at long distances than WF lines. At shorter distances, there is no difference. The key to line control and roll casting is to make sure the large diameter line belly is in the rod tip. If the small diameter running line is in the tip, it's nearly impossible to transmit enough energy through it to the belly to make the line do what you want. What many fly anglers don't consider is that WF lines control and roll cast as well as DT lines at the distances most of us fish. Almost all WF lines have heads that are 35-40 feet long. Add a 9-foot leader and the distance to the fly from the end of the head is 44- to 49-feet. Up to this distance when both DT and WF lines control and roll cast the same. There are not many typical trout fishing situations that require longer casts. What this all means is that DT and WF lines work pretty much the same at the distances we fish most often. Certainly if someone fishes a big river that requires a good deal of long distance roll casting and mending, a DT or a WF line with a long head should be considered. Either a Mastery Series XPS or GPX double taper or Mastery Series XXD weight forward taper would work well. Everybody knows that WF lines are better for distance than DT lines, but is that really true? Well, yes, but the difference isn't as big as you might think. Because of their small, light running lines, WF lines shoot better. But remember, this benefit starts at 44- to 49-feet when the running line is in the rod. If your fishing situation calls for many long casts, it is certainly a little easier to do with a WF line - but don't think that DT lines won't shoot. They will, just not as far. For most fly anglers in normal fly-fishing situations, it probably doesn't make a lot of difference which taper you use. Most of us fish at distances less than 50 feet, which is where weight forward lines start to shoot better, but with less line control. Most of us don't have the need, or the ability, to roll cast longer than 45 feet. So, how do you decide which is the right taper for you? Double taper or weight forward? For short to medium casting range situations, there is no reason not to have a DT line rigged and ready. If you are consistently throwing longer casts, you can make them with fewer false casts with a WF line. But if the need arises, you lose the ability to do long roll casts and mends. For most, it doesn't make much difference which taper is used most of the time. Base your decision on DT versus WF on how much small fly, short distance fishing you do - when a delicate DT line like a Mastery Series XPS would offer advantages, against how much fishing you do where longer casts are needed - and the advantages of a WF line. Scientific Anglers offers taper diagrams on all its Mastery Series fly lines - providing the length of tip, front taper, belly and rear taper, and the total head length and running line length - on its web site at: www.scientificanglers.com ~ Bruce Richards, Scientific Anglers Have a question? Email me! Beginners Archives

It is very true that DT lines are easier to control and roll cast at long distances than WF lines. At shorter distances, there is no difference. The key to line control and roll casting is to make sure the large diameter line belly is in the rod tip. If the small diameter running line is in the tip, it's nearly impossible to transmit enough energy through it to the belly to make the line do what you want. What many fly anglers don't consider is that WF lines control and roll cast as well as DT lines at the distances most of us fish. Almost all WF lines have heads that are 35-40 feet long. Add a 9-foot leader and the distance to the fly from the end of the head is 44- to 49-feet. Up to this distance when both DT and WF lines control and roll cast the same. There are not many typical trout fishing situations that require longer casts. What this all means is that DT and WF lines work pretty much the same at the distances we fish most often. Certainly if someone fishes a big river that requires a good deal of long distance roll casting and mending, a DT or a WF line with a long head should be considered. Either a Mastery Series XPS or GPX double taper or Mastery Series XXD weight forward taper would work well. Everybody knows that WF lines are better for distance than DT lines, but is that really true? Well, yes, but the difference isn't as big as you might think. Because of their small, light running lines, WF lines shoot better. But remember, this benefit starts at 44- to 49-feet when the running line is in the rod. If your fishing situation calls for many long casts, it is certainly a little easier to do with a WF line - but don't think that DT lines won't shoot. They will, just not as far. For most fly anglers in normal fly-fishing situations, it probably doesn't make a lot of difference which taper you use. Most of us fish at distances less than 50 feet, which is where weight forward lines start to shoot better, but with less line control. Most of us don't have the need, or the ability, to roll cast longer than 45 feet. So, how do you decide which is the right taper for you? Double taper or weight forward? For short to medium casting range situations, there is no reason not to have a DT line rigged and ready. If you are consistently throwing longer casts, you can make them with fewer false casts with a WF line. But if the need arises, you lose the ability to do long roll casts and mends. For most, it doesn't make much difference which taper is used most of the time. Base your decision on DT versus WF on how much small fly, short distance fishing you do - when a delicate DT line like a Mastery Series XPS would offer advantages, against how much fishing you do where longer casts are needed - and the advantages of a WF line. Scientific Anglers offers taper diagrams on all its Mastery Series fly lines - providing the length of tip, front taper, belly and rear taper, and the total head length and running line length - on its web site at: www.scientificanglers.com ~ Bruce Richards, Scientific Anglers Have a question? Email me! Beginners Archives

Almost all WF lines have heads that are 35-40 feet long. Add a 9-foot leader and the distance to the fly from the end of the head is 44- to 49-feet. Up to this distance when both DT and WF lines control and roll cast the same. There are not many typical trout fishing situations that require longer casts. What this all means is that DT and WF lines work pretty much the same at the distances we fish most often. Certainly if someone fishes a big river that requires a good deal of long distance roll casting and mending, a DT or a WF line with a long head should be considered. Either a Mastery Series XPS or GPX double taper or Mastery Series XXD weight forward taper would work well. Everybody knows that WF lines are better for distance than DT lines, but is that really true? Well, yes, but the difference isn't as big as you might think. Because of their small, light running lines, WF lines shoot better. But remember, this benefit starts at 44- to 49-feet when the running line is in the rod. If your fishing situation calls for many long casts, it is certainly a little easier to do with a WF line - but don't think that DT lines won't shoot. They will, just not as far. For most fly anglers in normal fly-fishing situations, it probably doesn't make a lot of difference which taper you use. Most of us fish at distances less than 50 feet, which is where weight forward lines start to shoot better, but with less line control. Most of us don't have the need, or the ability, to roll cast longer than 45 feet. So, how do you decide which is the right taper for you? Double taper or weight forward? For short to medium casting range situations, there is no reason not to have a DT line rigged and ready. If you are consistently throwing longer casts, you can make them with fewer false casts with a WF line. But if the need arises, you lose the ability to do long roll casts and mends. For most, it doesn't make much difference which taper is used most of the time. Base your decision on DT versus WF on how much small fly, short distance fishing you do - when a delicate DT line like a Mastery Series XPS would offer advantages, against how much fishing you do where longer casts are needed - and the advantages of a WF line. Scientific Anglers offers taper diagrams on all its Mastery Series fly lines - providing the length of tip, front taper, belly and rear taper, and the total head length and running line length - on its web site at: www.scientificanglers.com ~ Bruce Richards, Scientific Anglers Have a question? Email me! Beginners Archives

Everybody knows that WF lines are better for distance than DT lines, but is that really true? Well, yes, but the difference isn't as big as you might think. Because of their small, light running lines, WF lines shoot better. But remember, this benefit starts at 44- to 49-feet when the running line is in the rod. If your fishing situation calls for many long casts, it is certainly a little easier to do with a WF line - but don't think that DT lines won't shoot. They will, just not as far. For most fly anglers in normal fly-fishing situations, it probably doesn't make a lot of difference which taper you use. Most of us fish at distances less than 50 feet, which is where weight forward lines start to shoot better, but with less line control. Most of us don't have the need, or the ability, to roll cast longer than 45 feet. So, how do you decide which is the right taper for you? Double taper or weight forward? For short to medium casting range situations, there is no reason not to have a DT line rigged and ready. If you are consistently throwing longer casts, you can make them with fewer false casts with a WF line. But if the need arises, you lose the ability to do long roll casts and mends. For most, it doesn't make much difference which taper is used most of the time. Base your decision on DT versus WF on how much small fly, short distance fishing you do - when a delicate DT line like a Mastery Series XPS would offer advantages, against how much fishing you do where longer casts are needed - and the advantages of a WF line. Scientific Anglers offers taper diagrams on all its Mastery Series fly lines - providing the length of tip, front taper, belly and rear taper, and the total head length and running line length - on its web site at: www.scientificanglers.com ~ Bruce Richards, Scientific Anglers Have a question? Email me! Beginners Archives

For most fly anglers in normal fly-fishing situations, it probably doesn't make a lot of difference which taper you use. Most of us fish at distances less than 50 feet, which is where weight forward lines start to shoot better, but with less line control. Most of us don't have the need, or the ability, to roll cast longer than 45 feet. So, how do you decide which is the right taper for you? Double taper or weight forward? For short to medium casting range situations, there is no reason not to have a DT line rigged and ready. If you are consistently throwing longer casts, you can make them with fewer false casts with a WF line. But if the need arises, you lose the ability to do long roll casts and mends. For most, it doesn't make much difference which taper is used most of the time. Base your decision on DT versus WF on how much small fly, short distance fishing you do - when a delicate DT line like a Mastery Series XPS would offer advantages, against how much fishing you do where longer casts are needed - and the advantages of a WF line. Scientific Anglers offers taper diagrams on all its Mastery Series fly lines - providing the length of tip, front taper, belly and rear taper, and the total head length and running line length - on its web site at: www.scientificanglers.com ~ Bruce Richards, Scientific Anglers Have a question? Email me! Beginners Archives

So, how do you decide which is the right taper for you? Double taper or weight forward? For short to medium casting range situations, there is no reason not to have a DT line rigged and ready. If you are consistently throwing longer casts, you can make them with fewer false casts with a WF line. But if the need arises, you lose the ability to do long roll casts and mends. For most, it doesn't make much difference which taper is used most of the time. Base your decision on DT versus WF on how much small fly, short distance fishing you do - when a delicate DT line like a Mastery Series XPS would offer advantages, against how much fishing you do where longer casts are needed - and the advantages of a WF line. Scientific Anglers offers taper diagrams on all its Mastery Series fly lines - providing the length of tip, front taper, belly and rear taper, and the total head length and running line length - on its web site at: www.scientificanglers.com ~ Bruce Richards, Scientific Anglers Have a question? Email me! Beginners Archives

Scientific Anglers offers taper diagrams on all its Mastery Series fly lines - providing the length of tip, front taper, belly and rear taper, and the total head length and running line length - on its web site at: www.scientificanglers.com ~ Bruce Richards, Scientific Anglers Have a question? Email me! Beginners Archives

double roll & teethed roll crusher

double roll & teethed roll crusher

Although its brief period of popularity passed some thirty-odd years since, and only a few sets were installed before interest reverted to other types, the high-speed double roll crusher developed by Thomas A. Edison shortly before the end of the last century warrants a place in any discussion-of crushing equipment. In 1960, the largest machine of this type the 6 x 7 foot giant rolls were huge crushers, judged even by present-day standards; they have an unobstructed receiving opening 7 x 7 foot and their capacity on individual skip-loads of stone is enormous, although, as will be explained, they cannot maintain this peak capacity over a period of time.

Mechanically, the teethed roll crusher is a very simple machine. The two rolls are carried in bearings, supported on two very heavy and rigid bed castings which are secured on the concrete foundation by a number of large anchor bolts. The bearings, in addition to being bolted to these bed castings, are prevented from spreading by pairs of large tie-rods which pass through them above and below the roll shafts. Unlike the smooth-face crushing rolls we have described, these tension rods are not cushioned by springs. The machine is surmounted by a heavy cast rectangular hopper, all sides of which are vertical. Each roll is independently driven by a flat-belt pulley.

The roll-centres are octagonal in cross section, each face being provided with a spline groove and a series of tapped holes for securing the chilled- iron wearing plates. These wearing plates have the sledging knobs, or teeth, cast on their outer surfaces. Thus we have a roll surface that resembles that of the one rollcrusher, except that the faces of all teeth are sloped instead of radial on the advance side. The usual practice is to fit one roll entirely with so-called regular teeth, and the other roll with six rows of regulars and two rows of higher (slugger) teeth.

The peripheral speed, or tip-velocity, of these rolls is much higher than that of any of the machines we have previously described. The range of the smooth-face rolls, for example, is from about 400 ft/min for the small 12-in. rolls, to 2000-2200 feet/minute for the heavy-duty 72 machine. The single-roll crusher has a tip speed of 400-450 ft/min while the 6- x 7-ft teethed roll crusherhas a normal, no-load, surfaces speed of just under 3500 ft/min. It can be readily appreciated that this high velocity induces an extremely violent crushing action, in conjunction with the 3- to 4-in. knobs which protrude from the roll surfaces. Impact, sledging, and pressure crushing enter into the over-all performance; but impact, in this crusher, plays a far more important role than it does in the slower speed single-roll machine; and crushing, even well down along the roll faces, is more in the nature of a sledging action than it is of pressure crushing, for this action occurs in the lower-velocity crushers.

The theoretical maximum size of cube that the knobs will grip, when the rolls are set at minimum spacing, is 24; but the rolls will reduce any stone that can be introduced into the 7-ft square hopper. Large blocks will span across the tops of the two rolls; immediately the slugger teeth on the one roll so equipped go to work on these blocks and quickly shatter them into pieces that can be gripped between the sets of regular teeth; from this point on, the action is a mixture of sledging and pressure crushing. The same selective segregations which we described in connection with the single-roll machine occur in the double-roll crusher; the smaller pieces are cleared quickly, leaving the roils free to work on the larger blocks.

The entire performance on individual skip-loads of stone takes place in a very short period of time. Ten- ton loads of mixed-size medium limestone will clear the crusher in from 10 to 15 sec.; large single blocks, weighing from 6 to 8 tons, are crushed in from 5 to 20 seconds, depending upon the toughness of the individual piece, and upon the way it happens to land in the crushing chamber. These performances were clocked on ma-chines turning out a 6 product.

The short-time transfer of energy, especially when crushing large blocks, is very high; so high in fact that it would not be economically feasible to provide sufficient motive power to deliver it. The usual practice, when these rolls are driven electrically, is to drive the slugger roll with a 250 HP motor, and the regular roll with 200HP,a total of 450 HP. As compared to this motive power, instantaneous energy delivery may run as high as 4000 HP, obviously far beyond the capacity of the motive equipment. But the rolls themselves, when running at normal no-load speed, have a stored kinetic energy of upwards of 4,000,000 ft -lb , and it is this stored energy that does much of the actual crushing, the motors serving to bring the rolls back to normal speed between crushing periods. In crushing a skip-load of stone the rolls may lose anywhere from 30 to 60 RPMin speed; this loss occurs partly through slowing down of the motive equipment, and partly through belt slippage. It requires from 5 to 10 sec. to bring the machine back to speed, during which time the power input will vary from 400 to 600 HP. The power required to run the rolls empty is something less than 100 hp. The average power consumption, when crushing from 3000 to 4000 tons per 10 hour day will run in the neighbourhood of 150 HP on medium limestone.

While the average power consumption of this machine compares favorably with that of other types, the rather violent fluctuation outlined and the relatively high connected horsepower are unfavourable features. It is also natural to expect that the belt slippage we have noted would constitute something of a problem over a period of time. Performance records indicate that belt trouble accounts for about 50% of the total lost time on a set of these rolls, and about 25% of the total maintenance expense.

The type of quarry equipment most commonly used in conjunction with this crusher is the three-sided steel skip, carried on a flat-top truck or flat car. These skips are provided with a shackle on the rear end, which is engaged by a hook actuated by a small hoist. This apparatus slides the skip over against the lip of the receiving hopper, and tilts it to discharge its contents. The skips discharge over a feed-roll which retards the flow of material so that the entire load does not drop into the crushing chamber at once. When the skip is empty it is pulled back on to the truck or car by a counterweight attached to the opposite end of the same cable which performs the hoisting operation.

We have mentioned the heavily ribbed hopper which surmounts the frame and extends up to the level of the feed roll. This hopper serves the double purpose of directing the material into the crushing zone, and preventing stones thrown by the slugger teeth from flying out of the crusher. It is also necessary to cover the top of the hopper with heavy netting to contain flying spalls.The straight-sided, rectangular hopper construction, and the violent agitation in the crushing chamber, tend to minimize blocking and bridging in this crusher. When bridges do occur they are difficult and dangerous to break while the rolls are running.

Practically all that we have had to say about the application of the single-roll crusher will apply as well to the Edison toothed roll crusher. It is better adapted to handling blocky stone than is the single-roll machine, because itsslugging action is much more vigorous, and it will handle any material that will not build up on the sides of the vertical hopper. It is not as simple a machine to feed as the single roll crusher, because its narrow hopper necessitates the uses of skips, or very short-bodied cars. A heavy- duty apron feeder would of course solve this problem, but so far as we know, none of these crushers were so equipped. The high peak capacity of the crusher constitutes something of a problem in plants of medium capacity. It is not economically feasible to provide elevating or conveying equipment to handle peak loads of around 4000 TPH in a plant designed to turn out that much stone in an 8 or 10 hr day; consequently means must be provided to smooth out these high surge loads. This can be taken care of by a surge bin and feeder below the crusher, or by passing the roll product direct to a secondary crusher of uniform-capacity characteristic. A feeder ahead of the rolls would smooth out peaks on mixed feed but. once a 10 or 12 ton block of stone is dropped into the crusher, that quantity comes through very quickly as crushed stone, which would render the regulating properties of the feeder of questionable value.Modified forms of this crusher were used by Edison for secondary and tertiary stages. The crushing equipment in one large plant, for example, comprised a set of 6- x 7-ft rolls (8 product), a set of 4 x 4 feet secondary rolls (3.5 product), and a set of 4 x 3 ft tertiary rolls (1.5 product), these last rolls being in closed circuit. These smaller machines were also run at high speeds, their surface velocities being slightly over 3000 ft/min.

sealed double roll crusher rare earth materials - crushers, ball mills and flotation cells for mining and mineral beneficiation

sealed double roll crusher rare earth materials - crushers, ball mills and flotation cells for mining and mineral beneficiation

MPG series sealed double roll crusher is mainly for the special industry of rare earth materials, metallic oxide, furnace burden alloy and metallic silicon, etc. Especially the good sealed performance, it can isolate the air from the crushed material, and filled with inert gas to keep off materials oxidation , preventing fire and explosion.

1. Description MPG series sealed double roll crusher is mainly for the special industry of rare earth materials, metallic oxide, furnace burden alloy and metallic silicon, etc. the discharging size is fine and even, high-energy utilization efficiency, and able be adjusted in some scope. Especially the good sealed performance, it can isolate the air from the crushed material, and filled with inert gas to keep off materials oxidation , preventing fire and explosion. It is suitable for feeding size less than 5mm of solid brittleness material less than 250Mpa compressive strength. It is popular applied in several kinds of special industry.

ZJH mainly focus on producing and supply crushers, ore grinding equipment, mineral Beneficiation equipment, laboratory and pilot scale ore dressing equipment for Mining and Mineral Processing Industry. Our aim is to work together with Mines, Mineral Beneficiation Plantsfor helping to reduce the operating cost ,to improve the operating efficiency.

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