milling machine block diagram

milling machine block diagram

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Vertical milling machines may be provided with tilting heads ... The relation between chip thickness cutting forces and difference of position can be represented by a closed loop block diagram with feedback as in Figure 3.39 (Merrit 1965). Figure 3.39. Representation of the milling dynamics as a

The column and knee type milling machines are classified on the basis of various methods of supplying power to the table different movements of the table and different axis of rotation of the main spindle. Column and knee type milling machine comprises of the following important parts. 1. Base. 2. Column. 3. Saddle. 4. Table. 5. Elevating ...

What is CNC Machine - Main Parts Working Block Diagram ... In other words the use of computers to control machine tools like lathe mills slotter shaper etc is called CNC machine. The cutting operations performed by the CNC is called CNC machining in CNC machining programs are designed or prepared first and then it is fed to the CNC machine.

MODEL G8689 MINI MILLING MACHINE Product Dimensions: ... Limit Block N. Chip Shield. O. Spindle Cover. P. System Power Light. Q. Spindle Power Light. R. Column Lock S. Electrical Box T. Head Counterbalance Spring U. Cooling Fan V. Emergency Stop Button

Dec 09 2016 What is CNC MachineMain Parts Working Block Diagram Types of Milling Machine. Basically the milling machines are divided into two types first is horizontal milling machine and second one is vertical milling machine. They are further classified as knee-type ram-type manufacturing or bed type and planer-type milling machine.

Hello readers in today's article we will learn how a shaper machine works also we learn about the parts types operations specifications advantages disadvantages and applications of a shaper machine.. So let's start with the definition of a shaper machine. Shaper Machine Definition: The Shaper Machine is a reciprocating type of machine tool basically used to produce Horizontal Vertical ...

Basic milling machine configurations are shown in Figure 8-1. 8-2. TC 9-524 Do not attempt to tighten arbor nuts using machine power. When installing or removing milling cutters always hold them with a rag to prevent cutting your hands. While setting up work install the cutter last to avoid

The following is a list of all Parts Lists/Diagrams & Parts Price Lists available for download. If there is a particular document that is not available for download on our website please contact us. IMPORTANT: When contacting us for parts requests please provide your machine's model and serial number. Once you've determined which part(s) you need please fill out the Parts Request Form ...

Thank you for choosing H&W to be your supplier of parts for your Bridgeport Milling Machine. Whether it be for the base head or motor we carry a large inventory of parts for your mill. If you cannot find the part you are looking for give us a call at 800-285-5271 and one of our helpful staff personal will help you find exactly the part you ...

Milling machines have been influential in the world of production and manufacturing for decades. Without them countless innovations would've never seen the light of day. At the most basic level a milling machine uses rotating cutters to remove material from a solid block by feeding the cutter along a block of material.

Diagram of typical Bridgeport style milling machine head. ... a spacing block of the same thickness as the piece should be placed at the opposite end of the jaws. This will avoid strain on the movable jaw and prevent the piece from slipping. ... Milling machines are

4. Ladder diagram online monitoring and editing the storage of block diagrams (the interface is arbitrary graphics are not lost). 5. Support the handheld cell interface. 6. Support the function of the gantry shaft synchronization dynamic shaft release/capture and channel synchronization. 7.

The Standard milling machine arbor is usually splined and has keys used to lock each cutter to the arbor shaft. Arbors are supplied in various lengths and standard diameters. arbor milling diagram. The end of the arbor opposite the taper is supported by the arbor supports of the milling machine. Chat Online; MILLING MACHINE OPERATIONSHNSA

Dec 09 2016 What is CNC MachineMain Parts Working Block Diagram Types of Milling Machine. Basically the milling machines are divided into two types first is horizontal milling machine and second one is vertical milling machine. They are further classified as knee-type ram-type manufacturing or bed type and planer-type milling machine.

Crusher Machine. Innovative Crusher machine with perfect combination between crushing efficiency and operating cost . READ MORE. Raymond Mill. Adopting many advantages from various mills and the ideal substitute of the Raymond Mill. ... hammerimpact mill block diagram .

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Thank you for choosing H&W to be your supplier of parts for your Bridgeport Milling Machine. Whether it be for the base head or motor we carry a large inventory of parts for your mill. If you cannot find the part you are looking for give us a call at 800-285-5271 and one of our helpful staff personal will help you find exactly the part you ...

Quality low cost and high efficiency are built into our tools - they are guaranteed to pay their own way. Every day our machine tools are used to make parts across North America. Our commitment is to provide the type of cost-effective tools that can make parts production a profitable endeavor.

Put and clamp a vise onto the table (If you have a riser block on the machine you may have to block up the vise) Now crank the knee all the way up to the bottom of the head. Position the table with X and Y cranks so the spindle nose goes into the vise jaws Crank the knee up so the bottom of the spindle sets inside the vise jaws

CNC Milling Machine Axis Explained [Complete DIY Guide] [ CNC Milling Machine Parts Home] A CNC Milling's Axes are attached to the Machine Frame.. Their role is to provide motorized motion in each dimension as commanded by the control panel or g-code program through the controller.

MicroLux High-Precision Heavy-Duty R8 Miniature Milling Machine. LOWEST PRICE OF THE SEASON!!The only TRUE INCH machine of its kind on the market!The feature-packed design and robust construction of the MicroLux Milling Machine makes it well-suited for your most demanding model shop projects. Its smooth operation lets you put fine finishes not only on machinable metals but on

Basic milling machine configurations are shown in Figure 8-1. 8-2. TC 9-524 Do not attempt to tighten arbor nuts using machine power. When installing or removing milling cutters always hold them with a rag to prevent cutting your hands. While setting up work install the cutter last to avoid

rolling mill - an overview | sciencedirect topics

rolling mill - an overview | sciencedirect topics

The rolling mill facilities were designed to meet the production requirement of Table 1. The rolling mills complex was proposed to include a light and medium merchant mill with breakdown group of stands for rolling blooms into billets and an intermediate in-line heat compensating furnace; a wire rod mill; a medium merchant and structural mill; and a universal beam mill. Specialized workshops, common to all mills, would be installed for repair and maintenance, roll turning and bearing inspection. All the rolling mills were scheduled to operate three 8h shifts per day and 299 days per year.

Modern rolling mills, and specially cold tandem mills with high productivity, are equipped with a number of transducers participating in automatic control systems: rolling force (on exception rolling torques), strip tensions between stands, average gauge and thickness profile at exit, strip tension profile (shape measuring systems) between certain stands, sometimes temperature, parameters pertaining to profile and flatness actuators (forces, oil pressures, linear or angular position), lubricant outputs and temperature, coil length and weight, etc. Data logging from and process control through these transducers require a large computing capacity.

Control systems (e.g., control of thickness by the force, or of the thickness profile via the roll bending forces) require models linking the input and output parameters: for instance how much more load F is needed to change the exit thickness by h; this of course depends on all other rolling conditions and parameters, the working point. Simplified on line models are used to do this: they linearize the relationship (i.e., estimate F/h) around a certain working point. Artificial intelligence techniques are more and more used for this purpose. They may also be derived from more complex off-line models solving the thermo-mechanical equations of the system. Full account must then be taken of the coupling between the elastic deformation of the tools, the settings of the profile and flatness actuators, and the plastic deformation of the strip. The intensity of the coupling is all the stronger as thin, hard strip and high friction are considered. Such knowledge models may be complemented by a thermal analysis of the system, by lubrication and friction models, and by microstructure evolution models, all of which may also be coupled to the main thermo-mechanical analysis.

Soft annealed OF-Cu bars cut out from wire with 4.0, 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5mm in diameter were rolled flat with a reduction of 25, 50 and 75% respectively. For each combination of wire diameter and reduction five experiments were performed. The mean value of the resistance to forming out of these five experiments is used for comparison.

A precision rolling mill, built in 2003, with 140mm roll diameter of the Prymetall company was used for the experiments. During the rolling of the OF-Cu bars the rolling force was measured. There were no forward and backward tensions applied on the copper bars and rolling speed was reduced to a minimum of about 0.75m/min. The strip thickness h1 and breadth b1 were measured afterwards so that the contact area could be calculated.

Bars of 1.5m length were cut from 4.0, 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5mm diameter OF-Cu wire. The bars were annealed for 30min. at 400C and straightened afterwards. The stresses induced during the straightening were reduced by a second heat treatment for 15min. at 150C.

The resistance to forming in dependency of the wire diameter for each combination of wire diameter and reduction is plotted in Figure5. The combinations with the same reduction 25, 50 and 75% are marked with open circles, squares and triangles respectively and connected by grey coloured curves.

A tandem cold rolling mill usually consists of three to five stands of rollers, each of which reduces the strip thickness by about 20 to 40% so that the total reduction in one pass may be by a factor ten.

It has long been recognized that some, if not most, of the variations in thickness of strip produced by a cold-reduction mill have their origin in the hot rolling process. For example, it has been shown that in many coils of metal produced by a cold mill several heavy areas can be identified which result from water-cooled skids in the slab-heating furnace preceding the hot-strip mill. Another common characteristic on lines not using thickness gauges on the hot-strip mill is a gradual increase in thickness from beginning to end of the strip due to a slow decrease in temperature of the slab in the hot mill. It is the proper function of the cold-reduction mill to remove these variations within the coil and to keep the average thickness to the desired value.

The first step in the control of a tandem mill is to eliminate variations in thickness in the incoming strip. If the strip entering the second stand of the mill has a uniform thickness, then the second and all succeeding stands require little adjustment. The best way to achieve the required adjustment is to apply automatic screw control to the first stand.(23) At this point the steel is still relatively soft and moves slowly so that the mill screws have time to act.

Many tandem mills have contactor-operated, fixed-speed, screw-down motors, but on the most modern plant the screw motors are actuated by variable-speed systems incorporating rotary or magnetic amplifiers. Such plants lend themselves to fast, accurate control with gauges.

Several variables are, in principle, available to the control engineer for applying corrective action; for instance the screw setting on each stand and the inter-stand tension. In practice all but one or two of these are preset and thickness gauges are included only on the closed loop to control the remaining one or two variables. In the U.S.A. a method has been developed which uses a radioisotope instrument after the first stand to control the screws of this stand and a second gauge after the last stand to control the inter-stand tension. The first successful installation using automatic control of the first stand was made in 1953 and dual control of first and last stands was accomplished in 1955.(2326)

Figure 3.55(a) shows a portion of a chart recording the strip thickness after the first stand of a tandem mill producing steel plate for a tin-plate mill. At the time this recording was made, the screws were not being controlled automatically. The variations shown are typical. The gradual variation in thickness from beginning to end of the coil is apparent. Especially striking is the sudden change of thickness at the point where the head of one coil is welded to the tail of the preceding one. Figure 3.55(b) shows the chart from the same mill producing material to the same specification but with automatic screw control. It can be seen that the strip is being held almost entirely within the tolerance limits. When a sudden change occurs, the screw setting is changed as fast as the screw-down motors can be made to move.

A reversing, single-stand, cold reduction mill can be considered similar to the first stand of a tandem mill. Without instrumental control a great deal of skill is required to achieve uniform lateral and longitudinal thickness using a combination of screw-down on the reducing rollers and tension between the reducing rollers and the wind-on reel. By using a bremsstrahlung gauge to control automatically the screw-down pressure, the operator can concentrate on the other control.(2732) Two gauges are used, one on each side of the mill and the control circuits are switched automatically from one to the other as the mill reverses. With bremsstrahlung gauges, particularly in reversing mills which produce a wider range of alloys than do most tandem mills, a separate calibration curve is required for each metal, e.g. carbon steel, stainless steel, brass, etc.

The measuring head of a typical gauge used in such a control system is shown in Fig. 3.56.(2729), 31 This photograph was taken on the coiler-side of the mill. The operator first presets the required thickness on a dial (top right) and, when the strip is under tension, the measuring head is moved into position and the mill is accelerated. Automatic control is introduced at a predetermined threshold speed. If the operator adjusts the coil tension during the pass so as to improve uniformity in thickness across the strip, the resulting thickness change is immediately corrected.

FIG. 3.56. Bremsstrahlung gauge installed on a single stand reversing mill. The measuring head can be seen immediately above the steel strip before it is wound on the reel: the indicating unit and large-area deviation meter are mounted to the right of the measuring head. The operator is preparing to switch-in the automatic control system as the mill speed increases at the beginning of a new reel.

This mill is used to cold-roll brass and copper into thin sheets. It is not possible to use flying micrometers for thickness measurement of this material because of the high degree of surface finish which is required and the malleable nature of the material. The mill produces brass strip up to 40 cm width and 0.1 mm thickness at rolling speeds approaching 200 m/min. The thickness of brass on the ingoing side is 0.7 to 0.15 mm and the finished thickness is 0.12 mm. While the lower thickness limits are within the -gauge range, -gauges are limited to about 0.5 mm steel while with 90Sr/90Y/Al bremsstrahlung a range of about 0.1 to 10 mm can be covered.

The measuring head is located just before the reeler, as shown in Fig. 3.56, and the output is fed to the main electronic console which is remote from the mill. The minimum stable automatic control tolerance is 0.04 mm and the normal working tolerance is 0.004 mm.

On thin materials lower energy bremsstrahlung sources (e.g. 147Pm/Al) or -sources (3340) would be used. Bremsstrahlung gauges have the advantage over -gauges of covering a wider thickness range and of being less affected by the presence of oil used to roll the sheet.

A Hille-100 rolling mill with rolls of 225mm diameter and 254mm length, driven by a variable speed DC motor of 75 horse power, was used. The maximum rolling force, torque and speed are 1500kN, 13kN-m and 70rpm respectively. The sensor roll nitrided surface hardness is 65 to 70 HRC. The diameter of the top and bottom roll were 254.2mm and the average roughness (Ra) of the roll surface was 0.15m. Aluminum alloy H5052-H34, carbon steel and lubricant Rolkleen 485A were used in the experiment.

The automation of hot rolling mills has matured such that the control system has been organized in hierarchical levels. At the topmost is what is known as level 3, which has the production planning and control function. This level is responsible for setting the optimized production for production orders and feeds the raw material and target product information to the next lower level of control. Level 3 also collects product information resulting from the rolling process and saves it in databases for future retrieval.

The next lower level of control, level 2, is known as process automation, where each product is rolled and tracked individually in the plant. This function also contains mathematical models which calculate the optimum rolling set-ups for the mill (e.g. gap, speed, force, temperatures).

The next lower level of control, level 1, is the basic automation which controls the basic sequences and automation functions of the individual equipment in the hot mill. These may include dedicated technological functions, such as automatic gage control, width control, temperature control, in the laminar flow system and others.

Let us revisit the rolling mill introduced in Chapters 1 and 3. It was decided to use drawing force and roll gap as control inputs and keep the rolling speed constant; the input thickness cannot be manipulated and will be used for feedforward control. So, for the feedforward and feedback control of the process, a 3-input 1-output model needs to be identified; see Fig. 4.3.1.

Remark. There is a principal difference between the output disturbance v(t) and the residual (t), although they appear at the same place in equations (4.3.2) and (4.3.3). The term v(t) accounts for the effect of all the unmeasured disturbances acting at the process output; the term (t) is used to account for model misfit which is a function of model parameters, (t) = (t, ). Note that in equation (4.3.2) the parameters are fixed (unknown) true values; in equation (4.3.3) the parameters are the variables to be estimated.

For the model estimation input-output data are collected, where u1 (drawing force) and u2(roll gap) are driven by two PRBS test signals, and u3 (input thickness) is measured disturbance. Denote the data sequence as

After the pretreatment of the data, a FIR model is estimated. Then the model fit is checked using a data sequence from another PRBS experiment. Figure 4.3.2 shows part of the measured exit thickness and the simulated one. The power of the simulation error is about 5% of that of the output. For control purposes this is an accurate model.

Feedback and feedforward controllers have been designed based on the identified model, and on extensive simulations of the control system. Figure 4.3.3 shows the control scheme. There is a large measurement delay at the output due to the placement of the thickness meter. In such a case the feedback controller is only effective at low frequencies, which means that only slow disturbances can be compensated for by the feedback loop. Thus, if possible, a feedforward controller should to be used to compensate for fast disturbances.

According to simulation of the controlled system, a considerable reduction of thickness variation can be achieved by the designed controllers. The industrial tests have confirmed this. Figure 4.3.4shows the measured strip thickness during manual control and during computer control respectively. A 70% reduction of standard deviation has been realized! This is considered to be a big achievement.

Fig. 15.1 shows the micro flexible rolling (MFR) mill systems, including rolling set system, driving system, and operation panel. The mill stand consists of a mill house containing two cylindrical work rolls, which perform the reduction. The rolling force can be measured by a load cell.

Fig. 15.2 shows the driving device. This universal joint has increased joint twist angle, improved drive dynamic performance, increased drive service life, noiseless operation, and high performance in transferring the required torque.

Fig. 15.3 illustrates roll screw down system. Roll position is controlled by a closed loop position regulator that automatically adjusts the flow according to a hydraulic servo valve. There are regulators on both sides of operator and drive, respectively. Both sides are coupled together by software control. The control maintains the level of two sides when they move together. The hydraulic cylinders set the pass line and change gap opening while rolling to maintain strip thickness. The position regulator calculates the error between the reference and feedback position. The error is used by a speed balance control to keep either the operator or drive side from lagging behind during long movements of both sides. The control acts by reducing the servo valve flow command for the side with the smaller error and increasing it for the side with the larger error. Hydraulic cylinder control also includes a total force regulator with a differential position loop to maintain the stand level.

Generally speaking, flexible rolling can be performed by changing the roll gap during rolling [1]. The difficulty is the precise control of size and shape of longitudinal section in each variable thickness region, and the control is usually accomplished using absolute automatic gage control. In order to obtain the products with various thicknesses, rolling mill and its control system need to have the following characteristics and capabilities: rolling mill with high stiffness; stand and roll system with good manufacturing accuracy; main motor with sufficient power margin, good speed response characteristics, and regulating performance; hydraulic system with fast response, especially the servo valve and cylinder with high frequency response characteristics; the absolute Automatic Gauge Control (AGC) system and high-precision mathematical models; good detectors for rolling parameters, such as workpiece and rolling speed, displacement, force and energy, and data acquisition and processing system. It is better to have the self-learning function in the process control system.

The operation of the work planning system (see Figure9.10), was based on a multiterminal maintenance documentation system. The system had a manual loop, i.e. work request to the unit engineer, he vetted it and entered it into the backlog. The downshift program was established at a Wednesday meeting and was in the hands of the core team planner on Thursday before the downday (the Monday).

Cost control maintenance documentation and spares management were briefly examined. They seemed to be generally satisfactory. The reporting of the top ten low reliability and high maintenance cost areas good. The quality of history recording compared well with that of the top quartile of maintenance departments I have audited.

Because of the Hot Mill problem, I concentrated my efforts on plant reliability control system (PRC). The overriding purpose of a PRC system is the identification and eradication of reliability hotspots. Figure9.11 shows the three levels of organizational effort necessary to carry this out. (PRC is discussed in depth in Maintenance Systems and Documentation.)

Within the team procedures, a level 1 system was in operation. In terms of concept and philosophy it was a good system and worked well for all the teams, with the exception of the Hot Mill team. This was in part due to the reactive nature of maintenance which was preventing the unit engineer/team from concentrating on designing out unreliability.

The level 2 and 3 systems were not operating in a satisfactory way, in particular in the Hot Mill area. This was caused by:lack of definition of the PRC system and of the roles within the system;lack of enthusiasm on the part of the project engineers for helping with maintenance problems, they felt they should concentrate on new projects;too few professional maintenance engineers in the centralized maintenance group.

In a squirrel cage motor the rotor winding is made of solid metallic rods short-circuited at both ends of the rotor. Short-circuiting of rotor bars leads to fixed rotor parameters. In slip-ring motors the rotor is also wound like the stator and the six winding terminals are connected to a slip-ring assembly. This gives an opportunity to vary the rotor circuit impedance by adding external resistance and thus vary the rotor circuit parameters to achieve the required performance.

Although it may seem easy to alter the speedtorque and speedcurrent characteristics of such a motor through its rotor circuit, the use of such motors is recommended only for specific applications where the use of a squirrel cage motor may not be suitable. The reason is its slip-rings and the brushes which are a source of constant maintenance due to arcing between the rings and the brushes, besides a much higher initial cost and equally expensive control gears.

Note The latest trend, however, is to select only squirrel cage motors as far as practicable and yet fulfil most of the above load requirements. Fluid couplings and static (IGBT or thyristor) drives can meet the above requirements by starting at no load or light load and controlling the speed as desired, besides undertaking energy conservation. See also Chapters 6 and 8.

Because of heavy start-up inrush currents, the use of LT motors should be preferred up to a medium sized ratings, say, up to 160 kW, in squirrel cage motors and up to 750 kW in slip-ring motors. For still higher ratings, HT motors should be used.

dynamic modelling and simulation of a hot strip finishing mill - sciencedirect

dynamic modelling and simulation of a hot strip finishing mill - sciencedirect

Hot rolling is an essential industrial process in the production of sheet steel, a widely used product in manufacturing and construction. A finishing mill performs a set of operations in a hot strip rolling mill, and is a complex unit including many processes and control loops. Its modelling is a challenging task due to the variety of phenomena that occur within the mill, and variable transport delays. Model validation is also challenging due to a scarcity of measurements. On the other hand, a dynamic model that adequately reflects the numerous interactions between the mill units can be very useful for tasks such as high performance control design or vibration analysis. In this study, a one-dimensional model has been developed and validated against real plant data. The end use of the model is intended to be looper control analysis, but the model is kept sufficiently general so that it can be used or easily extended for other applications.

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