blasting principles

blasting principles

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A term commonly applied for mining development and civil tunnelling. It is the distance by which the face of tunnel is progressed and may be described as distance per blast or distance per unit time (shift, day, week, or month).

Pressure pulses in air (often not audible), which are generated by blasting. Routine blasting operations using explosives in properly confined blastholes do not generate excessive airblast overpressures.

Ammonium Nitrate Emulsion (also called EP or Emulsion Phase) is ammonium nitrate dissolved in water and suspended in oil. It is an oxidising agent used to manufacture a range of bulk blasting agents. The oil surface gives emulsion based products improved water resistance.

ANFO is the simplest commercial explosive available. This free flowing mixture of porous prilled Ammonium Nitrate and Fuel Oil is formulated to be oxygen balanced in dry blastholes and is very quickly dissolved by water.

The density of a substance is its mass per unit volume, usually expressed as kilograms per cubic metre (or grams per cubic centimetre). Generally a higher density explosive provides more energy per unit of space. Commercial explosives have a volume between 0.3 g/m3 and 1.7 g/m3. The density range of the most common mining explosives is 0.9kg/m3 to 1.3 kg/m3.

A device containing a small amount of explosive, a signal transmitter and in some cases a timing mechanism, usually enclosed in a cylindrical metal shell. It is used to initiate less sensitive or secondary explosives. Modern blasting relies on detonators for the safe and precise control of explosive energy release to achieve desired blast outcomes.

Electronic detonators differ from electric and non-electric delay systems in that the delay time is controlled by a programmed integrated circuit resulting in a high level of safety and very precise timing.

A large excavation machine used mainly in surface coal mining to remove overburden (layers of waste rock and soil) covering a coal seam. The machine drags a large steel bucket through waste material using cables.

The amount of energy a user can expect to have available to do effective work. It is calculated as the total energy released by explosive gases as they expand and do useful work from initial detonation pressure to a cut-off pressure of 100 MPa (1,000 atmospheres).

An emulsion is a physical mixture of two immiscible liquids (often water and oil) formed by shearing discrete droplets of one liquid phase into a continuous phase of the other liquid. A surfactant called an emulsifier is used to maintain the stability of the mixture. Emulsion explosives typically comprise an ammonium nitrate solution in a continuous oil phase.

used rock crushers for sale - used stone crushers | cat used

used rock crushers for sale - used stone crushers | cat used

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Reducing the size of rocks and stones is an essential process in industries such as quarry and aggregates, construction, mining and material recycling. Cat Used is your one-stop repository for rugged, dependable used rock crushers for sale that will increase productivity and efficiency at your job sites. Used crushing plants are available via the global Cat dealership network. Work with a reputable dealer that can provide aftermarket support and service.

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Main Products: Mobile Crushing Plant, Crushing Machine, Jaw Crusher, Cone Crusher, Portable Crusher, Impact Crusher, Sand Making Machines, Aggregate Plant, Stone Crusher, Rock Crusher

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