mini gold melting furnace, portable machine for silver and gold jewelry

mini gold melting furnace, portable machine for silver and gold jewelry

This small gold smelting machine can in no time reach a maximum temperature of 1600. This features also makes this machine for melting other metals. Metals such as silver, copper and aluminum, just to mention a few.

Increased efficiency- The efficiency of a gold melting machine closely relates to its power requirements. The high voltage primary coil in thegold melting machineallows the furnace to heat up quickly providing higher thermal efficiency for all round melting.

Reduced cost of operation- The financial implication of running yourgold melting machinegoes hand in hand with energy efficiency. The use of ajewelry furnacereduces power consumption, therefore, saving production cost.

Improved metallurgical function- The principle behind induction melting revolves around the use of high voltage primary coil to generate an electromagnetic current that heats the metal. The induction furnace performs a function called electromagnetic stirring which causes molten metal to become even or uniform for casting.

Cleaner melting operations- The gold melting machinehas a less negative impact on the environment compared to electrical furnaces. Thisjewelry furnacereduces the emissions of gas, smoke and dust associated with other types of furnaces.

Induction melting furnaces operate on a radically different principle to the cupola version. The induction furnace uses coil heating elements embedded within a crucible or integrated into the walls of the heating chamber itself and produces a magnetic field. These convert electrical energy into heat which is radiated through the material with an outstanding degree of thermal uniformity. The magnetic field can change directions depending on the direction of the current flow. An alternating current that passes through the coil causes a magnetic field that changes in the same direction at the same speed as the current. For instance, a magnetic field switches directions 60 times a second if the current is 60Hz AC.

Metal melts at different temperatures and may require certain types of melting furnaces. Metal melting requires a lot of heat. Melting furnaces commonly used in melting metals are; induction, cupola, electric arc furnaces, etc.

The induction heating is an efficient process of melting metals. Induction heating has a minimal wasted energy with direct transfer of energy to the part being heated. This high efficiency results in significant power savings. Induction heating proves to be a highly efficient method for industrial heating applications.

Compared to torch and oven heating, induction heating has a number of advantages, such as; induction transfers more power to the load, no ramp up, does not heat up a working environment that may lead to energy wastage.

Induction furnaces do not have a limit to the temperature that they can melt. The gold melting machinetemperature can be as high as 3000 degree celsius. Therefore making it suitable for precious metal melting. For platinum group melting, the required heating temperature is usually 2000 degree celsius.

Crucibles for metal melting generally have a higher melting temperature compared to the material being melted. Crucibles for melting metal in a jewelry furnaceare graphite crucibles, silicon carbide crucible, quartz crucible, etc.

The induction furnace is heated faster and has a higher thermal efficiency. The heat in this furnace is generated inside the furnace so that heating speed is high. In an electric arc furnace, the heat of the arc after the material is cleared must be transferred to the molten metal through the slag which is indirect heating. Thermal efficiency is poor as heat of arc is lost through furnace cover and wall.

Melting and smelting are similar terms used to convert a solid material into liquid especially in metallurgy. Melting simply means the process of converting the entire solid material into liquid when heating in agold melting machine. Melting is also called fusion. During melting, the internal energy of the substance increases by heating.

Smelting on the other hand is not only the conversion of solid material into liquid state but also removes metal from its ore in its purest form. An ore is a naturally occurring solid mineral from which a metal or valuable mineral can be extracted. The smelting process has two requirements; heat treatment and reducing agents.

Borax plays an important role during the gold refining process. Borax is placed along with gold ore in a crucible and then heated. The heating action is what triggers the borax to work. The borax is responsible for separating the gold from its ore and purifying the metal. As all material melt down, they separate from one another. As the process continues, the borax causes the other minerals to oxidize and break down even further. Gold is unaffected by this reaction, it sinks to the bottom of the crucible intact.

Due to the affordability of borax and effectiveness at extracting gold, borax-based refining technique was popular during the 19th century gold rush. It still continues today among individual prospectors and different scales of mining operations.

After the slag has been heated for long enough, the molten gold begins to dissolve away. Allow the gold to slip down into the smelting vessel. After this has occurred, allow the gold to cool, remove from the smelting vessel and remove the slag.

Unwanted gold can be melted and used to make other types of jewelries. Gold jewelry can be melted using the following methods: propane torch, gold melting machine, resistance furnace or a 1200 watt microwave oven.

Of all the methods of melting gold jewelry, the gold melting machine method is highly recommended. The gold melting machine is highly efficient for both small and large size gold production. This method is also efficient because the heating system is produced from the alternating magnetic current and directed into the crucible, hence no energy is lost.

A process of separating gold from its ore is referred to as cupellation. This process involves treating ores under high temperatures to separate noble metals such as gold and silver from base metals. Base metals such as copper, zinc and lead will oxidize whereas noble metals will not oxidize. Cupellation involves melting gold ore at temperatures in excess of 960 degree celsius, at this temperature, the base metals oxidize while the gold remains on top of the solution. In other words, gold is extracted from its ore and heated in an induction furnace at 1064 degree celsius, in order to elevate the gold above its melting point.

Many impurities are burned off in the furnace, other metals remain. Gold ore extracted from mines in the earth contains a significant amount of impurities, including traces of other metals. In order to separate the gold from other metals, chemicals such as cyanide solution or mercury are introduced to the gold. This process causes the gold to coagulate, and form nuggets and clumps of gold.

Another process of removing impurities out of gold is to place thegold ore in a crucible. Put the crucible in agold melting machine. Heat to 1,100 degrees Celsius. Dross will rise to the surface. Periodically remove the crucible from the furnace and skim the impurities off the surface of the molten gold. Stir the gold after each removal of dross and before returning it to the furnace. Repeat this process until dross stops rising to the surface.

Faster charging speed- charging should be done rapidly and metal should be put into the furnace as fast as the furnace is able to melt it under full power. A faster automatic charging system can reduce energy consumption.

Avoid overfilling- Overfilling the furnace, that is, having cold charge materials lying above the upper melt line level recommended by the furnace manufacturer will cause wasted energy. The problem is twofold. First, this will cause overheating of the jewelry melting furnace components in the top part of the furnace leading to energy loss. Second, with the furnace overfilled, the lid cannot be closed.

Keep a lid on- The best way to reduce heat loss through radiation is by keeping the lid on. This means closing thejewelry melting furnacelid very quickly after adding charge material and after taking temperatures or adding alloying materials.

In the electric arc furnace, the heat of the arc after the material is cleared must be transferred to the molten metal through the slag, which is indirect heating. Thermal efficiency is poor. The furnace is in the shape of a basin, and plenty of the heat of the arc is lost through the furnace cover and the furnace wall. While the induction furnace is heated faster and has higher thermal efficiency. The heat is generated in the furnace, so the heating speed is high.

One of the advantages of thegold melting machineis its use of less electricity compared to other types of furnaces. The heat generated by the furnace is used within thejewelrymelting furnace, no heat escapes to cause extra electricity charges. The jewelry melting furnaceis highly energy efficient and can help you save up to 50% of energy used in smelting and melting metals. The jewelry melting furnaceis integrated with a power supply capable of producing heat with lower rates of heat loss. For instance, a gold melting machinecan melt metal of up to 1450 degree celsius using less than 600kWh of electricity.

Gold melts at 1064 degree celsius. The boiling point of gold occurs at 2845 degree celsius. Pure gold melts at 1064 degree celsius but if other alloys are present (copper is the most commonly used base metal), then the temperature required to melt gold will vary. Due to the softness of pure gold (24 karat), it is usually alloyed with base metals for use in jewelry thereby, altering its ductility, melting point, colour and other properties. Alloys with lower karat ratings, for instance 22k, 18k, 14k or 10k contain higher percentages of copper or other base metals or silver or palladium in their alloys.

The melting of gold is not the only method to regain raw material for the production of new jewelry, coin, industrial or dental gold. Another method of determining the degree of purity and quality of gold is through the XRF analysis method.

Borax allows you to melt your gold in a pure and harmless manner. The quantity of borax for melting in a gold melting machinewill be determined by the quantity of gold to be melted. With some borax and heat, it is possible to extract gold from a simple ore. Once the borax melts, it lowers the melting temperature of everything in the ore.

Generally when melting gold, a small amount of borax is needed for melting. Traditionally, for gold melting, flux mixture should contain 40 to 50% of borax, 10 to 15% of soda ash and 1 to 5% of silica.

Smelting gold is accomplished by using high pressure, heat and various chemicals to break down the ore and melt the gold to separate it from impurities. To extract gold from its ore, the temperature must be at1046 degree celsius.

The first step in the process of smelting gold is the preparation of flux. The most common forms of flux used in gold smelting are borax, sodium nitrate, and silica. The percentage of these fluxes varies and it depends on the composition of the precipitate. These fluxes are necessary to bring impurities to the surface.

When the mixture of the flux and gold are placed in a gold melting machine, both materials melt in the furnace. Thejewelry furnaceis heated to high temperatures exceeding 900 degree celsius. After the mixture melts, the precious metal and impurities separate. This is the aim of the entire procedure. Gold is denser than most impurities in it. This allows the gold to settle down.

In the smelting process, the most important aspect is separating the impurities and flux from gold. Gold settles at the base of the crucible after melting, this makes it easy to drain the impurities that have risen to the top. This leaves the gold at the bottom of the furnace crucible that can be poured into a mold.

A cast iron can be used for smelting gold but it is recommended to use a graphite crucible for smelting. Using a cast iron will result in loss of precious metal, contamination of precious metal and a slower smelting process. For an effective smelting process, a cast iron cannot fit into a jewelry cruciblerather an open stove or kiln, which cant really get to the temperature you need to smelt gold. Smelting in a cast iron will not remove any impurities.

Using a cast iron for smelting can cause the cast iron itself to reach its melting point before completing the gold smelting process. Therefore, we recommend you use a graphite crucible for smelting gold.

To smelt your gold at home, you need access to a high temperature gold and silver smelting equipment. Determine the size of silver you want to smelt. This will tell the size of the smelting equipment you need. Although most do it yourself smelting requires a mini sized furnace.

You can remove the most common metal in silver ore using elements that bond with oxygen at lower temperatures than silver. This oxidation process will make copper oxide, zinc oxide and lead oxide to float on top of the crucible allowing the slag to be removed.

Load the solid silver ore into your crucible and set in the smelting equipment. Silver melts at 962 degree celsius. Heat up the smelting equipmentand allow the silver to melt. When the mixture becomes liquid, impurities from the silver ore rises to the surface and can be skimmed off to leave pure silver behind.

Gold melts at a temperature of 1064 degree celsius while silver melts at 961.8 degree celsius. To alloy these two metals, melt the gold to hot liquid, add the silver metal. This will dissolve immediately in the blazen liquid gold.

Once the flames turn from bright orange to a bright yellow, this confirms that your metal is thoroughly atomically combined which is important to assure a well-rounded metal alloy. If the metals are not well blended, they may be problematic at the production phase.

Maximize the use of your smelting equipment- One of the best ways one can reduce how much energy their smelting equipmentuses is by using the equipment more effectively. Short holding times can improve the efficiency of your smelting equipment, because longer holding time requires more energy consumption.

Make any necessary changes to your operating procedures- Another great way to reduce your smelting equipmentenergy consumption is by replacing your current melting equipment. Ensure you give your foundry a thorough investigation to determine some of the best operational changes that you can make to cut down on energy use.

Boost your charging speed- Apart from long holding times, charging speed can also have a major impact on the use of your smelting equipment. Long charging times caused by manual or magnetic crane charging can lead to more energy use. You want your charging to be done rapidly and efficiently, use automatic charging systems.

Streamline your temperature measurement- When you check the temperature of the smelting equipmentregularly, you are losing valuable time and wasting needed energy. By using a computerized temperature control system, you can reduce the need to check furnace temperature.

Different methods can be used to melt gold dust; gas torch, gas furnace, electric furnace, coal furnace. Gold dust can be wasted when melted with a gas torch. Here is how to melt gold dust using a induction furnace:Add a very little amount of borax into the furnace before placing your gold dust.You can go ahead to add some flux, flux is a mixture of borax and sodium carbonate. You can mix it with gold dust before melting or during melting.Go ahead and melt the content of the crucible.

Induction heating can be as low as 100 degree celsius and as high as 3000 degree celsius. The temperature of a gold smelting equipmentwith a graphite crucible can reach 1600 degree celsius suitable for melting gold, silver, stainless steel and copper. Higher melting metals such as platinum group metals whose melting temperature can reach 2000 degree celsius can be melted easily with an induction heat.

gold smelting kits - gold prospecting mining equipment detectors snake protection

gold smelting kits - gold prospecting mining equipment detectors snake protection

Spiral panners and other equipment work, but can be a little slow. Did you know there's another method to consider? Burn it with the new Microwave Gold Smelting Kiln and Kit! Keep the nuggets and pickers and smelt the rest! All you need is a 1200 watt microwave with the magnetron on the side or rear (a magnetron on the top doesn't work as well) that is located out in your garage or shop (don't use the one in your kitchen), a few tools, and you are on your way to smelting your own gold at home! Watch the video first to get an overview of how the process works, then read the details below...

First of all, you must have gold or silver in your concentrates to begin with and the more of it the better. The microwave gold smelting kiln is a tool for smelting only. It does not separate out the precious metals that are in your concentrates. You still need to have your end product called "buttons" assayed to determine its purity and content. You can also use the Microwave Gold Smelting Kit to smelt precious metals from computer parts, from old beat-up coins you cannot sell, from old sterling silver silverware, and from your unwanted scrap gold and silver jewelry (use wire cutters to cut the chains into one inch pieces). You may want to check out our Gold Testing Kits. Always wear protective clothing and eye protection when using the Microwave Gold Processing Kit! A description of the Kit's main components are as follows: The gold smelting kiln is comprised of the highest quality, high density, no-smoke, high temperature refractory ceramic fiber kiln lining insulation available that is microwave transparent (allows microwaves to go through the material). It has been coated with a silica based rigidizer at the factory to improve the compressive strength of the fiber board and to minimize the potential of dusting, and is suitable for applications up to 2300F (1260C). The kiln acts as a thermal insulator to prevent the microwave from being damaged and overheating during the smelting process. Kiln is 9.5 inches tall. The kiln shelf is made of high alumina, which is microwave transparent (allows microwaves to go through the material). It is dense and less susceptible to warping and is safe to use up to 2400F degrees. Your kiln shelf should be dry and protected from moisture at all times. Due to the high temperatures achieved in the microwave process, all kiln shelves will eventually crack due to thermal shock and you may notice a small hairline crack after using it. This is cosmetic only and does not affect the structural integrity of the shelf. Flux material (specially formulated and designed for the microwave process) is mixed with your concentrates before smelting. The flux protects the crucible, allows plasma arcing to occur, and refines the gold processed to a higher degree of purity. When firing, black sands concentrates, iron oxides, etc. are held in suspension by the flux so that the precious metals can be separated and poured into the mold as liquid metal. Store the flux in a dry and safe location, away from children and pets. Wear your dust mask and gloves when mixing the flux and concentrates together. Crucibles go into the kiln and are the "clay pots" that contain your mix of flux and concentrates (or scrap jewelry or old coins you want to melt down). Crucibles can be used several times until the wall becomes too thin. Flux coating on the inside helps them last. Only clay crucibles are microwave transparent (allows microwaves to go through the material). The crucible inside the kiln will ultimately reach temperatures in excess of 2300 degrees Fahrenheit! Make sure there is 1 of space between the top of the crucible and the kiln lid. When crucibles are placed inside the kiln, they absorb most of the microwave energy and only allow a small amount ofit to pass through them into the interior where the conductive flux and metals are contained. As a result the crucibles will get very hot, however the plasma arcing that takes place inside of clay crucibles is greatly reduced. In other words, your heat is now a radiant heat from the crucible penetrating inward, rather than the plasma arcing and heating taking place directly inside of the clay type crucible. Always keep your crucibles completely dry; the slightest bit of moisture can cause a crucible to crack upon heating. Season crucibles before use be heating the empty crucible inside the kiln in microwave for 15 minutes. Remove the kiln and crucible from the microwave and allow it to cool. Repeat this process again for15 minutes the second time. This drives off any moisture in the crucible, making it ready to receive its first charge. The conical mold is cast iron. Always pre-heat the cast iron mold to drive off any moisture before pouring into it and to prevent HOT splatters from occurring. After pouring the molten flux mixture into the conical mold, the cooling process begins. The molten flux is actually a form of borosilicate glass and, during the cooling process, the glass will shrink and crack. Often times during the cooling period, small shards of glass will fly outward, so keep kids and pets out of the area and wear safety goggles and protective clothing. After the mold and the borosilicate glass have cooled, invert the mold and the conical shaped glass will drop out of the mold. The smelted metal button of gold or silver will be on top of the conical shaped glass. Shop for other molds on Amazon. Download a .pdf here containing more instructions and details about the Microwave Gold Kiln Process.

DISCLAIMER: No guarantee is given on the amount of gold or silver obtained from this process, as it depends upon the quality of your concentrates. The kiln is not a toy and is not to be used by children. This kiln generates temperatures in excess of 2300 degrees! Please do not allow children or pets in the room when you are firing! Use at your own risk and follow all recommended and common-sense safety precautions. Seller and manufacturer are not responsible for accidents or injuries caused by hot kilns. By purchasing the Microwave Gold Kiln or Kits, the purchaser acknowledges this and agrees to use at his or her own risk.

Sensor or Inverter microwaves will only operate at high power for approximately 30 minutes. After 30 minutes or so, the microwave will reduce the power output to 80% and begin to cycle the magnetron on for 20 seconds, then, off for 10 seconds. You cannot reach smelting temperatures operating on lowered power output like that in a reasonable time frame. Simply stopping the microwave and resetting the time and power level will not force the microwave to operate at the full power output mode.

Additionally: Elevate the microwave a couple of inches off the surface and place a small fan behind it to dissipate the heat coming from the microwave and help keep the magnetron cooler while operating.

The definitive book on how to perform fire assays inside a microwave, along with cupelling with the new Kwik Kiln. This book can be included with your Microwave Kiln or Kwik Kiln. Click here to purchase.

Book Review - May 2014 "A very thorough yet concise book written by inventor and prospector Patrick Moulton. At 92 pages, this book is not like most books about fire assay which typically speak over the average prospector's head. Moulton has done an excellent job giving readers technical specifications for proper noble mineral recovery from a variety of common ores without the reader becoming confused. The book includes information in technical terms and general terms so readers can comprehend the process of melting metals and processing ore through a fire assay. Very helpful information on how to mix fluxes, prepare your crucible, melt gold and silver, and how to stay safe doing it. Additionally, Moulton introduces two pieces of equipment every small scale miner should own: The Microwave Gold Kiln and small Kwik Kiln. Both furnaces offer the sampling or melting of small batches of material without expending a tremendous amount of energy or time. This book explains the fundamentals of the fire assay and cupellation process in terms even beginners can understand, but provides enough information for a lifetime. Two thumbs up! " - Josh Turpin, High Plains Prospectors, LLC

gold melting furnace, ce approved gold smelting machine for sale

gold melting furnace, ce approved gold smelting machine for sale

Induction gold melting furnace is based on the latest and most advanced IGBT induction technology, the top speedy melting could be realized within 2-4 minutes. The crucible is extractable by means of matched tong.

Foundry is one of the most energy intensive metallurgical industries. Various sections of foundry melt, pattern making, melting, core making compressed air, etc. Knowing the amount of energy needed to run a foundry, foundry owners are looking for means to save the cost of energy in some part of the metallurgical business by efficient and optimal running of furnaces.

The furnaces commonly used in foundries are cupola furnaces and foundry induction furnaces. In induction melting, a medium frequency furnace is found to be more energy efficient when compared to the cupola furnace. The feature of the medium frequency furnace is its high rate of power input resulting in less melting time. It can be run as batch type where full metal of a heat can be tapped out and the next heat can be started with solid charge making it more energy efficient than line frequency furnace.

Smelting is the process by which a metal is obtained either as an element or as a simple compound, from its ore by heating beyond the melting point with the presence of oxidizing agents such as flux. In other words, smelting is the process of applying heat to ore in order to extract a base metal. For example, extracting gold from its ore.

9999 gold represents gold that is 99.9% pure. Superbmelt produces clean and efficient induction precious metal melting furnaces. These induction gold melting furnacesare used in processing gold, silver and platinum group metals. We ensure our technologies increase metal recovery and lower processing costs in each step of production.

The first thing to do when separating gold from other elements is place the ore in the heated crucible, remove the crucible and allow some of the metallic mixture to cool down. Add some nitric acid and hydrochloric acid to the metallic mixture, the acid will dissolve other metals and you have the gold left at the base of the crucible.

Getting gold from gold ore requires the process referred to as smelting. The ore is placed in an induction furnace crucible with a mixture of flux. This flux is responsible for quick and easy removal from gold from its ore as well as removing impurities. The induction gold smelting furnaceis then fired up at 1149 degree celsius. After heating, the impurities flow up while the gold remains at the base of the crucible. Scoop out the slag and pour your gold into a mold, which are referred to as dore bars after they are melted.

Submerge unrefined gold in a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids. This method will dissolve the ore and separate the gold from impurities, which can later be washed away. The remaining substances will be water and gold, the latter having a high purity level.

Silvers melting temperature is 961 degree celsius, which is higher than gold. Melting gold is easy when compared to silver, but like every other metal, melting silver is not difficult. You can melt silver at home when you follow the right procedure, using the right equipment.

There are a lot of ways silver can be melted but we will explain how silver is melted with borax. Borax is used to melt the metal because it helps in softening and dissolving the oxidized layer from the ore. This process is known as borax flush, which helps in exposing the fresh layer of the metal for further use.

Place your silver in a melting crucible and ensure it is large enough to hold the metal when it starts boiling. If the material you are melting is more, it is advisable to melt in batches. Melting in batches will enable a fast melting process.

You can use a gold induction furnaceto melt the silver in the crucible. The time taken to melt this metal can be easily monitored with an induction gold melting furnace compared to when you use a propane torch.

Induction heating finds applications in processes where temperature can be as low as 100 degree celsius and as high as 3000 degree celsius. It is also used in short heating processes lasting for less than half a second.

Safety- The electric gold melting furnaceis safer to use in terms of its alarm system that warns users of error that can lead to dangers; and the fact that there is no emission of noise and odour that can be harmful to health.

Induction heating is simply a method of transferring heat energy. Two laws that govern induction heating are: Electromagnetic induction and the joule effect. The gold melting furnace inductor is usually made of copper to limit electric losses. The inductor in almost all cases is internally water cooled. The gold melting furnaceconsists of a crucible made up of suitable refractory material surrounded by a water cooled copper coil.

In an induction gold melting furnace, the charge is melted by heat generated from an electric arc. The alternating magnetic field produced by high frequency current induces powerful eddy currents in the charge resulting in a fast heating process, thereby saving energy compared to electric arc furnaces.

Yes, you can melt your gold. Gold has a melting temperature of 1064 degree celsius, which means that if you have the gold and silver melting equipment and other tools to achieve more than 1064 degree celsius, then you can melt gold on your own. Therefore, with the right furnace and the right crucible, you can melt your gold. Ensure that the melting is done in a well ventilated space with appropriate protective tools.

Gold will not oxidize in a very hot flame, but many other metallic impurities will, and will float to the top to be removed. Melting alone will not purify gold but melting in an oxidizing atmosphere with no flux or melt covers will oxidize most non-precious metals that will separate.

When the mixture of gold and flux are placed in a smelting equipment, both materials melt in the smelting equipment. The gold smelting equipmentis heated at 1064 degree celsius. It takes a few minutes for the mixture to liquify in an induction furnace. After the metal melts, the precious metal and impurities separate.

The Miller process uses gaseous chlorine to extract impurities when gold is at its melting point. Impurities separate into a layer on the surface of molten purified gold. The Miller process is rapid and simple, it produces gold of only 99.5% purity.

The Wohlwill process increases purity to about 99.99% by electrolysis. In this process, gold ore is placed in an electrolyte solution of hydrochloric acid and gold chloride. Under the influence of an electric current, the gold migrates to a negatively charged electrode (cathode), where it is restored to a highly pure metallic state, leaving the impurities as residue.

Sodium metabisulfite is commonly used to precipitate dissolved gold out of aqua regia and chloride solutions. When it is dissolved in water, sulfur dioxide is created which is excellent at precipitating gold from the solution.

Gold can be melted off electronics and the process is very easy but the chemicals used are dangerous and should not be performed without prior knowledge or equipment. Ensure you handle all chemicals (nitric acid) with care and use protective tools like gloves, goggles, glass apparatus, a gas mask or respirator and a well ventilated space or outside area is highly recommended.

Stir the mixture with a glass rod until the contente becomes fluid in form. Since gold requires stronger chemicals to dissolve, the nitric acid will melt all plastics and metal parts of the circuit board without harming the tiny golds.

For the most excellent gold melting experience, we recommend a gold and silver melting equipment. A gold and silver melting equipmentuses certain inherent properties already inherent in the metal to cause it to melt in the presence of an electromagnet. The electromagnet in a gold and silver melting equipmentis used to generate a pulsing electromagnetic field around the metal to be melted.

Benefits derived from the gold and silver melting equipmentare; it does not take up space, there is control over the melting process, it is energy efficient, electromagnetic stirring makes molten metal uniform, no heat loss, etc.

Melting is not about speed but about temperature and heat transfer. Increase the heat, then the metal melts faster, as long as the temperature is above the melting point. In addition to this, the melting furnace in use contributes to how fast a metal reaches its melting temperature. For example, in a gold and silver melting equipment,your gold can melt within 2 to 4 minutes.

Allow this mixture to sit for like 30 minutes, afterwards, filter to remove impurities and treat to neutralize the acids in the solution. The outcome will look like a muddy solution at the base of the container, this mud is the gold.

Preheat your soldering tool to 377 degree celsius to 419 degree celsius. Ensure that your soldering tool reaches at least 377 degree celsius before attempting to melt. If the tool does not reach the minimum temperature, melting cannot take place. Clean the gold item with boric acid and water.

Gold melts at a temperature of 1064 degree celsius while silver melts at 961.8 degree celsius. To alloy these two metals, melt the gold to hot liquid, add the silver metal. This will dissolve immediately in the blazen liquid gold.

Once the flames turn from bright orange to a bright yellow, this confirms that your metal is thoroughly atomically combined which is important to assure a well-rounded metal alloy. If the metals are not well blended, they may be problematic at the production phase.

Maximize the use of your smelting equipment- One of the best ways one can reduce how much energy their smelting equipmentuses is by using the equipment more effectively. Short holding times can improve the efficiency of your smelting equipment, because longer holding time requires more energy consumption.

Make any necessary changes to your operating procedures- Another great way to reduce your smelting equipmentenergy consumption is by replacing your current melting equipment. Ensure you give your foundry a thorough investigation to determine some of the best operational changes that you can make to cut down on energy use.

Boost your charging speed- Apart from long holding times, charging speed can also have a major impact on the use of your smelting equipment. Long charging times caused by manual or magnetic crane charging can lead to more energy use. You want your charging to be done rapidly and efficiently, use automatic charging systems.

Streamline your temperature measurement- When you check the temperature of the smelting equipmentregularly, you are losing valuable time and wasting needed energy. By using a computerized temperature control system, you can reduce the need to check furnace temperature.

Refraction: Different sizes of gold induction furnaceshave different refraction rates. Smaller gold induction furnacesrequire minimum refraction rates while larger furnaces require greater amounts. The size you invest in will be determined on the size of your business.

Oxidation melt loss: Core typegold melting furnacesreduce the amount of oxidation that occurs during melting. This leads to lower rates of loss throughout the process and provides a large yield ratio. It is important to always keep the oxidation rate in mind when buying your gold melting furnace.

Cleanliness:Induction gold melting furnacesare perfect for businesses that want to maximize cleanliness. When compared to other furnaces, induction gold melting furnacesdo not use combustion to provide heat, this means there is no waste to clean up after melting.

As much as there are still large casting furnaces, there are now also small scale equipment to experiment with. Small furnaces, homemade gold melting furnaces, and various other small scale systems have made the Gold Melting Furnace technology accessible to anyone who is interested in the industry.

One thing that is common to everyone in the precious metals business is the choice of the right machine to choose. Either youre an engineer at a big company trying to select a large scale furnace to handle all of your production throughputs. Or you could be one of the DIY enthusiasts of mining and precious metals.

Whichever category you belong to, choosing the right equipment to work with can be a little challenging or even confusing. You may find it difficult to make a decision on which type or size of electric gold metal furnace (or any other similar system) to buy. If you are in these shoes, then you are reading the right article.

Below we have compiled a comprehensive guide to help you choose the perfect precious metals refining system. Regardless of whether youre trying to buy a homemade gold smelting furnace, silver smelting furnace, or youre looking for a large-scale induction furnace for sale.

Lets start by taking a look at the best Gold melting furnace manufacturer and the kind of products they have to offer. Making the right choice starts with having an idea of exactly whats available to choose from.

And we are proud to introduce SuperbMelt(one of the top gold melting furnace supplier in China) to you, the unarguable industry leader as far as precious metal mining and refining equipment is concerned.

We have more than a decade and half of consistent and top notch R&D under our belt. This puts us in a perfect position to develop the best machines; systems that work and deliver the highest value and returns on investment.

We have got wide and varied experience from the vast number of projects we have handled and successfully delivered. All over the world, from Australia to Asia (Thailand, India, Indonesia), to the Middle East (Iran), and across the oceans to Europe (Georgia, Kazakhstan, Turkey, Kyrgyzstan), Superbmelt has consistently delivered to customers utmost satisfaction. We have left a trail of happy and fulfilled clients around the globe who have continued to work with us to meet their precious metal refining needs and requirements.

We would love for you to be among these satisfied customers. And that is why we have created this write-up. To start by helping you identify which exact equipment you need for your refining or smelting/melting project. We will surely have a machine that suits your specifications perfectly and will fulfill the exact objective that you have in mind.

Our wide range of products (Gold, silver, or copper melting furnace, home casting furnace and other products) are the best in the market because of the advanced technology that drives their production.

At SuperbMelt, we have developed our version and application of the IGBT induction heating technology and taken advantage of it. This has been one of our foremost research focus over the years because its a technology that has found application in a wide array of fields.

Our assiduous team of researchers have been able to work on and develop a unique application of the IGBT tech for use in our furnaces and casting machines. The result of this is the development of highly efficient and energy saving induction heating systems which deliver high and variable heat levels for effective melting.

With these systems you have the luxury of choosing exactly how hot you want your furnace to be. Another advantage of this advanced technology is its environmental friendliness, you can maintain your high profit margins without causing too much damage to the environment.

Finally, at SuperbMelt, we dont just sell you a machine and leave you to figure it out on your own. Our conscientious and affable sales engineers will provide continuous technical assistance, including help with installation and preliminary operations.

A lot of people make the mistake of thinking that gold melting furnace price is the most important factor to consider when selecting a furnace. This point of view is wrong. The most important thing to consider is the features and capabilities of the furnace (or precious metal refining device) that you require. Now that weve given you a glimpse into what we do and we have done in the past. You should be convinced that we are in the best position to help you select the right melting machine.

In this section, well be embarking on an in-depth analysis of the various available gold melting furnaces for sale by SuperbMelt. This will be an extensive review of the capacity of each machine in terms of capacity (weight and size), technical details, and the range of customers who can find them useful. Please note that all of these furnaces were built with utmost precision and high level professionalism. They are of various sizes, and you are sure to find something thats amenable to your purposes among these.

This compact and self-contained unit is the perfect device for your small scale gold melting operations. With a seamless design based on a non-obtrusive shape, light weight, and easy operation, the mini gold melting furnace provides you with high efficiency without the stress of complex operating procedures.

Despite its small size, you may still perform relatively large melting operations on it, this will have to be in batches of 1-2kg however. You dont have anything to worry about as far as quality and performance is concerned because this device is ISO CE SGS approved.

What this means is that the professional bodies tasked with ensuring the quality of gold melting furnaces and other products have certified this machine as being fit for use. You can therefore be rest assured of the high level of quality and performance that youll get from this device.

You may be wondering what the difference is between this particular product and those offered for sale by other automatic gold melting furnace manufacturing companies. Well, theres a world of difference. The Mini 1-2 kg gold melting furnace can heat up your raw precious metals from room temperature to a mind blowing 1600. That is about one third of the suns surface temperature, and this mini furnace reaches its maximum temperature in only 2 minutes. With the capability of working continuously over a long period of time, you can heat up to 150 kg of gold within just 5 hours.

The superb performance of the mini gold melting furnace is based on the advanced IGBT induction technology already mentioned. This is the power house of its quick heating feature and is also responsible for the ability to vary the temperature within the furnace as desired.s

The operation of the mini gold furnace is pretty easy and can be learnt as quickly as possible by just about anyone with the ability to read. The controls are properly labeled and colored in a way to provide an intuitive approach to its operation. Either youre a vastly experienced personnel in operating furnaces, you will definitely find it easy to use the mini gold melting furnace.

However, if it happens that you experience any difficulties with the use of this machine. A detailed and well-explained users manual accompanies it on purchase. The users manual will guide you step by step in making a safe and proper use of the furnace.

Finally, if you still have difficulties with operation or installation after using the users guide. You can always contact our customer support. We have a strong network of efficient technicians and engineers on hand who are more than capable of assisting you with whatever issues may arise.

Quite on the bigger side and designed for larger scale operations than the 1-2kg mini gold furnace. The Integrated 3-6 kg gold melting furnace can handle medium scale operations while still providing the same superior performance. Did we say the same superior performance, the correct description would be a better performance.

This integrated gold melting furnace can reach a maximum temperature that is as high as 1800. You would have to put in a lot of effort to find a similar product in the gold refining and processing market that gets close in terms of performance. The maximum temperature (of 1800) in only 3 minutes. This will be a huge boost for the productivity and timeliness of your foundry and mining operations.

Gold Refining Laboratory: Due to the necessity of running different experiments and checking a wide variety of samples, Gold and other precious metals refining laboratories seeking to purchase a small furnace will find this medium range furnace very useful. Either you plan on running batch experiments, trying out different samples in groups. Or your plan is to run a continuous 24 hr operation (or more). The 3-6 kg gold melting furnace can handle all your experimental needs.

The superior temperature control made possible by the IGBT technology allows you to set your desired experimental conditions. This means you have repeatable and reliable results which are often very important to the success of any experiment. And in the event that you need any modifications to the original design of the machine for your specific experimental requirements. Our engineers and technicians are more than capable of working with you to deliver your exact needs.

Old Jewelry Refining plants: Melting down old jewelry items, purifying them, and casting fresh ingots for the production of new jewelry is a highly lucrative business. If youre looking for a casting furnace?to move your business to the next level and drive your profit margin even higher, then the integrated gold melting furnace is exactly what you need. You can stack in far more old jewelries for melting than the average small scale furnace and have everything melted down within just a couple of minutes.

Metal/Gold foundries: Although this has been mentioned under the 1-2 kg mini gold melting furnace, it is only proof that SuperbMelt always has something for you to work with regardless of the size of your business. For foundries that are on a moderately large commercial scale, the integrated gold melting furnace will come in handy and suit your business requirements perfectly.

Again, it is important to note that this furnace is not suitable for melting just Gold alone. It is too versatile to be restricted to just a single metal. Copper and silver, among other metals, can all be melted in the integrated gold furnace with equally outstanding results.

Lets get this straight from the beginning. The name might be a little ambiguous. The 1-4kg Platinum melting equipment does not work strictly for melting platinum alone. This highly compact furnace can operate equally efficiently in melting a plethora of other kinds of metals. Gold, palladium, Silver, Copper, Aluminum, and of course, Platinum itself are all metals for which the 1-5kg Platinum melting furnace is suitable in carrying out melting operations.

You dont need to search for a separate silver or copper melting furnace being offered for sale. Apart from just these metals themselves in their pure form, the 1-4KG platinum melting furnace also works just perfect for alloys of the above mentioned metals. No matter the heterogeneous nature of the metal combination you plan to melt. This furnace does the job impeccably and in record time.

The technology behind the manufacture of this furnace is top of the line and the results achievable within the given time will surely blow your mind. This furnace is sure to deliver beyond your wildest performance expectations and give returns that match, and even far exceed your investments. You may be wondering what it is about this furnace that makes it deserving of all the hype and excitement that we seem to be building around it. To put your doubts at rest, below is an interesting stat to convince you.

Think of a smelting equipment that is capable of melting either 12 kg of gold, 4kg of platinum or 6kg of silver and you have this piece of technological wizardry. This is obviously more on the larger scale than any of the previous ones.

Businesses or laboratories that require batch operations with more volume in every single batch will find this smelting machine a great source of relief. It will help to prevent repeated replacement of raw precious metals since it can contain twice the volume of the average smelting machine.

We understand that smelting presents a possible health problem to workers and operators due to the release of toxic gases. However, our advanced IGBT technology goes about achieving the maximum possible temperature in such a way that the toxic by-products of the smelting process are as minute as possible. Beyond just ensuring worker safety, this feature is also an effort in ensuring environmental protection.

Now weve left the small and medium size furnace categories and were approaching the really big guys. This massive 20-30kg packs all the wonders of technology that weve outlined in the previous furnaces. But in this case, they are even slightly upgraded and better.

The 20-30kg Gold smelting furnace is a winner anytime and is sure to put you ahead of your competitors in the precious metals business. Various companies that have ordered this product over time have kept giving us sterling reviews. In fact, a particular company claimed to have made so much that they ordered another unit of the same furnace all over again.

Its understandable if you find all of this a little too good to be true. But by the time youre done going through the various distinctive features and characteristics, youll understand why this equipment is such an absolute banger. And we hope that youll get in touch to purchase one or more units too.

All of the above are the various benefits of purchasing the 20-30kg Superbmelt gold smelting furnace. To enjoy all of these coupled with unmatchable customer services, all you have to do is get in touch with us and place an order.

Its normal practice to save the best for the last, and thats what weve done here. The description in the title of this subsection does not refer to a single equipment. Rather, it refers to a range of melting furnaces capable of melting precious metals ranging between 10kg to 50 kg of Copper, Silver, or gold.

This collection of super melting machines present a far superior performance than any of the ones we have mentioned so far. High energy ratings as well as high temperature limits ensure that heating is done in no time. Below are some of the distinguishing features of this furnace range:

The combination of the points above with the benefits and features already mentioned previously for other furnaces results in a high performance furnace. As you already know, we like to leave the buyer with choices, and this range of furnaces is not an exception. Below is a table of the various choices you have to choose from.

Now that weve looked through the various furnaces that are available for sale by Superbmelt, its time to check out the various categories of people or industries that require them and which of these furnaces they may find useful. You will definitely fall under one of these categories, and we can assure you that Superbmelt has a furnace that will meet your precious metal melting needs.

You may not be very familiar with the term personal gold miners. This is because they are more commonly referred to as recreational gold miners. When the gold mining industry is discussed, it is more common to hear about all the big gold dealers and the multimillion dollar companies involved in the industry.

However, they are only a part of the story. In actual fact, theres a less talked about aspect of the gold mining industry and these are the recreational miners. Recreational miners are people who take up gold mining just as a hobby. Along the line, they may make enough discoveries or unearth enough nuggets or gold to actually make a fortune. But the recreational gold miner is in the trade primarily as a pastime and not necessarily for the money.

In this chapter, we will be taking a look at the kind of furnaces that recreational gold miners may find useful. But before we dive into machines and their technical details, lets check out how recreational miners have evolved over time.

Therefore, the early prospectors were eager to get out in the field and be lucky enough to find a rich vein and make thousands or millions of dollars. Their major technique of extracting gold from geological formations was a method called panning. This involved pouring water in a pan containing sediments suspected to harbor gold.

The pan would then be shaken until the gold descended while water and the other rocks stayed afloat. This method is still in practice today by gold mining enthusiasts who are the present day recreational gold miners.

There were two major events that involved a massive rush of gold prospectors to areas considered to have large deposits. One was the Witwatersrand Gold rush in South Africa around the year 1886, a lot of Gold mining enthusiasts had heard about possible deposits and they converged on the area to see if they could make their fortune. Interestingly, this gold rush was what led to the creation of present day Johannesburg, South Africa.

Another important gold rush in the history of gold prospecting occurred earlier. This took place between 1848 and 1855 when as much as 300,000 or more gold prospectors besieged the district of Coloma in California. They worked at this area and some of them struck luck, hitting it big, while others werent so lucky and had to leave empty handed.

When the gold of this area ran out, it triggered a smaller gold rush in the Cariboo region of British Columbia. About 30,000 gold prospectors, many of them from the California days came down here to again try their luck with cashing in on the gold craze.

The gold industry has evolved from the period of the gold rushes. With the advent of technology and large scale mining with advanced equipment, larger companies with better funding have taken center stage. Manual gold mining methods like Panning or Sluicing are no longer economical in mining gold for commercial purposes. For this reason, over the turn of the 20th Century, and now the 21st century, individual gold miners now tend to be involved in the business more for pleasure and leisure.

Within this period of time, recreational gold mining has taken shape and become an established pastime for so many people. There is even an association for prospectors and recreational miners; The Gold Prospectors Association of America. Established in 1968, the association seeks the protection of the interests of prospectors, the prevention of environmentally harmful mining and the defense of the rights of Americans to mine and prospect for gold.

Various countries have different legislations concerning recreational mining. In some countries, mining is completely disallowed for various reasons. These reasons include the prevention of pollution due to impurities found alongside gold such as mercury. Some other countries allow the prospecting of gold to various degrees of liberty.

For example, there are areas where there is a limit to the kind of tools that you can use in prospecting for gold. It is important to know for sure the legislation guiding prospecting and gold mining before taking up this hobby. Some of the countries that allow recreational mining to various degrees include New Zealand, Australia, Indonesia, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United states.

Gold smelting process is not a new process. Literatures had that this process has been existence as far back as 6000BC. ?Most sources claimed that smelting originated from Mesopotamia Babylon (now Syria). Prior to industrial revolution ??gold ore were primarily extracted from the earth using simple earth tools?. The same process still applies till date only that the technology has changed. But the processes still remain the same. Below are some of the most important gold smelting processes you need to acquaint yourself with.

This stage is often known as the pre-treatment stage. It is the first stage in smelting process chain immediately after exploration. In the stage the bulk on the job involves separating your gold minerals from earth (crude matter) that binds the gold ores together. ?After the separation of the ores from the crude matter. The gold ore is now further pulverized under pressure into fine particles.

After the ores has been pulverized into the desired sizes. The grounded gold ore will now be further subjected to temperature above the melting pint old gold (1064). The reason for subjecting the ore to such a high temperature is to primarily melt the gold and further destroy impurities trapped in the gold ore. However, it should be noted that not all the impurities will be completely removed by eating. There chances that you may still have other metals trapped in the ore and this takes us to the next step in the process.

Gold ores upon exploration are often accompanied by dangerous chemicals which if not removed can be deleterious to the human health and can as well damage most of the equipments used In the refining process. It is however, very important that these dangerous chemicals are completely extracted and eliminated from the ores before moving to the next stage of the smelting process. Now the question is, what are these dangerous chemicals?

Gaseous mercury can be hazardous when inhaled. Owing to its heavy metal characteristics it is very difficult to get rid of when ingested into the body system. To completely remove traces of mercury from your gold ore. You either subject the ore to continuous heating in a retort or employ the amalgamation process?(This process is no longer in use in most mines today). However, mercury can also be removed from gold ores either through leaching or participation.

After all the chemical ores has been completely eliminated from the gold ores. We then proceed to the next phase of the smelting process which is in the complete removal of other impurities. At this stage most of the impurities trapped with the gold ore are in trace amount and they can easily be removed by strong chemicals such as potassium cyanide.

Once you satisfied with the level of purity of the gold. It is then taken back to the furnace and subjected to further heating for the last time: This is done so to get the gold ready for mold into ingots. (ingot: ?gold bar mold into different sizes for commercial purposes) .

Iron trapped in gold ore can easily be oxidized with Nitre if not completely eliminated as it could easily corrode the smelting pot been utilized which in turn may led to leakage which may as well be catastrophic. However, iron and other impurities such as zinc can easily be removed from the gold ore through the addition of flux to the mixture.

The initial gold prospectors hardly had to worry about what happened to their gold after hitting the jackpot. The exhilaration and amount of profit that would come as a result were often enough more than enough for them. They would just focus on mining all they could from the tract of land and sell it out to those interested in further processing.

Some wouldnt even get involved in the mining any longer. They would be content with turning the land over to either a company or the government and start collecting royalties on subsequent mining activities.

Fast forward to the present and that is not so practical any longer. The gold mining industry has gotten quite competitive and is now the playground of big business. There are hardly any huge deposits left for recreational miners to make any big discoveries any longer.

The meagre findings they make from panning or sluicing are not economically viable commercial sale. Therefore they either just collect the raw gold and other precious metals they find for keepsakes, or they experiment and play around with it.

This is where the need for Gold melting furnaces come in. Some recreational miners enjoy playing around with the raw metals they find. Its also interesting to try molding the raw metals into different shapes and see what can be made from it. For example, your spouse would forever treasure a necklace or bracelet made from gold that was personally mined by you.

This is why youll often find recreational gold miners trying to find the most affordable gold melting pots for sale. The purchase of melting furnaces is now an important part of the game for many recreational gold miners.

It is common to notice recreational miners having a small shed behind their houses solely dedicated to experimenting with melting gold and other precious metals. For some others, it may even be a small part of their garage housing one or more furnaces.

However, considering the fact that theirs is not a commercial application of course, what they often require is a mix of good melting capability. A furnace that can attain temperatures high enough to liquefy their precious metal, but at the same time not too expensive.

This can be quite a difficult mix to find on the open market. Good quality melting furnaces dont come cheap, and when theyre cheap its either low quality or not likely to last long. Its at this point that Superbmelt becomes helpful.

It may be argued that these will do just fine since the required application isnt a commercial one, but just experimental in nature. Yet, what is worth doing is worth doing well. Why settle for second best when the best is available?

The Induction furnace IGBT technology provides a superior performance than both of the afore-mentioned heating systems (Resistance furnace and Propane burner). Even more importantly, Induction technology consumes less power than any of the two technologies mentioned previously while still delivering higher heating power.

Now you may be wondering how this category of people differ from the personal or recreational gold miner. Well, youre quite right to wonder about this. The differences between DIY precious metal enthusiasts are less than the similarities between them.

For example, DIY precious metals are also sometimes involved in gold panning and sluicing, just like Recreational miners. However, DIY precious metal enthusiasts do more than just go for the gold in rivers or at the foot of mountains. Precious metal enthusiasts virtually search everywhere for gold.

Also, considering the fact that there are regulations in various countries restricting how intense recreational miners can go, DIY precious metal enthusiasts have some more flexibility in their approach. DIY precious metal enthusiasts are able to use metal detectors and some other electronic devices in identifying potential sources of precious metals.

Another way in which DIY metal enthusiasts also seem to have more clout than recreational gold miners is in the further processing of raw precious metals. Many recreation miners may be satisfied with just collecting the raw metals and keeping them as relics, something to show friends and families.

However, there is hardly any DIY precious metal enthusiast that is just satisfied with collecting scrap metal and leaving it that way. More often than not, precious metal enthusiasts are inclined to seeking ways to process the raw metals and get something done with them.

Just like it was discussed about personal gold miners, DIY precious metal enthusiasts also have a couple of existing methods for getting the melting of their raw metals. We have already discussed Propane burners and resistance furnaces for personal gold miners. In addition to these, DIY precious metal enthusiasts also make use of blow torches for melting.

However, all of these can only do so much. The time required to get the raw metals up to and beyond golds melting point of 1060oC with this metals is often prohibitive. Also, as is often the case for DIY precious metal enthusiasts, the amount of scrap metal to be melted may be quite much and getting this done will lead to multiple batches.

Often times smelting may not necessarily be the final stage during gold extraction. Smelting of gold could be immediately followed up with refining. These largely depends on what and where the gold will be put to use. Refining of gold is simply the removal of fine impurities from the gold ore which hitherto where not removed during the smelting process. There are number of ways in which your refining can be done for gold, the most common methods will be discussed in the remained of this section

Miller process is a chlorination method that reduces the impurity level of gold to about 99.5%. This process simply involves the passing of chlorine over molten gold. On contact with the gold, the impurities trapped in the gold form slag with the chlorine and they can be easily purged. The resulting products can now be molded in casts and shipped to the market for sales

This process is simply the electrolytic reduction of gold using chloroauric acid as the base electrolyte. For those who which to achieve higher gold purity level. The Wohlwill Process comes very handy; this process can be used to purify gold to a purity level of about 99.999%. These methods of gold refining is often employed by most industry, owning to safety and cost. It should however be noted that the purest form of gold can only achieved by these process

This process of definitely new, not as common as the later. Basically, in a lay man term, this process is simply the separation of other metals from gold with the exemption of platinum with the aid of an electrolytic setup. This separation of other form of metals occurs with the process, because with electrolytic setup. Once current is passed through, the system, all other metals with the exemption of gold and platinum will dissolve into liquid and can easily be purged. Purity level of about 99.5% is very possible with this method.

A mini induction furnace is a small kiln with high power specifically designed and manufactured for melting of precious metals like gold, silver, platinum etc. our mini induction furnace costs about $900, as they are safer to use and entirely dependable. This furnace also allows for the mixture of metals such as gold, copper, silver, aluminum etc.

This is a commonly used method of melting gold at home. What you have to do is to put the gold in the crucible, then place the crucible on a surface (has to be fireproof) and point the propane burner toward the gold. If chemical borax has been added to the gold, it will require low temperature to melt. Carefully and slowly bring down the torch if the gold is in a fine state as it could easily be blown around. You should also avoid heating the crucible too fast because it could crack it. Heat thoroughly and slowly.

Mining has really come a long way from its humble beginnings. From an activity strictly meant for prospectors and fortune seekers, it has evolved into a mammoth industry employing various professionals across different fields of knowledge.

Economists, logistics professionals, traditional miners, metallurgists, mining engineers and researchers all have a role to play in the todays contemporary mining and precious metals industry. Either its optimizing the actual mining process itself or creating better products from the raw precious metals. Theres something for everyone to do within the precious metals industry.

Universities and Colleges training students and future professionals in these fields require laboratories that must be equipped with working furnaces. This will help to experiment and try out various operating conditions. Students develop a better understanding of the mining process and are able to do better when they get into the industry.

Asides schools, the corporate or industrial gold mining world also requires laboratories that are equipped with furnaces. Research is a never ending process and therefore, professionals in the Gold mining industry still need to continue experimenting and discovering new things. For this reason, gold (and other precious metals) mining companies require Research and Development (R&D) laboratories. Of course these laboratories need to be equipped with furnaces for carrying out experiments at high temperatures.

Regardless of where you operate within the gold and precious metals mining industry, Superbmelt has a furnace to meet your specific needs. This section is a compilation of the various kinds of furnace that are appropriate for each field mentioned previously:

There are two ways to mine gold. One is the placer mining and the second is known as vein mining. Another way of mining gold is when we collect gold as a by-product when we mine other metallic substances.

The simplest way to carry out placer mining is panning. Panning requires the miner to rapidly swirl the gold mixture in a pan to hold the water and a great amount of the gravel and sand at the edge while gold stays at the bottom. This method was the classic method the Forty-Niners used during the California gold-rush of 1849.

A more efficient way to carry out placer mining is by using a sluice box and a U-shaped trough with a slope and transverse bars that are attached firmly to the bottom of the trough. The transverse bars that are attached from one side to another pulls the heaviest particles and the prevent them from being washed down the slope.

Sand and gravel are placed at the top, the channel to water supply is then opened, and the materials that are light-weighted is washed via the sluice box and then goes out via the lower end. Gold is thereby recovered when the materials are trapped behind the bars and goes through gleaning.

Lode or vein mining happens to be the most important method for mining gold. Every ounce of recovered gold requires 100,000 ounces of ore to be processed. A large amount of gold is deposited in the rock veins and vein method accounts for over half of the total production of gold in the world. The gold present in the veins are either in the size of microscopic particles, gold compounds, nuggets or sheets.

Ore that is gotten from the gold mine is initially crushed in ball or rod mills. Doing this reduces the ore to finer substances. Gold is thereby extracted by the amalgamating it with mercury. At this point, about 70% is recovered. The remaining material is dissolved in a dilute solution of Sodium Cyanide or Calcium Cyanide. Adding metallic zinc to the solutions causes the metallic gold to precipitate. The precipitate is then refined through smelting and electrolysis is then used to complete the purification process.

Our machines have a two year warranty which is a year longer than the warranty given by other factories. Also, our company is a government audited Superb as AAA credit company which is top level. In addition to this, we only use popular brand main electric components only when we manufacture our machines.

Our company has been professional certified to be among the top companies that produce quality machines, and we have the a strong and ready-to-work service team that is always be ready to attend to you, our professional engineers will always find a solution to whatever difficulty you are facing. Furthermore, our induction melting furnace has enough stock and it reduces our delivery cycle.

You may want to know how we control quality. Well, the first thing we do is material purchasing management because we only choose famous brand main electric components when we produce SIEMENS, SMC, OMRON and PANASONIC. Then, we operate an efficient assembly line production process.

All the workers we use are responsible for providing top quality machine and they are supervised by top-skilled and professional engineers. We also carry out series of tests in our quality control system to assure top-quality. Some testing projects are residual voltage electrical test, appearance quality inspection, test for leakage of water, debugging of the electric circuit, test for shelf life and checking for the package test.

In terms of supply, for customers who want to build a plant for gold smelting or a foundry for jewelry casting which is relative for supplying equipment only, you can trust us to carry out the entire program for you.

We have two production foundations in Shenzhen and Zhejiang. These foundations are close to the Ningbo port and the Shanghai port. This way, cost of transportation will be saved greatly compared to other factories. The nearness of our foundation also reduces the risk of damage.

We have a team that provides pre-sale installation services to our clients as well as commission service. Youll also be provided with a free technical maintenance for the equipment you purchase. We are your strongest backup.

We hope the comprehensive guide above has provided some assistance for you, one way or the other, in making the right choice. The gold mining industry can be a very rewarding one provided you have the right tools and equipment to use, and that is what we provide you with at Superbmelt. In the event that you find any of this information confusing and need some specific guidance or assistance.

gold melting furnace

gold melting furnace

Tip: If you want an unmarked ingot, gently tap the ingot with your tool until the easily removed flux comes off and then place your gold or silver ingot in a glass jar of white vinegar. The flux will dissolve overnight and your ingot will be shiny and unmarked after removing the loosened flux.

Please Note: The GPK K-Kiln is designed to be heated with 2 pencil tip PROPANE torches simultaneously. We will not warranty any GPK K-Furnaceheated too high, improperly, or in a manner that goes against their design. This includes using other types of torches, or using Mapp gas, which gives off more heat. We recommend using propane only.

External crucible erosion is directly related to the flame from the torches contacting the exterior surface of the graphite crucibles used in the Kwik Kiln. The graphite crucibles are slowly consumed during the process. However, If the torches are turned up too high, the blue pencil tip portion of the flame will cut grooves into the exterior of the crucible, causing premature failure of the crucible. The valves used on the Bernzomatic Torches are very touchy when the torches are placed on their side and no two torches seem to perform the same.

Remove one of the torches and light it. Adjust the flame to where the center blue pencil flame is approximately 1 to 1 . Lay the torch on its side and insert the torch into the port. With the lid and spacer removed, adjust the flame so that the tip of the blue flame penetrates inside of the kiln approximately to .

Open the valve on the other torch and adjust the flame as described, so that both flames are equal. Place the spacer onto the kiln and let the kiln warm up for a few minutes without the lid in place. When the kiln gets hot, the blue torch flames seem to recede into the ports as the torches stabilize. Once the kiln is hot, the combustion taking place inside the kiln is much more efficient than when the kiln is cold and you can then re-adjust the flame until the blue pencil tip of the flame is penetrating into the kiln approximately to .

Following the procedures described will help to eliminate the exterior crucible erosion and the kiln will ultimately reach the temperatures needed for melting. You can also rotate the crucible so that any grooving is not placed into the path of the flames entering the kiln, as well. Observing the interior of the Kwik Kiln and the flames in the daylight is difficult. However, if you take your Kwik Kiln outside at night, its easy to see what is going on inside of it. Carefully monitor your crucibles exterior as you use them. With proper adjustment of the torches, I have crucibles with over 20 pours on them.

gold smelting & metal melting equipment

gold smelting & metal melting equipment

Laboratory-scale experiments showed that pig irons and steels of acceptable grade can be made by arc-furnace methods from east Texas siliceous ores containing less than 25 percent iron. Under highly reducing conditions, 97 to 99 percent of the iron in the ore was recovered as pig iron. Small quantities of limestone, the minimum limited only by progressively higher slag viscosities, were used as flux. It was shown that satisfactory recoveries of high-silicon pig iron can be attained from very siliceous charges.

The technique for removing impurities from pig iron on a laboratory scale did not reach a high state of perfection, but refining results indicated that satisfactory steel can be consistently produced in an arc furnace from low-grade ores. Dolomitic limestone did not remove sulfur as effectively from pig iron as high-quality limestone.

Coke, bituminous coal, and lignite were found to be about equal on a fixed-carbon basis for reducing iron oxides. Laboratory-scale arc-furnace smelting experiments showed that power consumption was nearly inversely proportional to the grade of ore. The ability of the arc furnace to use low-grade iron ores and low-rank reductants effectively in coarse or fine sizes is noteworthy.

Estimated reserves of all classes of iron ore within the United States are over 76 billion tons, exclusive of the direct shipping ores of the Lake Superior region. A high percentage of these 76 billion tons require beneficiation by one or more of several well-known methods to produce a feed suitable for blast-furnace smelting. Beneficiation efficiency varies from poor to excellent, depending on the concentrating characteristics of the ore. Pyrometallurgical separation of iron from ore gangue results in high recovery of metal as pig iron. Pig irons from most types of iron ore are amenable to refining by standard methods.

The direct smelting of low-grade iron ores, in contrast with smelting high-grade ores, involves such considerations as relatively low production per furnace because of high slag volume, increased cost of power and furnace operation per unit of production necessitated by melting larger quantities of gangue and flux, and higher transportation and mining costs for each unit of iron produced, because more fuel, ore, and flux are required. Ore-dressing low-grade ores to obtain high-grade concentrate, rather than direct-smelting low-grade ores, involves less capital outlay and lower operational costs. However, recovery of iron by a concentrator is rarely as effective as by a furnace, and an additional loss of iron will be taken when concentrates are smelted. Electric furnaces can smelt soft or fine ores and utilize low-grade fuels, but the cost of operating power deters their widespread use. Proper evaluation of the relative merits of treating low-grade iron ores by beneficiation or by electric smelting requires the availability of a large amount of technical data. The purpose of this manuscript is to add facts to existing information.

Large deposits of iron ore occur in eastern Texas; reserves of measured and indicated ore, in terms of the washed product, have been estimated to be 160,000,000 tons. Shallow overburden, a layer of oxide ore underlain by carbonate ore, and a high silica content are characteristic features of many ore bodies. The ore was recognized in 1839, and the deposits were first worked during the Civil War. Production was intermittent until 1944; since that time yearly output has been considerable. The production recorded was 3,960,000 long tons in 1953, 2,240,000 long tons in 1954, and 3,110,000 long tons in 1955; all this material required beneficiation. The concentrates were smelted in Texas.

Present operations are carried on by the Lone Star Steel Co. and the Sheffield Steel Corp. Their beneficiation plants recover about 50 percent of the iron in the ores as concentrates, containing approximately 45 percent iron.

Ores from mines of the Lone Star Steel Co. in Morris County were selected as raw material for use in the metallurgical investigations. These represent some of the lowest grade iron ores employed commercially in steel production in the United States. Some of the developed ores of this company contain less than 25 percent iron; the oxide ores may be low in sulfur, but appreciable quantities of sulfur and phosphorus must be removed during the smelting of most such ores. Carbonate ores generally are relatively high in sulfur.

The samples of ore were obtained from the Rogers and Black Mountain mines and the concentrate, from the Lone Star Steel Co. mill. Later, drill cores obtained during exploration were composited and tested metallurgically.

The various reductants used in smelting experiments were graphite, metallurgical coke, lignite, Oklahoma coking coals, and Illinois domestic heating coals. Fluxes were obtained from aggregate and agricultural dolomitic-limestone quarries near Rolla, Mo., and from high-purity limestone in eastern Missouri.

A single-phase 100-kv-a. Lectromelt arc furnace of about 200-pound charge capacity was used to smelt the ores and concentrates. Both an indirect-arc furnace and an induction furnace were used to refine pig iron. The indirect-arc furnace easily accommodated 40 to 60 pounds of pig iron; the induction furnace was used for crucible charges of about 1 pound. All furnacing was in batches.

The partial chemical analyses of ores and mill concentrate (table 1) show that silica, alumina, phosphorus, and sometimes sulfur must be removed to make steel. The imbalance of slag-forming materials is also notable. The sulfur content of the concentrate appears higher than that of the ores, because the ore faces were unusually low in sulfur when the mines were sampled. Ores from this area normally contain quantities of sulfur similar to those in the drill-core sample.

To ascertain the smelting characteristics of the ores, fluxes, and reductants a number of small-scale tests were made in crucibles. Much of the iron oxide was reduced to metal shot in 1 hour at 1,400 C., but little metal collected on the crucible bottom; at 1,450 less than half of the iron was recovered in a metal button, and, at 1,500, from 50 to 60 percent of the molten iron was recovered in 1 hour. Substantially all metallic iron was collected in 1- hours at 1,525 to 1,575 C.

Experimental gangue fluxing agents included fluorspar, soda ash, lime, and limestone. Adding restricted quantities of flux produced viscous, although liquid, slags. The fluidity of slags was increased slightly by adding fluorspar or soda ash up to 3 percent of the charge weight; but, after preliminary experiments, only limestone was used as flux. Limestones were obtained from local quarries producing agricultural limestone and from a high-purity eastern Missouri deposit. The local limestones were highly dolomitic; their magnesia contents were considered equivalent to lime in charge-balance calculations. Small charges of ore were smelted in a series of experiments in which the limestone-silica ratio was gradually decreased. The data from these experiments demonstrated that 1 unit of limestone to 2 units of silica was the minimum limestone addition that produced a workable slag.

To simplify making up charges, the ratio of limestone in the flux to silica in the ore was used as the flux-control variable. Table 3 gives the comparable basicity factors, (CaO + MgO/SiO2 + Al2O3) for each limestone-silica ratio. The ash content of reductants was not considered.

During the smelting of 0.5 limestone-silica factor charges, viscous slags formed; however, the iron content of these slags was low. Pig smelted from these low-limestone charges was relatively higher in silicon and sulfur than pig iron from higher limestone charges, because heavier additions of lime slagged more silica and shifted the calcium-sulfur equilibrium.

Variation in the character of slags and pig irons produced from smelting was more pronounced in limestone-silica-factor charges between 0.5 and 0.75 than between 0.75 and 1.0. When a constant quantity of reductant was added to 0.75- and 1.0-factor charges, the slag from the 0.75-factor charge contained the most iron. By adjustment of the quantity of reductant, the silicon content of pig iron from each type of charge could be made equal. Thus, the silicon content of pig iron depended primarily on the quantity of charge reductant and secondarily on the limestone-silica factor.

Using extra reductant produced low-iron slags and high-silicon pig iron from charges with a 0.5 limestone-silicon factor. Sulfur was removed from iron satisfactorily with any of the three quantities of limestone used.

Reductants were charged on the basis of a selected number of pounds per pound of iron in the feed. A few charges were made up with fine cuttings of graphite as the reductant, but the use of graphite was not investigated enough to permit making comprehensive conclusions. There was no sulfur or phosphorus pickup by the pig iron, however, when graphite was employed as the reducing agent.

Coal samples from four Oklahoma mines of the Lone Star Steel Co. were used in many of these experiments. Metallurgical coke was employed in a few experiments, but no advantages from its use were apparent in the arc furnace.

Two samples of lump bituminous coal, obtained at different times from the same source in southern Illinois, were also used as a reductant. Table 2 shows that the sulfur content of these samples varied greatly. This coal also caused an unusual amount of gassing in the furnace; the gassing was particularly pronounced while the charge was partly molten. The semiwild furnace charge was attributed to large quantities of volatile matter escaping from the coal while the charge was semifused. In addition, volatilization of chemically combined water in the ore and carbon dioxide from the limestone added to the volume of gas.

Furnace operations were smoothest when Texas lignite served as the reductant. It is believed that the large volatile content of this material effectively escaped from the charge before fusion took place, thereby minimizing spewing of the furnace contents. It was also noted that arc control was most satisfactory with reduction by lignite.

A 100-kv.-a. Lectromelt, laboratory-type, size V, single-phase, arc furnace was used for most smelting experiments. In a few preliminary charges smelted in a Detroit, indirect-arc, rocking-type furnace dusting was excessive, and balling of the charges took place at the softening temperature.

The east Texas iron ores contain large quantities of gangue minerals; therefore, it was economically imperative to add the least possible flux to the furnace burden. As the gangue consisted chiefly of silica and alumina, a highly acid slag resulted when limestone additions were held to a minimum. Because the furnace was lined with magnesia brick, the first experiments were made with this lining, although these ore charges were expected to corrode magnesia. This lining was consumed in a few heats. A carbon lining that gave satisfactory service for many heats was subsequently installed.

A charge consisting of 36 percent Rogers mine ore, 36 percent mill concentrate, 16 percent lime, 10 percent graphite, and 2 percent fluorspar was smelted in an indirect-arc rocking furnace to obtain iron contents of the slag at intervals as smelting progressed. This charge contained lime equivalent to a 0.5-limestone-silica factor charge. The charge was fused, and the surface portion sampled over a 2 hour period. The results are presented in table 4.

Charges of 50-50 Rogers ore and mill concentrate were prepared with approximately 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 limestone-silica factors, plus coal in slightly varying portions. Ore and coal were crushed through -inch and limestone through 10-mesh. These charges were smelted in the carbon-lined 100-kv.-a. arc furnace, The time in the fused state was 2- hours. Table 5 gives data on several pig irons and slags produced from these smelting experiments.

Product analysis considerably varied from one test to another, but much general information and several trends are indicated from the results. As the percentage of reductant in the charge was decreased, the iron content of the pig rose, and silicon content decreased preferentially to carbon. The apparent trend of phosphorus in the metal was to rise somewhat with an increase of coal in the charges. Sulfur reduction was improved by adding more coal to augment reducing conditions. As limestone or reductant increased in the charges, the iron content of the slags decreased. The sulfur content of the slag rose as more lime was added to the charge.

A series of arc-furnacing tests was made on Rogers-mine ore by using a nearly constant iron-coal ratio and varying the limestone-silica factor from 0.5 to 1. The results of these experiments are presented in table 6. A column is included in this table for basicity factor or V ratio, terms used in the steel industry to indicate slag conditions

In contrast with erratic removal of sulfur from mixtures of Rogers-mine ore and mill concentrate, the data in table 6 indicate consistent removal of sulfur during smelting of straight Rogers-mine ore. Variation in limestone quantities was not reflected in the sulfur content of the pig irons, although the iron content of the pig iron rose as larger quantities of silica were slagged by increases of limestone. Carbon in the pig also increased as more silica was retained in the slag by the higher limestone additions. The slag removed only small quantities of phosphorus. The iron content of the slag increased as lime was charged in larger quantities but decreased when mixed ore and concentrate were smelted. These experiments show that pig irons of acceptable analyses can be produced by smelting low-grade siliceous iron ores with a small quantity of flux in an arc furnace.

Several smelting experiments were conducted similar to those of which the results are shown in table 6, except that duplexing slag treatments were made for removing phosphorus. At the end of 1- hours of smelting the slag was skimmed and largely replaced with an oxidizing basic cover made up of limestone and either roll scale or ferric oxide. After the cover became fluid, it was skimmed into a slag mold, and the metal layer was slowly poured through it. Some reduction in silicon content of the pig was attained by this simulated Perrin treatment, carbon content was slightly reduced, and phosphorus content was scarcely affected. Too little oxidation was attained under these conditions to refine the pig iron.

By using data gained from smelting Rogers mine ore, Black Mountain ore was smelted without preliminary runs. In a series of smelting experiments, ore was blended with varying portions of limestone, while the iron to coal ratio was maintained nearly constant. Coal made up either 7 or 8 percent of the total charge weight, while limestone in the charges varied from 18 to 30 percent. Surface temperatures of the molten charges averaged between 1,570 and 1,590 C. (2,855 to 2,890 F.) . The molten charges were in the arc furnace 2- hours. A mixture of four Oklahoma coking coals crushed through inch was used as reductant. Table 7 shows smelting results from varying lime in the charges.

The data in table 7 indicate an overly reduced condition during smelting. Although the iron-coal ratio approximated that used in the experiments on the Rogers ore, larger quantities of silicon were reported in the pig irons produced from Black Mountain ore. Smelting concentrated the sulfur in the slag layer and the phosphorus in the metallic layer. Slag from the low-lime charge was highly viscous and difficult to handle; however, very little iron shot remained in the slag, indicating that fluidity was adequate for metal-slag separation.

High-silicon pig irons smelted from Rogers and Black Mountain ores were refined in indirect-arc and induction furnaces. The objectives were to remove major portions of the silicon, carbon, and phosphorus through oxidation and slagging or, in the case of carbon, oxidation and volatilization. Refining involved maintaining oxidizing conditions over the molten iron by using oxidizing slags or lancing directly with air, oxygen, or air-oxygen mixtures.

In preliminary experiments, impurities were removed in small crucibles heated by induction. Oxidizing slags were placed over the molten samples of pig iron, and oxygen lancing was also employed to increase the oxidation of impurities. These experiments in crucibles did not produce steel but indicated the conditions necessary to achieve the desired degree of purification.

An indirect-arc rocking-type furnace, operated with both an alumina and a magnesia lining, was used for larger scale experiments to purify pig irons. Removal of impurities was more effective with the latter lining.

A composite of pig irons from two smelting heats analyzed, in percent: Fe 94.3, Si 1.4, C 4.1, and S 0.10. This material was melted in a carbon-lined arc furnace with a closed top. When molten, a reducing flux cover, weighing 50 percent of the metal and containing 61 percent limestone, 20 percent graphite, 10 percent soda ash, and 9 percent silica, was placed on the metallic bath. The charge was held between 1,500 and 1,600 C. for 2- hours to remove sulfur. At the end of the period, the slag was skimmed and the metal sampled. The sulfur was effectively removed, as shown by analysis of the treated metal: Fe 93.6, Si 1.9, C 3.7, P 0.21, and S 0.01. The molten pig iron was transferred to a hot magnesia-lined indirect-arc furnace where it was covered with an oxidizing flux weighing about 18 percent of the metal. The flux material contained 69 percent limestone, 28 percent Rogers-mine ore plus mill concentrate, and 3 percent soda ash. The resulting slag was skimmed at the end of 1- hours. A second fluxing treatment was made in the same manner. Finished metal analyzed, in percent, as follows: Fe 97.4, Si 0.09, C 2.3, P 0.20, and S 0.01. Silicon and sulfur were virtually removed by the treatments, but only half of the carbon and very little phosphorus were affected. Conditions for oxidation in the indirect-arc furnace did not permit making steel from this pig iron without excessive treatment time and large volumes of flux.

Oxidizing conditions were intensified by using oxygen and additional air. A charge of pig iron containing, in percent, Fe 89.3, Si 5.1, C 3.8, P 0.19, and S 0.01 was melted in a zirconium silicate crucible by induction heating. Limestone, to the extent of 20 percent of the charge weight, was placed on the molten metal at 1,350 C. The bath was lanced with 50-50 air-oxygen mixture for 5- minutes when the slag became too pasty to permit further blowing. This treatment lowered the carbon and silicon content of the metal to 3.1 and 4.4 percent, respectively.

Pig iron of the above analysis was melted in the magnesia-lined, indirect-arc, rocking furnace under a flux weighing 30 percent of the charged metal. The flux was made up of 62 percent limestone, 35 percent Rogers-mine ore plus mill concentrate, and 3 percent soda ash. One-half of the flux was added and the charge held at 1,500 C. for 1- hours; then the slag was skimmed, the remaining flux added, and the charge held molten an additional 1- hours. Surface temperature of the melt during the latter period averaged 1,540 C. Throughout the entire refining period a jet of air was blown into the furnace over the molten charge. This procedure increased oxidation of the charge impurities to such an extent that the analysis of the poured metal was: Fe 99.3, Si 0.05, C 0.29, P 0.004, and S 0.01.

In general, oxygen lancing in a crucible under laboratory conditions did not provide proper oxidation of the impurities. Most of these treatments were terminated in less than 10 minutes. Holding molten pig iron in an indirect-arc furnace under an oxidizing flux and constantly forcing air into the furnace converted the pig iron to mild steel.

Pig iron was produced by arc-furnace smelting a charge consisting of 69 percent Black Mountain mine ore, 23 percent limestone, and 8 percent Illinois coal No. 2. The pig iron contained, in percent: Fe 91.9, C 3.6, Si 3.0, P 0.28, and S 0.012. It was charged to the 50-kw indirect-arc rocking furnace and then covered by 12 percent of its weight of an oxidizing flux consisting of 70 parts of limestone and 30 parts of ferric oxide. A 50-50 mixture of air and oxygen was injected into the furnace above the charge during the entire treatment. The first refining period was 45 minutes at an average surface temperature of 1,566 C. At the end of this time the slag was skimmed and the bare bath held molten under the air-oxygen jet 15 minutes before another portion of oxidizing flux was added. The second flux remained on the metal for 45 minutes at an average surface temperature of 1,570 C. The charge was poured at 1 hour and 45 minutes. The finished metal contained, in percent: C 0.076, Si 0.037, P 0.063, and S 0.024. The indicated removal of impurities, in percent was: C 98, Si 99, and P 86.

Figure 1 shows the furnace operator charging cold pig iron to the indirect-arc furnace. Figure 2, photographed with the furnace in operation, indicates the mode of air injection over the molten charge. An air hose attached to a ceramic tube protruding from the furnace door permitted introduction of air or oxygen while the furnace was in motion.

Power-consumption data are essential to evaluate the feasibility of electrically smelting low-grade iron ores. Data for this purpose were derived through smelting charges of low-grade iron ore and a high-grade iron concentrate in the laboratory. Such data must be considered in relation to laboratory or small-scale work, which inherently requires more heat per unit of production. Thus, the power required to produce 1 pound of pig iron from iron ore on a laboratory scale may be several times that required in a large industrial furnace. The relationship between the power required to produce a unit of iron from low-grade ore and that necessary to produce a unit of iron from high-grade ore is constant, regardless of the scale of operations; therefore, the following figures on power for low-grade ore may be readily projected for large-scale production, when the power consumption of the large furnace is known for an ore of a definite iron content. Some adjustment may be necessary for flux requirements of various ores; however, this adjustment will be small if a constant basicity factor is adhered to.

Selected drill cores from an east Texas iron-ore-exploration project were used as low-grade ore in power-consumption studies. A composite of this material contained, in percent: Fe 28.6, SiO2 32.0, Al2O3 10.7, CaO 0.14, P .087, and S 24. Arc-furnace smelting experiments were made on this ore, with variations in the reductant and basicity factor. Residence of charge in the furnace was held constant at 2 hours. This time was near minimum for reduction of the iron in both the low- and high-grade ores. Reductants used were coke, coal, and lignite. Basicity factors of the charges were 0.30, 0.35, and 0.40. The fixed-carbon (in the reductant)-iron ratio in the charges was either 0.45 or 0.60. Within limits of the experimental variations, the quantity or type of reductant did not affect power consumption enough to delineate a trend. There was no definite advantage for coke, coal, or lignite but furnace operation with lignite was less variable. In contrast with the spewing of wild charges when coal was used, charges containing lignitic reductant smelted quickly and with a steady arc. This difference is attributed to the release of volatile matter from lignite before incipient fusion of the charge.

As slag has a higher specific heat than pig iron, the large slag volume of the high-basicity charges were expected to require more power. Experiments did not bear this out, as more kilowatt-hours per pound of pig iron were required to smelt 0.30-basicity-factor charges than for 0.40-basicity-factor charges. Further analysis of smelting conditions showed that, as the basicity factor of the charges was lowered, the slags became increasingly viscous and required higher finishing and pouring temperatures. The added wattage used to raise the charge temperature 15 or 20 C. apparently was greater than that necessary to heat and flux the additional limestone in the charges having higher basicity factors.

A truckload of specular hematite gravity concentrate was obtained from the Ozark Ore Co., Iron Mountain, Mo. This particular lot of ore contained, in percent: Fe 55.3, SiO2 9.3, Al2O3 3.5, CaO 4.8, MgO 0.60, P 0.007, and S 0.009. Portions of this material were arc-furnace-smelted in experiments that paralleled those on low-grade ore. Conditions were maintained to produce pig irons of comparable iron content from both the low- and high-grade feeds.

Melts of concentrate were quiet in the furnace with coke, coal, or lignite reductants. Because of low slag volume and high metal fall, total power consumption for smelting a charge of concentrate was expected to be less than for smelting the same weight of charge made up of low-grade ore. Smelting data, however, did not confirm this assumption. The insulating effect of slag is believed to have reduced the heat loss from low-grade charges; total power consumption per charge slightly favored the low-grade iron ore.

Consumption of electric power per pound of pig iron is shown for corresponding basicity factor charges in table 8. A comparison of the energy consumed in making 1 pound of pig iron from the 2 grades of ore shows that the ratio of power consumed to pig iron produced is nearly inversely proportional to the iron tenor of the ores. This relationship was extended and confirmed by laboratory smelting of 22-percent iron ore.

To arrive at relative furnace capacity for smelting low- and high-grade ores, a series of furnacing experiments was made, in which choke feeding was practiced. Low- and high-grade ores were blended with fluxes and lignite to produce balanced charges. The usual quantity of charge material was added to the furnace and an arc struck. After a pool of molten material had formed, more cold charge was added to the furnace in increments until molten slag began running from the charging hole. Weights of charges at these points were noted and compared for low- and high-grade ores. The relative furnace capacity was 89 parts by weight of low-grade charge to 100 parts of high-grade charge. Relative parts of ore were 98 and 100, respectively, representing 51.5 and 100 parts of iron. Thus the capacity of the furnace to produce pig iron was in direct proportion to the iron tenor of the ore, except for a small discrepancy due to a difference in iron lost in the slag.

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