Limestone information: Construction Limestone, or simply Limestone, is a broad category of coarse particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geo-synthetic Limestones. Limestones are the most mined material in the world. Limestones are a component of composite materials such as concrete and asphalt concrete; the Limestone serves as reinforcement to add strength to the overall composite material.
Limestone Processing: Construction industry is highly prosperous in modern time. More and more Limestone materials are required all over the world. Limestone is the natural available deposits of sand or gravel. However, natural deposits of Limestone are very limited in nature world. Most Limestone are obtained from the crushed large rock, gravel, sand or other materials. Limestone crushing plants are important equipment for Limestone processing. Limestone commonly is classified into two categories: fine Limestone and coarse Limestone.
Limestone Crushing Plant: Limestone crushing operation is the processes of dealing and processing of nonmetallic mineral materials for construction industry. Nonmetallic mineral material will be first quarried or mined and then conveyed to the processing plant for further classification or further size reduction by Limestone
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A unique roller bearing design reduces operating expenses by up to 50 percent while improving production and energy efficiency compared to bushing crushers. Our portable cone crushing plants meet coarse and fine crushing application requirements and offer on-the-fly adjustability for easy operation.
A full line of crushing and screening plants and systems designed for the most challenging applications like processing concrete with the toughest, high-volume steel rebar, with ease. Processing the most abrasive hard rock without equipment fatigue. Tough enough to work for these applications, powerful enough to work for you, no matter what youre crushing.
Eagle Crusher knows the demands you face every day on the job site. Thats why we consistently lead the industry in new product innovations. Explore whats new in our lineup of heavy-duty crushing and screening plants and systems.
Eagle Crusher started as a family business with a rich heritage going back more than 100 years. Eagle is still a family-owned business today, operating from that same rich heritage. A heritage that puts customers first, and treats you like youre one of the family, with unsurpassed service and support, long after the sale, to make your job easier and your business more profitable.
You wont find more expert purchasing advice or better financing programs than with our Eagle Crusher financing team. Same-day quotes. 100% financing with qualified credit. Flexible payment options. Competitive terms and conditions.
RPN connected with product experts and Canadian distributors representing eight of the leading global manufacturers of mobile impact crushers to gain a little more insight into the benefits, features and evolution of this integral tool of today's C&D, concrete and asphalt recycling industries.
Mobile impact crushers, also known as the tracked impact crusher or recycling impactor, are recognizable mainly due to the fact that these crushers are mounted on a tracked undercarriage. Overall range of capacity for mobile impact crushers is roughly about 100 to 500 tons per hour.
Today's mobile impact crushers are especially ideal for smaller-scale recycling operations, for on-site recycling of demolition waste, and for tight-space urban and roadside applications. These units feature a diesel or electric drive system, are transportable by trailer, and can be simply driven off at the location of material that needs to be processed, and go to work very quickly.
With their capability to produce accurately-sized end-product with a cubical end product shape, mobile impact crushers work well as closed circuit stand-alone plants, or they can add significant productivity to any operation, working in tandem with a jaw crusher or screen plant.
Tracked impact crushing plants have evolved greatly over the last several decades, as their designs have been continuously updated and as the crushing market has changed. Major trends include the introduction of electric drive and hybrid systems as opposed to diesel-hydraulic drive systems, and decreases in size, weight, fuel consumption, cost-per-ton, and sound and dust generation.
Today's mobile impact crushers are ideal for use in a wide range of applications, including as a mobile recovered concrete crusher, or for asphalt and mixed C&D waste. They are available compliant to Tier 4 Final emissions standards, and can be equipped with or without a built-in screen, as well as many options specifically geared towards creating recycled materials. Todays mobile impact crushers are safer, more mobile, easier to maintain and operate, and are available with sophisticated machine automation and monitoring.
"The growth in recycling of concrete and asphalt recycling industries has led to higher demand for smaller, more mobile crushers," says John O'Neill, McCloskey International's VP of sales. "Over the last 10 years we have improved our control panel systems to provide operators with more knowledge and information about what is going on inside their machines at all times. The units are also easier and faster to set up."
According to Daryl Todd of B.C.-based Frontline Machinery, the Canadian dealer for Belgium-based crushing and screening plant manufacturer Keestrack, "Wesee a strong movement towards turning concrete and asphalt rubble materials into higher quality recycled materials such as construction sand, washed recycled drain rock, road mulch, RAP (reclaimed asphalt pavement) and a host of other quality products with a much higher value.
"The impact crusher's ability to handle steel-reinforced concrete, along with custom options, such as plastics and wood-waste removal systems, washing systems and more, has enabled recyclers to create much higher quality end products, and crush and process materials previously deemed only waste, or too difficult to process."
"The reason is the quality of the material and very cubical shape produced. The impact crusher is a first- and second-stage crusher in one unit, so you can crush a 600-mm product down to a final product for resale as recycling aggregate.
"Our machines are excellent in recycling asphalt, as we can slow down the rotor speed to crush the asphalt, but not the aggregate inside the asphalt, so the material can be reused in asphalt mixing plants, a huge savings on cost."
According to Norbert Dieplinger, Austria-based SBM Mineral Processing's international business development manager, "Specs are getting tighter so crushers must be much more accurate than in the past. For example, a few years back you could just crush aggregate down to 0- to 3-inch material and use it for road base. Now, engineers are allowing the use of more and more recycled asphalt into their mix, instead of all-natural aggregate and crushed concrete, and not just as road base material. With impact crushers, the shape is exactly what you need, you can get down to smaller sizes and they can process building debris with rebar."
Alexander Taubinger, Rubble Master's managing director and VP sales, says "Cost of ownership and costs per ton are key figures for our customer base." Rubble Master machines feature a diesel-electric drive that burns less fuel, and low maintenance costs are due to the company's latest design and product development.
"Back in the day, it was all about tons per hour. Machines were built overly strong and heavy with large, inefficient power solutions. This is second or third priority these days, since contractors have to meet other job requirements when it comes to most recycling applications."
He adds that with respect to end markets, Rubble Master has always been focused on the final product size and quality. "Lots of contractors still only think about reducing the size of material. It's all about reusable and resalable product size and quality these days."
The changing value of recovered metal, especially over the last decade, is a consideration for all recyclers and contractors managing recycled materials. For users of mobile impact crushers in the processing of concrete and C&D rubble, even with the fluctuating price of recovered steel seen over the last several years, efficient metal separation remains a key component.
"Unfortunately, with the way things have turned as of late, scrap iron is not worth a lot. But I can tell you that having systems in place to remove it is paramount," says Tim Harms, crushing and screening product manager, Kolberg Pioneer (a KPI-JCI & ASTEC Screens company.)
"If you have any metal contamination in your end product, you'll be in trouble trying to resell that product. So it's very important to get it removed. Ten years ago, scrap was of higher value and that was part of the equation. Now it's just the fact that you need to get it out so that you can resell the product. Impact crushers are very good at liberating scrap iron from concrete."
Stephen Whyte, product manager, mobile product development, KPI-JCI & Astec Mobile Screens, adds that the growth of the contractor/rental market has also been key in driving the growth of all tracked crushing and screening plants.
"Guys today can load a tracked impact crusher, go do a job for a week, load it off on the weekend, and they can be set, ready to go on the next site the following week," says Whyte. "It's the contractor/rental market that's really driven the mobile impact crusher market."
He adds that for impact crushing in general, mobile, tracked units are the least path of resistance to get into the business. "You've got the highest reduction ratio. You've probably got the lowest capital investment. And you can get the most bang for your buck'. Almost always you will see entry-level tracked impactors as the first choice for contractors getting into the C&D materials recycling business, no matter the brand."
The stand-out feature of the mobile crusher or tracked impactor for recycling applications, is its mobility, combined with high productivity per hour. Units are fully self-contained on their tracked undercarriage and can easily be driven off a trailer by one operator and quickly put to work, with excellent capability for moving directly to materials. Some models are even capable of tracking (moving about on their tracks) while crushing.
"The ability to move within the job site and job to job is important to the contractor, or other end user, thus driving the demand for portable crushers," says Jody Beasley, national sales director at Screen Machine. "One of the biggest expenses in material processing is physically handling the material. Every time material is moved, labour and expenses are involved. Tracked impact crushers bring the machine to the job site, right to the pile, and allow for very efficient material processing.
"It's all about tons per hour. Our machines have been designed to produce maximum tonnage and one significant way they do that more efficiently is through our patented Crusher Relief System. The Screen Machine Crusher Relief System allows the operator to raise the crusher lid up to six inches while the machine is in operation. This is a huge help in preventing jams inside the crusher and ultimately delivers thousands of additional tons of product over the life of the machine."
According to Stephen Whyte, KPI-JCI and Astec Mobile Screens, "Mobile impact crushers are higher capacity than they were when they first came on. When the first tracked machines came in, they were seen as crushers that were highly portable but would do less weight than the typical portable [trailer-mounted] machine. Whereas now, some of the tracked machines we manufacture can reach those same capacities, and compete with the portable setups.
"Another great feature with our impact crushers is that they allow operators to crush and track at the same time," he continues. "This is why you'll see a lot of these units being used along the highway. One operator can basically load the machine and operate the tracked crusher at the same time."
"This is very important," adds Kolberg-Pioneer's Tim Harms. "You can be crushing and don't have to disengage the crusher to track the machine. You can continue to crush while the machine is being moved around on its tracks, which is a big advantage with respect to time savings. Time is of a huge value. If you lose 10 percent of your time, just because you've got to wait for the crusher to stop so you can move it, those are dollars."
Traditionally, mobile impact crushers have used a diesel-hydraulic engine for the track-drive and power to the crusher. The advent of electric-drive and hybrid systems is one of the main advancements that has occurred over the last decade, and its development is seen by many as one of the most significant trends going forward, especially considering the importance of fuel efficiency, rising transport and operational costs and the global focus on reducing emissions.
"Lowest cost per ton produced is crucial in the customer's business," says Metso Minerals' product manager, Jouni Hulttinen, who adds that main focus areas in their Lokotrack line development have been ease of transport, maintenance and service, as well as safety and energy efficiency.
"Energy efficiency has been a very focused development area," says Hulttinen. "We have reduced fuel consumption up to 20 percent with our tracked impactors." He says one good example is the Lokotrack LT1213(S) (S' designates a built-in screen component) which uses a stand-by function' where the machine switches to idling mode if there is no load on the engine. "Just five minutes on stand-by, per hour, can save 10 litres of fuel per day."
According to Norbert Dieplinger, the drive systems in crushers manufactured by SBM are available as diesel-electric or can be run 100-percent electric. "Not only does electric power reduce the carbon footprint, it can save contractors up to 30 percent on fuel costs when you compare them to the diesel-hydraulic drive systems that were common in the past and are still used by lots of manufacturers," he says.
"This permits high fuel efficiency and allows optimal loading of the crusher," explains Joe Schappert, Kleemann's senior technical sales manager. "Outstanding performance is made possible in part by the extremely efficient direct drive, with which these machines are equipped. A latest-generation diesel engine transmits its power almost loss-free directly to the flywheel of the crusher, via a robust fluid coupling and V-belts. This drive concept enables enormous versatility, as the rotor speed can be adjusted in four stages to suit different processing applications."
A first question to ask when considering a purchase, according to McCloskey's John O'Neill, is: what do you want the machine to do? He says it is necessary for a solid sense of reality to be a big part of the buying decision. "Too many times the customer is upset because they expect peak performance to be the norm, when they need to be looking at all aspects of their operation and how it can support the crusher and the desired end goals or products."
"What kind of support equipment is available and can it support the tonnage capacity of the crusher?" he asks. He adds that other important questions include: Who are the customers? What is the application you intend to use it for? What spec are you working with? How large are the piles to be crushed?"
"If the impact crusher needs a part or maintenance items, can you be confident that the manufacturer will get those parts to you as quickly as possible?" asks Screen Machine's Jody Beasley. "Our machines are manufactured in Ohio, and all parts orders are fulfilled here. We pride ourselves on the fact that more than 97 percent of in-stock parts orders ship the same day."
"All impactors are not created equal, and the differences are significant," says Daryl Todd, Frontline Machinery. "We strongly suggest taking a close look when comparing various models. Start off with the technical specifications, including engine horsepower, the weight of rotor and blow bars, as well as ease of transport, machine weight and dimensions."
Todd says there are many questions to ask, including: Is the rotor direct-drive from the engine, electric drive or hydraulic drive? What is the hopper capacity and feeding height? And what are the after-screen options - single-, double- or triple-deck? Does the machine have the ability to track while in full production? What type / quality are the key components such as hydraulics and electronics? And what is the type and quality of steel used in the frame, crusher housing and rotor? He adds that any mobile impact crusher should also have a user-friendly design, with ease of changing blow bars, and ease of access for maintenance and servicing.
Keestrack's Michael Brookshaw says one of the main questions to ask when considering an impact crusher is: can you transport the unit with your own transport means? "The material that you need to crush in your area is important," he says.
"Look at the costs per ton involved on the purchasing and running of the unit. What are the amounts of material that need to be crushed? Are they large deposits of 30,000 tons or smaller deposits of 500 to 1,000 tons? You should also consider the feed size and capacity that you will need. Would electric drive provide an advantage on the environmental side of the business?"
He adds that the technical aspects of the unit are also very important. Electric drive, pre-screen before the crusher, crusher overload system, pan feeder under the crusher, weight, as well as service and operator friendliness of the unit are all areas that need to be considered. Joe Schappert from Kleemann says that buyers considering a purchase should make sure they choose the correct size for the application and consider how product will flow through the crusher.
"The Kleemann Continuous Feed System (CFS) manages a more equal loading of the crushing area, in which the conveying frequencies of the feeder trough and the pre-screen are adapted independently of each other to the level of the crusher, thus significantly boosting performance.
"Our new impact crushers are differentiated by their size and productivity," continues Schappert. "Our model MR 110 Zsi EVO 2 has a crusher inlet opening of 43.3 inches (1,100 mm), and the MR 130 Zi EVO 2 has a crusher inlet opening of 51 inches (1,300 mm). These provide feed capacities of up to 350 or 450 tph, respectively.
"Consider diesel-electric drives," he adds. "Our latest EVO 2 Mobirex mobile impact crushers utilize direct-drive crushers and electric drives for the vibrating conveyors, belts and the pre-screen. This permits high fuel efficiency and allows optimal loading of the crusher."
Looking ahead, Daryl Todd of Frontline Machinery says there will be more hybrid technology, electric/diesel hybrids, meaning reduced fuel consumption, as well as improved noise reduction. He says that we'll also see advances in contaminant removal systems and washing systems integrated into closed-circuit impact crushers.
GPS systems are another area where Todd expects advances to continue. "GPS systems provide remote monitoring and control, tying in with onboard belt scales," he says. "This allows managers to have total insight into remote operations."
Michael Brookshaw of Keestrack says their telematic system allows customers, distributors and the manufacturer to monitor their machines, inform from distance and advise on capacity, running of the unit and fault finding.
"There has also been much development in the area of wear parts, which are more durable than ever," says Brookshaw. "Our electric-hybrid and full-hybrid system, which we call Keebrid, are excellent in the areas of durability, lower emissions, running costs and all environmental issues."
For McCloskey's John O'Neill, the trend of using one machine to do multiple parts of an operation will continue to decline. "The crusher should crush and the screeners should screen," he says. "Trying to squeeze it all onto one platform is hard and often results in compromises, which if not acceptable to the customer, can be disastrous on the job site."
Rubble Master's Taubinger expects to see improvements in efficiency in all regards. "We expect a very heavy focus on emissions such as dust and noise, as well as more fuel efficiency, safety and ease of operation."
"Advanced diagnostic tools can enable the operator to monitor processes in real time with the ability to adjust settings on a touch screen on the crusher, or even from inside an excavator cab. This leads to further increases in safety and efficiency with a reduction in maintenance, operating costs and downtime.
"Diesel-electric power is the future because of all the advantages it provides with respect to decreased fuel costs and decreased carbon footprint," adds Dieplinger, who also points out that this will make a big difference in years to come, especially considering new carbon taxes being implemented globally.
According to Metso's Jouni Hulttinen, base construction for bikeways, road base and industrial areas are growing end markets for material made from recycled C&D, concrete and asphalt. He says mobile impact crushers, and all types of crushers for recyclable materials, will increasingly move more towards application in the production of high-quality end products.
"Use of the end material has gone from the most basic application to higher-spec building materials," says Hulttinen. "The future trend will go more towards substituting aggregates, new concrete made from recycled concrete, and recycled asphalt added to make new asphalt." RPN
How to choose a right ball milling method for your material?1.Definition of wet milling method and dry milling method.2.It is the key to choose the right ball milling method.3.Precautions in the process of selecting a grinding method.4.Wet ball mill is more economical and practical than dry ball mill.
Advantages of wet magnetic separator in coal preparation.1.Importance of processing the coal mine correctly.Necessary equipment for coal preparation---wet counter-current magnetic separator.Wet counter-current magnetic separator has great graces in the coal preparation process.
Construction aggregate, or simply aggregate, is a broad category of coarse particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geo-synthetic aggregates. Aggregates are the most mined material in the world. Aggregates are a component of composite materials such as concrete and asphalt concrete; the aggregate serves as reinforcement to add strength to the overall composite material.
Aggregate Processing: Construction industry is highly prosperous in modern time. More and more aggregate materials are required all over the world. Aggregate is the natural available deposits of sand or gravel. However, natural deposits of aggregate are very limited in nature world. Most aggregate are obtained from the crushed large rock, gravel, sand or other materials. Aggregate crushing plants are important equipment for aggregate processing. Aggregate commonly is classified into two categories: fine aggregate and coarse aggregate.
Strong India is a credible name in the market. We manufacture, export and supply a wide range of plants like Mineral Crushing Plant, Mineral Screening Plant, Portable Screening Plant, Stone Screening Plant, Stone Crushing Plant, Portable Crushing Plant, Single Toggle Jaw Crusher, Double Toggle Jaw Crusher and Industrial Granulator. All these plants are made with the help of high-end technologies and we use the latest equipment for making it. These plants are demanded by big industries worldwide because of their quality and efficient performance. Moreover, we are also engaged in providing installation services and repairing services. These services are rendered by our skilled staff members, who are engaged in this work from a long time. We have all the latest equipment that are required for executing these services.Located in Dhansura (Gujarat, India), Stron Read more...
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These plants produce up to 500 tons per hour and have the option of running in standard, semi-autogenous and fully-autogenous configurations. Capable of meeting the most stringent material specs, our portable VSI crushing plants allow you to meet the challenges of any job you face.
BLC Robert & Associates is the leading independent business law firm in Mauritius. The firm has eight partners and over 30 locally and internationally trained lawyers and is a member of the Africa Legal Network (ALN), which is recognised by international directories as the leading legal network in Africa. Employment law is one of the practice areas that the firm is heavily involved in. Its employment lawyers provide a wide range of services, from general advice on employment laws in Mauritius, drafting and reviewing contracts of employment, advising on the process leading to the termination of an employee, including negotiation culminating in settlement, drafting letter of charges, assistance in disciplinary proceedings and acting as counsel in court cases, through its dispute resolution team. The employment team regularly provides employment advice in deals involving restructuring exercises, sales of businesses and mergers and acquisitions.
The Workers Rights Act 2019 (the Act), proclaimed in the Government Gazette on 24 October 2019, has repealed the Employment Rights Act 2008. The Act was enacted to provide a modern and comprehensive legislative framework for the protection of workers and to provide for the matters related thereto. The main changes are:
Mauritius does not recognise the concept of blue-collar and white-collar workers. The distinction is rather based on the salary of the employees. In the event of a worker (ie, someone whose monthly basic salary is MUR50,000 or less), the whole of the Act is applicable inasmuch as any provision that the employer undertakes must not be less favourable than the provisions stipulated in the Act. However, for those employees earning monthly basic salary of more than MUR50,000, only certain sections of the Act are applicable and most of the benefits can be contractually agreed, notwithstanding the provisions of the Act.
The provision applicable to all employees includes discrimination, equal remuneration for work of equal value, restrictions on deductions from salary, jurors leave, leave to participate in international sports, maternity and paternity leaves, termination of agreement and severance payment, Portable Retirement Gratuity Fund and violence at work.
A fixed-term contract is entered into between the worker and the employer for a specified period of time for specific temporary and non-recurring work, in respect of seasonal and short-term work, for the replacement of another worker on approved leave or suspended, for the purposes of providing training or for a specific training contract. The contract must be in writing and must specify the special skills required, the specific tasks to be performed and the duration thereof. In respect of workers, it is not possible to enter into a contract of determinate duration unless the conditions stated above are satisfied. For employees, it is possible to have a contract of determinate duration on the terms that may be mutually agreed between the parties.
Contracts of indeterminate duration are contracts which are entered into between the worker and the employer which do not have any specific timeframe. Should the employer wish to terminate the agreement, it can only be done after having followed the procedures as provided for under the Act.
The maximum working hours for workers is 45 hours per week consisting of nine working hours if the worker is required to work on a five-days basis or eight working hours on any five days and five hours on any one other day if the worker works on a six-days basis. Any hour above and beyond 45 hours must be counted as overtime and the worker must be remunerated accordingly. It is possible to include overtime hours in the monthly remuneration of the worker provided the conditions prescribed under the Act are strictly adhered to.
For employees, the working hours and overtime payment can be agreed contractually. For instance, a contract of employment for employees can provide that the employee will not be entitled to overtime payment and his monthly remuneration includes work that the employee may be required to work after working hours.
An employer may request a worker to work on flexitime by giving 48 hours notice to the employer. A worker may also request to work on flexitime and the employer must grant the request unless there are reasonable grounds (the inability to reorganise work or a detrimental impact on quality or performance) to refuse. The employer must inform the worker in writing if the request has been granted or not within 21 days of the date of the request.
If the employer intends to employ part-time employees, the latter must not be discriminated as compared to full-time employees and the terms of the contract must be similar to and not less favourable than that of a full-time employee.
Overtime payment is compulsory for workers unless it is included in the monthly remuneration. If a worker works for more than the normal working hours on a weekday, the employer must pay the worker for each extra hour worked at not less than 1.5 times the rate at which work is remunerated when performed during normal working hours. If a worker works on a public holiday, the employer must pay the worker for each hour worked during normal working hours at not less than twice the rate at which work is remunerated when performed during normal working hours; if the worker works in excess of those normal working hours, at not less than 3 times the rate at which work is remunerated when performed during normal working hours on a week day. For employees, this is purely contractual as it is not compulsory under the law to provide for overtime payment.
For part-time workers in an export enterprise, the national minimum wage, inclusive of additional remuneration payable as from 1 January 2020, shall be: 9000/195 x number of hours worked in a month x 1.10.
For employees earning a monthly basic salary of MUR100,000 or less who remain in continuous employment with an employer for the whole or part of a year, the end of year bonus will be equivalent to one-twelfth of his or her earnings for that year.
Earnings mean the remuneration of the employee (including overtime payment, payment for work performed on public holidays, remuneration due to the employee, remuneration due on termination, any additional remuneration) and any sum of money by whatever name called, including commission and any productivity payment, paid to an employee, in respect of any work performed by him or her, in addition to the basic wages agreed upon between him or her and the employer.
For employees earning a monthly basic salary of more than MUR100,000, the end of year bonus will be paid in accordance with the End of Year Gratuity Act 2001 which provides that an employee in employment as at 31 December will be entitled to one-twelfth of his or her December basic salary multiplied by the number of months of continuous employment in that year. As such, if the employment of an employee earning a monthly basic wage of more than MUR100,000 per month is terminated on grounds other than redundancy or retirement and he or she is not in employment as at 31 December of that year, he or she will not be entitled to an end of year bonus.
There is a government intervention on a yearly basis to provide for an additional or increase in remuneration and allowances to cater for inflation or cost of living, which rates vary from year to year.
Any sick leave not taken will accumulate up to a maximum of 90 days which are used by the employees for the time wholly spent in a medical institution or for convalescence purposes after discharge from a medical institution after they have exhausted their 15 days sick leave entitlement.
The employer may, at his or her own expense, cause a worker who is absent on grounds of illness to be examined by a medical practitioner. If the employers medical practitioner finds any inconsistency in the state of health of the worker, the worker may be subject to disciplinary actions in accordance with the applicable laws.
Workers, excluding migrant workers, are entitled to 30 days of paid vacation leave to be spent abroad, locally, or partly abroad and partly locally after being in employment with the same employer for five consecutive years. The computation of the period of five years shall start as at the date of the commencement of the Act (ie, 24 October 2019).
Workers are entitled to six days leave on full pay for the celebration of their first marriage, three days leave on full pay for the first marriage of their son or daughter and three days leave on full pay on the death of their spouse, child, parents or siblings.
Female employees are entitled to 14 weeks maternity leave on full pay to be taken before confinement, provided that at least seven weeks of maternity leave will be taken immediately following confinement, or after confinement. The employer must pay an employee, who has been in continuous employment with the same employer for 12 consecutive months, a maternity allowance of MUR3,000 as a one-off payment which must be paid to her within seven days of her confinement on production of a medical certificate. If the employee suffers a miscarriage duly certified by a medical practitioner, she will be entitled to three weeks leave on full pay immediately after the miscarriage. If the employee gives birth to a stillborn child, she will be entitled to 14 weeks leave on full pay on production of a medical certificate.
If an employee, who has been in continuous employment with the same employer for 12 consecutive months, adopts a child aged less than 12 months, she will be entitled to 14 weeks leave on full pay on production of a certified copy of the relevant court order and a copy of the childs birth certificate. For a period of six months from the date of confinement, or such longer period as recommended by a medical practitioner, the employee will be allowed two daily breaks of 30 minutes each, or one break of one hour, to nurse her unweaned child at a time convenient to herself and her child.
Where the spouse of a full-time male employee, who has been in continuous employment for 12 consecutive months, gives birth to a child, upon production of a medical certificate to that effect and a written statement signed by the employee stating that himself and his spouse live under the same roof, the male employee will be entitled to five continuous working days of paternity leave on full pay.
For non-competition clauses to be enforceable, the clauses should be restricted in time and space, not be too wide in scope so as to prevent the employees from earning a living, and their maintenance be fundamental to protect the legitimate business of the employer. It is not statute-based but is based on cases. The courts will decide on the validity of the said clause on a case-by-case basis.
Non-solicitation clauses generally relate to the non-poaching of the employers employees and even the customers. There are not normally any time and geographical restrictions as such with regard to non-solicitation clauses.
The data privacy law in the employment sector is governed by the Data Protection Act. Provisions in employment contracts in relation to data protection generally state that the employee consents to the employer operating data which relates to the employee (eg, identification data, physical traits, economic and social identity, race, ethnicity, origin, religious beliefs, biometric data or any other data determined by the Data Protection Commissioner in Mauritius as sensitive personal data) during his or her employment for the purposes of the administration and management of his or her employment or the business of the company. Also, the employer has the right to record, as appropriate, all data sent or received by the employee while using company equipment.
For a worker to be eligible to obtain a work permit, he or she should possess the skills, qualifications and experience required for the job applied for and he or she should normally be aged between 20 and 60 (the age criteria is neglected only if the employee possesses specific expertise). There are set of requirements and conditions to be fulfilled before the authority grants a work permit. In many instances, it would depend on the availability of such resources from locals. As compared to an occupation permit (described below), there is no specific minimum salary requirements for the obtaining of a work permit (save for the national statutory minimum wage).
Another type of permit is the occupation permit, the rules for which are less stringent than for a work permit. If the employee is going to be employed by a Mauritius company, the foreign employee should earn a minimum monthly basic salary of MUR60,000. The exception is those employees employed in the ICT sector where the monthly basic salary should be at least MUR30,000.
A trade union is defined as an association of persons, whether registered or not, having as one of its objects the regulation of employment relations between employees and employers. The primary role of a trade union is to ensure that the employment conditions of employees are respected, to negotiate on behalf of the employees forming part of the bargaining unit and provide employees with information, advice, and guidance about any work-related grievance. Representatives of trade unions may also accompany the employees at a disciplinary hearing.
The representative bodies if recognised will have the ability to negotiate terms and conditions of the employees forming part of the bargaining unit. Any terms and conditions agreed by the representative bodies with the employer will be binding on all employees forming part of that bargaining unit.
A collective agreement is concluded when a recognised trade union (or a group of recognised trade unions or a joint negotiating panel) and an employer reach an agreement on the terms and conditions of work. The terms of such agreement will be stated in the terms and conditions of the employment contract of the relevant employees.
A collective agreement shall remain in force for a period of not less than 24 months. Negotiations for the renewal of the agreement must start not later than three months before its expiry or any renegotiation procedures set in the collective agreement, if any. The collective agreement will bind the parties to the agreement and all the employees in the bargaining unit to which the agreement applies.
If the procedures have not been followed, or if the tribunal courts believe that there were no good grounds for terminating the employees contract, the court will award severance payment (see 7.2 Notice Periods/Severance).
There are different procedures to be followed depending on the grounds for termination. Mauritian laws provide different procedures to be followed depending whether it is a case of poor performance or misconduct (see 7.3 Dismissal for (Serious) Cause (Summary Dismissal)).
With regard to redundancy, an employer who employs a minimum of 15 employees, or has an undertaking with a minimum annual turnover of MUR25 million, cannot terminate the employment of an employee unless the employer has made an application for financial assistance to the institutions stated under the law, and such application has not been approved.
If no agreement is reached, or if there has been no negotiation, the employer must give written notice to the redundancy board (the board) at least 30 days before the intended retrenchment along with a statement stating the reason for the retrenchment (the notice).
The employer shall not perform the retrenchment before the completion of the proceedings. If the board is of the view that the retrenchment is justified, then it will award 30 days wages as indemnity in lieu of notice.
If the board is of the view that the termination is unjustified, it will order the employer to pay severance allowance (see 7.2 Notice Periods/Severance) or may order re-instatement with the consent of the employee.
There are exceptions to the general rule mentioned above where there is no requirement to ask for financial assistance or to negotiate and where the board must give its ruling within 15 days from the date of the notification by the employer to the board. The exception only applies to certain specific sectors and after the Minister responsible for labour and employment relations has, by way of regulation, exempted the employers from complying with the procedures that are generally applicable.
The minimum notice period is one month unless a higher notice period is expressly stated in the employment contract. In the event that the termination is unjustified, then the court or tribunal would award three month's remuneration per year of service for every 12 months that the employee is in employment. For any subsequent months, the amount will be prorated accordingly.
Remuneration is defined as the remuneration drawn by the employee for the last complete month of his or her employment, or an amount computed in the best manner as to give the rate per month at which the employee was remunerated over a period of 12 months before the termination of his or her agreement; this should include payment for extra work, productivity bonus, attendance bonus, commission in return for services and any other regular payment, whichever is higher.
If the employer is of the view that that it does not have good grounds for termination, it may pay the full severance allowance payment or reach a settlement agreement with the employee on such amount as is mutually acceptable.
The employee may have the assistance of a representative of the trade union, legal representative, or an officer when he or she is given the opportunity to answer to the charge made against him or her or is subject to a disciplinary hearing.
The Act provides that an employer must not discriminate between employees with regard to their age, race, colour, caste, creed, sex, sexual orientation, gender, HIV status, impairment, marital status, family status, pregnancy, religion, political opinion, place of origin, national extraction, social origin and between employees performing work of equal value.
According to the Equal Opportunities Act 2008, to determine the occurrence of a discriminatory act, whether directly or indirectly, the court will consider whether the discriminator is aware of the discrimination and whether or not the status of the aggrieved employee is the only or dominant reason for the discrimination. In light of the facts of the case, the court will order damages proportionate to the prejudice suffered by the aggrieved employee. The employee will have to show on the balance of probabilities that he or she has been discriminated against.
The Industrial Court is established under Section 3 of the Industrial Court Act and its function is to try any labour disputes. Any employee who feels aggrieved by the decision of his or her employer (save for redundancy) must bring a claim before the Industrial Court if the employee wants to obtain severance allowance.
The Employment Relations Tribunal is established under Section 85 of the Employment Relations Act and its main functions are to make awards, orders in relation to recognition, check-off agreement, agency shop order, minimum service and any other issues under the Employment Relations Act, interpret collective agreements, awards and orders and publish an annual report providing the summaries of cases and rulings. The Employment Relations Tribunal must make their award within 90 days of a dispute being referred to it. The period of 90 days may be extended where the circumstances so require, provided the consent of the parties to the dispute is obtained.
The Redundancy Board is established under Section 73 of the Act and deals with cases of reduction of workforce and closure of enterprises for economic, financial, structural, technological or any other similar reasons. The Redundancy Board shall complete its proceedings within 30 days from the date of notice unless an extension is mutually agreed by the parties. However, when the Minister responsible for labour and employment relations has, by way of regulation, exempted the employers of specific sectors from complying with the procedures that are generally applicable, the Redundancy Board must complete its proceedings within 15 days from the date of notice.
The Commission for Conciliation and Mediation is established under Section 87 of the Employment Relations Act and its main functions are to provide a conciliation or mediation service on any labour dispute referred to it, investigate any labour dispute reported to it, enquire into and report on any questions relating to employment relations generally or to employment relations in any particular industry referred to it by the Ministry of Labour and to provide a conciliation or mediation service for the assistance of workers, trade unions and employers to establish collective bargaining structures, create dead-lock breaking mechanism, establish workplace councils, prevent or resolve dispute and grievances, set up disciplinary or dispute resolution procedures and address industrial relations issues relating to the restructuring of organisations.
Arbitration and pre-arbitration agreements are not possible in respect of employment matters in Mauritius since the disputes are matters of public policy of Mauritius and are therefore not considered to be arbitrable.
The prevailing party may be awarded legal costs, the amount of which is statutorily fixed on the basis of a schedule of fees. The fees awarded are very minimal and, in practice, are not the actual fees spent on attorneys and barristers.
BLC Robert & Associates is the leading independent business law firm in Mauritius. The firm has eight partners and over 30 locally and internationally trained lawyers and is a member of the Africa Legal Network (ALN), which is recognised by international directories as the leading legal network in Africa. Employment law is one of the practice areas that the firm is heavily involved in. Its employment lawyers provide a wide range of services, from general advice on employment laws in Mauritius, drafting and reviewing contracts of employment, advising on the process leading to the termination of an employee, including negotiation culminating in settlement, drafting letter of charges, assistance in disciplinary proceedings and acting as counsel in court cases, through its dispute resolution team. The employment team regularly provides employment advice in deals involving restructuring exercises, sales of businesses and mergers and acquisitions.Get in Touch with Mechanic