spiral separator,spiral chute separator,gravity spiral chute,gravity chute - hxjq mining machine manufacturer

spiral separator,spiral chute separator,gravity spiral chute,gravity chute - hxjq mining machine manufacturer

Spiral chute separator is the best equipment for mining and ore beneficiation especially for sand mining in the coast, riverside, sand bank and creek road. This product features reasonable structure, simple installation, small occupation area, simple operation, stable operation, large processing capacity, high recycle rate and reliable operation. In addition, it also features light weight, damp proofing, rust protection, corrosion protection and no noise.

The gravity spiral chute or gravity chute stands to adjust vertical line, and then the spiral chute can be fixed in the proper position by brandreth or wood. The mineral sand is sent to the two feeding ports by sand pump, and then the water is added to adjust the density of ore oar. A centrifugal force is produced at the flow rate of spiral slope due to the fact that ore oar flows from the high place. The mineral and sand are separated through the gravity and centrifugal force caused by spiral flow. The concentrate flows out from the pipeline to the spiral separator and the tailings are sent to the sand pool. Finally, the ore beneficiation is finished.

overcoming solids caking with flow aids - chemical engineering | page 1

overcoming solids caking with flow aids - chemical engineering | page 1

Using gravity to initiate flow in the discharge of solid materials from bins and hoppers is the simplest, and often best, approach to solving solids-handling challenges. However, not all solid materials flow well by gravity alone. The propensity for fine solid materials to cake can lead to flow problems that will adversely affect your process. For situations where material caking disrupts gravity flow, a range of flow aid approaches are available to solve a variety of flow issues. This article discusses the operation of passive and active flow aids, and points out considerations for their use.

Cohesive strength is a characteristic of many materials, and fine solids tend to cake, agglomerate and pack because of it. But what is cohesive strength? Most of us understand it intuitively gently reach into a box of laundry detergent and the detergent sifts or flows through our fingers, but squeeze or compact the material, and it retains its shape and no longer flows over our fingers (Figure 1). This effect is due to compaction or consolidation pressure, which is a key factor in bulk-solids handling. Consider that inside a bin or silo, the pressures acting on the solids are very high and can easily cause the material to consolidate.

Measuring the flow properties of a bulk solid is critical to understanding how it will flow in a new system, or why it is troublesome in an existing system. Knowing the type of flow pattern that develops in a bin or silo is a prerequisite to reliable handling. Two major types of flow patterns can develop in solids flow: funnel flow and mass flow. In funnel flow, whenever any material is discharged from a container, some material moves while the rest remains stagnant. Funnel flow can lead to ratholing, erratic flow, flooding and segregation. When material flows in mass flow mode, all the material moves whenever any is withdrawn from the bin or hopper. This means that the material is sliding at the walls of the container and segregation is minimized, while ratholing and flooding generally do not occur.

Several test methods are available to identify a materials flow properties. The Jenike Shear Test method is the most important and has been the standard in the U.S. and Europe. The ASTM International consensus standard D 6128-06 for measuring bulk-solids flow properties is based on it. The method is named after Andrew Jenike, a pioneer of the theory of bulk solids flow. Jenikes scientific approach to the storage and flow of bulk solids, developed in the 1950s, remains relevant today.

The device used for the Jenike Shear Test is considered a linear direct shear tester (Figure 2). Other devices include Schulzes Ring Shear Tester, Brookfield Annular Shear Tester, Peschls Rotary Shear Tester and the Freeman Tester. Keep in mind that all of these devices compare their results to the Jenike Shear Test results.

Once information is gathered on the flow properties of a solid material, it may be necessary to select a gravity flow aid to overcome particle caking. The following discussion of flow aids categorizes the devices into two types: active and passive.

Mechanical, or active devices include vibrating dischargers, vibrators, agitations and forced-extraction devices. Air-operated devices, such as air blasters, air pads, air fluidizers and so on, are also included in the active flow-aid discussion.

Some mechanical flow-aid devices rely on internal components to force material to flow. Probably the most commonly used device is the vibrating bin discharger (Figure 3). A vibrating discharger can accommodate hopper openings from about 3 to 15 ft and is intended to keep material completely live over a hopper outlets entire cross-sectional area. This type of device is hung from a storage bin by rubber bushed links, and incorporates a rubber skirt to prevent leakage and to isolate the bin from the vibrations. Vibration is transmitted through an outer shell and into an internal dome or cone-shaped baffle by a motor with eccentric weights. A cohesive bulk solid can be broken up and made to flow, depending on the amplitude of vibration applied.

It must discharge over its entire cross-sectional area and be operated according to manufacturer instructions, which usually require it to be cycled on and off intermittently. Otherwise, small preferential flow channels will form, affecting solids flow and potentially causing structural problems

If solids in a bin are flowing in a funnel-flow pattern, the diameter of the discharger must be larger than the ratholing capability of the material (as long as the discharger cross-section is fully live)

Vibrators have long been used to enhance material flow. Sledgehammers or mallets are probably the most common flow aid of this type used. These can be the the least expensive way to encourage flow in a bin (and in some cases modify the shape of a bin). There are however, vibrators available that will essentially replace the sledgehammer.

Vibrators can be mounted on the side of a bin or chute in an attempt to initiate flow. These vibrators can be air- or electrically operated and come in all shapes and sizes. Rotary, piston, turbine, linear, electromagnetic, eccentric and several others are specific types of vibrators (Figure 4). Some types are designed to provide high-frequency, low-amplitude vibration to a surface. Others are used to generate high-amplitude vibrations, such as those required to provide a thump. Battering rams are even used to bang the side of a large bin in order to move material.

Devices that agitate a solid product are available, and are typically composed of multiple segmented helical sections that slowly rotate within the body of the discharger (Figure 5). This produces a downward flow into a discharge auger that controls the rate of withdrawal. For agitator-type flow aids, consider the following:

A cone unloader is a device similar to a vibrating-bin discharger but it has an internal cone that is raised into the product and vibrated to initiate flow (Figure 6). This device uses a vibrating cone that is intended to promote mass flow and break bridges. It can be used as a gate as well as a discharging device. Cone unloaders are dust-tight, and if they fail, they will fail safe-closed.

Traveling-auger unloaders have been in use for years and are typically used to discharge solids from flat-bottomed bins and silos. These heavy-duty, track-driven systems are designed for continuous operation under the most challenging conditions (Figure 7). Traveling augers cause solid material to discharge, dragging products to a centered discharge point. Traveling augers work well with woodchips, biomass and granular or flaky materials. This type of flow aid occupies minimal headroom.

Cone-bottom storage and reclaim systems work for materials with moderate flow characteristics (Figure 8). The screw rotates about its own axis, moving material toward the center of the silo outlet. At the same time, the screw slowly advances, sweeping around the entire silo hopper. Material is discharged to the center of the silo hopper, then flows down through a central chute below the hopper and into a discharge auger or conveyor for transfer out of the silo and to the next step in the material handling process. The cone bottom unloader uses a rotating auger to provide product withdrawal and a collecting auger to discharge material away from the silo. This type of flow aid handles dry meals, chemicals, plastics and small-particle wood waste.

Some materials, such as marl limestone, sludge and clay, do not respond well to vibration. However, a rotating-arm discharger may be used. These devices use a traveling arm to discharge product. They drag material to a central discharge point. Advantages of the rotating-arm unloader include first-in, first-out material flow, gentle handling of material, and repeatable, accurate discharge rates, creating consistency in operation. The rotating arm unloader works well with sticky materials, such as synthetic gypsum, sludge and others.

Cardox systems use a tube or cartridge that is filled with liquid carbon dioxide. When the cartridge is energized by the application of a small electrical charge, the chemical inside instantly converts the liquid CO2 to gas. This conversion expands the CO2 volume and builds up pressure inside the tube until it causes the rupture disc at the end of the tube to burst. This releases the CO2 (now 6,000 times its original volume) through a special discharge nozzle to create a powerful heaving force, at pressures up to 40,000 psi. Keep the following in mind:

Giro whips (Figure 9) are another type of cleanout device. They are powered by compressed air and maneuvered by an operator who manipulates the cleaning head. They use a variety of whips and cutting edges. An advantage of this type of device is that they are mobile and can be easily positioned at the cleaning location.

Air pads (Figure 10) have been used for years and work by discharging air along the walls of bins and hoppers. They provide localized fluidization to aid flow, and require several pads to be effective. Users must be careful, because the pads may also obstruct flow.

Fluidizers are a popular means of achieving locally fluidize product along the walls of a hopper (Figure 11). Fluidizers basically work by undercutting solid material to provide localized fluidization. They can be mounted externally so that aid can be obtained without emptying the bin.

Air blasters inject high-pressure air into a bin or silo that has trouble with arching, ratholing or both. An air blaster uses air or nitrogen that is stored in a tank at about 80 to 100 psi. Air blasters also have a piston-sealed exhaust and quick-acting valve to fire the high-pressure air at an arch or rathole. The expanding air breaks bridges and causes material to flow.

Non-mechanical solids-flow aids are also known as passive aids, and there are several types. Among them are powders and chemicals that can be added to some solids to improve their flowability. Flow aid chemicals, such as fumed silica, can improve flow, reduce caking and improve storage stability.

These flow aids are available for products that are exposed to sub-freezing conditions. Freeze-conditioning agents interfere with the bonds between the solid material and frozen moisture, creating a slush instead of a frozen block. Freeze-conditioning agents serve to reduce a solids arching dimensions.

This approach to aiding solids flow involves a conical hopper mounted within another larger conical hopper. The design is intended to minimize hopper height and promote mass flow (Figure 12). The inner cone, which is open at the top and bottom, is designed for mass flow and it forces the material to flow along the walls of the shallow outer cone. The cone-in-cone design is used to perform the following:

When dealing with solid materials that are fragile and tend to break down easily when handled using bins and feeders, a letdown chute may be used to minimize attrition (Figure 13). When using the letdown chute, the material is deposited in the top of the spiral chute, and is lowered to the bottom of the bin, where it gently spills out of the openings provided.

Often, a process requires two discharge streams to provide product to two different processes, conveyors and so on. Most of the time, a pant-leg-type hopper is used to discharge to the two points. This approach will work if both legs of the pant-leg hopper are discharging simultaneously. If, however, one leg of the pant leg is stopped, most of the material in the bin becomes stagnant.

The preferred way to provide multiple discharge points is to use a splitter concept (Figure 14). If one leg becomes blocked, the vertical section above it will allow the preferential flow channel that forms due to the flowing leg, to expand within it such that the product at the outlet is fully live. This prevents the stagnation created by the stopped pant-leg hopper.

Joseph Marinelli is president of Solids Handling Technologies, Inc. (1631 Caille Court, Fort Mill, SC 29708, phone: (803) 802-5527; Email: [email protected]). Marinelli is a bulk-materials-handling expert who has taught hundreds of highly acclaimed engineering seminars. Since 1972, he has been active in testing bulk solids and consulting on materials-handling systems design. Marinelli has worked with Jenike & Johanson, Inc., world-renowned experts on solids handling. He received a B.S. degree in mechanical engineering, from Northeastern University in Boston, Mass. He lectures frequently, on solids-flow principles and flow-property testing, and has authored several papers and an encyclopedia section on the subject. Since 1997, he has been involved with popular seminars at the University of Wisconsin in the areas of bin and feeder design and solids-flow-property testing. He is also a columnist for www.powderbulksolids.com.

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cyclone dust collectors | donaldson industrial dust, fume & mist

cyclone dust collectors | donaldson industrial dust, fume & mist

The Donaldson Torit Cyclone dust collector is designed specifically for high dust load, high temperature, and product recovery applications. It has a mechanical separator that uses centrifugal force to remove large and high-volume dust from industrial applications.

Dust-laden air enters the unit through the air inlet and is diverted by a helical baffle. Centrifugal force moves the heavy dust to the interior sidewalls and carries them to the base of the unit. Clean air is carried through the inner cylinder and discharges to atmosphere or optional afterfilters.

spiral chute

spiral chute

Spiral chute applies to sorting size 0.3 -0.02 mm fine-grained iron, tin, tungsten, tantalum, niobium, gold, coal, monazite, rutile, zircon, and other metals and non-metallic minerals that has enough gravity.Ore-distributor is placed freely on the cross (tripod) of the support table, uniform slurry is fed slowly to the spiral groove surface through the bunker mounted to the first end of spiral groove for sorting. The end of the spiral groove has valve product-interception trough which separate products along radial direction by grade into three (or four kinds). By adjusting the position of the valve, can change the interception width of each kind. Product gathering unit is a concentric annular cylindrical bucket that gathers and respectively exports multipoint ore flows which have been pooled. Spiral chute cross slope, the curve changes, especially suitable for fine particulate material sorting. This processing equipment has advantages as simple structure, no moving parts, light weight, no noise, configured installation and easy maintenance.

FRP spiral chute is formed by six parts, ore-distributor, bunker, helical groove, product interception trough, product gathering bucket, tank bracket (including crosses or tripod) and etc. The helical groove which is connected by the spiral sheet is the main part. Spiral sheet is made of glass steel (glass fiber reinforced plastics), bolted together, sorting face of spiral groove has a layer of preformed surface which is wearing layer. The processing equipment is featured by light, strong and durable. The top has a multi-tube ore-distributor, can uniformly distribute ore, easy to control.

Model5LL-12005LL-9005LL-6005LL-400external diametermm1200900600400screw pitchmm900 ,720 , 540675 , 540 , 405450 , 360 , 270240 , 180screw pitch /dia.0,75 , 0.6 , 0.450.75 , 0.6 , 0.450.75 , 0.6 , 0.450.6 , 0.45lateral dip angle (degree)9999Max. spiral head no. for each machine4432Feed size (mm)0.3-.0.030.3-.0.030.2-0.020.2-0.02Feed density (%)25-5525-5525-5525-55Capacity(t/h)4-62-30.8-1.20.15-0.2Overall dimensionsL(mm) 460W(mm) 460H(mm)5230400026001500Weight(kg)60040015050

If you have any problems or questions about our products or need our support and assistance, please feel free to write us, we will reply to you within 24 hours, and never reveal your information to the third party. Thank you!

membrane filtration | koch separation | separation technology

membrane filtration | koch separation | separation technology

KSS offers one of the worlds largest membrane portfolios. Over the years, we have expanded and tailored our products to the specific requirements of different market applications and finished product specifications. We have a wide range of pore sizes that suit numerous applications, from removing salt to filtering large particulates. Reverse osmosis offers the finest degree of separation, followed by nanofiltration, ultrafiltration and microfiltration, which has the largest pore size. Membrane technologies can be used in combination, such as ultrafiltration followed by reverse osmosis for seawater desalination processes, and microfiltration followed by nanofiltration for clarification of fermentation broth and product concentration.

Made for applications with a moderate level of suspended solids, hollow fiber configurations have a unique structure that allow for easier control of flux and rejection during production and cleaning. Our ultrafiltration and microfiltration hollow fiber solutions include pressurized and submerged products operating in Inside-Out or Outside-In direction and providing cost-effective, low-energy performance for both small and large filtration volumes.

Our tubular modules are designed for applications with extreme levels of suspended solids and can concentrate up to 60% solids. Tubular designs have more moderate membrane areas, but larger modules have been developed to accommodate greater feed volumes. We offer a range of ultrafiltration pore sizes that are used across various industries.

Spiral-wound elements are used in applications that have relatively low suspended solids. They offer the highest packing density and are the most economical solution of all membrane configurations. We offer spiral-wound membranes in a complete range of pore sizes (reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration and microfiltration). Specific membrane selection is made based on the required separation properties.

Ceramic membranes demonstrate excellent chemical and thermal compatibility. Coupled with long membrane life, this makes them the ideal, cost-effective solution for several market applications. We offer a variety of ceramic products, providing high-quality membrane modules for small, medium and large projects across a wide range of microfiltration and ultrafiltration pore sizes.

spiral concentrator, spiral chutes, spiral separators - gandong mining equipment

spiral concentrator, spiral chutes, spiral separators - gandong mining equipment

DescriptionsSpiral concentrator is our companys concentrating experienced scientific product, which is the best concentrating equipment, especially for concentrating sand ore in beach, riverside, seashore and stream. The product is made of the fiberglass lined with wear-resistant resin and emery. It is the domestic advanced level, the new highly effective equipment, it has been widely used in to enrichment the particle size 0.3-0.02 millimeters fine grain like iron, tin, chromite, ilmenite, tungsten, zinc, tantalum-niobium, gold, coal, monazite, rutile, zircon , other low-grade ores or non-metallic minerals which have a enough specific gravity difference.

Our company uses the newest design and a complete set of technology organization produced and strict quality testing to guarantee each specification of spiral separator qualified. We make the serialized with a special kind of grooved spiral separator to be selected by colored, ferrous metal mine, coal chemical industry, coal dressing, sulfur factory as well as the scientific research, the design department, the colleges and universities test chamber.

1 Reasonable structure and small occupation area;2 High recovery, high efficiency, and precise separation;3 Non-required power;4 Light in weight, anti corrosion, rust and wear resistant;5 Simple installation and minimal maintenance requirements;6 Low operating cost and long working life;7 Reliable running with minimal operator attention;8 Strong adaptability to fluctuation of feeding amount, density, size and grade;9 The surface of emery forms strong friction the concentration effect surpass plastic surface.

Model 5LL-2000 5LL-1500 5LL-1200 5LL-900 5LL-600 5LL-400 Spiral Diametermm 2000 1500 1200 900 600 400 Spiral Pitchmm 1200 720/540 900/720 /540 675/540 /405 450/360 /270 240/180 Starts 3 4 4 4 2 2 Feeding Sizes (mm) 4-0.04 0.8-0.037 0.3-0.03 0.3-0.03 0.2-0.02 0.2-0.02 Feeding Density (%) 20-45 30-60 25-35 25-55 25-55 25-55 Capacity (t/h) 15-40 6-8 4-6 2-3 0.4-0.8 0.15-0.2 Dimension(mm) Length 2300 1560 1360 1060 700 460 Width 2300 1560 1360 1060 700 460 Height 6500 5230 5230 4000 2600 1500 WeightKg 1100 800 600 400 150 50

alfa laval - ro spiral

alfa laval - ro spiral

Alfa Laval reverse osmosis spiral membranes (RO) are low energy, proven solutions for concentrating feed streams, particularly heat sensitive products. The RO spiral membranes can also be used for pre-concentration prior to evaporation as well as product and water recovery from permeate streams and evaporator condensate. The two series of RO membranes have different NaCl rejection properties. The RO membranes are thin-film composite cast on either polyester or polypropylene backing paper.

The minuscule pores of Alfa Laval RO membranes only allow small fractions of salts to pass through along with the water, the prime component of the permeate. Certain organic compounds with low molecular weights may also pass through but only to a limited extent. However, the membrane will retain for any other components (salts, sugars, etc.) suspended or dissolved within the liquid flow.

All membrane materials used for both flat sheet and spiral wound configurations comply with EU Regulation (EC) 1935/2004, EU Regulation 10/2011, EU Regulation (EC) 2023/2006 and FDA regulations (CFR) Title 21, and are suitable for use in food and pharmaceutical processing applications. Compliance also extends to the related equipment and fittings, including items such as plate-and-frame units, element housings and pumps.

Pumping this liquid across the surface of the membrane creates a positive trans-membrane pressure that allows any components smaller than the porosity of the membrane to pass through, forming the permeate.

Any components larger than the pore size simply cannot pass through, and remain behind in what is called the retentate. The surface of the membrane is kept free of blockages by the force of the liquid flow moving parallel to the membrane surface.

Between each pair of envelopes there is a spacer which creates the feed channel, allowing the feed to flow across the length of the spiral membrane, whilst the permeate passing through the membrane into the membrane envelope flows in a spiral pattern to the permeate collection tube.

Alfa Laval provides all you need for a complete membrane system. We also offer a wide range of ancillary equipment and fittings needed for installing and operating the membranes safely and efficiently

spiral chute | spiral separator - jxsc machine

spiral chute | spiral separator - jxsc machine

Spiral Chute is the best equipment for mining and mineral processing, which combines the characteristics of the spiral concentrator, shaking table and Centrifugal concentrator. It is made of the fiberglass lined with wear-resistant polyurethane and corundum cover, light moisture-proof, anti-rust. The spiral separator has the advantages of small occupation area, small water consumption, simple structure, no energy consumption, large capacity, easy installation, easy operation, small investment.

We supply different types of gravity separation equipment, such as gold centrifugal concentrator, shaking table, wet spiral concentrator. Spiral classifier applied in different conditions of extraction process dense media separation. Besides, the spiral chute design is available. email us to know the spiral classifier price. Mining equipment list

The Spiral separator/ spiral chute is the earliest mining machine. It has been used to classify the granularity 0.3-0.02 millimeters fine grain like iron, tin, tungsten, tantalum-niobium, gold ore, coal mine, monazite, rutile, zircon, and other metals. The non-metallic minerals which have a big enough specific gravity difference. Spiral chute principleRaise the spiral chute and fix it in the proper position, sand pump send the ore to the feed inlet, adding water to adjust the concentration of the slurry. The slurry naturally swirls from high to low and generates an inertial centrifugal force in the rotating bevel flow rate. The mineral is separated from the sand by the gravity and centrifugal force of the swirl by the difference in specific gravity, grain size and shape of the ore. The concentrate flows into the concentrate bucket and is connected by the pipeline. The tail sand flows into the tailing sand bucket and is connected to the sand pool by the pipeline, and then drained by the sand pump to complete the whole process of the beneficiation.

gravity spiral concentrators,spiral chutes,spiral separators-well-tech international mining equipment

gravity spiral concentrators,spiral chutes,spiral separators-well-tech international mining equipment

Spiral concentrator is our companys concentrating experienced scientific product, which is the best concentrating equipment, especially for concentrating sand ore in beach, riverside, seashore and stream.

Descriptions Spiral concentrator is our companys concentrating experienced scientific product, which is the best concentrating equipment, especially for concentrating sand ore in beach, riverside, seashore and stream. The product is made of the fiberglass lined with wear-resistant resin and emery. It is the domestic advanced level, the new highly effective equipment, it has been widely used in to enrichment the particle size 0.3-0.02 millimeters fine grain like iron, tin, chromite, ilmenite, tungsten, zinc, tantalum-niobium, gold, coal, monazite, rutile, zircon , other low-grade ores or non-metallic minerals which have a enough specific gravity difference.

Our company uses the newest design and a complete set of technology organization produced and strict quality testing to guarantee each specification of spiral separator qualified. We make the serialized with a special kind of grooved spiral separator to be selected by colored, ferrous metal mine, coal chemical industry, coal dressing, sulfur factory as well as the scientific research, the design department, the colleges and universities test chamber.

1 Reasonable structure and small occupation area; 2 High recovery, high efficiency, and precise separation; 3 Non-required power; 4 Light in weight, anti corrosion, rust and wear resistant; 5 Simple installation and minimal maintenance requirements; 6 Low operating cost and long working life; 7 Reliable running with minimal operator attention; 8 Strong adaptability to fluctuation of feeding amount, density, size and grade; 9 The surface of emery forms strong friction the concentration effect surpass plastic surface.

Model 5LL-2000 5LL-1500 5LL-1200 5LL-900 5LL-600 5LL-400 Spiral Diametermm 2000 1500 1200 900 600 400 Spiral Pitchmm 1200 800/680/540 720/540/360 660/540/400 450/360/270 240/180 Starts 3 4 4 4 2 2 Feeding Sizes (mm) 4-0.04 0.8-0.037 0.3-0.03 0.3-0.03 0.2-0.02 0.2-0.02 Feeding Density (%) 20-45 30-60 25-35 25-55 25-55 25-55 Capacity (t/h) 15-40 6-8 4-6 2-3 0.4-0.8 0.15-0.2 Dimension (mm) Length 2300 1560 1360 1060 700 460 Width 2300 1560 1360 1060 700 460 Height 6500 5230 5230 4000 2600 1500 WeightKg 1100 800 600 400 150 50

water management at mines every drop counts

water management at mines every drop counts

(This article, penned by Munesu Shoko, is reproduced fromthe August 2020 edition of Modern Mining.) Water plays an essential role in most mining and extractive processes, and responsible water management is a critical business case for the mining sector at large. Managing mine impacted water often requires water treatment, but there is no one-size-fits-all approach when it comes to the design of water treatment plants, thus mines need to select a site-appropriate water treatment technology that meets their project specific needs. To this end, Multotec offers integrated fit-for-purpose water treatment systems that consider overall requirements of the site. One of the greatest challenges facing mining operations is the development and management of water resources. Vincent Ridgard, Process Engineer, Multotec. It is important that every operation prioritises the most efficient control and management of valuable water resources to maximise the efficient use and reuse of every drop of water that is involved with a mine site operation. This also minimises the long-term environmental liabilities that could result from the mismanagement of water resources. The arsenic sludge from the HDS is dewatered by filter press while the solid cake is disposed of. Reiterating the effect of mining practices on surrounding communities and the environment, Vincent Ridgard, process engineer at Multotec, quotes James Lyon, who, in an interview with the Mineral Policy Centre, said, Water has been called minings most common casualty. According to Ridgard, mining affects fresh water through heavy use in processing ore, through pollution from discharged mine effluent and seepage from tailings and waste rock impoundments, commonly known as acid mine drainage (AMD) He is of the view that water pollution from mine waste rock and tailings may need to be managed for decades, if not centuries, after closure, as the water sources continue to naturally produce sulphuric acid when sulphides in rocks are exposed to air and water. This results in oxidation and acidification processes, which continue to leach trace metals from the exposed rock face, and are discharged into the environment. Furthermore, chemicals used in leaching or flotation process, such as cyanide or sulphuric acid, enter the process water that is being recirculated within an operation, and some of these solvents remain in that water and, as it migrates, the toxic solvents are carried into the agricultural soils and into the water source of downstream communities, explains Ridgard. Significance of water in mining Water, according to Ridgard, is arguably the second most valuable asset on a mine after the ore body itself. Strangely enough, he reasons, it is more often considered an afterthought for many design houses and mine owners. Mining uses water for mineral processing, including comminution practices, classification by screening and hydrocyclones, dust suppression, slurry transport and employees needs, among others. It is also used in some underground operations for hydro-powered equipment. Mining operations commonly seek water from groundwater, rivers and lakes, or through municipal water service suppliers. It plays an essential role in most mining and extractive processes, and today, responsible water use is a critical business issue for the mining sector as a whole, adds Ridgard. Maintaining a constant water balance on your site is critical for both mining and mineral processing. For underground mining, you constantly need to dewater your shaft to allow for mining practices to continue. This water could now be contaminated by naturally leached components such as arsenic, and first needs to be treated before it can be discharged to the environment to maintain a water balance, he says. On the surface, the water needs of the processing plant must be balanced with what is now in the tailings facility. Any excess water needs to be treated and discharged from the tailings facility to maintain the water balance. Overcapacity can be catastrophic, with dam failures inevitable, explains Ridgard. Maintaining a constant water balance on your site is critical for both mining and processing. Effect of contaminants in process water Water quality can have a detrimental effect on process efficiency and recovery, but it is often the last place that mine operators look when experiencing a drop in recovery. Water hardness (high concentration of CaCO3 and MgCO3) in process waters can cause scaling of pipelines, which results in reduced throughput. Furthermore, it has been proven that contaminated waters can have a significant effect in recovery efficiency of hydrometallurgical processes. Compared to uncontaminated fresh water, lower recovery of target metals can be attributed to the presence of various metal ions in the process water, explains Ridgard. For gold operations, for example, the gangue minerals are insoluble in cyanide solution. Some metallic minerals, however, are soluble and deprive the solution of its oxygen and cyanide. Utilising completely clean water, however, does have its disadvantages in that residual reagents which carry over back into the process have been removed, and your operational cost increases to supplement this. Thus, it is critical to implement a fit-for-purpose water treatment system which removes target contaminants while allowing other elements to make up the necessary process water composition, adds Ridgard. High recovery water treatment systems The cost of effluent treatment is significant, hence a high recovery system is essential. One of the common ways of treating effluent water is Reverse Osmosis (RO). RO was initially designed for sea water desalination to remove monovalent salt molecules (NaCI). Due to its success in this application, it has since been introduced to other sectors such as industrial and mining. The problem is that sources of wastewaters also include a wide variety of other elements, such as divalent and trivalent elements which cause scaling of membranes. This means that when a standalone RO plant is utilised to treat these waters, it is operated at lower recoveries to enhance the lifespan of the membranes. It results in large volumes of highly concentrated brine streams, which are either recirculated within the system or require very expensive effluent treatment systems, says Ridgard. Multotec offers fit-for-purpose, niche technologies specifically suited to the treatment of divalent and trivalent containing mining waters. To this end, the company has partnered with Australian based Clean TeQ Water to provide the African mining market with a continuous counter current ion exchange technology. The resin used in these systems is specifically manufactured to be more selective to the extraction of larger molecules and as a result provides the mining industry with a high recovery (>90%) system to provide fit-for-purpose process waters to be utilised within the water balance or discharged safely to the environment, explains Ridgard. Multotec has partnered with Australia-based Clean TeQ Water to provide the African mining market with continuous counter current ion exchange technology. The utilisation of resin-based chemistry for the removal of target species has long been understood and respected globally in the industry, he says. It offers the selective extraction of contaminants by the exchanging of ionic functional groups, engineered on the resin beads, for target elements in the surrounding solution of like charge. The problem, however, has always been that there has not been a suitable technology to effectively facilitate the enormous advantages provided by the resin chemistry. The Continuous Counter Current Ion Exchange technology, engineered by Clean TeQ and supplied to the African market by Multotec Process Equipment, is a game-changing, moving bed technology, he says. Contrary to the conventional fixed-bed systems, the use of resin transfer mechanisms allows the CIF (Continuous Ionic Filtration) to: handle up to 150 ppm of solids (conventional systems need a 100% clean liquor), hence offering simultaneous removal of TSS (total suspended solids) and TDS (total dissolved solids); offer optimised resin inventory (resin is the most expensive part of the plant and hence it is critical to ensure the longevity is maximised and the volume is minimised); provide very high water recoveries; handle in column precipitation; offer low power consumption (given the limited power availability on isolated mine sites in Africa, this is another major advantage); and produce valuable by-products and/or trace metal recovery. Fit-for-purpose treatment systems Multotec offers fit-for-purpose, niche technologies specifically suited to the treatment of divalent and trivalent containing mining waters. When designing its plants, Multotec considers the overall requirements of the site before building a complete fit-for-purpose solution based on the various effluent feed streams and the desired product water quality. There is no one-size-fits-all approach when it comes to the design of these plants, says Ridgard. If a certain quality of process water is required, then a system which produces the required qualities is specifically engineered, to treat specific elements which could potentially affect the overall process efficiency such a system could potentially comprise of a combined HDS (High Density Sludge) and Continuous Counter Current IX system. If environmentally compliant dischargeable water is required, then a simple HDS system is perhaps the ideal solution. Even if the end goal is to change mine service water to potable drinking water, we design a high recovery system to meet these needs this could potentially consist of an HDS, Continuous Counter Current IX and RO system, explains Ridgard. Depending on the customers ultimate water quality requirements, Continuous Counter Current IX is combined and fully integrated with RO to produce a high-recovery or Zero-Liquid-Discharge (ZLD) solution. Remember that RO was designed to remove monovalent ions, while IX is more selective to larger divalent and trivalent ions. Hence, by combining the two technologies and allowing the IX to firstly remove the elements which scale up the RO membranes, you allow the RO plant to do what is was designed to do, which is to remove monovalent salts at significantly higher recoveries. Furthermore, we can potentially provide a ZLD system by recirculating the concentrated sodium brine stream to regenerate the resin in the ion exchange plant. Proving capabilities In one of the flagship Minimum Liquid Discharge (MLD) systems, Multotec designed and supplied a complete system to a mining operation that is extremely sensitive to water usage and waste production in the desert of the Middle East. One of the major advantages of utilising ion exchange for the treatment of effluent and/or tailings streams, reasons Ridgard, is that in addition to being environmentally compliant, potentially increasing recoveries and reducing reagent consumption by providing a fit-for-purpose process water, ion exchange offers the possibility of recovering residual trace metals, which would have otherwise been lost to the mine owner. Mining operations spend millions of dollars to liberate and recover their target elements, but despite their best efforts, 100% recovery of these elements is simply not possible and large percentages end up in the tailings dams or is lost to the environment, says Ridgard. What the Clean-IX Continuous Counter Current Ion Exchange technology offers is the opportunity to recover what is lost from the processing plant and potentially provide an economic benefit which significantly offsets the cost of the water treatment plant. Depending on the concentration of the valuable metal and the total flowrate that is being treated, a complete payback within a matter of months could be possible, concludes Ridgard. Key takeaways One of the greatest challenges facing mining operations is the development and management of water resources. Water is arguably the second most valuable asset on a mine after the ore body itself. Multotec offers fit-for-purpose, niche technologies specifically suited to the treatment of divalent and trivalent containing mining waters. Multotec has partnered with Australian based Clean TeQ Water to provide the African mining market with a continuous counter current ion exchange technology. Multotec provides the mining industry with a high recovery (>90%) system to provide fit-for-purpose process waters to be utilised within the water balance or discharged safely to the environment.

Water plays an essential role in most mining and extractive processes, and responsible water management is a critical business case for the mining sector at large. Managing mine impacted water often requires water treatment, but there is no one-size-fits-all approach when it comes to the design of water treatment plants, thus mines need to select a site-appropriate water treatment technology that meets their project specific needs. To this end, Multotec offers integrated fit-for-purpose water treatment systems that consider overall requirements of the site.

It is important that every operation prioritises the most efficient control and management of valuable water resources to maximise the efficient use and reuse of every drop of water that is involved with a mine site operation. This also minimises the long-term environmental liabilities that could result from the mismanagement of water resources.

Reiterating the effect of mining practices on surrounding communities and the environment, Vincent Ridgard, process engineer at Multotec, quotes James Lyon, who, in an interview with the Mineral Policy Centre, said, Water has been called minings most common casualty.

According to Ridgard, mining affects fresh water through heavy use in processing ore, through pollution from discharged mine effluent and seepage from tailings and waste rock impoundments, commonly known as acid mine drainage (AMD)

He is of the view that water pollution from mine waste rock and tailings may need to be managed for decades, if not centuries, after closure, as the water sources continue to naturally produce sulphuric acid when sulphides in rocks are exposed to air and water. This results in oxidation and acidification processes, which continue to leach trace metals from the exposed rock face, and are discharged into the environment.

Furthermore, chemicals used in leaching or flotation process, such as cyanide or sulphuric acid, enter the process water that is being recirculated within an operation, and some of these solvents remain in that water and, as it migrates, the toxic solvents are carried into the agricultural soils and into the water source of downstream communities, explains Ridgard.

Water, according to Ridgard, is arguably the second most valuable asset on a mine after the ore body itself. Strangely enough, he reasons, it is more often considered an afterthought for many design houses and mine owners.

Mining uses water for mineral processing, including comminution practices, classification by screening and hydrocyclones, dust suppression, slurry transport and employees needs, among others. It is also used in some underground operations for hydro-powered equipment.

Mining operations commonly seek water from groundwater, rivers and lakes, or through municipal water service suppliers. It plays an essential role in most mining and extractive processes, and today, responsible water use is a critical business issue for the mining sector as a whole, adds Ridgard.

Maintaining a constant water balance on your site is critical for both mining and mineral processing. For underground mining, you constantly need to dewater your shaft to allow for mining practices to continue. This water could now be contaminated by naturally leached components such as arsenic, and first needs to be treated before it can be discharged to the environment to maintain a water balance, he says.

On the surface, the water needs of the processing plant must be balanced with what is now in the tailings facility. Any excess water needs to be treated and discharged from the tailings facility to maintain the water balance. Overcapacity can be catastrophic, with dam failures inevitable, explains Ridgard.

Water quality can have a detrimental effect on process efficiency and recovery, but it is often the last place that mine operators look when experiencing a drop in recovery. Water hardness (high concentration of CaCO3 and MgCO3) in process waters can cause scaling of pipelines, which results in reduced throughput.

Furthermore, it has been proven that contaminated waters can have a significant effect in recovery efficiency of hydrometallurgical processes. Compared to uncontaminated fresh water, lower recovery of target metals can be attributed to the presence of various metal ions in the process water, explains Ridgard.

For gold operations, for example, the gangue minerals are insoluble in cyanide solution. Some metallic minerals, however, are soluble and deprive the solution of its oxygen and cyanide. Utilising completely clean water, however, does have its disadvantages in that residual reagents which carry over back into the process have been removed, and your operational cost increases to supplement this. Thus, it is critical to implement a fit-for-purpose water treatment system which removes target contaminants while allowing other elements to make up the necessary process water composition, adds Ridgard.

The cost of effluent treatment is significant, hence a high recovery system is essential. One of the common ways of treating effluent water is Reverse Osmosis (RO). RO was initially designed for sea water desalination to remove monovalent salt molecules (NaCI). Due to its success in this application, it has since been introduced to other sectors such as industrial and mining.

The problem is that sources of wastewaters also include a wide variety of other elements, such as divalent and trivalent elements which cause scaling of membranes. This means that when a standalone RO plant is utilised to treat these waters, it is operated at lower recoveries to enhance the lifespan of the membranes. It results in large volumes of highly concentrated brine streams, which are either recirculated within the system or require very expensive effluent treatment systems, says Ridgard.

Multotec offers fit-for-purpose, niche technologies specifically suited to the treatment of divalent and trivalent containing mining waters. To this end, the company has partnered with Australian based Clean TeQ Water to provide the African mining market with a continuous counter current ion exchange technology.

The resin used in these systems is specifically manufactured to be more selective to the extraction of larger molecules and as a result provides the mining industry with a high recovery (>90%) system to provide fit-for-purpose process waters to be utilised within the water balance or discharged safely to the environment, explains Ridgard.

The utilisation of resin-based chemistry for the removal of target species has long been understood and respected globally in the industry, he says. It offers the selective extraction of contaminants by the exchanging of ionic functional groups, engineered on the resin beads, for target elements in the surrounding solution of like charge. The problem, however, has always been that there has not been a suitable technology to effectively facilitate the enormous advantages provided by the resin chemistry.

When designing its plants, Multotec considers the overall requirements of the site before building a complete fit-for-purpose solution based on the various effluent feed streams and the desired product water quality. There is no one-size-fits-all approach when it comes to the design of these plants, says Ridgard.

If a certain quality of process water is required, then a system which produces the required qualities is specifically engineered, to treat specific elements which could potentially affect the overall process efficiency such a system could

potentially comprise of a combined HDS (High Density Sludge) and Continuous Counter Current IX system. If environmentally compliant dischargeable water is required, then a simple HDS system is perhaps the ideal solution.

Even if the end goal is to change mine service water to potable drinking water, we design a high recovery system to meet these needs this could potentially consist of an HDS, Continuous Counter Current IX and RO system, explains Ridgard.

Depending on the customers ultimate water quality requirements, Continuous Counter Current IX is combined and fully integrated with RO to produce a high-recovery or Zero-Liquid-Discharge (ZLD) solution.

Remember that RO was designed to remove monovalent ions, while IX is more selective to larger divalent and trivalent ions. Hence, by combining the two technologies and allowing the IX to firstly remove the elements which scale up the RO membranes, you allow the RO plant to do what is was designed to do, which is to remove monovalent salts at significantly higher recoveries. Furthermore, we can potentially provide a ZLD system by recirculating the concentrated sodium brine stream to regenerate the resin in the ion exchange plant.

In one of the flagship Minimum Liquid Discharge (MLD) systems, Multotec designed and supplied a complete system to a mining operation that is extremely sensitive to water usage and waste production in the desert of the Middle East.

One of the major advantages of utilising ion exchange for the treatment of effluent and/or tailings streams, reasons Ridgard, is that in addition to being environmentally compliant, potentially increasing recoveries and reducing reagent consumption by providing a fit-for-purpose process water, ion exchange offers the possibility of recovering residual trace metals, which would have otherwise been lost to the mine owner.

Mining operations spend millions of dollars to liberate and recover their target elements, but despite their best efforts, 100% recovery of these elements is simply not possible and large percentages end up in the tailings dams or is lost to the environment, says Ridgard.

What the Clean-IX Continuous Counter Current Ion Exchange technology offers is the opportunity to recover what is lost from the processing plant and potentially provide an economic benefit which significantly offsets the cost of the water treatment plant. Depending on the concentration of the valuable metal and the total flowrate that is being treated, a complete payback within a matter of months could be possible, concludes Ridgard.

spiral separator | spiral chute | spiral classifier | mining equipment

spiral separator | spiral chute | spiral classifier | mining equipment

The spiral separator is the best gravity concentrating equipment, especially for concentrating sand ore in seashore and riverside. It is made of the fiberglass, lined with wear-resistant polyurethane and covered with corundum cover. It has advantages such as lightweight, moisture proof, anti-rust and corrosion, noiseless, very suitable for the different feeding particle sizes and grades.

Capacity: 0.15-8t/h Feeding size: 0.3-0.02mm Advantages: 1. Simple structure, easy to operate and maintain 2. Low energy consumption 3. Relate wide range of particle size 4. Small volume, space saving 5. High productivity and efficiency

Main parts: ore distributor, feed chute, spiral chute section, cutting trough, collecting hopper, support, etc. Spiral separator types: single spiral separator, lab spiral separator, rotary spiral separator, multi-deck spiral separator.

Application: The spiral separators are designed for classifying the granularity 0.3-0.02 millimeters fine grain like iron, hematite, ilmenite, chromite, brasses, tin, tungsten, tantalum-niobium, gold ore, coal mine, monazite, rutile, zircon, and other Non-ferrous metal, rare metal, and non-metallic minerals with different specific gravity in the mineral processing plant.

Working principle of spiral separators The ore materials are separated by the specific difference of gravity force, inertial centrifugal force, flow force, and surface friction of the light and heavy ore particles in the downward flow along the spiral tube slope. Generally speaking, the movement of the slurry flow on the spiral concentrating tables surface produces two directions, one is the longitudinal flow which rotates swiftly around the vertical axis of the spiral chute and down along the chute surface, which is called the main flow, the other is the transverse flow which rotates around a balance layer of the ore flow itself, called transverse circulation flow or vice flow. Under the comprehensive action of longitudinal main flow and transverse circulation, the mineral particles on the surface of spiral classifier move differently along longitudinal and transverse direction due to different density, particle size and shape, and settle at the bottom of the spiral groove in different time and speed, so the mineral particles are stratified according to density and particle size.

Stratification is the first stage of the separation process, which is basically completed after the first processing circuit of the spiral separators. After delamination, the light mineral particles in the upper layer flow to the outer edge of the spiral separator machine gradually, while the heavy mineral particles in the lower layer are affected less by the longitudinal main flow and move to the inner edge gradually. In this way, the layered particles are divided again, which is the second stage called zoning, completed after series ( 3-5 times ) sorting process. After the above two stages, the ore intercepting trough and the ore receiving hopper discharge the different grade separation products from the clay trough, and the separation process is completed.

The grain size distribution rule along the cross-section of the wet spiral separator is as follows: under normal ore-feeding conditions, more than 70% of the ore particles are concentrated in the middle of the spiral concentrator beneficiation area; About 20% of the ore grains are located at the inner edge of the chute; Less than 10% of fine ore grains are near the outer margin.

JXSC spiral separator manufacturer ( and other mining equipment) focuses on producing spiral gravity separator decades of year, qualified separator machines popular in the world market of various mineral processing. Contact us to the spiral separator price, installation instruction and special design service. Spiral separator for sale. Click to find more gravity concentration methods in mineral processing.

Mining Equipment Manufacturers, Our Main Products: Gold Trommel, Gold Wash Plant, Dense Media Separation System, CIP, CIL, Ball Mill, Trommel Scrubber, Shaker Table, Jig Concentrator, Spiral Separator, Slurry Pump, Trommel Screen.

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