surprising things men found attractive 50 years ago

surprising things men found attractive 50 years ago

Fifty years doesn't seem like a very long time in the vast scheme of things, but it's enough time for things to have drastically changed. The differences between the late 1960s/early 1970s and today go beyond the obvious, such as the astonishing technological advances that have been made since then. Beauty standards were also shockingly different, reflecting the turbulence of the era. Here are some of the most surprising things that men found attractive 50 years ago.

Fifty years doesn't seem like a very long time in the vast scheme of things, but it's enough time for things to have drastically changed. The differences between the late 1960s/early 1970s and today go beyond the obvious, such as the astonishing technological advances that have been made since then. Beauty standards were also shockingly different, reflecting the turbulence of the era. Here are some of the most surprising things that men found attractive 50 years ago.

Racism was rampant in the 1960s, although the Civil Rights Movement helped to create significant change by the end of the decade. Anti-miscegenation laws, which had prevented people in several states from marrying those of another race, were struck down in 1967. In spite of the reforms made in the 1960s, racial prejudice was still prevalent. By the 1960s, the Miss America Pageant still didn't allow African-American contestants. In 1968, a Miss Black America Pageant was held on the same day as the Miss America Pageant in response to the organization's discrimination. It would be another two years before an African-American woman, Cheryl Browne, won a state title in the Miss America Pageant competition. Even within the African-American community, a preference for lighter skin was apparent, although this slowly began to change in the 1960s with people embracing their skin color. Things are a little better today, but there is still discrimination against those with darker skin. A 2016 Time article said even in modern times "dark skin is demonized and light skin wins the prize" because of the "deeply entrenched racism" of the United States.

Racism was rampant in the 1960s, although the Civil Rights Movement helped to create significant change by the end of the decade. Anti-miscegenation laws, which had prevented people in several states from marrying those of another race, were struck down in 1967. In spite of the reforms made in the 1960s, racial prejudice was still prevalent. By the 1960s, the Miss America Pageant still didn't allow African-American contestants. In 1968, a Miss Black America Pageant was held on the same day as the Miss America Pageant in response to the organization's discrimination. It would be another two years before an African-American woman, Cheryl Browne, won a state title in the Miss America Pageant competition.

Even within the African-American community, a preference for lighter skin was apparent, although this slowly began to change in the 1960s with people embracing their skin color. Things are a little better today, but there is still discrimination against those with darker skin. A 2016 Time article said even in modern times "dark skin is demonized and light skin wins the prize" because of the "deeply entrenched racism" of the United States.

For a time, it looked like fuller figures would be, if not the dominant ideal of beauty, at least an accepted standard. In the 1950s and early 1960s, voluptuous women like Marilyn Monroe were cultural icons. Still, "there was also a significant move toward slimness," wrote Sarah Grogan in Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women and Children. As the decade progressed, the slim trend became more pronounced, becoming "particularly acute... when the fashion model Twiggy became the role model for a generation of young women." As time went on, "models became thinner and thinner," wrote Grogan.

For a time, it looked like fuller figures would be, if not the dominant ideal of beauty, at least an accepted standard. In the 1950s and early 1960s, voluptuous women like Marilyn Monroe were cultural icons. Still, "there was also a significant move toward slimness," wrote Sarah Grogan in Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women and Children. As the decade progressed, the slim trend became more pronounced, becoming "particularly acute... when the fashion model Twiggy became the role model for a generation of young women." As time went on, "models became thinner and thinner," wrote Grogan.

As models became thinner, curves became less desirable. It was in the late 1960s when the obsession with eliminating cellulite began. Linda Przybyszewski wrote in The Lost Art of Dress: The Women Who Once Made America Stylish that at this time "curvaceous women were passed over in favor of underweight teenagers." The desire to be thin led to a preoccupation with weight, especially among younger girls. "Before the 1920s, teenagers worried about becoming better people," wrote Przybyszewski. By the 1960s, however, "weight loss became the primary obsession."

As models became thinner, curves became less desirable. It was in the late 1960s when the obsession with eliminating cellulite began. Linda Przybyszewski wrote in The Lost Art of Dress: The Women Who Once Made America Stylish that at this time "curvaceous women were passed over in favor of underweight teenagers."

The desire to be thin led to a preoccupation with weight, especially among younger girls. "Before the 1920s, teenagers worried about becoming better people," wrote Przybyszewski. By the 1960s, however, "weight loss became the primary obsession."

The desire for flatter chests correlated with an obsession for smaller butts. Przybyszewski wrote that the fear of cellulite caused women to do anything they could to eliminate "what they identified as water, wastes, and fat trapped inside women's hips and thighs." One woman who was written about in Vogue magazine in the late 1960s "managed to reduced her 39-inch hips down to 34 inches through exercise, 'standing correctly,' and using 'a special rolling pin.'" Such regimens were typical in the late 1960s. "If you didn't want to rub your butt yourself," wrote Przybyszewski, "you hired a masseuse to do it for you." The desire for more boyish figures was not entirely to please men or to conform to fashion. Battleground: The Media, edited by Robin Andersen and Jonathan Alan Gray, noted that "the changing shape of women's bodies has in many ways served to reflect larger cultural values." Throughout history, "a thin, straight figure was prized" at times "when women were striving to demonstrate their equality."

The desire for flatter chests correlated with an obsession for smaller butts. Przybyszewski wrote that the fear of cellulite caused women to do anything they could to eliminate "what they identified as water, wastes, and fat trapped inside women's hips and thighs." One woman who was written about in Vogue magazine in the late 1960s "managed to reduced her 39-inch hips down to 34 inches through exercise, 'standing correctly,' and using 'a special rolling pin.'" Such regimens were typical in the late 1960s. "If you didn't want to rub your butt yourself," wrote Przybyszewski, "you hired a masseuse to do it for you."

The desire for more boyish figures was not entirely to please men or to conform to fashion. Battleground: The Media, edited by Robin Andersen and Jonathan Alan Gray, noted that "the changing shape of women's bodies has in many ways served to reflect larger cultural values." Throughout history, "a thin, straight figure was prized" at times "when women were striving to demonstrate their equality."

In Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century, Akiko Fukai wrote that "the young found that displaying their physique was the most effective means of setting themselves apart from the older generation." The miniskirt came into vogue as "bare legs... developed through various conceptual stages in the 1960s." As hemlines rose, more attention was paid to the length and shape of a woman's legs. In Women of the 1960s: More Than Mini Skirts, Pills and Pop Music, author Sheila Hardy wrote that many women felt they "did not have the legs for a miniskirt." The emphasis 1960s fashion placed on women's legs also influenced shoe styles. Tall, pointed boots came into fashion, off-setting the short skirts of the era.

In Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century, Akiko Fukai wrote that "the young found that displaying their physique was the most effective means of setting themselves apart from the older generation." The miniskirt came into vogue as "bare legs... developed through various conceptual stages in the 1960s."

As hemlines rose, more attention was paid to the length and shape of a woman's legs. In Women of the 1960s: More Than Mini Skirts, Pills and Pop Music, author Sheila Hardy wrote that many women felt they "did not have the legs for a miniskirt." The emphasis 1960s fashion placed on women's legs also influenced shoe styles. Tall, pointed boots came into fashion, off-setting the short skirts of the era.

Coinciding with the preference for more boyish figures was the rise of unisex clothing and androgynous styles. This echoed a similar trend from the 1920s, when "androgyny [began to be] associated with the search for greater independence for women," wrote Rebecca Arnold in Fashion, Desire and Anxiety: Image and Morality in the 20th Century. Arnold wrote that the rise of androgyny in the 1960s helped to "denote freedoms gained and the rejection of a preceding claustrophobic femininity." Perhaps even more interesting is that this inclination towards androgyny was also adopted by men. PBS noted that "for a brief time, mostly in 1968, unisex was everywhere, and with it came a fair amount of confusion in the media." The piece went on to quote Everett Mattlin, who, in 1968, wrote in the Chicago Tribune that "the whole male-female relationship is confused." Traditional gender roles were beginning to evolve at this time, which Mattlin believed could lead to a "healthier climate."

Coinciding with the preference for more boyish figures was the rise of unisex clothing and androgynous styles. This echoed a similar trend from the 1920s, when "androgyny [began to be] associated with the search for greater independence for women," wrote Rebecca Arnold in Fashion, Desire and Anxiety: Image and Morality in the 20th Century. Arnold wrote that the rise of androgyny in the 1960s helped to "denote freedoms gained and the rejection of a preceding claustrophobic femininity."

Perhaps even more interesting is that this inclination towards androgyny was also adopted by men. PBS noted that "for a brief time, mostly in 1968, unisex was everywhere, and with it came a fair amount of confusion in the media." The piece went on to quote Everett Mattlin, who, in 1968, wrote in the Chicago Tribune that "the whole male-female relationship is confused." Traditional gender roles were beginning to evolve at this time, which Mattlin believed could lead to a "healthier climate."

The suppression of women's curves led to the popularity of what Imagine Nation: The American Counterculture of the 1960's and 70's, edited by Peter Braunstein and Michael William Doyle, called a "prepubescent look." Lithe, young-looking Lolita types like Twiggy dominated the fashion world. This "look of exaggerated youthfulness expressed the associated sensibility that maturity, in dress or behavior, was a dirty word, a sign of premature death, and therefore something to be warded off as long as possible." According to The Mancunion, the 1960s have today "become a symbol for the social conflict between the old and the new." The "Lolita look" embodied the spirit of the era, representing youth and vigor.

The suppression of women's curves led to the popularity of what Imagine Nation: The American Counterculture of the 1960's and 70's, edited by Peter Braunstein and Michael William Doyle, called a "prepubescent look." Lithe, young-looking Lolita types like Twiggy dominated the fashion world. This "look of exaggerated youthfulness expressed the associated sensibility that maturity, in dress or behavior, was a dirty word, a sign of premature death, and therefore something to be warded off as long as possible."

The rebellion against traditional gender norms was also evidenced in women's undergarments. By the late 1960s, many women were going braless as "a political, protest move symbolizing freedom and rejection of traditional views of femininity," wrote The Lala. Fashion designer Yves Saint Laurent contributed to making going braless not just a form of protest but also a fashion trend. His sheer designs were always modeled by women who wore no undergarments beneath them. This, too, was a political statement. Dazed wrote that "the decision was less about pleasing the onlooker, and more about asserting equality between the sexes."

The rebellion against traditional gender norms was also evidenced in women's undergarments. By the late 1960s, many women were going braless as "a political, protest move symbolizing freedom and rejection of traditional views of femininity," wrote The Lala.

Fashion designer Yves Saint Laurent contributed to making going braless not just a form of protest but also a fashion trend. His sheer designs were always modeled by women who wore no undergarments beneath them. This, too, was a political statement. Dazed wrote that "the decision was less about pleasing the onlooker, and more about asserting equality between the sexes."

The time period was noted for a departure from formality and tradition. In Fresh Lipstick: Redressing Fashion and Feminism, Linda M. Scott wrote that there was a "preference for long, straight hair" in the late 1960s. Many men also wore their hair long at this time. The changing hairstyles weren't just about following fashion. For many, they were also "acts of rebellion against the highly constructed female hairdos and very short male haircuts of the previous generation."

The time period was noted for a departure from formality and tradition. In Fresh Lipstick: Redressing Fashion and Feminism, Linda M. Scott wrote that there was a "preference for long, straight hair" in the late 1960s. Many men also wore their hair long at this time. The changing hairstyles weren't just about following fashion. For many, they were also "acts of rebellion against the highly constructed female hairdos and very short male haircuts of the previous generation."

The 1960s might have been a time of change, but ads from the era show that women were still expected to be homemakers and sex objects. In spite of the great strides made towards gender and racial equality, women still did not have the same rights as men. Even by the end of the decade, it was legal for a bank to deny an unmarried woman a credit card married women were often required to have their husbands co-sign. Some states still banned women from serving on juries. When it came to higher education, attending an Ivy League school was incredibly rare for women in this decade. TheUniversity of Pennsylvania and Cornell both allowed women to attend as of the 1870s, but only in special circumstances. Yale and Princeton didn't start accepting women until 1969, while Harvard, Brown, and Dartmouth held out until the 1970s. Columbia didn't offer admission to women until 1981. In The Feminine Mystique, published in 1963, Betty Friedan summed up the frustration of the generation, writing, "A woman today has been made to feel freakish and alone and guilty if, simply, she wants to be more than her husband's wife."

The 1960s might have been a time of change, but ads from the era show that women were still expected to be homemakers and sex objects. In spite of the great strides made towards gender and racial equality, women still did not have the same rights as men. Even by the end of the decade, it was legal for a bank to deny an unmarried woman a credit card married women were often required to have their husbands co-sign. Some states still banned women from serving on juries.

When it came to higher education, attending an Ivy League school was incredibly rare for women in this decade. TheUniversity of Pennsylvania and Cornell both allowed women to attend as of the 1870s, but only in special circumstances. Yale and Princeton didn't start accepting women until 1969, while Harvard, Brown, and Dartmouth held out until the 1970s. Columbia didn't offer admission to women until 1981.

In The Feminine Mystique, published in 1963, Betty Friedan summed up the frustration of the generation, writing, "A woman today has been made to feel freakish and alone and guilty if, simply, she wants to be more than her husband's wife."

A lot of people envision the 1960s as a decade long booze-fest where day drinking (especially at work) was the norm. While this is partially true, it was far more acceptable for men to indulge in multiple alcoholic beverages each day than women. More and more women were moving away from conventional gender stereotypes, but women who drank frequently were seen as decidedly unfeminine. A glass of wine with dinner or a cocktail on the weekend was acceptable, but getting drunk was not. Warning women not to drink too much was not just a societal pressure, but one that was backed up by public service announcements of the day as well as the mainstream media. "People think of the woman drunk as an old hag," warned the Saturday Evening Post in 1962. "Among men, heavy drinking is often taken as a sign of virility, and the phrase, 'Drunk as a lord,' is a tribute. No one ever said approvingly, 'She was drunk as a lady.'" That sentiment still remained true by the end of the decade.

A lot of people envision the 1960s as a decade long booze-fest where day drinking (especially at work) was the norm. While this is partially true, it was far more acceptable for men to indulge in multiple alcoholic beverages each day than women. More and more women were moving away from conventional gender stereotypes, but women who drank frequently were seen as decidedly unfeminine. A glass of wine with dinner or a cocktail on the weekend was acceptable, but getting drunk was not.

Warning women not to drink too much was not just a societal pressure, but one that was backed up by public service announcements of the day as well as the mainstream media. "People think of the woman drunk as an old hag," warned the Saturday Evening Post in 1962. "Among men, heavy drinking is often taken as a sign of virility, and the phrase, 'Drunk as a lord,' is a tribute. No one ever said approvingly, 'She was drunk as a lady.'" That sentiment still remained true by the end of the decade.

Drinking in excess may have been taboo for women looking to attract a man, but smoking was considered attractive. While a link between smoking and lung cancer had been establishedyears before,the practice was still widespread. In 1964, the surgeon general warned that "cigarette smoking is a health hazard of sufficient importance in the United States to warrant appropriate remedial action." In spite of such warnings, smoking was largely considered to be glamorous and sophisticated.The tobacco industry targeted women in the 1960s, taking advantage of the growing feminist movement by portraying smoking as the pinnacle of gender equality. Virginia Slims were launched as a women's cigarette in 1968, with the slogan "You've come a long way baby!" Other cigarette ads from the late 1960s show young, attractive women partaking in what is shown as an elegant pastime, conveying the message that women who smoked were refined and sexy.

Drinking in excess may have been taboo for women looking to attract a man, but smoking was considered attractive. While a link between smoking and lung cancer had been establishedyears before,the practice was still widespread. In 1964, the surgeon general warned that "cigarette smoking is a health hazard of sufficient importance in the United States to warrant appropriate remedial action."

In spite of such warnings, smoking was largely considered to be glamorous and sophisticated.The tobacco industry targeted women in the 1960s, taking advantage of the growing feminist movement by portraying smoking as the pinnacle of gender equality. Virginia Slims were launched as a women's cigarette in 1968, with the slogan "You've come a long way baby!" Other cigarette ads from the late 1960s show young, attractive women partaking in what is shown as an elegant pastime, conveying the message that women who smoked were refined and sexy.

By the late 1960s, more women were working than ever. While they were making great economic strides, working women faced a certain stigma. It was far more acceptable for single women to work than married women, as a woman's primary duty was still expected to be to her family. In 1967, just 44 percent of married American couples lived in dual income households, compared to more than half of married couples today. Working wives and mothers were thought to destabilize home life and their families. History professor Stephanie Coontz told the Harvard Business Review that middle-class women were the most stigmatized, and that if they did choose to enter the workforce they were expected to wait until their children had grown. "And these women it is hard for modern people to understand just how insecure, how depressed, how a low the self-esteem was of these stay-at-home moms in those days," she said.

By the late 1960s, more women were working than ever. While they were making great economic strides, working women faced a certain stigma. It was far more acceptable for single women to work than married women, as a woman's primary duty was still expected to be to her family. In 1967, just 44 percent of married American couples lived in dual income households, compared to more than half of married couples today. Working wives and mothers were thought to destabilize home life and their families.

History professor Stephanie Coontz told the Harvard Business Review that middle-class women were the most stigmatized, and that if they did choose to enter the workforce they were expected to wait until their children had grown. "And these women it is hard for modern people to understand just how insecure, how depressed, how a low the self-esteem was of these stay-at-home moms in those days," she said.

The rise of the miniskirt meant that women felt the pressure to put their best leg forward. By the mid 1960s, a new trend was emerging: leg makeup. Makeup had been used on legs before, perhaps most notably during World War II when a shortage of stockings propelled women to draw on stocking seams with eyeliner to make it look like their legs weren't bare. The leg makeup of the 1960s, however, was primarily used to cover up flaws that were now exposed thanks to the shorter hemlines of the era. Women would carefully apply makeup to their legs to cover up blemishes before putting on hosiery. Bruises, scars, and other imperfections were covered up with cosmetics, and then further concealed with stockings. The use of leg makeup shows just how conflicted women in this era were. The women's liberation movement was empowering females, and women were beginning to embrace their bodies, but many of them still felt the pressure to conform to society's beauty standards.

The rise of the miniskirt meant that women felt the pressure to put their best leg forward. By the mid 1960s, a new trend was emerging: leg makeup. Makeup had been used on legs before, perhaps most notably during World War II when a shortage of stockings propelled women to draw on stocking seams with eyeliner to make it look like their legs weren't bare. The leg makeup of the 1960s, however, was primarily used to cover up flaws that were now exposed thanks to the shorter hemlines of the era. Women would carefully apply makeup to their legs to cover up blemishes before putting on hosiery. Bruises, scars, and other imperfections were covered up with cosmetics, and then further concealed with stockings.

The use of leg makeup shows just how conflicted women in this era were. The women's liberation movement was empowering females, and women were beginning to embrace their bodies, but many of them still felt the pressure to conform to society's beauty standards.

Athletic women were "in" at the end of the 1960s, but not for the reason that you might think. Athletics were viewed as a way for women to maintain "attractive" figures. Women became more active in sports in the 1960s, especially in high schools and colleges, although women's sports were not considered to be on par with men's sports. A woman with an athletic physique was considered attractive, but female athletes had a long way to go to be accepted in society. It wasn't until 1972 that the U.S. Congress passed Title IX, which helped secure funding for women's sports. The first female athlete to appear on the cover of Sports Illustrated, Jackie Joyner-Kersee, didn't do so until 1987. While female athletes today are considered strong and capable role models, the female athletes of the 1960s were largely viewed as hobbyists whose pastimes were only indulged in order to help them remain slim.

Athletic women were "in" at the end of the 1960s, but not for the reason that you might think. Athletics were viewed as a way for women to maintain "attractive" figures. Women became more active in sports in the 1960s, especially in high schools and colleges, although women's sports were not considered to be on par with men's sports.

A woman with an athletic physique was considered attractive, but female athletes had a long way to go to be accepted in society. It wasn't until 1972 that the U.S. Congress passed Title IX, which helped secure funding for women's sports. The first female athlete to appear on the cover of Sports Illustrated, Jackie Joyner-Kersee, didn't do so until 1987. While female athletes today are considered strong and capable role models, the female athletes of the 1960s were largely viewed as hobbyists whose pastimes were only indulged in order to help them remain slim.

Hair dye was not always considered to be entirely acceptable, but that started to change half a century ago. Part of the stigma was because dying hair was thought of as "vain" and "not respectable," noted CNN, but also because of safety concerns surrounding the chemicals used to color hair. As the decades passed, the introduction of home dyes made dyed hair more common and, by the 1970s, nearly half the women in America were reaching for the dye.According to the book Gidgets and Women Warriors: Perspectives of Women in the 1950s and 1960s, hair dye company Clairol marketed blonde hair as attractive and desirable starting in the 1950s, pushing the color with ads oozing sex appeal Clairol even brought us the phrase "blondes have more fun." It's no surprise, then, that by the time the 1970s rolled around, many were opting to go blonde. Many of the most admired women of the era like Farrah Fawcett rocked blonde strands, observed Glamour. Other notable blondes of the timeinclude Debbie Harry, Olivia Newton-John, Meryl Streep, Peggy Lipton, and Joni Mitchell.

Hair dye was not always considered to be entirely acceptable, but that started to change half a century ago. Part of the stigma was because dying hair was thought of as "vain" and "not respectable," noted CNN, but also because of safety concerns surrounding the chemicals used to color hair.

As the decades passed, the introduction of home dyes made dyed hair more common and, by the 1970s, nearly half the women in America were reaching for the dye.According to the book Gidgets and Women Warriors: Perspectives of Women in the 1950s and 1960s, hair dye company Clairol marketed blonde hair as attractive and desirable starting in the 1950s, pushing the color with ads oozing sex appeal Clairol even brought us the phrase "blondes have more fun." It's no surprise, then, that by the time the 1970s rolled around, many were opting to go blonde.

Many of the most admired women of the era like Farrah Fawcett rocked blonde strands, observed Glamour. Other notable blondes of the timeinclude Debbie Harry, Olivia Newton-John, Meryl Streep, Peggy Lipton, and Joni Mitchell.

Farrah Fawcett's blonde hair was always styled in a feathered cut in the 1970s, a look that Redbook wrote "essentially defined beauty in the 1970s." Even 50 years later, when many people think of the era they think of Fawcett's iconic look which, as noted by Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History, was created by hair stylist Allen Edwards. Women looking to imitate Fawcett's lusted-after locks weren't the only ones to adopt this hairstyle, though. Many men also wore feathered hairstyles in an example of the androgynous look that was considered particularly attractive in that era. While maintaining the soft curls of a feathered hairstyle could be a lot of work for those who weren't blessed with wavy hair, the look wasn't meant to look artificial. Instead, it was part of the time period's commitment to what the book The Art of Makeup called a "no fuss, fresh, all natural look."

Farrah Fawcett's blonde hair was always styled in a feathered cut in the 1970s, a look that Redbook wrote "essentially defined beauty in the 1970s." Even 50 years later, when many people think of the era they think of Fawcett's iconic look which, as noted by Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History, was created by hair stylist Allen Edwards.

Women looking to imitate Fawcett's lusted-after locks weren't the only ones to adopt this hairstyle, though. Many men also wore feathered hairstyles in an example of the androgynous look that was considered particularly attractive in that era.

While maintaining the soft curls of a feathered hairstyle could be a lot of work for those who weren't blessed with wavy hair, the look wasn't meant to look artificial. Instead, it was part of the time period's commitment to what the book The Art of Makeup called a "no fuss, fresh, all natural look."

The natural look of 50 years ago wasn't isolated to hairstyles. A fresh face was also considered to be particularly appealing, noted The Art of Makeup. Natural didn't mean going about with a bare face, though, and women put a lot of effort into getting the perfect, sun-kissed glow. Fake-tanning was popular, and, while most women skipped foundation, they would use bronzer for that bit of shimmer. Makeup colors tended to be more about enhancing the natural color of one's features rather than making them pop, with "pearlescent colors" dominating the color palette. The push towards a more natural look was primarily due to social issues, so women sporting the style would have been particularly attractive to activists of the day. Per Elle, "the urge to pare back can be credited to the cultural rise of hippies and anti-Vietnam War feelings, the women's liberation movement ... and an interest in all that was natural." There was also a growing awareness of the dangers of pollution, which meant that "cosmetics were at odds with the earthy beauty ideal being celebrated."

The natural look of 50 years ago wasn't isolated to hairstyles. A fresh face was also considered to be particularly appealing, noted The Art of Makeup. Natural didn't mean going about with a bare face, though, and women put a lot of effort into getting the perfect, sun-kissed glow. Fake-tanning was popular, and, while most women skipped foundation, they would use bronzer for that bit of shimmer. Makeup colors tended to be more about enhancing the natural color of one's features rather than making them pop, with "pearlescent colors" dominating the color palette.

The push towards a more natural look was primarily due to social issues, so women sporting the style would have been particularly attractive to activists of the day. Per Elle, "the urge to pare back can be credited to the cultural rise of hippies and anti-Vietnam War feelings, the women's liberation movement ... and an interest in all that was natural." There was also a growing awareness of the dangers of pollution, which meant that "cosmetics were at odds with the earthy beauty ideal being celebrated."

Lips have mesmerized men since time immemorial, and many men 50 years ago found large ones to be particularly appealing. Their attraction to big lips wasn't just driven by the fashion of the era The Cut noted that it was basic biology as "full lips signal both youth and vitality." The yen for pouty lips was nothing new 50 years ago, but it was a change from the dominant lip look of the 1950s, which placed more importance on having a fuller lower lip. The following decade saw more emphasis on large lips, and advancing technology led to some people seeking out some pretty scary methods to achieve the look. In the 1960s, silicone was briefly used as a lip filler but wasn't entirely safe, noted Dazed. By the 1970s, silicone was out and some doctors instead used bovine collagen to give people larger lips. Per Slate, sex symbols of the day embodied the big-lipped ideal, with Bianca Prez-Mora Macias, who was married to Mick Jagger in the 1970s, being the reigning queen.

Lips have mesmerized men since time immemorial, and many men 50 years ago found large ones to be particularly appealing. Their attraction to big lips wasn't just driven by the fashion of the era The Cut noted that it was basic biology as "full lips signal both youth and vitality."

The yen for pouty lips was nothing new 50 years ago, but it was a change from the dominant lip look of the 1950s, which placed more importance on having a fuller lower lip. The following decade saw more emphasis on large lips, and advancing technology led to some people seeking out some pretty scary methods to achieve the look. In the 1960s, silicone was briefly used as a lip filler but wasn't entirely safe, noted Dazed. By the 1970s, silicone was out and some doctors instead used bovine collagen to give people larger lips.

Women looking to catch a man's eye 50 years ago were likely to take the tweezers to their eyebrows. That's because thin eyebrows were very much in back then. Thin eyebrows weren't just a beauty standard 50 years ago, though. The reigning eyebrow look that decade was actually a vintage style that called to mind the dainty eyebrows of the 1920s and the 1930s. The book Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History noted that thin eyebrows first came in vogue in the 20th century along with the rise of the film industry, as they were more visible on camera. While fashion-forward women of the 1940s and 1950s tended to prefer a bolder eyebrow, the 1960s ushered in an era of experimentation in which some people went so far as to shave off their eyebrows and draw them back on with a brow pencil. By the 1970s, thin was back in, and stars like Donna Summer, Diana Ross, Pam Grier, and Aretha Franklin rocked the thin brows that decade.

Women looking to catch a man's eye 50 years ago were likely to take the tweezers to their eyebrows. That's because thin eyebrows were very much in back then. Thin eyebrows weren't just a beauty standard 50 years ago, though. The reigning eyebrow look that decade was actually a vintage style that called to mind the dainty eyebrows of the 1920s and the 1930s. The book Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History noted that thin eyebrows first came in vogue in the 20th century along with the rise of the film industry, as they were more visible on camera.

While fashion-forward women of the 1940s and 1950s tended to prefer a bolder eyebrow, the 1960s ushered in an era of experimentation in which some people went so far as to shave off their eyebrows and draw them back on with a brow pencil. By the 1970s, thin was back in, and stars like Donna Summer, Diana Ross, Pam Grier, and Aretha Franklin rocked the thin brows that decade.

There was a definite hierarchy in the work force 50 years ago.Magazines from the time, noted Flashbak, were brimming with job ads for women, but they were typically "for low-wage, low-skill positions." Being a pilot was considered a man's career, but women could serve passengers on a plane as a stewardess "Airlines need women!" read one ad from the time. Modeling, nursing, and secretarial work were also careers that typically recruited women, and women in such ads were often young and conventionally attractive. While women could enter other fields, very few did. Statistics from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile (via Pinnacle Health Group) show that out of the 334,028 physicians in the U.S. in 1970, just 25,401 were women, while Law Crossing noted that women made up just 4 percent of legal practitioners. This was largely because women were still expected to focus on raising a family. As economist Janet Yellen wrote in an essay for Brookings, "most women still expected to have short careers, and women were still largely viewed as secondary earners whose husbands' careers came first." Women who prioritized a career, then, often did not appeal to traditional-minded men.

There was a definite hierarchy in the work force 50 years ago.Magazines from the time, noted Flashbak, were brimming with job ads for women, but they were typically "for low-wage, low-skill positions." Being a pilot was considered a man's career, but women could serve passengers on a plane as a stewardess "Airlines need women!" read one ad from the time. Modeling, nursing, and secretarial work were also careers that typically recruited women, and women in such ads were often young and conventionally attractive.

While women could enter other fields, very few did. Statistics from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile (via Pinnacle Health Group) show that out of the 334,028 physicians in the U.S. in 1970, just 25,401 were women, while Law Crossing noted that women made up just 4 percent of legal practitioners.

This was largely because women were still expected to focus on raising a family. As economist Janet Yellen wrote in an essay for Brookings, "most women still expected to have short careers, and women were still largely viewed as secondary earners whose husbands' careers came first." Women who prioritized a career, then, often did not appeal to traditional-minded men.

converting diesel vehicles to run on waste vegetable oil, by polar bear

converting diesel vehicles to run on waste vegetable oil, by polar bear

When Rudolph Diesel invented his internal combustion engine, he used refined peanut oil as fuel. The reasoning behind it was that farmers could essentially grow their own fuel for their tractors. Diesel cars have been widely manufactured and used all over Europe, but never really caught on in the United States. Diesel pickup trucks and Big Rigs are common in the US, and are renowned for their torque and towing abilities. These rigs run on Dinodiesel-typical diesel fuel refined from petroleum. You may have heard of the term Biodiesel. Biodiesel is a type of diesel fuel made by taking vegetable oil and adding Lye and Methanol to remove the glycerines and convert the esters in to methyl-esters. Dinodiesel has a lower gel point in cold weather than biodiesel. Fuel stations around the country have only recently began carrying biodiesel. Enough history and chemistry, this article is going to give you the basics of converting a standard pickup truck or car so it will run on Dinodiesel, Biodiesel, or Straight Vegetable Oil! As a motor fuel in a survival situation, or for daily use, Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO) or Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) is hard to beat. It can be stored for years if a biocide stabilizer [such as Pri-D] is used, there is a potential fuel cache behind almost any restaurant, and while other folks are waiting in gas lines, you could easily check out at Costco and have them load a pallet of soybean oil in your truck! Note: Most all diesel cars and trucks will run biodiesel without any conversion at all, but you must understand that biodiesel is a very powerful organic solvent. It will clean out old deposits and varnishes left in your fuel system by years of dinodiesel use, and may clog up your fuel filters shortly after you start using it (it is a good idea to carry spares!) Biodiesel also attacks natural rubber and breaks it down, so on cars and trucks older than about 1994, the fuel lines need to be replaced with synthetic lines, such as Viton or Gates 4800 marine grade series hoses. Now, without further adieu, lets talk about conversions! For the purposes of this article I will describe the conversion of a 1983 Ford F-250 extended cab with a non-turbo 6.9 liter diesel engine (my first conversion!) This particular truck has dual tanks (very important, but not 100% necessary.) I designated the mid ship fuel tank for the veggie oil tank for two reasons: 1- the veggie oil must be heated and we dont want to lose heat in the long travel from tank to engine, and 2- the hose we need to run (Triple bypass hose or 3B available from Golden Fuel Systems.) is expensive! Basically, we need to install a heating device in the front tank to thin the oil, add an additional filter with heated housing to run the veggie through, and splice in all of the lines. All of the fittings required (hose barbs clamps, etc) can be purchased at Home Depot or some other hardware store. A kit with complete instructions and all parts can be purchased from Golden Fuel Systems, Frybrid.com, Greasecar.com, Lovecraft Biofuels, or others, but I have found that the parts can be purchased individually for much less. First, we need to purchase a transmission oil cooler. It doesnt have to be enormous, 5x10 will do, just remember that we will be cutting a hole in the fuel tank to put it in, and we do not want to interfere with the function of the fuel gauge float or the pickup. Now we drop the front fuel tank, and keeping in mind what we said about the float and pickup, cut a hole in the top of the tank the same size or just a bit bigger than the end of the transmission cooler. They are usually around an inch and a half thick, so you could cut a 1-1/2x5 hole. I drilled a 1/2 hole and cut the rest out using a $7 pair of sheet metal nibblers from Harbor Freight Tools. Now that we have created a hole in the top of the fuel tank, a patch plate will need to be fabricated. I used aluminum, less than an eighth of an inch thick, and 1/2 bigger all around than the hole we cut in the tank, so for us it would be 2-/12x6. The plate needs to be fitted with hose barbs so the transmission cooler can be attached to it (one set of hose barbs sticking in the tank) and one set sticking out so the 3B hose can be attached to the other side. For clearance issues, I put those on a 90 degree elbow. The 3B hose is essentially 3 hoses bundled together, one 3/8 fuel line and two 1/2 coolant lines. Attach the transmission cooler to the hose barbs on the patch plate and insert the tranny cooler in to the tank, positioning it so it does not hit the fuel pickup or the gauge float. Then apply some high temperature RTV silicone sealant where the patch plate meets the steel of the tank and use self-tapping sheet metal screws to secure it in place. The metal shavings caused by the self-tapping screws can be removed from the interior of the tank with a magnet and a string. Now we must set aside the tank and mount the heated filter housing and filter. There are many heated filter housings on the market today. Vormax, Hotshot, and Hothead are just a few. Essentially, the heated housing is a machined block of aluminum with water jackets bored through it to allow for hot engine coolant to pass through. The filter merely screws on. Keeping the veggie oil hot is a key component to the system. Hot = thin and cold = thick sludge! The filter should be a Racor filter with a water separator. This filter housing and filter should be mounted anywhere close to the tank, but it must be between the tank and the tank switching valve; otherwise it would take much longer to re-prime the system with dinodiesel fuel. Why do we have to switch? Because veggie oil is much more viscous than diesel fuel. That is why we heat it.

Essentially, the process of running your truck on Veggie Oil is this: 1. Start your truck on Dinodiesel (with the fuel tank selector switch set on the rear tank.) 2. Drive the truck. When the temperature reaches about 170 degrees, flip the switch to the front veggie tank. 3. It shouldnt take more than a few minutes for the veggie to replace the diesel in the fuel lines and filter. You will notice a slight drop in power and your engine will quiet down and run smoother. 4. Voila! You are now running on veggie! (Note: this may not be legal in some states! If you are getting your Veggie for free as waste from a restaurant then you are not paying fuel and road taxes on it! This upsets the Government for some reason, so be careful!) 5. Remember, you must flip the fuel tank selector switch back to the tank containing dinodiesel and allow the engine time to re-prime with that fuel before shutting it down. Depending on the outside air temp and how long you are going to let it sit before restarting, I have left mine for up to an hour. Veggie diesel that sits and cools in your injector pump and filters may kill your vehicle. It will be very hard to start!

Once the filter housing and filter are mounted and the 3B hoses run from the tank to the heated filter housing and then to the tank switch, the rest of the hose will replace the existing fuel line from the tank switch all the way up to the low pressure lift pump mounted on the engine. Just unplug the old fuel line and plug in the new one. Then take the two coolant lines and splice them, one each, in to the heater core lines running out of the firewall. Make sure you add coolant to the engine once it heats up so the new coolant lines you have installed can be fully primed. The last thing we need to do s install a heater band around the existing fuel filter. The fuel filter is the last area that we need to heat. A 12 VDC band heater that will heat up to about 160 degrees is plenty. Once again, available from Golden Fuel Systems. The front tank may now be used for veggie oil, biodiesel, or DinoDiesel, in any combinations or mixtures!

A Word on Harvesting Veggie Oil: New, fresh oil is obviously the best. It does not need to be filtered or treated for storage. There is also no worry of having water contamination. Much less expensive (free actually, with permission from the restaurateur) is Waste Oil. This oil can be harvested in a number of ways. I use a 2 trash pump and store the oil in 55 gallon drums or 275 gallon tote [palletized] tanks. Do not use creamy or hydrogenated oils! Trans fats in hydrogenated or creamy shortenings are bad for your body and your engine! Only use transparent oil. It is best to pump it in to drums and let all of the little bits of food settle out, and then siphon off the top layer of oil for filtering. Your filters will last twice as long this way. I use a $25 one inch pump from Harbor Freight to push the oil through a 10 micron filter bag in a X-1 housing. These are available through FilterBag.com. In a G.O.O.D. situation it will probably be too much to pack all of your harvesting and filtration stuff with you, so I recommend Golden fuel systems ONESHOT filtration unit. It is small, runs on 12v and is totally self contained. This article is meant to be a primer only. I strongly recommend purchasing some books on conversions and doing your research! (This is my obligatory disclaimer, I am not responsible for your success or failure, or mechanical ability.) The book Sliding Home by Ray Holan and From the Fryer to the Fuel Tank by Joshua Tickell are both awesome references. Well, I hope you are hooked and are going to give veggie oil a try. The two tank system takes a little getting used to, but you will smile every time you drive by a fuel station. It takes me only about one minute to siphon and filter 3 gallons of veggie oil. At todays prices $3.15/gal in Portland, Oregon, I save around $9.45/minute or $567 an hour! If the two tank system is too much, Elsbett in Germany makes single tank conversion kits for Volkswagen Diesels (expensive-the kit for a 2002 Jetta was around EU1,200 Euros) and Lovecraft Biofuels makes a single tank conversion for Mercedes Benz Diesels for around $400. Good luck in your conversions! Dont be surprised if you start feeling the urge to stop at a fast food joint while running veggie oil- your exhaust will smell like French fries!

JWR Adds: For those of you that are not do-it-yourself tinkerers, I just heard that Ready Made Resources (one of SurvivalBlogs first advertisers) now sells a home biodiesel making machine that can produce up to 330 gallons of biodiesel per day, at a cost of just 67 cents per gallon. This fuel can be used is standard (unmodified) diesel cars, trucks, and tractors, without the need to rig a separate fuel tank. Call Bob at Ready Made Resources 1(800) 627-3809 for details.

James Wesley, Rawles (JWR) is Founder and Senior Editor of SurvivalBlog, the original prepping /survival blog for when the Schumer Hits The Fan (SHTF). He began SurvivalBlog in 2005. It now reaches more than 320,000 unique visitors weekly. JWR is a journalist, technical writer, and novelist. His survivalist novel Patriots: Surviving the Coming Collapse, is a modern classic that reached #3 on the New York Times bestsellers list. Two of his other novels have also been best New York Times bestsellers. Jim is the originator of the American Redoubt movement and a frequent talk show guest on shows such as Alex Jones. He is also a retreat consultant specializing in off-grid living, rural relocation, and survival preparedness.

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stat3 controls cell death during mammary gland involution by regulating uptake of milk fat globules and lysosomal membrane permeabilization | nature cell biology

stat3 controls cell death during mammary gland involution by regulating uptake of milk fat globules and lysosomal membrane permeabilization | nature cell biology

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We have previously demonstrated that Stat3 regulates lysosomal-mediated programmed cell death (LM-PCD) during mouse mammary gland involution in vivo. However, the mechanism that controls the release of lysosomal cathepsins to initiate cell death in this context has not been elucidated. We show here that Stat3 regulates the formation of large lysosomal vacuoles that contain triglyceride. Furthermore, we demonstrate that milk fat globules (MFGs) are toxic to epithelial cells and that, when applied to purified lysosomes, the MFG hydrolysate oleic acid potently induces lysosomal leakiness. Additionally, uptake of secreted MFGs coated in butyrophilin 1A1 is diminished in Stat3-ablated mammary glands and loss of the phagocytosis bridging molecule MFG-E8 results in reduced leakage of cathepsins in vivo. We propose that Stat3 regulates LM-PCD in mouse mammary gland by switching cellular function from secretion to uptake of MFGs. Thereafter, perturbation of lysosomal vesicle membranes by high levels of free fatty acids results in controlled leakage of cathepsins culminating in cell death.

Humphreys, R. C. et al. Deletion of Stat3 blocks mammary gland involution and extends functional competence of the secretory epithelium in the absence of lactogenic stimuli. Endocrinology 143, 36413650 (2002).

Ono, K., Kim, S. O. & Han, J. Susceptibility of lysosomes to rupture is a determinant for plasma membrane disruption in tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced cell death. Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 665676 (2003).

Helminen, H. J. & Ericsson, J. L. E. Effects of enforced milk stasis on mammary gland epithelium, with special reference to changes in lysosomes and lysosomal enzymes. Exp. Cell Res. 68, 411427 (1971).

Yuzefovych, L., Wilson, G. & Rachek, L. Different effects of oleate vs. palmitate on mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and insulin signaling in L6 skeletal muscle cells: Role of oxidative stress. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 299, E1096E1105 (2010).

Jespersen, H., Andersen, J. H., Ditzel, H. J. & Mouritsen, O. G. Lipids, curvature stress, and the action of lipid prodrugs: free fatty acids and lysolipid enhancement of drug transport across liposomal membranes. Biochimie 94, 210 (2012).

Ogg, S. L., Weldon, A. K., Dobbie, L., Smith, A. J. H. & Mather, I. H. Expression of butyrophilin (Btn1a1) in lactating mammary gland is essential for the regulated secretion of milk-lipid droplets. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 101, 1008410089 (2004).

Clarkson, R., Wayland, M., Lee, J., Freeman, T. & Watson, C. Gene expression profiling of mammary gland development reveals putative roles for death receptors and immune mediators in post-lactational regression. Breast Cancer Res. 6, R92R109 (2004).

Monks, J., Smith-Steinhart, C., Kruk, E. R., Fadok, V. A. & Henson, P. M. Epithelial cells remove apoptotic epithelial cells during post-lactation involution of the mouse mammary gland. Biol. Reprod. 78, 586594 (2008).

Hughes, K., Wickenden, J. A., Allen, J. E. & Watson, C. J. Conditional deletion of Stat3 in mammary epithelium impairs the acute phase response and modulates immune cell numbers during post-lactational regression. J. Pathol. 227, 106117 (2012).

Reichmann, E., Ball, R., Groner, B. & Friis, R. R. New mammary epithelial and fibroblastic cell clones in coculture form structures competent to differentiate functionally. J. Cell Biol. 108, 11271138 (1989).

Jahreiss, L., Renna, M., Bittman, R., Arthur, G. & Rubinsztein, D. C. 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-3-O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol (Gln) induces cell death with more autophagosomes which is autophagy-independent. Autophagy 5, 835846 (2009).

We thank H.Skelton for assistance with histology, A.Gilmore (University of Manchester, UK) for the BaxGFP construct, I.Mather (University of Maryland, USA) for the anti-BTN antibody and useful advice, and D.Neal, S.Felisbino and S.Hawkins (CRUK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, UK) for providing mouse prostate tissue and advice. We thank also T.Reinheckel for providing the cathepsin L KO mice. In addition, we thank A.Tolkovsky and Z.Zakeri for helpful discussions. This work was supported by a grant from the Medical Research Council programme grant no. MR/J001023/1 (T.J.S. and B.L-L.) and a Cancer Research UK Cambridge Cancer Centre PhD studentship (H.K.R.).

T.J.S. and B.L-L. carried out most of the experiments, H.K.R. contributed the cathepsin L/ tissue samples, A.R-M. provided the prostate samples, J.S. carried out the TEM and immunogold analysis and assisted in data interpretation. T.J.S., B.L-L. and C.J.W. designed the work, analysed the data and wrote the manuscript.

(a) Staining for cathepsin D (red) in the lactating and involuting gland. Three animals were assessed per condition. (b) The pro-form of cathepsin D was detected at approximately 46 kDa and higher levels were present at 24 h involution compared to lactating mammary glands. There was no difference between control (C) and Stat3 knockout (KO). Lanes represent independent biological samples. (c) LAMP2 staining (red) is detected lining large vacuolar structures in the control 24 h involuting mammary gland but not in the lactating mammary gland. This becomes more apparent at 48 h and 72 h. In the Stat3 KO mammary gland, LAMP2-positive vacuoles are only seen from 48 h onwards. One animal per condition was analysed. (d) Confocal images displaying immunostaining for cathepsin D (red) is shown in grey-scale and merged with staining for triglyceride (lipidtox, green). Arrowheads show lipid droplets inside lysosomal vesicles. Three animals were used. Nuclei are visualized by Hoechst (blue). Scale bars = 20 m.

(a) Milk induces lysosomal lipid accumulation. Confocal images show Lysotracker red staining overlapping with that for triglyceride (lipidtox, green) (colocalization shown by arrowheads). Four representative images from two independent experiments displayed. Nuclei are stained with Hoechst (blue). Scale bars first three rows = 1 m, 4th row = 2 m. (b) Free fatty acids induce cell death. Staining for triglyceride (lipidtox, green) in EpH4 cells treated overnight with 1 mM oleic acid (OA) and palmitic acid (PA) showing lipid accumulation in EpH4 cells. Nuclei are stained with Hoechst (blue); Scale bars = 10 m. Brightfield images showing cytotoxicity in fatty acid treated EpH4 cells; Scale bars = 100 m. (c) Fatty acid induced cell death was assessed by trypan blue positivity. Means s.e.m. from n = three independent experiments with 23 technical replicates performed per experiment shown (P < 0.05, one-way ANOVA, Dunnetts Multiple Comparison post-test). For raw values, see the corresponding worksheet in Supplementary Table3.

(a) Optimisation of digitonin cytosol extraction assay. EpH4 cells were extracted with increasing concentrations of digitonin and cathepsin activity assayed over time with the synthetic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. Total activity was measured by extraction with 0.1% TritonX-100. A digitonin concentration of 25 g ml1 was selected for cytosol extraction assays. All data is plotted, optimisation performed on one occasion. (b) Fatty acids induce deacidification of the lysosomal compartment. A population of low Lysotracker Red staining (region R8) is induced with 1 mM OA or PA, indicative of de-acidification of lysosomes. Cells treated with 1 mM PA also display a population with higher lysotracker red staining. Quantification of n = four independent experiments as described in (b). Means s.e.m. are shown, associated statistics source data can be found in the corresponding worksheet in Supplementary Table3. (c) OA and PA (500 M) treated cells showing populations of Lysotracker Red fluorescence (R13), with low levels indicative of de-acidification of lysosomes (n = 1 (PA) and 2 (OA) independent experiments raw values can be found in the corresponding worksheet in Supplementary Table3).

(a) EpH4 cells were transfected with GFP-Bax (green) and treated with ethanol, 500 m oleic acid (OA), palmitic acid (PA) overnight prior to fixation and LAMP2 immunostaining (red). Cells were treated with 30 ng ml1 TNF and 10 g ml1 cycloheximide for 6.5 h in serum free conditions as a control. No obvious lysosomal co-localization was observed under these conditions. Two representative examples from all conditions displayed, experiment performed once. (b) GFP-Bax transfected EpH4 cells treated with TNF and cycloheximide or 1 M staurosporine as indicated for 6.5 h were fixed and immunostained for AIF (red) and show mitochondrial localization of Bax under these conditions. Nuclei are stained with Hoechst (blue). Scale bars = 10 m.

Sargeant, T., Lloyd-Lewis, B., Resemann, H. et al. Stat3 controls cell death during mammary gland involution by regulating uptake of milk fat globules and lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Nat Cell Biol 16, 10571068 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/ncb3043

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