In all rare metals, the importance and scarcity of chrome ore and scarce are most obvious, which is at the top of "strategic metals". The chrome ore is mainly used in the production of stainless steel and various kinds of alloy steel in the form of ferroalloy (such as ferrochrome), which has the advantages of strong hardness, wear-resisting, heat-resisting and corrosion resistance.
At present, the common chrome extraction processes mainly include gravity separation, magnetic separation, electric separation, flotation, gravity-magnetic separation process. Below, let's take you to learn about each chromite ore processing process.
From the point of production practice, the gravity separation is still the main chrome extraction method in the world method now, which uses the loose stratification in the water medium. At present, the gravity separator used in the chromite ore processing includes the shaker table, jig, spiral chute and centrifugal separator.
It is worth noting that stage grinding and gravity separator, or the combination of various gravity separators can be used according to the chrome ore properties, thus further improving the grade and recovery of chrome concentrate.
Because the chromite has a weak magnetism, we can use the strong magnetic separator for chrome extraction. There are mainly the following two cases: one is in the weak magnetic field, remove the ore in the strong magnetic separation of minerals (main magnetite), improve the ratio of ferrochrome. Another is to separate the gangue minerals and recover chrome ore (weakly magnetic mineral) under the strong magnetic field. If necessary, the weak magnetic - strong magnetic separation process can also be used to effectively separate the ore and achieve the chrome extraction.
The electric concentration process is mainly used to separate chromium ore from silicate gangue by using the difference of electrical properties of minerals, such as conductivity, dielectric constant, etc. For the chrome ore, a few chrome can be used directly by the electrical concentration, most of them only use the electrical concentration process in the concentration process. The concentration process has a special effect on removing silicate minerals (such as quartz, etc.) from chrome. Therefore, after the separation of chrome, another stage of the electric concentration process can be added for cleaning, which not only further improves the grade of chrome concentrate, but also greatly reduces the content of silicon dioxide.
At present, we can use the flotation process to recover the chromite with fine grain size (-100um) after the gravity separation. The results show that Mg2+ and Ca2+ can inhibit the chromium ore, and the inhibition of Mg2+ is influenced by the type of anions in the slurry. Therefore, after knowing the cationic behavior in the pulp, we can choose the appropriate pulp PH value, reagents concentration, add the order of inhibitors and activators, achieve the separation of chromite and pyrite.
Sometimes, the single gravity separation method cannot recover the chrome concentrate effectively. At this time, the concentrate obtained by the gravity separation can be separated by weak magnetic separation or strong magnetic separation, further improving the grade of chrome concentrate and chromic oxide-ferrous oxide ratio.
For example, the 100-10mm grade of raw ore adopts two-stage dense media separation. The medium ore of the dense media separator is crushed to 10-0mm and then merged with the 10-0mm grade of raw ore for separation. The grades of 10-3mm and 3-0mm are sent to the jigging process. After the middling of the jigging process is ground to 0.5-0mm, the spiral concentrator is used for separation, and the shaker table is used for the separation of mineral mud (0.5-0mm). Then, the high-field magnetic separator is used to recover 0.25mm slime separated from the tailings of the shaker table and spiral separator, ensuring the content of chromium oxide in the concentrate and reduce the loss of valuable components in the tailings.
Here are the common five chrome extraction processes. For the rich ore with high chromium oxide content, single gravity separation or magnetic separation process can be adopted. For the chrome with low chromium oxide content, the combined process of gravity separation and magnetic separation usually gets a better index than the single process. Of course, the specific chrome extraction process should be determined comprehensively according to the nature of the chrome ore, the actual situation of the chromite ore processing plant, the investment budget, so as to ensure the ideal beneficiation benefits and economic benefits.
HMS and DMS are acronyms for Heavy (Dense)Medium Separation and is applied to the process of pre-concentration of minerals mainly the production of a high weight, low assay product, which may be rejected as waste. In principle it is the simplest of all gravity processes and is a standard laboratory method for separating minerals of different specific gravity. Fluids of suitable density are used so that the minerals lighter than the fluid float and those denser sink.
Closely sized samples are required for optimum separation. The ore sample to be tested is crushed to the required top-size and screened at at appropriate sizes (we and dry screening is carried out at 38-75 microns if these sizes are to be examined). A typical size distribution on crushed drill core would be 2440, 850, 300, 106 and 38 microns from a top-size of 3350 microns.
Dense medium separation (or heavy medium separation (HMS), or the sink-and-float process) is applied to the pre-concentration of minerals, i.e. the rejection of gangue prior to grinding for final liberation. It is also used in coal preparation to produce a commercially graded end-product, clean coal being separated from the heavier shale or high-ash coal.
In principle, it is the simplest of all gravity processes and has long been a standard laboratory method for separating minerals of different specific gravity. Heavy liquids of suitable density are used, so that those minerals lighter than the liquid float, while those denser than it sink (Figure 11.1).
Since most of the liquids used in the laboratory are expensive or toxic, the dense medium used in industrial separations is a thick suspension, or pulp, of some heavy solid in water, which behaves as a heavy liquid.
The process offers some advantages over other gravity processes. It has the ability to make sharp separations at any required density, with a high degree of efficiency even in the presence of high percentages of near-density material. The density of separation can be closely controlled, within a relative density of 0.005 kg l -1 and can be maintained, under normal conditions, for indefinite periods. The separating density can, however, be changed at will and fairly quickly, to meet varying requirements. The process is, however, rather expensive, mainly due to the ancillary equipment needed to clean the medium and the cost.
Warning ORGANIC HEAVY LIQUIDS ARE TOXIC. INHALATION OF FUMES IS EXTREMELY DANGEROUS AND A THE FUME CUPBOARD WITH DOWNDRAFT VENTILATION MUST ALWAYS BE USED. SKIN CONTACT MUST ALSO BE AVOIDED (USE RUBBER GLOVES). HOWEVER, IF THE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ARE STRICTLY ADHERED TO, THE OPERATION IS QUITE SAFE.
In an interview with the news agency Reuters, Xavier Garca de Quevedo of Grupo Mxico revealed new investments totaling $3.1 billion over six years for metals refining in Sonora and power infrastructure for the proposed El Arco copper mine in the municipality of Muleg, Baja California Sur.
Garca de Quevedo said the energy plans would benefit the El Arco mine slated to produce 190,000 tonnes of copper annually starting in 2027 as well as domestic and commercial electricity customers in the southern part of the peninsula.
Reuters reported that Grupo Mxicos six-year investment blueprint also includes $2.3 billion to increase smelting capacity in Sonora, where the company has major mines. It said that Garca de Quevedo outlined almost $9 billion in investments through 2027, including a previously-announced $2.8 billion for the El Arco mine. Other resources will go to additional infrastructure, two other Grupo Mxico mines and additional zinc refining capacity.
Garca de Quevedo played down suggestions that political factors could have an impact on the companys investment plans, saying said they have already been discussed with senior officials in the federal government, which has not been a wholehearted supporter of mining.
This is something that the government knows very well, the vice chairman told Reuters, adding that while permits are needed for the companys planned projects, no new mining concessions are required. We all trust that we could have all the authorizations very soon.
President Lpez Obrador and his government, now 2 1/2 years into its six-year term, have been widely criticized by the mining industry for being too slow to issue permits and approvals, a pattern of tardiness attributed to budget cuts at the Environment Ministry. The government has also faced criticism for its policy of not issuing any new mining concessions, a position the president has trumpeted proudly.
Before Lpez Obrador came to power, Larrea warned that as president, he could seek to implement policies that represent a backward step of decades and a return to an economic model that has been thoroughly proven not to have worked in several countries.
In addition to its lucrative mining interests, Grupo Mxico the worlds fifth-largest copper producer and Mexicos third-biggest company by market capitalization operates a major rail freight business in Mexico and transports refined products by both rail and pipeline for Pemex, the state-owned oil company.
While Larrea and Lpez Obrador have been critical of each other in the past, Grupo Mxico is now willing to work closely with his administration, according to Garca de Quevedo. What we want is to be an ally of the government, he said.
The project is an EPC project general contracting project signed by our company and Mexico. We use the flotation method to select copper mines: qualified materials ground by ball mills are treated by equipment such as agitation, flotation, concentration and filtration. Select qualified copper concentrates. With the normal design, manufacturing, inspection, and delivery of the equipment, our factory began to send workers to follow-up installation guidance and operation guidance.
Copper Mountain mine near Princeton, British Columbia is the mining companys flagship site. It is a conventional open-pit, truck and shovel operation which produces approximately 100 million pounds (45,000 metric tons) of copper equivalent per year.
The installation, which includes engineering, supply and construction management for a DC substation and an overhead catenary system (OCS), combines ABBs electrification and automation expertise in the mining industry. Each truck will be fitted with a pantograph to receive external electric power. ABB will take responsibility for the off-truck trolley assist infrastructure and provide engineering, project management, equipment supply, system commissioning and construction management. ABB will design the overhead catenary system (OCS) infrastructure and deliver a rectifier substation providing in excess of 12MW of DC power to the trolley assist system. The trolley control system can provide connectivity to theexisting distributed control system (DCS) automation platform for seamless integration and monitoring of trolley operations and energy consumption. ABB is also providing OCS components customized for mining applications.
ABB collaborates with mining companies from initial feasibility studies through to full deployment. ABB has previously installed a similar substation at Boliden ABs Aitik mine, Sweden's largest open-pit copper mine and is part of ongoing expansion plans at the site. This included a 4.8 megawatt rectifier, connected to theABB AbilitySystem 800xA control system.
The copper industry is comprised of companies involved in the exploration, extraction, development, and production of copper, one of the most widely used metals. Copper demand is closely tied to economic cycles as it's used for a broad range of applications, including construction, electronics, industrial machinery, transportation, power generation, and transmission. The largest names in the sector include Freeport-McMoRan Inc. (FCX), Australia-based OZ Minerals Ltd. (OZL), and China-based Zijin Mining Group Co. Ltd. (2899.HK).
Copper stocks, represented by the Global X Copper Miners ETF (COPX), have outperformed the broader market by a wide margin. COPX has provided a total return of 132.7% over the past 12 months, nearly four times the Russell 1000's total return of 34.7%. These market performance figures and all statistics in the tables below are as of June 7, 2021.
Here are the top 3 copper stocks with the best value, the fastest earnings growth, and the most momentum. These are stocks of companies that mine for copper, rather than futures that track the copper commodity.
These are the copper stocks with the lowest 12-month trailingprice-to-earnings (P/E)ratio. Because profits can be returned to shareholders in the form of dividends and buybacks, a low P/E ratio shows youre paying less for each dollar of profit generated.
These are the topcopperstocks as ranked by agrowthmodel that scores companies based on a 50/50 weighting of their most recent quarterly YOY percentagerevenuegrowth and their most recent quarterly YOYearnings-per-share (EPS)growth. Both sales and earnings are critical factors in the success of a company. Therefore ranking companies by only one growth metric makes a ranking susceptible to the accounting anomalies of that quarter (such as changes in tax law or restructuring costs) that may make one or the other figure unrepresentative of the business in general. Companies with quarterly EPS or revenue growth of over 2,500% were excluded as outliers.
The comments, opinions and analyses expressed herein are for informational purposes only and should not be considered individual investment advice or recommendations to invest in any security or to adopt any investment strategy. While we believe the information provided herein is reliable, we do not warrant its accuracy or completeness. The views and strategies described on our content may not be suitable for all investors. Because market and economic conditions are subject to rapid change, all comments, opinions, and analyses contained within our content are rendered as of the date of the posting and may change without notice. The material is not intended as a complete analysis of every material fact regarding any country, region, market, industry, investment, or strategy.
Prominer can provide a full range of spiral concentrator for recovering the heavy minerals from alluvial sand, coastal sand minerals and black minerals. It can recover the valuable mineral such as placer gold, zircon, rutile, garnet, tin, tungsten, titano-magnetite, chrome and manganese ore. It can also remove the heavy mineral impurities in silica sand, kaolin and graphite minerals.
Prominer can provide practical and stable performance module spiral concentrator system including engineering design, equipment supply, installation & erection service, training and commissioning service, etc.
1. Stable and clear mineral separation with large handling capacity; 2. High efficiency with higher concentration ratio and high recovery; 3. High adaptability of feeding capacity and the variability of concentration, granularity and grade; 4. Easy for installation with small land space and simple operation; 5. Fast delivery with module design 6. With advantages of non-powered, no moving parts and no noise, etc.
Shaking table is one type of main equipment of gravity concentration, which is widely used in heavy minerals recovering project such as iron , ilmenite, chromite, pyrite, tungsten ore, tin ore, tantalum-niobium ore, placer gold, alluvial sand, coastal sand, gravel mine, zircon and rutile as well as other nonferrous metals, rare metals and nonmetallic minerals with adequate gravity difference.
Prominers shaking table is characterized by high rich ore ratio, high separating efficiency, easiness to take charge and convenient adjustment. Keep table surface operate balanced even though changing cross fall and stroke. The springs with compact structure are placed in the table. The final concentrated ore and gangue can be obtained simultaneously.
The DMS process involves the mixing of a pre-prepared ore stream with a dense medium of selected specific gravity (SG) in a mixing box and passing this mixture through a dense medium cyclone (DM cyclone). It is here that separation of the high and low SG fractions of the ore occurs. Prominers DMS modular plants are available with throughput capacities 8, 20, 50, 100 & 150 tons/hour. It is widely used in diamond, coal, Iron ore, manganese ore, chrome ore and chrome smelting slag processing system.
Enhanced dense medium SG control; Improved dense medium plus ore mixing; Economical dense medium recovery; A separate drain and rinse screen for each of the sinks and floats streams for applications with high concentrate mass yields; Deployment of first-class proprietary equipment in our plants.
Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.
Multotec supplies a complete range of magnetic separation equipment for separating ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles from dry solids or slurries, or for removing tramp metal. Multotec Dry and Wet Drum Separators, WHIMS, Demagnetising Coils and Overbelt Magnets are used in mineral processing plants across the world. We can engineer customised magnetic separation solutions for your process, helping you improve the efficiency of downstream processing and lower your overall costs of production.
Multotec provides a wide range of magnetic separators including: Permanent magnet Low Intensity Magnetic Separators (LIMS) or Medium Intensity Magnetic Separators (MIMS) and electromagnetic High Intensity Magnetic Separators (HIMS). Multotec provides unmatched global metallurgical expertise through a worldwide network of branches, which support your processing operation with turnkey magnetic separation solutions, from plant audits and field service to strategic spares for your magnetic separation equipment.
Whether you need to recover fast moving tramp metal, recover valuable metals in waste streams or enhance the beneficiation of ferrous metals, Multotec has the magnetic separator you require. Dry drum cobber magnetic separators provide an initial upgrade of feed material as well as a gangue material rejection stage. By improving the material fed to downstream plant processes, our magnetic separation solutions reduce the mechanical requirements of grinding, ultimately lowering overall costs. Our heavy media drum separators are ideally suited for dense media separation plants. Our ferromagnetic wet drum separators can be used in iron ore separation plants in both rougher or cleaner beneficiation applications. We also provide demagnetising solutions that reverse the residual effects that magnetic separation has on the magnetic viscosity of ferrous slurries, to return the mineral stream to an acceptable viscosity for downstream processing. These demagnetising coils generate a magnetic field that alters magnetic orientation at 200 Hz.
The trend towards larger and faster travelling conveyors in the African mining industry has highlighted the vital role of overbelt magnets. Solutions need to be optimised to such factors as belt speed and width, the belt troughing angle, the burden depth, the material density and bulk density, the expected tramp metal specifications, ambient operating temperatures and suspension height to provide maximum plant and cost efficiency. Multotec can supply complete overbelt magnet systems, from equipment supply to a turnkey service by means of its strategic partners, including even the gantry work.Get in Touch with Mechanic