magnetic bead separation: functions and automation requirements - hudson robotics, inc

magnetic bead separation: functions and automation requirements - hudson robotics, inc

Magnetic bead separation makes nucleic acid and protein purification more effective and easier to automate. With advancements in lab technology and reduced costs, magnetic separation has become a leading technique for sample purification. Read on below to know more about magnetic bead separators.

A magnetic bead separator uses superparamagnetic beads or particles. They are made up of tiny particles of iron oxides ranging from 20 nm to a few m with superparamagnetic properties, meaning that they exhibit magnetic properties only in the presence of an external magnetic field. Their small size enables them to stay separated when needed, along with any material theyre bound to.

The magnetic bead separator then applies an external magnetic field to attract the beads to the tubes outer edge containing the sample. This separates the beads from the suspension and immobilizes them with the target DNA.

The sample is then washed to remove the unwanted suspension, and an elution buffer is added to the tube. This elution buffer releases the DNA from the magnetic beads and is removed from the tube or microplate well by pipetting. This produces a purified DNA sample, ready for downstream assays or quantitation. Applications that benefit from using a magnetic bead separator include immunoprecipitation, cell isolation, nucleic acid isolation, and other downstream processes from PCR to ELISA.

Modern magnetic bead separator stations come in compact sizes that can be integrated with other lab instruments and robots to create a semi or fully automated system. Below are some components that you can integrate with your magnetic bead separator when designing an automated extraction system.

Magnetic bead separation is a quick and effective method of extracting DNA and other molecules. By integrating your magnetic bead separator with other instruments in an automated workcell, you can further increase your lab efficiency.

what is magnetic separation? (with pictures)

what is magnetic separation? (with pictures)

Magnetic separation is an industrial process where ferromagnetic contaminants are recovered from materials on the production line. Manufacturers use this to extract useful metal, separate recycling, purify materials, and perform a wide variety of other tasks. Manufacturers of magnetic separation equipment may have a range of products available for sale for different applications, including an assortment of sizes with strong and weak magnetic fields to attract different kinds of magnetic material.

The magnetic separator consists of a large rotating drum that creates a magnetic field. Materials enter the separator and fall out through mesh at the base if they are not magnetic. Sensitive particles respond to the magnetism and cling to the sides of the container. The drums can be used in continuous processing of materials as they move along the assembly line, or in batch jobs, where a single batch is run through all at once.

One common use for magnetic separation is to remove unwanted metal from a shipment of goods. Magnetic separation can help companies keep materials pure, as well as remove things like nails and staples that may have crept into a shipment. The equipment can also purify ores, separate components for recycling, and perform a variety of other tasks where metals need to be separated or isolated. Equipment can range in size from a desktop unit for a lab that needs to process small amounts of material to huge drums used in scrap metal recycling centers.

Manufacturers of magnetic separation equipment typically provide specifications for their products for the benefit of prospective customers. Consumers may need equipment that targets a specific range of metals, or could require large size or high speed capacity. It may be possible to rent or lease equipment for some applications, or if a factory wants to try a device before committing to a purchase. Used equipment is also available.

A gentler form of magnetic separation can be used for delicate tasks like removing magnetic materials from cremated remains or finds at an archaeological site. In these situations, a technician carefully moves a magnet over the material to pull out materials like staples and jewelry. At a crematorium, this is necessary before ashes are ground, as metal objects can damage the equipment. For archaeologists, it can provide a mechanism for carefully separating materials at a find and documenting the position and location of various objects as the archaeologist uncovers them on site or in a lab.

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a InfoBloom researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a InfoBloom researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

@allenJo - I do believe they use these systems in water treatment systems. I dont know the mechanisms used but it is used from what Ive heard. Water should give up its magnetic particles quite easily, I would think, since the metals are just floating about like flotsam and jetsam in the ocean.

@Charred - Those are two very good points, and I am sure that they are accounted for. The uses described in the article suggest scenarios where the metals are rather loosely fitting, so I think the cleanup job would be thorough. What I wonder about is if this process can be adapted to water treatment? Since magnetic separation systems can be used to sift through fluids, could they purify water as well? That seems to be an obvious application. Where I live the tap water has a lot of metals and so we generally dont drink it. I already have three metal fillings; I dont need more metal in my body.

What I wonder about is if this process can be adapted to water treatment? Since magnetic separation systems can be used to sift through fluids, could they purify water as well? That seems to be an obvious application. Where I live the tap water has a lot of metals and so we generally dont drink it. I already have three metal fillings; I dont need more metal in my body.

What I wonder about is if this process can be adapted to water treatment? Since magnetic separation systems can be used to sift through fluids, could they purify water as well? That seems to be an obvious application. Where I live the tap water has a lot of metals and so we generally dont drink it. I already have three metal fillings; I dont need more metal in my body.

That seems to be an obvious application. Where I live the tap water has a lot of metals and so we generally dont drink it. I already have three metal fillings; I dont need more metal in my body.

I see two things here that are necessary for magnetic separation to work well. First, the metals must be easily dislodged from whatever material or goop they happen to be sitting in. Otherwise, theyll just remain stuck, and the separation will be less than effective in pulling out all the metals. Second, the magnetic drum separator itself must be sufficiently strong. I think thats obvious, and the second point is related to the first. If the separating device is not strong it wont dislodge the metals; but there may be situations where the device is strong, but the metals are just stuck and wont budge.

Second, the magnetic drum separator itself must be sufficiently strong. I think thats obvious, and the second point is related to the first. If the separating device is not strong it wont dislodge the metals; but there may be situations where the device is strong, but the metals are just stuck and wont budge.

Second, the magnetic drum separator itself must be sufficiently strong. I think thats obvious, and the second point is related to the first. If the separating device is not strong it wont dislodge the metals; but there may be situations where the device is strong, but the metals are just stuck and wont budge.

equipment and procedure for on-site inspection of magnetic separators

equipment and procedure for on-site inspection of magnetic separators

1.2. This standard is intended for magnetic separation equipment, whose function is to remove ferrous tramp from product streams. This standard does not cover devices whose purpose it is to hold a ferrous workpiece by means of magnetic force (holding magnets).

1.4. Magnetic testing at the installation site is most readily done by measuring the relative attractive force produced by a magnetic separator upon a ferrous test piece. Although the test piece may not geometrically represent the ferrous tramp to be captured, if selected properly, can provide a repeatable indicator of magnetic strength. While electronic measuring equipment such as gaussmeters and fluxmeters provide more definitive magnetic test data in the laboratory, their cost, availability and difficulty of data interpretation prohibit their use in many "field" situations.

1.5. HAZARDS-The act of performing tests outlined in this standard may present a number of hazards to the operator depending on the nature of the test. It is the responsibility of the operator to become familiar with the equipment and to implement appropriate measures to ensure personnel and equipment safety throughout all phases of testing.

2.6. Polarity Indicator-A device used to identify the polarity (north or south) of a magnet and may also be used to indicate the center of a magnetic pole or the direction of magnetic flux at a specific location.

3.1.1. For quality control verification, a singular pull test can be repeated periodically with the same test apparatus to determine if any magnetic degradation has occurred. This test should be designed for repeatability by choosing a test piece and a location on the magnetic face of the equipment which produces consistent results.

3.1.2. When evaluating magnetic equipment or comparing potential upgrades, testing should be selected which most closely simulates the intended operation of the magnet. For instance, two critical functions of a magnetic separator are: to capture tramp from a specified distance and to adequately hold the tramp to the magnetic element once captured. Therefore, ideally, a pull test should be performed on a test piece which most closely resembles the expected tramp both at the specified distance and at the magnetic face. In reality several limitations exist. Often the expected tramp is very small and the pull forces at specified distances are too small to accurately measure with conventional force gauges. This has lead to the standardization of test pieces which produce measurable pull forces on and at limited distances from the magnetic face.

3.2. When comparisons are being made between potential equipment for a given application, testing should be done at functionally equivalent points on all separators. This implies that a pull test performed at a specific distance from the magnetic face should be at the location of maximum field intensity for each separator at that distance. Although a gaussmeter is the most accurate tool for locating the maximum field intensity, the test piece, if allowed lateral freedom, will usually seek the area of maximum intensity.

3.3. When testing a given magnet for changes in performance, consistency must be maintained through thorough documentation. Many factors contribute to significant variances of magnetic strength over the magnetic face of an individual separator so that an inspection log must be kept to document the test apparatus used and the exact location on the magnet face where the test was performed. On some equipment, it is necessary to use a polarity indicator to determine the location and the midpoint of internal magnetic poles so that the exact test location can be documented and replicated.

4.1.1. Because of the variety and range of magnetic separation equipment, it is likely that no one set of magnetic force measuring tools will suffice for every application. However, a basic kit of test pieces, spacers, a force gauge, and a polarity indicator can produce test results which are sufficient for most situations.

4.1.2. The accuracy of the magnetic measurement data is a function of the accuracy of the test apparatus and the repeatability of the test procedure. The key to apparatus accuracy is calibration of the force gauge and strict adherence to specifications for test pieces.

4.1.3. Field tests of magnetic separators are generally performed solely by manual effort so that test pieces and spacers should be selected which produce pull force readings in the range of .5 to 20 lbs. Relatively high forces can pose safety hazards, especially with spring scales, due to the sudden release of the test piece. Relatively low forces should be avoided, if possible, to maintain accuracy of the measurements.

4.2. Components-The following test components comprise a minimal set of tools that can measure a wide variety of magnetic separators. Specific applications may require specialized test pieces and spacers or components of higher tolerance. Recommended materials, tolerances and calibrations are suggested below which should permit a minimum test repeatability of +l 0% at full scale measurements.

4.2.1. Force Gauge-The pull test accuracy is primarily dependent on the force gauge accuracy. Digital load cells can offer .02 lb. resolution or better while spring scales may only be reliable to .25 to 1 lb. resolution depending on the range. It is good practice to use a force gauge which offers better than 10% accuracy on the force to be measured (i.e. for measuring a 2 lb. force, a force gauge with a resolution of .2 lbs. or better is required (2 x 10%=.2)). Force gauges must be calibrated periodically to ensure rated accuracy. Digital gauges must be inspected and certified while spring scales should be calibrated against a known weight of the approximate test force just prior to each test. A force gauge should be selected which can record and save peak readings.

4 2.3. Test Pieces-Are used to generate repeatable attractive forces in magnetic fields. Test balls should be used whenever possible to measure the strength of local magnetic fields. Test plates are better suited for measuring magnetic strength at greater distances from the magnetic face. Test Balls-Test pieces made from steel spheres offer highly repeatable results due to their uniformity and universal symmetry. The sphere is an excellent test piece for simulating holding force on tramp on or near the magnetic face. The test ball eliminates any potential problems with surface flatness and positioning often associated with test plates. Standard test ball sizes are .250"O , .500" O, and 1.000"O. Material must be C1018 and the diametrical tolerance should be .001". A linkage must be provided by which the force gauge can be attached to the test ball. The linkage and its means of attachment must be non-ferrous and may neither add to nor subtract from the spheres magnetic properties. Test Plates-Test plates generate attractive forces which indicate the strength of a magnetic field passing through a perpendicular plane at a given distance from the magnetic face. Plates provide greater surface area at a given offset than do spheres which makes them particularly suited for measuring the weaker magnetic fields present at greater distances from the magnetic face. Plates should generally not be used to measure attraction directly on the magnetic face because of low repeatability. A standard test plate size is .125" thick x 1.000" wide x 3" long with a volumetric tolerance of + 5%. Material must be ClOl8 steel and the testing surface must have a flatness of .005" or better. A linkage must be provided by which the force gauge can be attached to the test plate. The linkage and its means of attachment must be non-ferrous and may neither add to nor subtract from the plate's magnetic properties.

4.2.4. Spacers-Spacers are used to accurately position a test piece at a given offset from the magnetic face. Spacers are to be made from a non-ferrous material which has no effect on the magnetic circuit. Spacers should have a thickness tolerance of + .005" or less and should be flat within .005". Spacer thickness of .l25" and .250" are common for 1"O tube style magnets while .500" and 1.000" are common for plate style magnets.

In general, it is best to perform tests in the center of the magnet's width (along centerlines of magnetic symmetry) and in areas of highest magnetic strength (where the test piece naturally centers itself).

magnetic separation basics - recycling today

magnetic separation basics - recycling today

Magnetic separation systems began appearing in scrap yards after World War II when heavy duty shredders used for grinding automobiles started to pop up across the United States. The early magnetic separation systems were mainly electromagnets; permanent magnets began making inroads when ceramic material became available and the cost to produce them decreased significantly, providing field strengths matching those of their electromagnet cousins. In addition, permanent magnets did not have to rely on an outside power source, and did not have the overheating problems associated with the early electromagnets, which were usually expensive and bulky.

As the scrap industry evolved, magnetic separation systems evolved, too. By the end of the 1970s, three main types of magnetic separation systems were prevalent: the overhead magnet; the magnetic pulley; and the magnetic drum. And by the end of the 1980s, another form of magnetic separator, the eddy current, was becoming popular with both scrap processors and municipal recyclers. Although the eddy current will not be discussed here, its contribution to the recycling industry has been significant. An eddy imparts a magnetic charge to nonferrous metal material via a revolving, alternating-pole magnet usually under the conveying belt and in the head pulley. When the charged particle comes in contact with the field of an opposite pole, it is repelled and sorted.

Today, magnetic separation still dominates the way processors remove ferrous from nonferrous material. While permanent magnets are popular choices, advances in electromagnets have made them competitive again.

The first type of magnetic separation equipment is the overhead magnet. These are stationary magnets with self-cleaning belts that rotate around the magnet assembly. The cleated belt moves the attracted ferrous material and sorts it out of the magnetic field. These magnets can be configured in two main ways parallel to the conveyor, referred to as inline; or perpendicular to the conveyer, referred to as crossbelt. Other configurations are actually variants of the overhead magnet where multiple magnets are used to transfer ferrous material from one magnet to another. These magnets are referred to as "multi-stage" magnets.

In an inline application the magnet is normally positioned at the end of the conveyor above the head pulley. The main advantage to positioning the magnet in this fashion is that entrapment of ferrous pieces and particles is reduced. Material is freed once it leaves the conveyor belt and the magnet can pluck suspended ferrous material out of the air.

If the conveyor is on an incline, the momentum of the particles leaving the conveyor belt results in an initial trajectory upward and toward the magnet. Thus, the material gets closer to the magnet and the ferrous particles have a better chance of getting picked up.

"No matter how hard a processor tries to prevent entrapment, it is always going to occur with an overhead magnet," says one manufacturer of magnetic separation equipment. "But it is not going to occur as much in an inline configuration as it is with in a crossbelt arrangement."

It is especially tough to pull out ferrous from wet, shredded wood streams with an overhead magnet, because the shreds start to interlock and clump. Suppliers say that wet wood and any other wet material is more difficult to process, and should be avoided if possible when applying magnetic separation. However, an inline configuration can free up more of the ferrous material for separation.

For inline applications, the magnet should be the width of the conveyor. Some manufacturers have square magnets. Others offer rectangular magnets where the longer length of the magnet is parallel to the conveyer, providing more coverage of the belt.

The other application for an overhead magnet is in the crossbelt configuration. This is a popular installation because placing the magnet inline over the head pulley is not always practical there may be other equipment, such as a magnetic pulley or an eddy current separator, at the end of the conveyor. Plus, material recovery facility operators like the crossbelt configuration because the magnet can be positioned close to the hand picking stations, and because slower belt speeds increase the magnets efficiency.

In both the inline and the crossbelt configurations, the overhead magnet is working against gravity, so it has to work harder and normally has to be more powerful than a magnetic pulley or drum. However, the inline setup requires less field strength than the crossbelt, because it does not have to combat entrapment, nor does it have to change the direction of the ferrous material. Therefore, an inline overhead magnet can cost less than one used in a cross-belt configuration.

Variants of the overhead magnet include single- and three-stage magnets. In a single-stage magnet, ferrous material is carried through a magnetic field and offloaded onto another conveyor, while nonferrous material drops down into a container.

In a three-stage configuration, the ferrous goes through three separate magnets that are contained in a single housing. When the ferrous material is transferred from one magnet to the other, the particles are flipped and any entrapped nonferrous material falls out, resulting in a cleaner end product. Both the single- and three-stage variants are powerful magnets that can pick up heavy pieces of ferrous metal.

While many manufacturers sell both permanent and electromagnetic configurations, one manufacturer recommends that a processor use an electromagnet in the overhead position when the distance between the magnet and conveyor has to be greater than 12 inches.

Another type of magnetic separator is the magnetic pulley. In this configuration the magnet is embedded in the head pulley of the conveyor. As the pulley spins, the magnetic force grabs the ferrous particles and carries them around and under the pulley until the natural belt separation from the face of the pulley forces the particles to fall in a separate bin. While suppliers are wary of recommending a pulley versus an overhead magnet unless they know the specific application, most say that, generally, a pulley will pull out finer particles of ferrous than an overhead magnet.

This better sort is possible because material is closer to the magnet, which is just under the belt. Also, the pulley has gravity working in its favor. This method, however, may not be effective in pulling off larger pieces of ferrous material or material that is trapped on top of the material stream.

Another drawback of the magnetic pulley is that the strength of the magnet is limited by the size of the pulley. Usually, a magnetic pulley can achieve only 6 to 7 inches of penetration at best, according to one supplier.

Magnetic pulleys can also be configured in conjunction with an overhead magnet. These combinations are recommended when the material stream contains a preponderance of ferrous metals. When this is done, make sure that the two types of magnetic devices are adequately separated by 8 feet or even more in some cases in order to avoid magnetic interference.

In order to determine the optimal type and position of a magnet, its useful to calculate burden depth. Several factors must be considered before the calculation can be made. The operator must know capacity in cubic feet per minute (C); belt width in feet (W) and belt speed feet per minute (V); and the burden depth factor (F). The F factor is needed to compensate for the normal dip in the center of the conveyor; and to compensate for the tilt angle of the magnet if it is positioned over the head pulley at the end of the conveyor.

For example, consider an operation which has a 3-foot wide conveyor belt with outside idlers at 35-degree angles. The speed of the conveyor is 500 feet per minute, and the capacity of the conveyor is 800 tons per hour of material.

First, the capacity of 800 tons per hour needs to be converted into cubic feet per minute. In order to accomplish this, the material density of the main medium must also be known. Lets say the material is 3-inch minus in size, with a density of 50 pounds per cubic foot. In this case the capacity in cubic feet per minute would be: (800 tons per hour)(2,000 pounds/1 ton)(1 hour/60 minutes)(1/50 pounds per cubic foot) = 533 cubic feet per minute.

Drum magnets are similar to pulley magnets; however, in the drum magnet, the magnetic element is stationary and positioned only on one side of the drum with a maximum of 180 degrees of arc. While the outer casing of the drum rotates, material is pulled through the magnetic field.

Drum magnets can be positioned for three methods of feed: up-and-over feed; down-and-under feed; and top feed. In an up-and-over configuration, ferrous is lifted out of the stream and carried up and over the magnet while the nonferrous material drops off the feeder. This application is commonly used in auto shredders, ash handling and other high-ferrous content streams.

In down-and-under feed, ferrous is carried under the drum and dropped on the other side. It has the shortest and most direct transfer area for the ferrous and is usually used for streams with larger ferrous pieces.

Finally, in the top-feed configuration, material cascades off the front side of the drum and the ferrous is carried through the magnetic field and separated. This type is used mainly for material streams that contain ferrous with weak magnetic properties.

The preponderance of drum magnets used today are in the scrap industry and on auto shredders. They are normally fed by a vibratory feeder or conveyor, and the speed of the drum can be adjusted to match the incoming feed. As with all types of magnetic separation equipment, the incoming feed must be controlled so that it does not overwhelm the ability of the magnet to pull out ferrous.

Drum magnets also come in two types: axial- and radial-pole. In an axial-pole drum magnet, the alternating poles are situated along the circumference of the drum. This configuration results in the same polarity across the width of the drum. With the same polarity across the width, there arent any dips in the magnetic field. So, axial-pole drum magnets are recommended for pieces that are 1 inch or less in size.

Radial-pole drum magnets have the same polarity along the circumference of the drum, which gives alternating polarity across the width. This results in dips in the magnetic field across the width of the drum. Therefore, radial-pole drum magnets are recommended for material pieces of 1 inch or greater.

Again, these types of magnets can be permanent or electromagnet. One manufacturer recommends that auto shredder operators considering adding a drum magnet install an electromagnetic one because it is hard to work around a permanent magnet in that configuration.

There are several areas to consider before buying a magnetic separation device. Processors must consider the depth of material that will be processed (the burden depth); the range of particle size; conveyor troughing; speed, width and overall capacity of the conveyor; and the density of the material stream.

Conveyor troughing applies only to overhead magnets because conveyors normally run in a concave fashion so that material does not fall off when the conveyor is moving. Therefore, the overhead magnet field must be able to reach into the trough of the conveyor to pull out material. Idlers on the end of the conveyor are normally inclined at 20, 35 or 45 degrees to create the trough.

Burden depth is the average depth of the material on the conveyor belt. Calculating burden depth is useful to determine the maximum amount of material that the magnetic field must penetrate, and to position the magnet optimally over a conveyor (see sidebar). Many suppliers will give processors a chart that has the burden depths and other data for the different streams that a company may run, and for different throughputs.

Magnets are usually positioned for the most difficult situation. "That is the first thing we ask is what is the range of materials being processed," says one supplier. "We want to make sure that the magnet is large enough to pick up the target material in the most demanding scenario possible."

While most overhead magnets are adjustable, some scrap companies and recyclers have built special platforms for the overhead magnet so that it can be adjusted to the optimum height more quickly. One company that was processing a wide range of materials needed to constantly adjust its overhead magnet, so it built a hydraulic platform for the overhead magnet that could be easily raised or lowered depending on the application

Another supplier recommends that buyers considering purchasing an electromagnet should check to see if the magnetic circuit is balanced and provides a uniform magnetic field and the appropriate depth of field. Unbalanced electromagnets can cause excessive power drains .

Over the years, steel mills have been steadily increasing their use of scrap. At the same time, end users of steel products, such as automobile manufacturers, have stepped up their quality requirements. As a result, mills are buying more scrap material which must be consistently delivered and of a higher quality. In order to better control their raw material, a few mills such as North Star Steel, Minneapolis, own and operate their own scrap processing and brokerage facilities. Other mills designate preferred or even exclusive suppliers, and may even agree for a scrap processor to operate on their facilities, handling all stages of scrap preparation right up to loading charging buckets.

"There seems to be, across the steel industry, a trend toward putting suppliers in the position to supply mills needs," says William Heenan, president of the Steel Recycling Institute, Pittsburgh. "In scrap, simplistically, this means they tell suppliers, Im making this kind of steel give me scrap that provides the right residuals, etc., to make the right kind of steel. Weve seen a number of companies do that. This type of effort is now being pushed by suppliers as well. The steel companies like outsourcing, in some respects. It puts the burden on the guy that has the scrap."

This trend shows the level of trust that has been building up between mills and suppliers for the past 10 or 15 years, he says, and leads to all sorts of benefits. "It builds a stronger relationship when they are that dependent on each other," he says. "Having a scrap supplier on site really allows companies to cut their inventory costs it prevents the necessity of having two sets of inventories."

Luntz Corp., Canton, Ohio, which was on the road to being purchased by Philip Environmental Inc., Hamilton, Ontario, at press time, has a close relationship with the ARMCO mill in Mansfield, Ohio. The mill has entrusted all of its scrap handling operations to the scrap supplier, according to Eric Schnackel, assistant manager of Luntz Mansfield facility.

"One hundred percent of ARMCOs scrap, and other furnace materials including coal and lime, come through here," says Schnackel. "We load the charging buckets and then send it to the furnace, and then they send the buckets back and we reload them."

The two companies negotiated the agreement about a year ago, he says. "Basically, we took over their stockhouse. ARMCO handles the purchasing, but we do the inspections and grading. If theres a problem, we call one of their people to come and look the material over. We process all their home scrap, including slabs and coils. But we dont handle the reclaiming pit scrap thats processed by someone else."

It makes sense for mills to contract out their scrap handling to scrap processors, who have the needed expertise, says Schnackel. "We handle scrap better. We have a lab where we analyze the materials, and we handle the inventorying, accounting, and rail traffic. It takes all that headache away from them." Luntz goes so far as to guarantee that the mixture in the bucket will yield the grade of scrap required. "The idea of scrap management helping mills best use scrap is catching on," says Schnackel.

Exclusive or preferred supplier relationships make sense from a mill point of view, he says. If mills only buy from two or three companies that are very familiar with their specifications, they can get the level of quality they need much more easily. But these sorts of relationships can be a double-edged sword for processors. "For us, some of these close relationships have been great, and some have turned sour," says Schnackel. "As brokers, we are traded like ball players. It depends on how valuable we are and what we can offer."

But close relationships with mills can benefit scrap processors, as well, says Jim Macaluso, vice president of the ferrous division of Sims Bros. Inc., Marion, Ohio. "You know exactly what they want and can give them the quality they need," says Macaluso. "Also, when you know youre shipping a certain number of tons, it makes it easier to buy. This ties up the scrap makes sure you have a home for it and its not going to just sit there."

More mills are asking for regularly scheduled deliveries, he says. "Its a matter of knowing your customers, knowing their schedules," he says. However, that particular area of the country is not conducive to exclusive supplier agreements, says Macaluso. "Nothing is guaranteed when mills slow down, our shipments stop."

In fact, there was a period of about a year when one major mill the company supplies was closed for repair. This had a big impact on its scrap suppliers. "When you are in a relationship and it changes, theres a lot of tonnage you have to find a home for," he says.

Another Midwestern ferrous scrap executive agrees that its impossible for scrap processors to exist successfully without having close relationships with mills. His company has operated as the scrap handling department for a number of mills.

Mills delegate the scrap function for a number of reasons, he says. For one, scrap processors may be non-union or at least operate under different unions than mills. Two, scrap processors have the experience and the equipment such as testing labs and radioactivity detectors to handle scrap. "We put our best people on it, whereas mills tend to put their newest, least experienced people on it. There, it is not considered a prime assignment."

The method of trade between mills and suppliers may vary depending on the market, he says. If there is a market surplus, it makes sense for mills to buy directly from dealers. "But in a market like weve had for the last two years, a tight market, its much better to deal through a third party who can check to make sure youre getting the best price."

Providing service and value, as well as the best price, is key. "The mills need our expertise because the market is complicated by geography and the fact that scrap is not homogenous from region to region," he says. "Some grades may not move up and down with the market. If we can give mills a menu of attractive options to come out with the same product, they can make a lot of money. Our purpose is to help, not to preempt."

Similar trends are taking place in the nonferrous industry. For example, following its move designating Calbag Metals, Portland, Ore., its exclusive scrap supplier, Columbia Aluminum Recycling Corp., also based in Portland, has gone even further in its alliance with the scrap firm, according to Doug Shaw, general manager of CARCO. The two companies have formed a limited partnership which will now operate CARCO.

The first undertaking of the new partnership is the installation of a new reverbatory furnace at CARCO which will begin production before the end of the year. The new furnace will triple CARCOs production capabilities and enable the company to remelt a wider variety of scrap feedstock, from shredded and delacquered UBCs to heavy forgings. This enables the company to smelt the largest array of materials in the Pacific Northwest, according to Warren Rosenfeld, president of Calbag.

The joint venture is a logical next step in the partnership between the two companies, he adds. "This venture is an outgrowth of the tighter quality and delivery control we were able to achieve through our sole source agreement," says Rosenfeld. "This follows our game plan of moving toward production of higher value products for our customers."

CARCOs name under the new agreement will officially become Columbia Aluminum Recycling Co. LLC. The activities of the company will be guided by a board of directors which is made up of the principals from both companies.

It was advantageous for CARCO to negotiate the exclusive supplier arrangement with Calbag in order to guarantee reliability and quality of scrap, according to Shaw. "When we are running with the level we anticipate with our new furnace, we will need a steady stream of scrap," he explains. "Calbag will do the prep work they will shred and clean the scrap. When we get it, well just put it directly into the furnace."

Calbag will deliver scrap on a just-in-time basis, says Shaw. "They will give us a certain number of loads a day to meet our needs, and nothing will be sitting on the ground like it used to," he says. "These kinds of concepts drive this type of agreement."

The two companies are working on developing a grade of scrap that exactly meets the smelters needs. "It is based on Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries specs, but then has proprietary aspects that enable it to meet the needs of our furnace," he says. "Having this very specific grade gives us better recoveries and fewer problems and probably allows us to use more scrap. Metal management is the foundation of the secondary metal industry. If the metal doesnt work, you have to devote labor and time to fixing the problem. Its a matter of economic viability."

CARCO is very concerned about shipping its customers on-spec material, says Shaw. This is made easier by having one supplier that can assure the quality of the scrap coming in rather than having multiple suppliers.

Designating an exclusive scrap supplier and then forming a new company with that supplier may seem like radical steps to take. But in fact, these types of partnership efforts are not new to CARCO, says Shaw. "The whole Columbia philosophy, since the companys founding, has been to seek partners in various aspects of the business to help us do business more efficiently," he explains.

CARCO has not considered buying its own scrap yard, preferring to let each company stick with its area of expertise, says Shaw. "As Warren would say, they dont have melting skills, and we dont have the skills to run a scrap yard," he says.

Others on the nonferrous side agree that partnering with the scrap industry is catching on. "I do see this as a trend as consumers are concerned about getting a steady, consistent supply of materials, and quality needs are higher," says John Beach, trading manager for the David J. Joseph Co.s Frank H. Nott Division, Richmond, Va. "This is not a regional trend; it is more a philosophy on the consumers part their approach to supplying raw materials. Price is just one factor. You have to look at quality, delivery, packaging all those are factored in."

Some mills want fewer suppliers because they can get more consistent supply and more consistent quality, says Beach. "Quality specs are tighter these days since the product the consumer is making has to be of higher quality," he explains. "They have to meet strict ISO 9000 standards they need better quality on the raw material end so that they can produce a better product."

The David J. Joseph Co. works with consumers to find better ways for them to use scrap, identifying which materials are best suited to various uses, he says. "Were trying to achieve an open relationship, understand the challenges, put our heads together, and come up with solutions that are satisfactory for both parties," says Beach. "Its more open than it used to be, although this is on a case-by-case basis."

There is an increasing interdependence between the two industries, he says. "The use of scrap is increasing, so mills have to work with suppliers to get what they need. There are cost advantages to using scrap over prime."

Few nonferrous consumers own their own scrap yards, says Beach. "There is a tendency for mills to move away from the recycling end of it," he says. For example, Golden Aluminum, which used to handle aluminum beverage can recycling for Coors, recently closed its recycling operations.

On the other hand, some nonferrous consumers such as TIMCO, Fontana, Calif., prefer to have many suppliers, according to Jeff Arrow, account executive for TIMCO. Arrow says the company has long-term agreements with certain suppliers, but is unlikely to designate any exclusive supplier relationships.

"We like to do business with a lot of people we need so much scrap, we cant have preferred suppliers," he says. "If someone can put out a good package, thats fine. But we need a high volume of scrap. If we are too picky, we could be put in the position of not finding the scrap we need."

In his experience, suppliers generally prefer not to negotiate fixed long-term agreements, he says. "In a down market, they are very optimistic and dont want to be locked in because they feel it will go back up," he says. "Then in an up market, they are optimistic it will go up even higher."

Another nonferrous consumer that prefers to work with a number of suppliers is Kaiser Aluminum, Heath, Ohio. The company has a core group of about 10 different suppliers it does considerable business with, but it does not discourage others, according to Robert Abel, commodity purchasing agent.

"I would buy from a new supplier as long as they could meet our specs and requirements," he says. "We are limited by geography and the cost of freight. The distribution of scrap generators tends to be centralized. Our producers tend to be in Greater Detroit, in auto applications."

Steel involves much larger tonnages, as well as alloying materials that are more forgiving than those contained in aluminum, says Abel, so it may be more practical for steel mills to establish preferred supplier agreements. He says the best thing a supplier could do to assist his company would be to keep their scrap separate by alloy. "This makes it more valuable," Abel explains.

But exclusive supplier relationships definitely are the future, for nonferrous as well as ferrous scrap, according to another Midwestern ferrous and nonferrous scrap processor. In aluminum, this may increasingly be in the form of a tolling arrangement where processors handle materials for mills that want materials returned.

As the aluminum industry develops, price plays a smaller role, and service plays a larger role, he says. "More and more were seeing consumers that want to deal with a few people they can depend on rather than buying material a little more cheaply."

The first step is to decide what aspect to pursue: collecting demolition debris; collecting construction debris; or processing demolition or construction debris. The split between C&D materials is quite distinct when it comes to the materials handled and the types of equipment required for the job. Within each area, there is opportunity to specialize in certain materials. Conigliaro Industries, Framingham, Mass., for example, has carved a market niche by specializing in polystyrene and vinyl materials in addition to other C&D recyclables.

No matter how you slice it, C&D is big business. But just because you are running an aluminum or paper recycling operation today does not mean you can be successful in C&D. "Theres a 100 percent difference in the materials," says Bob Brickner, senior vice president of GBB, Falls Church, Va. "The cast of characters moving the materials is different; the transportation requirements are totally different; and the competitors are different."

Outside of being in business as an entrepreneur and knowing that it takes hard work to do the job, there is little cross-over. In fact, Brickner indicates that a person with experience in general contracting or construction may be better positioned to start a C&D recycling operation than a recycler. At least that individual would be familiar with the players, the types of material generated, and the market.

"Id recommend that anyone who wants to get started in this business take a rolloff container full of C&D debris and go through it to get a proper understanding of the percentages of each material," says Tom Roberts, vice president of Atlas Environmental, Inc., Plantation, Fla., and president of the Florida C&D Recyclers Coalition.

Then, says Roberts, take each material and draw an itemized flow chart for the handling costs and markets available. Weigh those numbers versus basics like tip fees and market share, and see if you can make a buck. In an area that supports a $12 per cubic yard tip fee, an operation can afford better equipment. If the going fee is $5 a yard, the operation will have to make it up some other way.

Ted Ondrick Construction, Chicopee, Mass., operates portable C&D processing equipment. However, when the company got into the business 17 years ago, doing a job at Westover Air Force Base there were no materials specifications and no guidelines. Most of the companys early work was with private landowners or parking lot contractors. Later, the state became interested in recycling, and then some towns got on the bandwagon. Today, Ondrick is a regional leader in a business based on state specifications, including M11-1. "We were crazy when we got started," says Ondricks Paul Mullen. "But now that it is approved, it was a brilliant idea."

Regional factors play an important role. For example, most successful C&D recyclers are located in areas where tipping fees for disposing of materials are high, says Brickner. While there is no exact figure on the tonnage of C&D material processed each year, he estimates 100 million tons of C&D debris are landfilled or recycled annually.

Tipping fees are the market push, agrees Peter Yost, project manager in the structures and environmental systems division of the National Association of Home Builders Research Center, Upper Marlboro, Md. But demand is the market pull. The association conducted a study comparing Baltimore and Grand Rapids, Mich. Both areas have a $30 a ton tip fee. But in Michigan, the fee for clean, separated wood was $2 per cubic yard; in Maryland it was $4, the same as the $30 per ton tip fee. Why? In Michigan, Yost notes, there was a wood-fired generation plant less than 90 miles away, providing a good, steady demand for wood.

"It is more difficult to separate the plastic, paper, caulking tubes and old lunch containers from construction," says Jonathan Hixon, vice president of ERRCO. That material has to be landfilled. In contrast, demolition is 80 percent wood and the rest of the material is relatively clean.

ERRCO deals mainly with contractors and haulers. The plant is set up to take mixed C&D material, including shingles, wood, sheet rock, windows, all metals and hardware. The firm does not handle rugs, furniture, or other inside materials, but it does take separated loads of shingle, concrete and asphalt or wood at a reduced tipping fee. A typical tip fee for the area would be $65 per ton. ERRCO gets $40 to $60 per ton for mixed demolition material.

Again, although they are lumped together in most discussions, construction debris and demolition debris are quite different in content and should be approached as separate businesses. The materials are often disposed of in the same place, but recovery and marketing of the materials is not the same.

"About 99.99 percent of demolition debris can be recycled without any problem," says Michael Taylor, executive director of the National Association of Demolition Contractors, Doyle-stown, Pa. "But construction debris has mastics (protective coatings), caulks and tars that have greater potential for coming under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act coverage."

Brickner, however, points out that new construction or remodeling debris generally is a known commodity, whereas a firm tearing down old buildings may encounter walls that contain lead paint or asbestos. For this reason, a vital first step for demolition projects includes a walk-through visual inspection to identify items that will require special handling or testing.

Both agree that there are major differences in the makeup of construction and of demolition debris. Demolition material generally is developed from a tear-down operation and the recycler must deal with what is there. Usually a bidder will have a much better idea of what is going to be recycled in new construction. The fractions of materials differ, too. Perhaps 99 percent of the cinder block in a demolition job is recyclable. However, less than one-half percent of the cinder block in new construction is broken or wasted and therefore recycled. Demolition debris requires lots of heavy equipment and large trucks for transportation.

On a demolition site, floor coverings, ceiling material and interior walls must be removed before structural demolition takes place. Yost says wood, drywall and cardboard make up the majority of new residential construction debris. New construction debris goes into a roll-off box and is relatively easy to cart off, and there is a market opportunity there for recycling.

Since new construction debris is generated at discrete times, it is usually source-separated at disposal. Yost says there is a big opportunity for recycling-cleanup services, billed by the square foot of construction. Builders like being able to subcontract the service out and, charging by the foot, have a handle on their costs. Fees range from 30 cents to $1.25, Yost says, depending on the degree of service. NAHB figures show the typical builder pays $511 per house for debris disposal.

Keeping those 30-yard boxes off the job site eliminates another pollution problem for builders, since as much as 25 percent of the material in a new construction site dump box is made up of foreign items such as broken furniture, tires, and other material dumped by outsiders. Yost recommends recyclers set aside a small area with a mesh fence and pick up debris regularly.

One area of opportunity in the C&D recycling market is in concrete recycling. A typical job is taking concrete out of old highways being repaved. Most of the recyclable material gets processed on the spot, going back as crushed aggregate for the new roadbed.

In Southern California, Florida and much of the Southeast, concrete recycling is a big business with a big future. Since the areas are aggregate-poor, they are hot markets for material that can be used as base for paving projects.

Wood is not as easy a market as it would appear. By weight, wood is the largest fraction of debris from new home construction. The material is sometimes processed for sludge drying operations and for particle board. But the product coming in can vary from job to job, and without steady quality and consistency of product, marketing is tough. One firm that went into the wood processing business producing landscaping chips for consumers, found itself stuck with expensive equipment in a losing proposition, since it had no enduring markets.

Roberts says there are three levels of entry to the market. The first is to go with a low-technology C&D materials recovery facility, using a lot of physical labor and hand sorters, and skid-steer loaders to move materials around. The second is a medium-tech operation with some sorting conveyors and screens, perhaps chipping equipment or a wood grinder. A high-tech outfit will have a series of shaker or vibrator screens to clean materials, air rectifiers to pull out papers and plastics, and magnets for metals. An operation handling 1,000 cubic yards a day will need more than $1 million in capital to get started, Roberts says. He also warns newcomers to have ready markets for the materials.

"We dont care what the prices are or will be in the market for our end material, because we dont play the commodities game," he says. "We work backward. First, we determine our handling costs, then the transportation costs, then the processing costs, then we look at what the price is that day for the material. Then we quote a price, and it is only good for one week. We make sure every run is profitable."

Another factor to consider is the size of the yard at your plant. It may sound trivial, but it is actually important to make sure your facility is large enough to handle the volume youll be processing. Taylor also warns that, under some state regulations, a yard handling C&D materials may be considered a transfer station and be subject to additional regulation.

One pearl of wisdom shared by almost every C&D contractor interviewed for this article is that the right guy can make a living in C&D recycling...but not in my city." Actually, that philosophy makes some sense both for the established operator and the newcomer. Some areas like Philadelphia, Cleveland, Chicago and Southern California have entrenched C&D recycling firms with long-term clients. The only way to break into the market would be to cut prices drastically, and most of those operations are working on razor-thin margins already.

Also, Fundamental Action to Conserve Energy, an organization in Fitchburg, Mass., in the course of its C&D Material Infrastructure Development Project, has identified two areas of Massachusetts ripe for C&D handling. Since the data was published, it appears that Springfield will get a transfer station with a 500-ton-per-day capacity. However, nothing yet has happened in Worcester, the other target site. State and federal environmental resource departments; rural development committees; and contractor, recycling and remodeling groups are all good places to hitch up to potential market opportunities.

Waste management costs on a residential job site range from 1 percent to 2 percent of the total cost of a project. Its a sizable enough amount that builders must consider disposal when figuring their building costs, Yost says. Since residential builders are not making a lot of money right now, with profits ranging between 3 percent and 5 percent, they are looking everywhere to save money.

An average new home building project generates about four tons of debris, according to Yost. That includes two tons of wood debris, a ton of drywall, 1,000 pounds of masonry, 600 pounds of cardboard, 150 pounds vinyl and 150 pounds of metals.

Brickner notes that specifications are currently being developed in many areas of C&D debris handling. Those who were recycling in the early days know about the challenges of developing specifications and building a market. Latecomers were, in effect, handed market specifications.

That reflects Mullens point about markets opening up once the groundwork is laid. Ondrick, which can handle 350 to 400 tons per hour, says the secret is to look at a job and see what can be made of the debris and where it can be used beneficially on-site. "Anyone can crush," Mullen says. "The challenge is making something extra perhaps fill for a parking lot out of the material."

There are several bases a newcomer to construction and demolition debris recycling must touch before getting started in business, according to Tom Roberts, vice president of Atlas Environmental Inc., Plantation, Fla.

Know your local tip fees. If the gate rate is $4 a yard in your area, a C&D debris recycling operation will be marginal. If there is a C&D landfill 100 miles away charging $2 a yard, it will pay to take a 60- or 80-yard truck to the other location. If a Class I landfill is charging $50 a ton, you will not be able to charge much more than $25, depending on location.

Next, know what your cost will be to capitalize a C&D debris recycling operation. Roberts puts the cost of a good 1,000-cubic-yard-per-day operation at about $1 million. Add in fuel, maintenance, transportation and costs to dispose of residues.

Ever since the introduction of radial and synthetic compounds, tire recycling has been a tough business. Todays modern tire is highly engineered and built to last 30,000, 50,000 and even 100,000 miles. Reinforced with fiber, steel and in some cases aramid and silica, the tire poses a unique challenge to recyclers who must separate the different fractions in order to get decent prices for the steel and rubber.

But even with all the hard work and effort that goes into this process, in many cases tire recyclers are finding that the prices they are currently getting for tire crumb are not very high. With a glut of crumb currently on the market, market observers say there could be a shakeout of recycled tire crumb producers on the horizon.

"Currently, pricing for crumb rubber is down," says Tiffany Hughes, vice president of marketing for American Tire Recyclers, Jacksonville, Fla. "Production is uneven with demand." Other crumb rubber makers echo Hughes statement. Recyclers who were once getting 50 to 60 cents a pound are now only getting about 40 to 50 cents a pound. And lower grades of crumb are fetching as low as 10 cents a pound, or even less.

Adding to the depression of the tire crumb market is the availability of tire buffings from retreading operations. The popularity of truck tire retreading has pushed about 182 million pounds of tire buffings into the crumb rubber stream. These come from the 30 to 33 million retreads generated annually in the United States. Since buffings are high quality, rubber-only scrap, they are more easily processed and in higher demand.

Buffings currently make up about 70 percent of the annual 260-million-pound crumb rubber stream. The remainder about 78 million pounds of crumb rubber comes mainly from whole-tire grinding operations that consume approximately 4 to 6 million scrap tires a year. Currently, there are 122 companies in the U.S. and 14 in Canada that produce tire crumb. Of these companies, 8 to 10 are producing about 80 percent of the crumb rubber in the market. "The rest are simply fighting for market share," says Michael Blumenthal, executive director of the Scrap Tire Management Council, Washington.

"The market is looking at a downswing," continues Blumenthal. He says that tire crumb companies are looking to sell equipment to downsize or get out of the market altogether. "It looks like there is going to be a shakeout in this market segment in the near-term future," he adds.

Part of the reason for the shakeout is that many of the firms ramped up operations based on the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1992 that mandated a certain percentage of crumb rubber in federally-funded roads beginning in 1995. The legislation was never enacted and is essentially dead. Even though the mandate is gone, a large portion of the recycled crumb market is still dependent on paving applications with about 40 percent, or 112 million pounds, of crumb being diverted to this segment annually. But it seems that there are not enough paving applications to go around. Companies that invested in crumbing operations for the sole purpose of supplying the asphalt paving industry are having to look elsewhere to sell their product.

While several companies are marketing crumb rubber additives to soil, the American Society for Testing Materials, West Conshohocken, Pa., is planning to hold a special symposium on the topic titled Testing Soil Mixed With Waste Or Recycled Materials. The symposium will be held Jan. 16 and 17 at the Hyatt Regency, New Orleans. At the symposium 27 papers will be presented covering the use of crumb rubber, ash, plastics, and paper-by-products as soil additives. For more information, call Mark Wasemiller at (509) 372-9702, Bob Morgan at (610) 832-9732 or Keith Hoddinott at (410) 671-2953.

While there seems to be an over-supply of crumb currently on the market, some in the industry say the glut is mainly with lower quality material. "I agree that there is a crumb rubber glut," says Mike Rouse, president of Rouse Rubber, Vicksburg, Miss., "but the glut is in sub-standard crumb, not high quality crumb." Rouse says the market is currently saturated with one-quarter-inch to the 35 mesh (about 0.02 inches) crumb. His company, on the other hand, produces a finer crumb in the 40 to 200 mesh range (0.0164 to 0.0029 inches).

"Every segment within the market has its own standards for crumb, and you cant just throw every tire together and grind them up," he says. "For one, each type of tire has its own unique compounding; and two, an application may require a finer particle size."

The crumb rubber market is certainly differentiated by product quality and size, adds John Serumgard, chairman of the Scrap Tire Management Council. "We are seeing high demand for top quality crumb in several areas, especially the Southwest," he says.

Rouse recommends that companies in the crumbing business maintain strict quality standards by having a dedicated material analysis lab that monitors crumb parameters. "Even for low-level products such as mats, you still need a certain level of quality," he adds. "I dont worry about volume, I only worry about quality."

This emphasis on quality can lead to a higher price for the material, according to Rouse, who says he is getting a decent price for his tire crumb because he can back it up with analytical data and assure the buyer about the material he delivers.

There are markets out there, but you have to have access to them, according to Blumenthal. Some emerging markets for tire crumb include soil amendments and top dressings where crumb is mixed with soil and other ingredients to provide a better growing environment for grass. Currently, there are two patented soil amendment products on the market that use crumb rubber. The first is Rebound, marketed by American Tire Recyclers, and the second is Crown III, marketed by Jai Tire Industries, Denver. Both are use-type patents that were awarded to the inventor of Rebound and to the University of Michigan for Crown III.

Because of the patents, a company cannot sell a similar product to golf courses or athletic fields. "A lot of research was done by the University of Michigan to make sure that the product was safe to use and viable," says Cornelia Snyder, president of Jai Tire, "and that is why the patent was issued. Anyone can add crumb rubber to soil, but if an organization buys crumb rubber from a producer without the patent, then legal action can be levied against both parties."

Rebound has been on the market for several years, and is used mainly in high traffic areas, such as athletic fields and parks. The crumb acts as an aerator and promotes drainage of water, as well as preventing the soil from compacting. Unlike Crown III which is layered on top of the soil, Rebound is mixed into the soil.

Other markets include molded products such as mats, tiles, parking lot stops, railroad crossing pads, dock bumpers, carpet underlayment, other walkway type pads, and many other products that can be made out of rubber. Crumb can also be combined with another polymer for auto applications, such as truck liners, step pads and brake pads. Related to the asphalt paving industry are uses for athletic tracks and as an underlayment for artificial grass playing fields.

Snyder has these three recommendations for those seeking to start in the recycled rubber market today. First, establish your markets, she says. Many in the industry recommend that a recycler has at least three markets secured before starting to produce crumb.

Second, try marketing someone elses crumb, instead of making a huge investment in equipment. With the glut of crumb rubber on the market, it should be easy to hook up with a supplier and get a feel for the market. Hughes supports that statement, and says the industry needs more brokers. "I know that I havent knocked on all the doors yet," she says, "and our company has a full-time marketing staff. Other companies put so much effort into the manufacturing end that they dont have the time or money to adequately support their marketing efforts. We simply need more marketing people in this industry, because there are markets out there."

Its necessary to research the market carefully and exhaustively, adds Dave Emmerit, owner of Recycled Rubber Technologies, Somerset, Pa. "Find the market, then find the equip-ment to match that market," he says.

Emmerits company makes 18 different products that range from rubber bullet stops for police training to driveway patching material. His company can also colorize rubber pavement to match color schemes around pools and patios.

Another service that RRT performs is packing heavy-duty tires with a crumb rubber filler for use in harsh environments such as scrap yards, so the tires do not go flat. "We can do it for one-third the cost of buying a new tire," says Emmerit.

Other advances for the use of crumb include the use of recycled material in new tires. Michelin and other major tire companies are currently working on ways to incorporate more recycled crumb into new tires to reduce costs and meet recycled-content goals by the automakers. Currently less than 1 percent of recycled crumb is used in the construction of a tire. Michelin is now testing tires with more than 10 percent of recycled crumb by rubber weight. With about 13 pounds of rubber in a 20-pound passenger tire, Michelin is putting more than 1 pound of recycled crumb into its test tires. The tires are being tested by taxi cab fleets in two cities.

"We are very pleased with the testing to date," says Douglas Bell, director of corporate administration for Michelin North America, Greenville, S.C., and the companys environmental manager. "We are looking to fit the tires on 1999-model-year cars at the earliest."

Bell says there are currently no long-term contracts with crumb suppliers, but any future supplier of crumb will have to meet Michelins quality standards and be approved just like any other supplier the company uses.

Another unique product comes from Aquapore Moisture Systems Inc., Phoenix. Fifteen years ago the company developed a soaker hose for watering residential plants and grass. The company will not say how much recycled crumb goes into the making of each foot of hose, but will say that it consumes about 3 million pounds of crumb rubber per year to produce the hose and 300 other products from recycled rubber, including landscape edging and false mulch. The company makes about 200 million feet of soaker hose a year.

Since the hoses are of high quality and have to withstand a certain water pressure, Tim Mannchen, vice president of marketing for Aquapore, says that the company is actually having a difficult time finding the quality crumb that it needs. "Currently, we are using four sources for recycled crumb," he says. "But we need more high-quality suppliers to handle our growth."

One of the suppliers is National Rubber Baker Materials Inc., Toronto, which operates a crumbing plant in Phoenix, and is considered to be the largest producer of crumb rubber in North America. But in fact, a lot of the crumb used in the Aquapore products come from retread buffings because of the quality required.

Mannchen has some advice for recyclers looking to market products from recycled crumb rubber. "You have to stand by your product," he says. The companys soaker hose, for instance, comes with a seven-year warranty, and the company will replace it for free if there are any defects.

"Next, try to get a premium price," he adds. "Prove to the consumer that your product demands a higher price." The company took the landscape edging market from 13 cents a foot to 28 cents a foot by making the product more resilient and flexible with crumb rubber.

"And finally, look for alternative merchandising venues," says Mannchen. "Try listing your product in a catalog, for example. There are more than 2,000 catalogs in the U.S. that are targeted toward a wide range of industries and markets. It is not as complicated as trying to get your product on a store shelf."

The Chicago Board of Trade has recently overhauled its year-old Recyclables Exchange where buyers and sellers can trade various recycled commodities. The new Internet-based system has expanded listings for rubber grades and now includes shredded tires, whole tires, crumbed rubber and tire-derived fuel.

The subscription rate for the Recyclables Exchange is a one-time registration fee of $10. Companies can place a sell order for only $2 a month, with volume discounts available. Buyers can list their purchasing parameters for free, but listing matches cost 50 cents each. Matches between buyers and sellers are delivered immediately to the buyer via e-mail, and the system constantly searches for matches based on the specification parameters set by both buyers and sellers.

With the virgin rubber price hovering just above $1 a pound, it would seem that recycled crumb rubber would be a good buy and in high demand. But recycled crumb is vulcanized, and, as a thermoset material, it wont chemically bind without some kind of adhesive or another polymer. However, several companies claim to have special processes that break the tough sulfur bonds that are created during the vulcanizing process, or at least make the rubber more adhesive for molding. These processes called "surface treatments" include ultrasonic devulcanization, reactive gas surface modification, catalytic regeneration, chemical modification and microbes that reportedly attack the sulfur bonds on the surface of the rubber.

While all of these surface treatments promise to make recycled rubber more "virgin-like" or more adhesive in the molding process, most of the treatments have only been on the market for the last year or so, and the verdict is still out on their effectiveness.

Special binders also can help in the molding process. Uniroyal Chemical, Elmira, Ontario, has a urethane binder that allows the recycled crumb to adhere better in the molding process, according to the company. The binder is sold under the trademark name Royalbond. There are several other types of binders on the market as well.

With the constant flow of about 250 million scrap tires entering the U.S. market annually, there will always be ample supply. On the demand side, existing markets will have to be expanded and new ones created. Some point to a growing export market that could fill the void. Others say that many manufacturers are now starting to conduct research and development on recycled crumb.

Despite past events that have rattled the rubber recycling industry, Hughes believes that the market is slowly becoming more focused. "Producers and suppliers are sharing more information through associations and industry meetings," she says. "And thats good but more needs to be done."

Created in 1948, the Bureau of International Recycling, Brussels, is the international federation of industries involved in the recovery and recycling of iron and steel, nonferrous metals, paper stock, textiles and plastics. More than 50 countries are represented.

For some time, BIR members and the recycling industry as a whole have had to tackle an increasing number of environmental challenges, mainly as a result of the confusion between the waste management sector and our profession. The Basel Convention on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste, especially, has been the focus of a lot of attention.

Due to the erroneous belief that many of the materials we trade are mere "wastes", the decision to ban the export of "hazardous waste" from a series of developed countries those belonging to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development and others to non-OECD countries, as of December 31,1997, has placed recyclers in an uncomfortable position. The question of what is or is not hazardous is up to the conventions Technical Working Group.

At that meeting, the TWG confirmed the decision, made at a previous meeting, to exclude a long list of secondary metals from the export ban. It added to this list lead, cadmium and beryllium. But unsorted batteries and batteries containing lead, cadmium or mercury were among recyclables confirmed as subject to the ban. The Group also transferred to the "B" list of materials not subject to the ban if they are uncontaminated some substances previously slated for further study.

However, it was unable to come to a conclusion on the classification of PVC-insulated cables and materials containing copper or zinc compounds, including zinc ash. Further technical information will have to be presented by the industry at the next TWG meeting scheduled for February. In Manchester, BIR consultant John Donaldson submitted scientific data as technical evidence that the majority of materials under consideration were not hazardous.

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Jaykrishna magnetic Pvt. Ltd. understands all problems that the industries are facing now!!! We design a machine which is of high capacity that easily recovers metal from the waste materials. Our machines are evolved by using the latest technology that can be easily operated and to provide best separation results in various fields of the recycling industry.

We are famous for manufacturing and supplying magnetic separators which is of high capacity that easily provides the perfect separation solution. Jaykrishna Magnetic Pvt. Ltd. has 38+ years of experience in developing machines which are highly efficient and easy to handle.

Our magnetic separators are designed by the team of experts who have a great knowledge of designing and developing various types of magnetic separators and vibratory equipment. Our experts take care of clients need, before supplying any machine to them.

Our machines are installed in various fields of recycling industry like plastic, rubber, glass, municipal solid waste, e-waste, pet etc. We also design different types of magnetic separators like Eddy current separators, Overband Magnetic Separator and Magnetic Head Pulley as per the clients requirement to deliver them a best product.

If you are facing a problem of extracting tramp metals steel, bucket teeth, bore crowns etc. then feel free to contact us. Our team will get back to you with the best and effective solution that solves your problem.

Jaykrishna Magnetics Pvt. Ltd. is the leading manufacturer and exporter of Magnetic and Vibratory Equipments in India. We are established since 1978. The unique and premium structural design imparts quality and elegance to our products. Our focus is on continuously improving our process, service and products to exceed the benchmarks set by our competitors and offer better products to you.

1400dca multi function wet magnetic separator 380acv for rare earth ore

1400dca multi function wet magnetic separator 380acv for rare earth ore

1400DCA Multi Function Wet Magnetic Separator 380ACV For Rare Earth Ore Product characteristic Automatic Water-cooling Eletromagnetic Slurry Separator Series advantages : High intensity magnetic field; The temperature inside of the machine rises slowly; The magnetic field intensity are not easy to decrease when the machine run for a long time; Long working period; Have a wide range of adaption in the particle of feeding ore and the thickness of slurry; High efficiency in mineral processing; Easy to manual and maintain. Operation process 1. Firstly, power on, then open the admission valve and slurry valve, close the back slurry valve and iron discharging valve, then magnetizing. 2. After a few minutes later(you can set the time whatever you like depending on yourself condition),close the admission valve and slurry valve, open the back slurry valve to discharge the remaining slurry in the separator. 3. Then magnetic cutting, close the admission valve, slurry valve and back slurry valve, open the iron discharging valve to discharge the magnetic material which are absorbed on the magnetic media. Application scope Kaolin Beneficiation,Sodium potassium feldspar Beneficiation,Quartz Beneficiation. Ferrous metals mineral: hematite, martite, limonite, siderite, chromite, polianite. Non-ferrous metals mineral: used for separating wolframite from pyrope. Rare earth ore: recycle tantalum-niobium ores and monazite. other industries: iron ore, effluent of power station disposal, disposal of contaminated chemical raw material. Technology parameter Model 1000 750 600 G500 X500 Magnetic field strength(T) 5 5 5 5 5 Input voltage(ACV) 380 380 380 380 380 Maximum output current(DCA) 2500 1400 2100 1400 1400 Maxiumum coil power(KW) 180 75 75 75 45 Insulation method E E E E E Cooling method Water cooling Water cooling Water cooling Water cooling Water cooling Magnetic lumen diameter(mm) 1000 750 600 530 530 Pipe size(mm) 200 150 100 100 100 yield(m/h) 80-200 40-100 30-80 30-70 20-50 demension(mm) 2710*2410*3500 2600*2000*3000 2370*2000*2650 2200*1700*3000 2000*1600*2800 Main machine weight(KG) 35000 16350 14730 14100 9580 Usage Applicable for 40-400 mesh feedstock of iron elimination

2. After a few minutes later(you can set the time whatever you like depending on yourself condition),close the admission valve and slurry valve, open the back slurry valve to discharge the remaining slurry in the separator.

magnetic separation for mining industry magnetense

magnetic separation for mining industry magnetense


Contact us to find out how Magnetense can help you overcoming system and productivity challenges. We offer complimentary video, telephone and chat conversations to help you clarifying your needs in order to present you with the most cost-efficient solutions.

This type of magnetic separation machine is used in wet separation processes for smaller than 1,2 mm ( 200 mesh of 30-100 %) of fine grained red mine (hematite) limonite, manganese ore, ilmenite and some kinds of weakly magnetic minerals like quartz, feldspar, nepheline ore and kaolin in order to remove impurity iron and to purify them.

This type of Vertical Ring High Gradient Magnetic separator uses a wholly sealed oil cooling circulating device: through this device process water goes through a oil-water heat exchanger used to remove the heat generated by the magnetic separators coils. The windings coil generates a magnetic field through the upper and lower yokes: a vertical ring can rotate according to the required direction. When the magnetic separator is working, the hopper is fed by the feeding tube with a pulp that flows through the rotating rings, along with the gap of upper magnetic poles. An induction magnetic matrix composed by high permeability stainless steel rods generates an high gradient magnetic field.

Pulp enters in contact with the lower part of the rotating ring and the magnetic matrix surface attracts magnetic particles. Due to the ring rotation the magnetic minerals are transferred to the nonmagnetic area of the ring and are discharged to the upper hopper by the water flow. The non magnetic particles are moved down to the lower hopper following the gap of the lower magnetic pole and the magnetic separation of magnetic minerals is completed. At this point the pulsating box is activated causing the pulp shaking up and down in order to remove impurities and improving the concentration of the pulp.

The HMF electromagnetic filters are used in wet process separation of para-magnetic minerals found in quartz, feldspar,silicates, calcium carbonate and kaolin. The flow-rates are engineered in accordance with customer requirements.

Most older generation magnetic belt conveyors were fitted only with ferrite magnets. Our Overbelt Shark model has a specific combination of ferrite and neodymium magnets: what is the advantage for you?

PLEASE NOTE: In this industry it is common practice adopted by some manufacturers to guarantee magnetic performances only on the base of approximated calculations or under non-operating conditions. In this regard Magnetense is different and the performance stipulated above are measurable and documented.

To provide an additional wear resistance, we reinforced the side structures (sometimes severely stressed by the continuous use of grinding machines or by extreme working conditions or by weather conditions) and the diameter of the shafts (some customers told us they have even exaggerated).

With a diameter of 300 mm and a working height of 1500 mm, our tigers have a higher capacity than lower heights and diameters machines: this feature, combined with the exceptional magnetic power (12,310+ Gauss in contact wit the surface), allows our magnetic pulley to practically catch almost any magnetic particle or paramagnetic mineral.

Rollers 100 mm to 300 mm diameter with working heights varying from 1.000 to 1.500 mm.can be installed in our machines. In order to meet specific customers requests, MAGNETENSE can produce rollers larger than 300 mm diameter.

Contact us to find out how Magnetense can help you overcoming system and productivity challenges. We offer complimentary video, telephone and chat conversations to help you clarifying your needs in order to present you with the most cost-efficient solutions.

Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information.

Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website.

magnetic separation magnetense

magnetic separation magnetense

Contact us to find out how Magnetense can help you solve system and productivity challenges. We offer complimentary video, telephone and chat conversations to help you clarify your needs so we can offer cost-efficient solutions.

Project ManagerMr. Giuseppe Zuccon 1. Our drum jacket was wearing too quickly and we also wanted a magnetic separated that would remove small ferrous parts during the production process.. 2. What product did you purchase? Ferrite magnetic drum. 3. What result did you get? We achieved the . removal distance related the test is 170mm which is good. We also noticed the quality of drum is excellent.. 4. Would you recommend us? Yes, we would recommend you.

Manager Head of Technical DepartmentMr. Valter Garbi 1. We had no specific problems; we just needed to reduce our maintenance and supply costs. 2. What product did you purchase? Magnetic rod for our chargers. 3. What result did you get? We conducted a comparative test on our previous and new magnetic separators and found the Magnatense product has far greater magnetic separation efficiency. 4. Would you recommend us? Yes, we would recommend you.

Purchase ManagerIng. Luca Ceccarelli 1. What product did you purchase? Neodymium rods. 2. What result did you get? We found the magnetic performance in our machine significantly improved once we installed your rods. We were able to develop 13,500 Gauss in contact with the pipe and 14,250 on the outside. 3. Would you recommend us? Yes, we would recommend you because your solution offers outstanding magnetic performance compared to other available systems.

Technical ManagerMr. Luca Durante 1. What product did you purchase? We purchased magnetic plates with the neodymium magnet which we installed on a batch feeder for our hammer mill. 2. What was the problem? We needed to remove metal parts that could go into the mill. 3. What result did you get? We successfully removed all unwanted metallic parts. 4. Would you recommend us? Yes, we would recommend you as suppliers of magnetic systems.

Engineering DepartureMr. Vito Lomorno 1. What was the problem? We were using a system where we couldn't separate the iron from unwanted parts. 2. What product did you purchase? Magnetic pulleys and neodymium rings. 3. What result did you get? We achieved a substantial increment in magnetic separation and an improved customer satisfaction rate from our own customers. 4. Would you recommend us? Yes, we would recommend you for your technical expertise and customer service.

Technical ManagerMr. Giovanni Bianchi 1. What was the problem? We could not prevent ferrous parts from accidentally entering the hammer mill. 2. What product did you purchase? Ferritic magnetic plate. 3. What result did you get? The magnetic plate we purchased has prevented all ferrous objects from entering the upper part of the mill. 4. Would you recommend us? Yes, without any doubt we would recommend you and your product.

Chief ExecutiveSig. Giordano Luca 1. What was the problem? Intercepting iron particles flowing in a pipe used to pneumatically load flour from cisterns to silos. 2. What product did you purchase? Pressurised magnetic piping. 3. What result did you get? The pneumatically loaded flour is free from ferrous particles and it is now safe to move to the next process steps. The machinery is protected from ferrous contaminants. 4. Would you recommend us? Yes, we would definitely recommend you.

Purchase ManagerSig. Paolo Massano 1. What was the problem? Our existing magnetic system did not remove iron from the mill feeders at a satisfactory rate. 2. What product did you purchase? We purchased the Neodymium or ferrite sticks with a 32mm diameter and a 200mm length. 3. What result did you get? We achieved a significant improvement in the removal rate when compared with the previous system. 4. Would you recommend us? Yes, I would recommend you.

Purchase ManagerSig.ra Stefania Manelli 1. What was the problem?Compartment in enamel filters. 2. What product did you purchase?We purchased a magnetic bar with a 32 diameter and 70 mm length. 3. What result did you get?We obtained good results.. 4. Would you recommend us?Yes, I would recommend you.

Established in Italy in 2000 to meet the growing demand for reliable and robust magnetic systems, Magnetense today is a world leader in the efficient design, build and distribution of state-of-the-art magnets, magnetic systems and consultancy services.

Products provided by Magnetence include ferrite/neodymium magnets; manufacturing; and production of magnetic separators such as drums, rolls, plates, overbands, pipings, filters, rods, bars and textile rods.

The WHIMS separator is a magnetic separation machine used in wet separation processes to treat fine grain materials which are smaller than 1.2mm or 200 mesh. These fine grain materials include red mine hematite, limonite, manganese ore, and ilmenite. The WHIMS is also used to treat magnetic minerals including quartz, feldspar, nepheline ore, and kaolin. This system removes iron contaminants to concentrate the treated minerals.

The Balance 2 Drum Magnet features a maximum 10,000 Gauss magnetic power: among the most powerful available on the marketThis drum achieves an excellent wear resistance which is due to Magnetenses unique BL2 balancing system. The BL2 is designed to be easily assembled and tested.

The RO and FLY magnetic rods are newly reinvented rods that have been specifically designed and built by the team at Magnetense. The RO models have a magnetic power of between 6,500 and 12,000 Gauss and the FLY model achieves a maximum power of 14,000 Gauss. The RO and FLY rods are made from high grade neodymium with single section mechanical structures and no moving parts. All rods have exceptional wear resistance which is more than double industry standard and which contributes to long-lasting efficiency.

The Overband Shark and Ova magnetic belts have been uniquely designed to include a combination of ferrite and neodymium magnets. Older generation conveyor belts were generally only fitted with ferrite magnets. This new belt design enables producers to reach more than 5507 Gauss along with a 10 per cent lighter structure when compared to other industry-standard overbelts.

The HMF electromagnetic filters are used in wet process separation of para-magnetic minerals found in quartz, feldspar,silicates, calcium carbonate and kaolin. The flow-rates are engineered in accordance with customer requirements.

The MAG Dry Magnetic Separators include the 1.10/15 and the MAG 3.10/15. Both machines have been designed and manufactured to de-iron a range of sand materials. This includes paramagnetic minerals such as hematite, biotite, ilmenite which are easily captured by Tiger Pulleys powerful magnets. The MAG 1.10/15 and the MAG 3.10/15 magnetic separators are specifically calibrated to remove fine iron particle sizes ranging from 0.1 to 1.8 mm.

The Gravity Feed, Pneumatic Pipe and Electric Pipe magnets comprise a specialist mechanical structure that guarantees higher than industry standard wear resistance. The structure is made from high grade neodymium which allows users to achieve 20% per cent more power than our older generation pipe magnets.

The Tiger Magnetic Pulleys have a diameter of 300mm and a working height of 1500 mm which gives these pulleys a much higher capacity than lower height and diameter machines. These features are combined with an exceptional magnetic power of 12,310+ Gauss that is in contact with the surface and which allows the magnetic rollers to practically catch any magnetic particle or paramagnetic mineral.

The ROL Magnetic Pulley is manufactured with double cross poles which helps the system to reach much higher magnetic power than standard industry separators. The ROL is fixed with Magnetenses Track fixing system which guarantees close to unlimited efficiency and resistance.

The PLV1 Magnetic Plates add an entire new dimension to plate design and use. The aesthetically pleasing PLV1 has exceptional wear resistance and separation efficiency of between 15 and 20 per cent more than our older generation systems. The PLV1 is also equipped with magnetic shielding to help mitigate workplace accidents.

The PLV2 Magnetic Plates add an entire new dimension to plate design and use. The aesthetically pleasing PLV2 has exceptional wear resistance and separation efficiency of between 15 and 20 per cent more than our older generation systems. The PLV2 is also equipped with magnetic shielding to help mitigate workplace accidents.

Our new Batex Magnetic Textile Bars achieve 25 per cent more magnetic field power than our older separation systems. This result was achieved following constant tests aimed at improving the performance of the magnetic system. The New Batex bar also achieves a better separation of iron, even with the same magnetic field.

Established in Italy in 2000 to meet the growing demand for reliable and robust magnetic systems, Magnetense today is a world leader in the efficient design, build and distribution of state-of-the-art magnets, magnetic systems and consultancy services.

Products provided by Magnetence include ferrite/neodymium magnets; manufacturing; and production of magnetic separators such as drums, rolls, plates, overbands, pipings, filters, rods, bars and textile rods.

Magnetense team of engineers are responsible for the entire process including research, design, manufacturinge and global distribution of all products and services. By controlling the entire process operating costs are reduced to the minimum so products are sold to end users competitive price.

Unfortunately there are many magnetic systems manufacturers that promise unreal results eventually not achievable: by conducting a magnetic field measurement created by their systems their claims can be debunked.

In some cases magnetic system manufacturers chose to demonstrate their magnetic performances based on calculations in a closed circuit or through the incorrect use of an instrument; by testing their system any false claim can be debunked.

Magnetic performances based on calculations in a closed circuit or through the incorrect use of an instrument Are often claimed by magnetic system manufactured, but, physics is not made of fairy tales their claims can be easily exposed.

Contact us to find out how Magnetense can help you overcoming system and productivity challenges. We offer complimentary video, telephone and chat conversations to help you clarifying your needs in order to present you with the most cost-efficient solutions.

Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information.

Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website.

investigating the high gradient magnetic separator function for highly efficient adsorption of lead salt onto magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres and adsorbent recycling - sciencedirect

investigating the high gradient magnetic separator function for highly efficient adsorption of lead salt onto magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres and adsorbent recycling - sciencedirect

Amino-functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica with high surface area was prepared.The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent for Pb2+ was 988.6 mg g1.The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.HGMS using combined-stage arrangement showed great separation efficiency.The separation efficiency of HGMS was 92.84%.

Herein, a novel magnetite core decorated with amine functionalized mesoporous silica include significant surface area (ca. 885 m2 g1) has been successfully prepared. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a pore-forming agent was eliminated from the structure through a combination of two methods (calcination and modified extraction via supercritical CO2). This inventive strategy leads to form magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres that enhance the capacity of adsorption of Pb2+, (ca. 989 mg g1). In addition, the recycling of this adsorbent from aqueous medium using high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) was also explored and for obtaining the efficiency of separation some tests were accomplished using different matrix geometries. The separation efficiency of adsorbent via fine-matrix was more successful than a coarse matrix. Utilizing a combined arrangement of a fine and a coarse matrix, the performance of the separation was increased considerably comparing the single-stage separation chamber. About 93% of the magnetic adsorbent could be separated when the flow rate and magnitude of the magnetic field were fixed at 7.2 mL s1 and 0.33 m T, respectively. Generally, this work was developed high efficient adsorbent for water treatment and well planned separation of adsorbent from treated water by HGMS that can be used in a large-scale.

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