In the handling of wet, sticky ores such as encountered in tropical areas having distinct dry and rainy seasons, the crushing plant is a section of the mill which must be planned very carefully. Unless this is done, crushing becomes a constant source of trouble resulting in lost production and high milling cost. In some areas rainfall is high for prolonged periods. This seriously affects ore handling and continuity of operations not only in open pit but also underground mining.
A washing section is a must in all operations handling wet, sticky ore. This facilitates ore handling, crushing, and also affords a means for separation of primary slimes and increasing grinding capacity. These slimes usually contain the bulk of the soluble salts and in many cases this fraction should be treated separately or even discarded if values are low. Soluble values such as copper sulphate can often be separated from the slime in a thickener and the clear overflow water passed over scrap iron for precipitation of the copper.
In the flowsheet illustrated the basic steps are shown for the average mill. Primary slimes are treated separately, while the washed and crushed ore is ground, classified, and floated in the usual manner. This practice quite often results in better metallurgy with lower reagent cost in addition to greatly simplifying the crushing operation. In most cases it is possible to confine the crushing operation to one or two shifts per day.
It is highly desirable to use a heavy duty apron feeder under the coarse ore bin to regulate the flow of coarse wet ore. Wearing surfaces and rollers for the apron flights must be designed to stand up under the wet primary slimes without excessive maintenance. Good insurance at this point is to obtain the very best feeder on the market even though the price may be higher than for light duty units.
The ore from the feeder next passes over a roll or vibrating grizzly. For the small 150 to 200 ton per day mill this opening can be 2 inches. This will allow the wet sticky fines to pass through the grizzly. A high pressure water spray over the grizzly often aids in the subsequent jaw crusher operation.
The fines from the grizzly and the crusher discharge pass by gravity and/or conveyor to a Combination Scrubber and Trommel. Here, further scrubbing and washing takes place to separate the ore into two fractions, usually plus and minusinch. The coarse washed fraction is further reduced in a Secondary Cone Crusher without difficulty. Secondary crushing may be in open circuit or closed circuit depending on the physical characteristics of the ore and the degree of size reduction desired.
The minus fraction from the Combination Scrubber and Trommel is further separated into a sand and slime fraction in a Spiral or Rake Classifier. The slimes plus the water used for sprays in the washing and scrubbing operation overflows the classifier and are collected in a Thickener prior to further treatment. This thickening step permits reclamation and possible retreatment of the overflow water, and in addition stores the thickened solids for treatment at a uniform rate by flotation or other means. Crushing, therefore, can be confined to a one shift operation, and the accumulated slimes treated over a 24 hour period.
The sand product from the Spiral or Rake Classifier discharges on the same belt as the crushed ore and passes on to the fine ore bin. The classifier should be long enough to provide an adequate drainage deck for the sands so a minimum of moisture is entrained in the spiral or rake product. Slimes from conveyor spillage drain to Vertical Sand Pumps. This is an ideal pump for this service since it handles fluctuating feed and can be run with pump bowl dry without damage, or air locks.
For plants handling several hundred tons of ore per day the primary grizzly and crusher may be set to produce a minus 4 to 6 inch product. In such cases the Combination Scrubber and Trdmmel must be a heavy duty unit. This is necessary tohandle the coarser ore and thoroughly disintegrate any clay balls which would otherwise cause serious trouble in the subsequent secondary crushing steps. It may also be necessary to incorporate vibrating screens into the circuit to improve screening efficiency in removing the fines along with spray and wash water. SRL Pumps and Cyclones for treatment of the primary classifier overflow may also be necessary to make a finer sand-slime split, for example 90% 200 mesh. In some cases it is possible to eliminate the primary slime thickener as illustrated in the circuit as follows:
Grinding and classification of the minus washed and crushed ore is accomplished in the usual manner, and generally no problems are encountered. In some cases where this fraction of ore is low in fines it may be necessary to blend back some of the thickened primary slime. This aids in properly lubricating the ball charge and in giving fluidity to the pulp in the classifier for proper size separation.
Treating the primary slimes in a separate circuit may be highly desirable for a more efficient separation. Often this fraction can be treated at its natural acid pH and the washed, crushed, and ground ore treated in a neutral or alkaline pulp. Alkalinity reagent requirements are kept low under these conditions.
Dewo machinery can provides complete set of crushing and screening line, including Hydraulic Cone Crusher, Jaw Crusher, Impact Crusher, Vertical Shaft Impact Crusher (Sand Making Machine), fixed and movable rock crushing line, but also provides turnkey project for cement production line, ore beneficiation production line and drying production line. Dewo Machinery can provide high quality products, as well as customized optimized technical proposal and one station after- sales service.
The production of sodium silicate in wet process is the reaction in Caustic soda solution and Quartz sand, heated in the reaction kettle.The liquid Sodium Silicate is produced directly by heat and pressure.The related investment cost is only 1/3 of dry method.And the finished Sodium Silicate is obtained by filtration and concentration.
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The wet process produces sodium silicate is a kind of production method of producing sodium silicate by the reaction of liquid caustic soda and quartz sand at high temperature and pressure. This mode of production has significant advantages as follows: The investment is low; The process is simple and easy to operate.
We provide process and equipment design of low modulus wet sodium silicate and high modulus solid sodium silicate production line. Advanced technology, comply with standards and specifications. The supporting equipment is reasonable in structure and stable in operation.
Starting from silica sand with SiO2 content of minimum 98%, the plant allows to obtain a sodium silicate solution at 48B density and ratio SiO2/Na2O in the range 1.6 2.0. The production process is based on batch-wise operations. Standard plant capacity is 100 ton/day.
Detailed Project Reports & Profiles on Sodium Silicate (using Wet Process & Caustic Soda) - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunity
Liquid method sodium silicate manufacturing process is a new way in sodium silicate production. Especially for low molar ratio sodium silicate from 2.0 to 2.5 for soap making, Compared with the dry process production, the Liquid method sodium silicate manufacturing process will be simple, easy to operate, and with low energy consumption, less investment, and high product quality, low cost ...
CGN wet pan mill gold mining also called wet gold grinding machine is used for amalgamation gold extraction of sulfide-free gold mines and is suitable for operations in field areas without power supply by equipped with a diesel generator.
1. The Application of Wet Pan Mill gold mining CGN wet pan mill also called wet gold grinding machine is used for amalgamation gold extraction of sulfide-free gold mines and is suitable for operations in field areas without power supply by equipped with a diesel generator. This machine, which has functions of crusher and ball mill, can crush the ores once for all in the purpose of gold extraction in amalgamation method.
3.Working principle of Wet Pan Mill The diesel generator is responsible for power supply in operation. The reducer and the interlocked main shaft are driven via the belt to run the grinding wheel and grind the ores. When crushed to 0.05-1mm, the ores are added for mercury cycle operations. When extracting mercury cream, the machine should be stopped.
4. Principle of Amalgamation for gold Amalgamation method is to extract gold particles in the ores. When crushed to 0.05-1mm grain size or more, most of the gold particles can be separated and drift in the water. The gold particles in 0.05mm-1mm grain size are surrounded by mercury, and compound reaction occurs to generate mercury paste of AuHg2, Au2Hg and Au3Hg, which is also known as gold amalgam. Since gold and silver are usually associated, there is silver in the mercury paste in addition to gold, and is separated from other metallic minerals. The amalgamation process takes place under the infiltration effect of water, gold and mercury. The recovery of gold depends on grinding size, cleanliness of gold particle, ore pulp concentration, temperature, and pH value. To save the consumption of mercury, the ores are usually ground to 0.05-1mm before added to mercury. The mercury per ton of ore depends on the grade of raw ores. 2% of lime should be added to reduce the viscosity of the ore pulp, the pH value of the ore pulp should be adjusted to PH8-9, and the concentration should be in 30%-40% for amalgamation operations. After amalgamation, water is added to dilute the ore pulp for mercury deposition and accumulation. The mercury paste can be recycled after the gold particles treated and removed.
6.Installation, Usage and Maintenance 1. The machine should be installed on a concrete foundation, placed on level and the anchor bolts should be tightened. 2. Operation steps: Shift the clutch handle to ON position to start the diesel generator. Engage the clutch to drive the host when the operation is normal, and feed materials and water for operation. Disconnect the clutch to stop the machine before cleaning up the mercury paste. 3. Add water, engine oil and diesel oil to the diesel generator on regular basis. See the instructions for details. Lubricate the clutch and upper bearing cover once and add engine oil into reducer once every 30 days. 4. The power section should be kept from sunlight and rain, and ore pulp infiltration to be avoided in operation.
ZJH mainly focus on producing and supply crushers, ore grinding equipment, mineral Beneficiation equipment, laboratory and pilot scale ore dressing equipment for Mining and Mineral Processing Industry. Our aim is to work together with Mines, Mineral Beneficiation Plantsfor helping to reduce the operating cost ,to improve the operating efficiency.
During the past two years, there has been an increasing acceptance of process automation among ferrous, non-ferrous and non-metallic rock processing operations in an attempt to keep total unit costs in line in a market situation where labor and material costs are rising almost daily.
The experienced crusher or mill designer and operator should know more about the ore or rock being processed, the processing techniques and the process equipment than anyone else. In this sense, his determination of the objectives to be realized in the control system plays a significant role in the degree of success that is attained.
Effective instrumentation and automatic control of crushing and grinding facilities in ore and rock crushing plants has been a practical reality for almost ten years. New and improved mechanisms and techniques are continually being developed that reduce the initial cost of these systems and exhibit significant improvements in reliability and serviceability.
From the standpoint of the process flowsheet, instrumentation in the primary crushing facility is a logical starting point. While there have been some notable successes in primary crushing plants employing no local operators, most primary facilities, large and small, continue to employ a local operator for a variety of reasons. The instrumentation that is presently applied in primary crushing facilities is used principally to assist the operator and to protect expensive process equipment. In this sense, capacity of the primary crusher is indirectly increased thru higher equipment availability.
Some of the devices currently employed in large primary crushing plants are shown in Figure 1. In this particular primary crusher facility, mine run ore is trucked to a dump position from which the ore is fed by a pan feeder. In many plants a level sensing device, Lt1, is employed to interlock the pan feeder drive and the truck dump light. This interlock merely protects the pan feeder from reaching too low a level such that a truck dumps on an empty feeder and causes physical damage. The sensing device in this case is usually a non-contact unit of the radioactivity or ultrasonic type.
Many of the same devices discussed under primary crusher instrumentation have been applied with equal success in the secondary and scale system, Wt, to weigh and totalize the product from the primary tertiary crushing stages. Typical of these are:
While these devices can be extremely helpful to an operator, their influence on production is not nearly as marked as an effective crusher feed rate control system. Several different crushing plant flowsheets will be described and typical approaches to effective crusher feed control will be explained.
If the application of a crusher feed rate control system is to be successful, consideration must always be given to the capacity of material handling equipment associated with the crusher to be automated. That is, the tons per hour capacity of feeders, screens, chutes, etc., must be capable of handling the increased thru-put associated with a properly-automated crusher. Also, since some means of increasing and decreasing the feed to the crusher must be available, it is apparent that there must be some surge or storage capacity ahead of the crusher to be controlled as well as some kind of an adjustable speed or amplitude feeder.
With all the sophistication that has found its way into some grinding circuit automatic control systems, the basis for almost all successful systems should be, in my judgement, an effective feed rate control system to the first stage grinding mill.
It just stands to reason that under a given set of ore and operating conditions, all types and sizes of grinding mills will operate most efficiently if they are fed an optimum rate of ore and are grinding at some optimum pulp density within the mill (assuming a wet grind).
One of the earliest, large scale plants to successfully employ automatic grinding control was a taconite mill in Northern Minnesota. This system went on line in the early 60s and has operated continuously ever since.
The grinding circuit control system includes the usual rod mill feed rate control system and water-to-ore ratio system. Circulating load is measured by means of a pulp density measurement in the cyclone feed line. In this specific arrangement of process equipment, cyclone feed density measurement is meaningful only if the ball mill sump level is precisely controlled to maintain a constant head on the pump. In spite of the fact that instrumentation employed to effect automatic grinding circuit control in this plant is considered obsolete by present day standards, this plant has, for over eight years, maintained the desired grind within very narrow tolerances.
In the plant illustrated, power developed by the ball mill drive is employed as a measurement of mill load and this signal used to adjust the feed rate of ore. This approach its effective in this unique case because the feed to the ball mill is -3 material and the ore charge in the mill is relatively large compared with the ball charge in a mill operated more conventionally.
Note that sump level is controlled by varying the speed of the pump and that a density measurement in the cyclone overflow is used to control water addition in the sump.. This grinding circuit control system has been very effective and has contributed to increasing the capacity of the mill to almost twice that of its original design capacity.
The wet process includes three stages of ore preparation, beneficiation processing and product processing. The preparation phase includes operations such as batching, crushing and sizing. The mash is to mix the kaolin ore with water and dispersant in the pulverizer. The mashing operation can disperse the ore. Prepare the appropriate fine kaolin slurry for the sorting operation, and remove the large sand at the same time.
The beneficiation stage may include hydraulic grading, flotation, selective flocculation, magnetic separation, chemical treatment (bleaching), etc. to remove different impurities. The prepared slurry is firstly removed by a sputum washing tank, a float classifier or a cyclone, and then divided into two parts by a continuous centrifuge, a hydrocyclone, a hydraulic sorter or a vibrating fine screen (325 mesh).
Two grades of thickness. The fine-grained grade of the classifier is fed into HGMS (high-gradient magnetic separator) to remove iron-titanium impurities. The product is detached by stirring and scouring and then leached by iron oxide. The clay which is high enough in brightness and has good coating properties can be magnetically removed. Stripped and sent directly to the leaching operation. After leaching, alum is added to the slurry to coagulate the clay minerals to facilitate dehydration.The bleached clay is dewatered using a high speed centrifuge, a rotary vacuum filter or a filter press. Dewatering by filter or filter press. The filter cake is redispersed into a slurry of 55% to 65% solids and then spray dried to make a loose dry product. Part of the dry product was mixed into the dispersed slurry to make 70% solids and shipped to the paper mill.
The final product, which is not selected, has low brightness and can only be obtained by magnetic separation, froth flotation or selective flocculation in the process. However, these independent operations have their own advantages and disadvantages, so the industry usually uses a combined process of two or three of these processes for the comprehensive utilization of clay resources.
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Feeding size: <800mm Capacity: 100-300T/H Types of mobile crusher: wheel type mobile crusher and crawler type mobile crusher Main equipment: a highly customizable combination of feeder, rock crusher, vibrating screen, conveyor, etc. Applications: aggregate, quarrying, mining, construction waste recycling, etc.
A complete mobile breaking production line is classically equipped with mobile jaw crusher and mobile impact crusher to achieve coarse and fine crushing operations such as stone and construction waste. It took only a few days to set up the entire production line without pile driving, which was nearly thirty days faster than the fixed crushing production line.
The mobile crusher is mainly used for metallurgy, chemical industry, building materials, highways, railways, and other materials that often need to be moved and processed, such as construction waste, river pebbles, granite, basalt, limestone, quartz stone and other materials. Customers can produce materials according to the processing scale. , Product quality and other requirements, select the most suitable configuration. How to recycle construction waste with a mobile crusher? A complete set of construction waste disposal production line is composed of mobile jaw crusher, impact crusher, vibrating screen, sand washing machine, etc., which can sort and crush construction waste and obtain a variety of high-quality sand and gravel aggregates with different specifications, widely used in roads, buildings and other fields to achieve recycling of construction waste.
Mobile crusher equipment is divided into two categories: tire type and crawler type according to the bearing method. In addition, each different type of crusher can also be freely assembled according to customer needs, mainly including jaw tire mobile crushing station, impact tire mobile crushing station, cone tire mobile crusher, impact tire mobile crushing station, heavy hammer type The combination of tire mobile crushing station and crawler mobile crushing station is simple and convenient. It can effectively realize the integration of the unit and the diversity of configuration. The scope of application is more extensive and flexible. 1. The mobile crusher can be moved to the operation site to start the operation quickly, saving the construction planning time. 2. The compact structure reduces the area occupied, and is especially suitable for the small crushing site. 3. The modularized and automated operation design of the mobile crusher reduces labor costs. 4. The intelligent PLC automatic monitoring system can predict the failure of machine equipment, effectively avoiding the occurrence of major accidents.
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The process, by which cement is manufactured, depends upon the technique adopted in the mixing of raw materials. Therefore, on the basis of mixing the raw materials, the processes may be classified as:-
(i) Drying Zones: In the wet process, the drying zone is comparatively larger than the dry process. It is because the raw material in slurry form is directly fed into the kiln which has more amount of water. As shown in the figure it is the upper portion of the kiln. In this zone, water is evaporated at a temperature of 100-400C.
(iii) Burning Zone:- The modules enter this zone where temperatures are kept about 1400-1500 C. The modules are converted into dark greenish balls and the product obtained in the kiln, known as clinker, is of varying size 5 to 20 mm. The clinkers are very hot when coming out of this zone.
Also, the gypsum is added during grinding about 2-4%. The gypsum acts as a retarder and so allows the cement to mix with sand or aggregate and to be placed in position. i.e. it increases the initial setting time of cement.
Burning and Grinding: These operations are the same as for the wet process. Except for the mixing of raw materials. In the dry process, the raw materials mixed, fined, and then fed into kiln whereas, in the wet process, the raw materials are crushed separately and then directly mixed in correct proportion in the presence of water to make a fine thin paste known as Slurry.Get in Touch with Mechanic