Each year, workers suffer approximately 125,000 caught or crushed-by injuries that occur when body parts get caught between two objects or entangled with machinery. These hazards are also referred to as pinch points. The physical forces applied to a body part caught in a pinch point can vary and cause injuries ranging from bruises, cuts, and scalping to mangled and amputated body parts, and even death.
Workers in field, industrial, and office settings are all affected by caught or crush hazards to some degree. Get training and learn about the caught/crush hazards and pinch points specific to your tasks, tools, and equipment so you can take precautions.
Crushing hazards exist when workers may be caught in or between two hazards. If the impact alone could be deadly, the hazard is considered a struck-by hazardthe danger is that a worker will be struck by an object.
A crushing hazard, in contrast, is a caught-in hazardthe danger to the worker rests in being caught between two objects, one or both of which may be moving, and injured or killed either by physical crushing or suffocation that results from the compression of the rib cage.
If you have ever slammed your finger in a door, you can appreciate the pain associated with this common type of caught/crush injury. Take the time to learn about the caught/crush hazards in your workplace so you dont learn about the consequences firsthand.
During the using process, if the worker operates and maintains the crusher according to correct standards, it will have great significance in normal production, output, quality, service life, working efficiency and the prevention of accidents, etc.
At present, the common cone crushers are mainly the single toggle cone crusher and compound cone crusher (Symons cone crusher). Although both types of cone crushers are totally different, they have the same operation procedure.
The operation procedure of cone crusher can be divided into four stages: before the start, at start-up, at run time and turning-off time. All conditions should be paid attention in each stage, and the potential problems can be found and solved timely and the service time can be prolonged.
Turn on the lubricating oil pump to run for three to five minutes. After everything runs well, turn on the crusher as required. After the crusher idles for one to two minutes, confirm that all things are well, and feed the rocks or stones.
During the crushing process, there is a great impact on the concave which makes the filled zinc layer be out of shape. Therefore, the U-type bolt should be tightened frequently to make the concave fix and avoid concave from deformation.
The mantle is fixed by the upper bolt of the main shaft. The looseness of the bolt can make the mantle unstable, even the filled layer may fall off to cause downtime. Hence, the bolts should be often checked and fixed to avoid looseness.
The spherical bearing should be installed in the borehole of crusher closely. After a long period of working, the tightness of crusher' parts can be broken. The tightness of spherical bearing must be checked frequently, and the oil gallery of the spherical bearing should be kept clean.
Water seal is the equipment for preventing crusher from dust, which is very important to the normal operation of cone crusher. Therefore, daily maintenance and checking its integrality are very necessary.
Through the study of this article, you must have a deeper understanding of the operation and maintenance of the cone crusher. In the case of the above-mentioned failure of the crusher, the problem is analyzed and solved by referring to the method given in this article.
Manuel Aquino, 70 years old, had worked for Arts Equipment Rental in Sharonville, Ohio, for 13 years. His job duties included keeping the equipment clean, so on March 3, Aquino was pressure-washing a front-end loader in his employers yard. Something went wrong, and Aquino was crushed between the bucket on the loader and the body of the equipment. By the time emergency responders arrived, Aquino was dead.
Caught-in/crushed-by injuries, including the type of crushing injury that killed Manuel Aquino, were the third-leading cause of workplace deaths in 2013. They occur in many different types of industries, including the type of small employer Aquino worked for.
Crushing hazards exist when workers may be caught in or between two hazards. If the impact alone could be deadly, the hazard is considered a struck-by hazardthe danger is that a worker will be struck by an object.
A crushing hazard, in contrast, is a caught-in hazardthe danger to the worker rests in being caught between two objects, one or both of which may be moving, and injured or killed either by physical crushing or suffocation that results from the compression of the rib cage.
Environment, Health, and Safety (EHS) is often viewed by some workers and executives as nothing more than a box to be ticked off on an onboarding training checklist. The truth, as we all know, is far different. As an EHS professional, you are passionate about your work: ensuring that everyone at a jobsite or facility 
Our 2021 EHS Salary Guide will help you evaluate if you are being paid a fair amount for the responsibilities you are shoulderingor if you are paying the right amount to retain hard-to-fill positions but not overpaying on others.
Identifying training needs is easy in the aftermath of a workplace incident. At that point, however, the discovery is too late for the injured. At UL, they believe a better approach is to understand training needs (and provide training), so workers are able to identify workplace hazards and take precautions that prevent incidents. Where do 
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In the quarry, crushing is handled in four potential stages: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. The reduction of aggregate is spread over these stages to better control the product size and quality, while minimizing waste.
The primary stage was once viewed merely as a means to further reduce stone following the blast or excavation prior to secondary crushing. Today, primary crushing is viewed as more important within the balance of production and proper sizing needs. The size and type of the primary crusher should be coordinated with the type of stone, drilling and blasting patterns, and the size of the loading machine. Most operations will use a gyratory, jaw or impact crusher for primary crushing.
In the secondary and subsequent stages, the stone is further reduced and refined for proper size and shape, mostly based on specifications to produce concrete and asphalt. Between stages, screens with two or three decks separate the material that already is the proper size. Most secondary crushers are cone crushers or horizontal-shaft impact crushers. Tertiary and quaternary crushers are usually cone crushers, although some applications can call for vertical-shaft impact crushers in these stages.
A gyratory crusher uses a mantle that gyrates, or rotates, within a concave bowl. As the mantle makes contact with the bowl during gyration, it creates compressive force, which fractures the rock. The gyratory crusher is mainly used in rock that is abrasive and/or has high compressive strength. Gyratory crushers often are built into a cavity in the ground to aid in the loading process, as large haul trucks can access the hopper directly.
Jaw crushers are also compression crushers that allow stone into an opening at the top of the crusher, between two jaws. One jaw is stationary while the other is moveable. The gap between the jaws becomes narrower farther down into the crusher. As the moveable jaw pushes against the stone in the chamber, the stone is fractured and reduced, moving down the chamber to the opening at the bottom.
The reduction ratio for a jaw crusher is typically 6-to-1, although it can be as high as 8-to-1. Jaw crushers can process shot rock and gravel. They can work with a range of stone from softer rock, such as limestone, to harder granite or basalt.
As the name implies, the horizontal-shaft impact (HSI) crusher has a shaft that runs horizontally through the crushing chamber, with a rotor that turns hammers or blow bars. It uses the high-speed impacting force of the turning blow bars hitting and throwing the stone to break the rock. It also uses the secondary force of the stone hitting the aprons (liners) in the chamber, as well as stone hitting stone.
With impact crushing, the stone breaks along its natural cleavage lines, resulting in a more cubical product, which is desirable for many of todays specifications. HSI crushers can be primary or secondary crushers. In the primary stage, HSIs are better suited for softer rock, such as limestone, and less abrasive stone. In the secondary stage, the HSI can process more abrasive and harder stone.
Cone crushers are similar to gyratory crushers in that they have a mantle that rotates within a bowl, but the chamber is not as steep. They are compression crushers that generally provide reduction ratios of 6-to-1 to 4-to-1. Cone crushers are used in secondary, tertiary and quaternary stages.
With proper choke-feed, cone-speed and reduction-ratio settings, cone crushers will efficiently produce material that is high quality and cubical in nature. In secondary stages, a standard-head cone is usually specified. A short-head cone is typically used in tertiary and quaternary stages. Cone crushers can crush stone of medium to very hard compressive strength as well as abrasive stone.
The vertical shaft impact crusher (or VSI) has a rotating shaft that runs vertically through the crushing chamber. In a standard configuration, the VSIs shaft is outfitted with wear-resistant shoes that catch and throw the feed stone against anvils that line the outside of the crushing chamber. The force of the impact, from the stone striking the shoes and anvils, fractures it along its natural fault lines.
VSIs also can be configured to use the rotor as a means of throwing the rock against other rock lining the outside of the chamber through centrifugal force. Known as autogenous crushing, the action of stone striking stone fractures the material. In shoe-and-anvil configurations, VSIs are suitable for medium to very hard stone that is not very abrasive. Autogenous VSIs are suitable for stone of any hardness and abrasion factor.
Roll crushers are a compression-type reduction crusher with a long history of success in a broad range of applications. The crushing chamber is formed by massive drums, revolving toward one another. The gap between the drums is adjustable, and the outer surface of the drum is composed of heavy manganese steel castings known as roll shells that are available with either a smooth or corrugated crushing surface.
Double roll crushers offer up to a 3-to-1 reduction ratio in some applications depending on the characteristics of the material. Triple roll crushers offer up to a 6-to-1 reduction. As a compressive crusher, the roll crusher is well suited for extremely hard and abrasive materials. Automatic welders are available to maintain the roll shell surface and minimize labor expense and wear costs.
These are rugged, dependable crushers, but not as productive as cone crushers with respect to volume. However, roll crushers provide very close product distribution and are excellent for chip stone, particularly when avoiding fines.
Hammermills are similar to impact crushers in the upper chamber where the hammer impacts the in-feed of material. The difference is that the rotor of a hammermill carries a number of swing type or pivoting hammers. Hammermills also incorporate a grate circle in the lower chamber of the crusher. Grates are available in a variety of configurations. The product must pass through the grate circle as it exits the machine, insuring controlled product sizing.
Hammermills crush or pulverize materials that have low abrasion. The rotor speed, hammer type and grate configuration can be converted for different applications. They can be used in a variety of applications, including primary and secondary reduction of aggregates, as well as numerous industrial applications.
Virgin or natural stone processing uses a multi-stage crushing and screening process for producing defined aggregate sizes from large lumps of rock. Such classified final fractions are used as aggregates for concrete, asphalt base, binder and surface course layers in road construction, as well as in building construction. The rock is quarried by means of drilling and blasting. There are then two options for processing the bulk material after it has been reduced to feeding size of the crushing plant: mobile or stationary plants.
When stone is processed in mobile primary crushing plants, excavators or wheel loaders feed the rock into the crusher that is set up at the quarry face, gravel pit or in a recycling yard or demolition site. The crushed material is then either sent to the secondary/tertiary processing stage via stacking conveyors or transported by trucks. Some mobile crushers have an independent secondary screen mounted on the unit, effectively replacing a standalone screen.
The higher the compressive strength of rock, the higher also is its quality, which plays an important role particularly in road construction. A materials compressive strength is delineated into hard, medium-hard or soft rock, which also determines the crushing techniques used for processing to obtain the desired particle sizes.
The materials quality is influenced significantly by particle shape. The more cubic-shaped the individual aggregate particles are, the better the resulting particle interlock. Final grains of pronounced cubic shape are achieved by using several crushing stages. A cubicity showing an edge ratio of better than 1-to-3 is typical of high-quality final aggregate.
As the earths natural resources are becoming ever more scarce, recycling is becoming ever more important. In the building industry, recycling and reuse of demolition concrete or reclaimed asphalt pavement help to reduce the requirements for primary raw materials. Mobile impact and jaw plants are uniquely positioned to produce high-quality reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) for reuse in pavements, road bases, fill and foundations.
Use of RAP and RCA is growing dramatically as road agencies accept them more and more in their specs. But because RAP and RCA come from a variety of sources, to be specified for use by most departments of transportation they must be processed or fractionated and characterized into an engineered, value-added product. RCA or RAP are very commonly crushed and screened to usable sizes often by impact crushers and stored in blended stockpiles that can be characterized by lab testing for use in engineered applications.
Impact crushers are increasingly used for crushing recycling material. Impact crushers are capable of producing mineral aggregate mixes in one single crushing stage in a closed-cycle operation, making them particularly cost-effective. Different crusher units can alternatively be combined to process recycling material. A highly efficient method of processing recycling material combines crushing, screening and separation of metals. To produce an end product of even higher quality, the additional steps of washing to remove light materials such as plastics or paper by air classification and via electromagnetic metal separator are incorporated into the recycling process.
Mobile impact crushers with integrated secondary screens or without integrated screen used in conjunction with an independent mobile screen are ideal for producing large volumes of processed, fractionated RAP or RCA on a relatively small footprint in the plant. Mobile impactors are especially suited for RAP because they break up chunks of asphalt pavement or agglomerations of RAP, rather than downsize the aggregate gradation. Compression-type crushers such as jaws and cones can clog due to packing (caking) of RAP when the RAP is warm or wet.
Contaminants such as soil are part of processing demolition concrete. Mobile impact and jaw crushers when possessing integrated, independent prescreens removing dirt and fines before they ever enter the crushing circuit reduce equipment wear, save fuel, and with some customers, create a salable fill byproduct. A lined, heavy-duty vibrating feeder below the crusher can eliminate belt wear from rebar or dowel or tie bar damage. If present beneath the crusher, this deflector plate can keep tramp metal from degrading the conveyor belt. That way, the feeder below the crusher not the belt absorbs impact of rebar dropping through the crusher.
These mobile jaw and impact crushers may feature a diesel and electric-drive option. In this configuration, the crusher is directly diesel-driven, with the conveyor troughs, belts and prescreen electric-driven via power from the diesel generator. This concept not only reduces diesel fuel consumption, but also results in significantly reduced exhaust emissions and noise levels. This permits extremely efficient operation with low fuel consumption, allowing optimal loading of the crusher.
Jaw crushers operate according to the principle of pressure crushing. The raw feed is crushed in the wedge-shaped pit created between the fixed crusher jaw, and the crusher jaw articulated on an eccentric shaft. The feed material is crushed by the elliptic course of movement and transported downwards. This occurs until the material is smaller than the set crushing size.
Jaw crushers can be used in a wide range of applications. In the weight class up to 77 tons (70 metric tons), they can be used for both virgin stone and recycled concrete and asphalt aggregates processing as a classic primary crusher for natural stone with an active double-deck grizzly, or as a recycling crusher with vibrating discharge chute and the crusher outlet and magnetic separator.
Output for mobile jaw crushers ranges from 100 to 1,500 tph depending on the model size and consistency of the feed material. While larger mobile crushers produce more aggregate faster, transport weights and dimensions may limit how easily the crusher can be shipped long distances. Mobile jaw crushers can have either a vibratory feeder with integrated grizzly, or a vibrating feeder with an independent, double-deck, heavy-duty prescreen. Either way, wear in the system is reduced because medium and smaller gradations bypass the crusher, with an increase in end-product quality because a side-discharge conveyor removes fines. A bypass flap may provide easy diversion of the material flow, eliminating the need for a blind deck.
Jaw crusher units with extra-long, articulated crusher jaws prevent coarse material from blocking while moving all mounting elements of the crusher jaw from the wear area. A more even material flow may be affected if the transfer from the prescreen or the feeder trough is designed so material simply tilts into the crushing jaw.
Mobile jaw and impact crushers alike can be controlled by one operator using a handheld remote. The remote also can be used to move or relocate the crusher within a plant. In other words, the crusher can be run by one worker in the cab of an excavator or loader as he feeds material into the crusher. If he sees something deleterious going into the hopper, he can stop the crusher.
Impact crushing is totally different from pressure crushing. In impact crushing, feed material is picked up by a fast moving rotor, greatly accelerated and smashed against an impact plate (impact toggle). From there, it falls back within range of the rotor. The crushed material is broken again and again until it can pass through the gap between the rotor and impact toggle.
A correctly configured mobile jaw or impact crusher will enhance material flow through the plant and optimize productivity. New-design mobile jaw and impact crushers incorporate a highly efficient flow concept, which eliminates all restriction to the flow of the material throughout the entire plant. With this continuous-feed system, each step the material goes through in the plant is wider than the width of the one before it, eliminating choke or wear points.
For example, a grizzly feeder can be wider than the hopper, and the crusher inlet wider than the feeder. The discharge chute under the crusher is 4 inches wider than the inner width of the crusher, and the subsequent discharge belt is another 4 inches wider than the discharge chute. This configuration permits rapid flow of crushed material through the crusher. Also, performance can be significantly increased if the conveying frequencies of the feeder trough and the prescreen are adapted independently to the level of the crusher, permitting a more equal loading of the crushing area. This flow concept keeps a choke feed to the crusher, eliminating stops/starts of the feed system, which improves production, material shape and wear.
Users are focused on cost, the environment, availability, versatility and, above all, the quality of the end product. Simple crushing is a relatively easy process. But crushing material so that the particle size, distribution and cleanliness meet the high standards for concrete and asphalt requires effective primary screening, intelligent control for optimal loading, an adjustable crusher with high drive output, and a screening unit with oversize return feed.
This starts with continuous flow of material to the crusher through a variable-speed control feeder. Having hopper walls that hydraulically fold integrated into the chassis makes for quick erection of hopper sides on mobile units. If available, a fully independent prescreen for either jaw or impact models offers the ability to effectively prescreen material prior to crushing this allows for product to be sized prior to crushing, as opposed to using a conventional vibrating grizzly. This has the added value of increasing production, reducing wear costs and decreasing fuel consumption.
This independent double-deck vibrating screen affects primary screening of fines and contaminated material via a top-deck interchangeable punched sheet or grizzly, bottom-deck wire mesh or rubber blank. Discharged material might be conveyed either to the left or to the right for ease of positioning. The independent double-deck vibrating prescreen improves flow of material to the crusher, reducing blockages and feed surges.
Modern electrical systems will include effective guards against dust and moisture through double-protective housings, vibration isolation and an overpressure system in which higher air pressure in the electrical box keeps dust out. Simple and logical control of all functions via touch panel, simple error diagnostics by text indicator and remote maintenance system all are things to look for. For crushing demolition concrete, look for a high-performance electro- or permanent magnet with maximum discharge capacity, and hydraulic lifting and lowering function by means of radio remote control.
For impact crushers, a fully hydraulic crusher gap setting with automatic zero-point calculation can speed daily set-up. Featured only on certain mobile impact crushers, a fully hydraulic adjustment capability of the crushing gap permits greater plant uptime, while improving quality of end product.
Not only can the crushing gap be completely adjusted via the touch panel electronic control unit, but the zero point can be calculated while the rotor is running. This ability to accurately set the crusher aprons from the control panel with automatic detection of zero-point and target-value setting saves time, and improves the overall efficiency and handling of the crusher. On these mobile impact crushers, the zero point is the distance between the ledges of the rotor and the impact plates of the lower impact toggle, plus a defined safety distance. The desired crushing gap is approached from this zero point.
While the upper impact toggle is adjusted via simple hydraulic cylinders, the lower impact toggle has a hydraulic crushing gap adjustment device, which is secured electronically and mechanically against collision with the rotor. The crushing gap is set via the touch screen and approached hydraulically. Prior to setting of the crushing gap, the zero point is determined automatically.
For automatic zero-point determination with the rotor running, the impact toggle moves slowly onto the rotor ledges until it makes contact, which is detected by a sensor. The impact toggle then retracts to the defined safe distance. During this procedure, a stop ring slides on the piston rod. When the zero point is reached, the locking chamber is locked hydraulically and the stop ring is thus fixed in position. The stop ring now serves as a mechanical detent for the piston rod. During the stop ring check, which is carried out for every crusher restart, the saved zero point is compared to the actual value via the electronic limit switch. If the value deviates, a zero-point determination is carried out once again.
These impact crushers may feature a new inlet geometry that allows even better penetration of the material into the range of the rotor. Also, the wear behavior of the new C-form impact ledges has been improved to such an extent that the edges remain sharper longer, leading to improved material shape.
The machines come equipped with an efficient direct drive that improves performance. A latest-generation diesel engine transmits its power almost loss-free directly to the crushers flywheel, via a fluid coupling and V-belts. This drive concept enables versatility, as the rotor speed can be adjusted in four stages to suit different processing applications.
Secondary impact crushers and cone crushers are used to further process primary-crushed aggregate, and can be operated with or without attached screening units. These crushers can be used as either secondary or tertiary crushers depending on the application. When interlinked to other mobile units such as a primary or screen, complicated technical processing can be achieved.
Mobile cone crushers have been on the market for many years. These machines can be specially designed for secondary and tertiary crushing in hard-stone applications. They are extraordinarily efficient, diverse in application and very economical to use. To meet the diverse requirements in processing technology, mobile cone crushing plants are available in different sizes and configurations. Whether its a solo cone crusher, one used in addition to a triple-deck screen for closed-loop operation, or various-size cone crushers with a double-deck screen and oversize return conveyor, a suitable plant will be available for almost every task.
Mobile cone crushers may be available with or without integrated screen units. With the latter, an extremely efficient triple-deck screen unit may be used, which allows for closed-loop operation and produces three final products. Here the screen areas must be large so material quantities can be screened efficiently and ensure that the cone crusher always has the correct fill level, which is particularly important for the quality of the end product.
Mobile, tracked crushers and screen plants are advancing into output ranges that were recently only possible using stationary plants. Previously, only stationary plants were used for complicated aggregate processing applications. But thanks to the advancements made in machine technology, it is becoming increasingly possible to employ mobile technology for traditional stationary applications.
Mobile crushers are used in quarries, in mining, on jobsites, and in the recycling industry. These plants are mounted on crawler tracks and can process rock and recycling material, producing mineral aggregate and recycled building materials respectively for the construction industry. A major advantage of mobile crushers is their flexibility to move from one location to the next. They are suitable for transport, but can also cover short distances within the boundaries of their operating site, whether in a quarry or on the jobsite. When operating in quarries, they usually follow the quarry face, processing the stone directly on site.
For transport over long distances to a new location or different quarry, mobile crushers are loaded on low trailers. No more than 20 minutes to an hour is needed for setting the plant up for operation. Their flexibility enables the mobile crushers to process even small quantities of material with economic efficiency.
Mobile plants allow the combination of prescreening that prepares the rock for the crushing process and grading, which precisely separates defined aggregate particle sizes into different end products to be integrated with the crushing unit into one single machine. In the first stage, the material is screened using an active prescreen. After prescreening, it is transferred to the crusher, from where it is either stockpiled via a discharge conveyor or forwarded to a final screen or a secondary crushing stage. Depending on the specified end product, particles are then either graded by screening units or transported to additional crushing stages by secondary or tertiary impact crushers or cone crushers. Further downstream screening units are used for grading the final aggregate fractions.
The process of prescreening, crushing and grading is a common operation in mobile materials processing and can be varied in a number of ways. Mobile crushers with up to three crushing stages are increasingly used in modern quarries. Different mobile crushing and screening plants can be combined for managing more complex crushing and screening jobs that would previously have required a stationary crushing and screening plant.
Interlinked mobile plants incorporate crushers and screens that work in conjunction with each other, and are coordinated in terms of performance and function. Mining permits are under time constraints and mobile plants provide faster setup times. They provide better resale value and reusability, as mobile plants can also be used individually. They also reduce operating costs in terms of fewer haul trucks and less personnel.
With a so-equipped mobile crusher, the feed operator can shut the machine down or change the size of the material, all using the remote control, or use it to walk the crusher from one part of the site to the other, or onto a flat bed trailer for relocation to a different quarry or recycling yard. This reduces personnel and hauling costs compared to a stationary plant. With the mobile jaw or impact primary crusher, the only additional personnel needed would be a skid-steer operator to remove scrap steel, and someone to move the stockpiles.
Thanks to better technology, mobile plants can achieve final aggregate fractions, which previously only were possible with stationary plants. Production availability is on par with stationary plants. Theyre applicable in all quarries, but can be used for small deposits if the owner has several quarries or various operation sites. For example, an operator of several stone quarries can use the plants in changing market situations at different excavation sites. In addition, they also can be used as individual machines. A further factor is that mobile plants, in general, require simpler and shorter licensing procedures.
The high cost of labor keeps going up. A stationary crusher might be able to produce multiple times the amount of product, but also would require about seven or eight workers. Aggregate producers can benefit when producing material with the minimized crew used for mobile jaw and impact crushers.
Using correct maintenance practices, mobile crushers will remain dependable throughout their working life. Crushing and processing material can result in excessive wear on certain components, excessive vibration throughout the plant, and excessive dust in the working environment. Some applications are more aggressive than others. A hard rock application is going to require more maintenance on top of standard maintenance, as there will be more vibration, more dust and more wear than from a softer aggregate.
Due to the nature of its purpose, from the moment a mobile crusher starts, the machine is wearing itself out and breaking itself down. Without routine, regular maintenance and repair, a mobile crusher will not be reliable nor provide the material customers demand.
The first area of wear on any machine is the feed system. Whether its a feeder with an integrated grizzly, or a feeder with an independent prescreen, how the machine is fed contributes to wear. When setting up and maintaining a machine, the machine must be level. A machine that is unlevel left to right will experience increased wear on all components, including the feeder, the screens, the crushing chambers and the conveyor belts. In addition, it reduces production and screening efficiency, as the whole area of the machine is not being effectively used. Also, having the machine sit high at the discharge end will have the effect of feeding the material uphill in the feeder and reducing its efficiency, thus reducing production.
Another area for consideration is the equipment used to feed the machine. The operator using a loader to feed the crusher will have no control over the feed size, as he cannot see whats in the bucket. Whereas with an excavator, the operator can see whats inside and has more control over the feed into the hopper. That is, the operator is not feeding so much material all at once and is controlling the size of the feed. This reduces wear in the feed hoppers impact zones and eliminates material blockages due to feed size being too large to enter the chamber.
Dust is a problem in its own right, especially for the power plant of the mobile crusher. In a very dusty application, it is easy to plug the radiator and have engine-overheating problems. High dust levels cause increased maintenance intervals on air filters, and if not controlled properly, can enter the diesel tank and cause problems with the fuel system. Also, dust that gets inside the crusher increases wear. But if systems are put in place to remove the dust, it should keep it from going into the machine in the first place.
Dust also is a hazard on walkways and a problem for conveyors. If maintained, side-skirting and sealing the conveyors keeps dust from spilling out, building up underneath the conveyor, or building up in rollers, pulleys, bearings, and causing wear on shafts. Its important to maintain the sealing rubbers on the conveyor belts to avoid those issues. Routine maintenance calls for removing accumulated dust from inside and under the machine.
Dust also is a problem for circuit boards and programmable controllers. Dust causes electrical switches to malfunction because it stops the contacts from correctly seating. Electrical systems under positive air pressure dont permit dust to penetrate the control system. In control panels with a correctly maintained positive pressure system, filters remove dust from air that is being pumped into the cabinets. If the filters are plugged, the system will not pull as much air through, allowing dust, moisture and heat to build in the cabinet.
There are also impact aprons against which the rock is thrown, which also see high wear. There are side plates or wear sheets on the sides of the machine. The highest wear area is around the impact crusher itself, around the circumference of the rotor. If not maintained, the wear items will wear through and compromise the structure of the crusher box.
Conduct a daily visual check of the machine. The jaw is simple; just stand up on the walkway and take a look down inside. A crushers jaw plate can be flipped so there are two sides of wear on them. Once half the jaw is worn out, flip it; once that side is worn, change it.
The impact crusher will have an inspection hatch to see inside. Check to see how much material is left on the blow bars and how much is left on the wear sheets on the side of the crusher box. If half the bar is worn out after one week, change the blow bars in another week.The frequency of changes depends entirely on the application and the rock that is being crushed.
They have to be user serviceable, user friendly, and able to be changed in a short time. The best way to change these parts is a service truck with a crane; some use excavators but thats not recommended by any means.
After initial blasting, breakers are used to break down aggregate that typically is not only too large to be hauled in dump trucks, but also too large for crushers that size rock to meet asphalt, drainage system, concrete and landscaping specifications. Breakers can be mounted to a mobile carrier, such as an excavator, or to stationary boom systems that can be attached to a crusher. The total number of hydraulic breakers can vary from site to site depending on production levels, the type of aggregate materials and the entire scope of the operation.
Without hydraulic breakers, workers rely on alternative practices that can quickly affect production rates. For instance, blasting mandates shutting down operations and moving workers to a safe location. And when you consider how many times oversize aggregate might need to be reduced, this can lead to a significant amount of downtime and substantially lower production rates.
Aggregate operations can use hydraulic breakers to attack oversize without having to clear the quarry. But with an ever-growing variety of manufacturers, sizes and models to choose from, narrowing the decision to one hydraulic breaker can be overwhelming with all of the stats and speculation. Thats why its important to know what factors to consider before investing in a new hydraulic breaker.
In most cases, heavy equipment dealers are very knowledgeable about quarry equipment, including breakers, so they are a good resource for finding the best model for a carrier, usually an excavator or stationary boom system. More than likely, they will have specifications and information about various breaker sizes to help gauge what model is best. But being familiar with what to look for in a breaker can streamline the selection process.
The best places to look for breaker information are in the manufacturers brochure, website, owners manual or catalogue. First, carefully review the carrier weight ranges. A breaker that is too big for the carrier can create unsafe working conditions and cause excessive wear to the carrier. An oversized breaker also transmits energy in two directions, toward the aggregate and through the equipment. This produces wasted energy and can damage the carrier. But using a breaker thats too small puts excessive force on the tool steel, which transmits percussive energy from the breaker to the material. Using breakers that are too small also can damage mounting adapters and internal components, which considerably decreases their life.
Once you find a breaker that meets the carriers capacity, check its output power, which is typically measured in foot-pounds. Foot-pound classes are generalizations and are not based on any physical test. Often the breakers output will be documented in one of two ways: as the manufacturers calculated foot-pound class or as an Association of Equipment Manufacturers measured foot-pound rating. Foot-pound class ratings can be deceiving since they are loosely based on the breakers service weight and not the result of any physical test. The AEM rating, on the other hand, measures the force a breaker exerts in a single blow through repeatable and certified testing methods. The AEM rating, which was developed by the Mounted Breaker Manufacturers Bureau, makes it easier to compare breaker models by reviewing true figures collected during an actual test procedure.
For instance, three breaker manufacturers might claim their breakers belong in a 1,000-lb. breaker class. But AEM testing standards could reveal all three actually have less foot-pound impact. You can tell if a breaker has been AEM tested if a manufacturer provides a disclosure statement or if the breaker is labeled with an AEM Tool Energy seal. If you cannot find this information, contact the manufacturer. In addition to output energy specifications, manufacturers often supply estimates for production rates on different types of aggregate material. Make sure to get the right measurements to make the best decision.
In addition to weight and output power, look at the breakers mounting package. Two things are crucial for mounting a breaker to a carrier: a hydraulic installation kit and mounting components. Breakers need hydraulic plumbing with unidirectional flow to move oil from the carrier to the breaker and back again. A one-way flow hydraulic kit is sufficient to power the breaker as long as the components are sized to properly handle the required flows and pressures. But, consider a bidirectional flow hydraulic kit if you plan to use the same carrier with other attachments that require two-way flow. Check with the dealer or breaker manufacturer to determine which hydraulic package best fits current and future needs.
Hydraulic flow and pressure specifications also need to be considered when pairing a breaker to a hydraulic system. If the carrier cannot provide enough flow at the right pressure, the breaker wont perform with maximum output, which lowers productivity and can damage the breaker. Additionally, a breaker receiving too much flow can wear quickly, which reduces its service life. For the best results, follow the hydraulic breaker specifications found in owners manuals, catalogs and brochures. Youll find out if a breaker has additional systems that might require additional servicing. For instance, some breakers feature nitrogen gas-assist systems that work with the hydraulic oil to accelerate the breakers piston. The nitrogen systems specifications need to be followed for consistent breaker power output.
Brackets or pin and bushing kits are commonly required to attach the breaker to the carrier. Typically they are bolted to the top of a breaker and are configured to match a specific carrier. Some manufacturers make universal mounting brackets that can accommodate two or three different sizes of carriers. With the adjustable pins, bushings or other components inside these universal brackets, the breaker can fit a range of carriers. However, varying distances between pin centers can complicate hookups to quick coupling systems. In addition, loose components, such as spacers, can become lost when the breaker is not in use and detached from the carrier.
Some carriers are equipped with quick-coupling systems, which require a breakers mounting interface to be configured like the carriers original attachment. Some manufacturers produce top-mount brackets that pair extremely well with couplers. This allows an operator to use the original bucket pins from the carrier to attach the breaker, and eliminates the need for new pins. This pairing also ensures a fast pickup with the quick coupler.
Its also a good idea to check which breaker tools are available through the dealer and manufacturer. The most common for aggregate mining are chisels and blunts. There are two kinds of chisels commonly used in aggregate mines: crosscut and inline. Both chisels resemble a flat head screwdriver, but the crosscut chisels are used when carrier operators want to direct force in a left-to-right concentration; whereas, inline chisels direct force fore and aft. With chisel tools, operators can concentrate a breakers energy to develop cracks, break open seams or define scribe lines.
If a chisel cant access or develop a crack or seam, a blunt can be used. Blunts have a flattened head that spreads the energy equally in all directions. This creates a shattering effect that promotes cracks and seam separation. Ask your dealer if the tools you are considering are suited for the application. Using non-original equipment manufacturer tool steel can damage the percussive piston in the breaker, seize into the wear bushings, or cause excessive wear.
Regular breaker maintenance is necessary, yet its one of the biggest challenges for aggregate operations. It not only extends the life of the breaker, but also can keep minor inconveniences from turning into expensive problems. Some manufacturers recommend operators inspect breakers daily to check grease levels and make sure there are no worn or damaged parts or hydraulic leaks.
Breakers need to be lubricated with adequate amounts of grease to keep the tool bushing area clear and reduce friction, but follow the manufacturers recommendations. For example, adding grease before properly positioning the breaker can lead to seal damage or even catastrophic failure. And too little grease could cause the bushings to overheat, seize and damage tools. Also, manufacturers advise using high-moly grease that withstands working temperatures greater than 500 degrees. Some breakers have automatic lube systems that manage grease levels, but those systems still need inspections to ensure there is adequate grease in their vessels. Shiny marks on the tool are a good indication the breaker is not properly lubricated.
Little has changed in basic crusher design over past decades, other than that of improvements in speed and chamber design. Rebuilding and keeping the same crusher in operation year after year has long been the typical approach. However, recent developments have brought about the advent of new hydraulic systems in modern crusher designs innovations stimulated by the need for greater productivity as well as a safer working environment. Importantly, the hydraulic systems in modern crusher designs are engineered to deliver greater plant uptime and eliminate the safety risks associated with manual intervention.
Indeed the crushing arena is a hazardous environment. Large material and debris can jam inside the crusher, damaging components and causing costly downtime. Importantly, manually digging out the crusher before repairs or restarts puts workers in extremely dangerous positions.
The Mine Safety and Health Administration has reported numerous injuries and fatalities incurred when climbing in or under the jaw to manually clear, repair or adjust the typical older-style jaw crusher. Consider that fatalities and injuries can occur even when the machine is locked out and tagged out. Recent examples include a foreman injured while attempting to dislodge a piece of steel caught in the primary jaw crusher. Another incident involved a fatality when a maintenance man was removing the toggle plate seat from the pitman on a jaw crusher. The worker was standing on a temporary platform when the bolts holding the toggle seat were removed, causing the pitman to move and strike him.
The hydraulic systems on modern crusher designs eliminate the need for workers to place themselves in or under the crusher. An overview of hydraulic system technology points to these three key elements:
A hydraulic chamber-clearing system that automatically opens the crusher to a safe position, allowing materials to pass. A hydraulic overload relief that protects parts and components against overload damage. A hydraulic adjustment that eliminates the maintenance downtime associated with manual crusher adjustments, and maintains safe, consistent crusher output without the need for worker intervention.
Whether a crusher is jammed by large material, tramp iron or uncrushable debris; or is stalled by a power failure the chamber must be cleared before restarting. Manual clearing is a lengthy and risky task, especially since material can be wedged inside the crusher with tremendous pressure, and dislodging poses much danger to workers placed in harms way inside the crusher.
Unlike that of the older-style jaw, the modern jaw will clear itself automatically with hydraulics that open the crusher to a safe position, and allow materials to pass again, without the need for manual intervention. If a feeder or deflector plate is installed under the crusher, uncrushable material will transfer smoothly onto the conveyor without slicing the belt.
To prevent crusher damage, downtime and difficult maintenance procedures, the hydraulic overload relief system opens the crusher when internal forces become too high, protecting the unit against costly component failure. After relief, the system automatically returns the crusher to the previous setting for continued crushing.
The modern crusher is engineered with oversized hydraulic cylinders and a traveling toggle beam to achieve reliable overload protection and simple crusher adjustment. All closed-side setting adjustments are made with push-button controls, with no shims being needed at any time (to shim is the act of inserting a timber or other materials under equipment). This is a key development as many accidents and injuries have occurred during shim adjustment, a process which has no less than 15 steps as described in the primary crusher shim adjustment training program offered by MSHA.
The plastic crusher machine sold by Shuliy Machinery has wide applications and can be used to crush and recycle plastic materials with different shapes. The processing technology is mature, and important parts such as the box body and the blade holder are processed with high precision.
The design and structure of the plastic crusher are reasonable, easy to operate, energy-saving, durable, efficient and economical. Safety devices are set to ensure safe operation and the double-layer soundproof design of the feeding hopper reduces noise. The plastic crusher machine has a stable operation, low noise, no dust pollution, uniform granulation, and good crushing effect.
It is a multi-purpose plastic crusher, adopting a sealed bearing so that the bearing rotation can run smoothly for a long time. The design of the blade is reasonable, which enables the granule is uniform.
3. High-quality chrome steel double-edged tool has a sharp edge and can be changed easily. The processing technology is mature, and the important parts such as the box and the tool holder are highly matched.
4. The tool holder is novel in design, and the claw type holder is spirally distributed, which can disperse the scrap material and reduce the impact force when the scrap material is broken. Such a design can ensure that the crushing force of each knife is more uniform.
8. Claw knife type is suitable for crushing polyethylene, horn, wood, ceramic, nylon, PC, PA, ABS, PET, and other materials.Other application: plastics factory, electronics factory, plastic container factory, lighting factory, shoe factory, electrical appliance factory, auto parts factory, luggage factory, pumping factory, waste recycling factory, plastic toy factory, plastic kitchen factory, etc.
1. The plastic crusher and power unit should be installed firmly. It needs to be fixed on a solid floor if working for a long time. Conversely, it should be installed on a base made of angle iron if you want to move it frequently.
4. Raw material should be placed evenly to prevent blockage, and it can not overload work for a long time. If there are vibration, noise, high temperature of the bearing and external spraying, you shall stop the machine immediately, and continue working after troubleshooting.
A sectional view of the single-toggle type of jaw crusher is shown below.In one respect, the working principle and application of this machine are similar to all types of rock crushers, the movable jaw has its maximum movement at the top of the crushing chamber, and minimum movement at the discharge point. The motion is, however, a more complex one than the Dodge motion, being the resultant of the circular motion of the eccentric shaft at the top of the swing jaw. combined with the rocking action of the inclined toggle plate at the bottom of this jaw. The motion at the receiving opening is elliptical; at the discharge opening, it is a thin crescent, whose chord is inclined upwardly toward the stationary jaw. Thus, at all points in the crushing chamber, the motion has both, vertical and horizontal, components.
It will be noted that the motion is a rocking one. When the swing jaw is rising, it is opening, at the top, during the first half of the stroke, and closing during the second half, whereas the bottom of the jaw is closing during the entire up-stroke. A reversal of this motion occurs during the downstroke of the eccentric.
The horizontal component of motion (throw) at the discharge point of the single-toggle jaw crusher is greater than the throw of the Dodge crusher at that point; in fact, it is about three-fourths that of Blake machines of similar short-side receiving-opening dimensions. The combination of favorable crushing angle, and nonchoking jaw plates, used in this machine, promotes a much freer action through the choke zone than that in the Dodge crusher. Capacities compare very favorably with comparable sizes of the Blake machine with non-choking plates, and permissible discharge settings are finer. A table of ratings is given.
The single-toggle type jaw crusher has been developed extensively. Because of its simplicity, lightweight, moderate cost, and good capacity, it has found quite a wide field of application in portable crushing rigs. It also fits into the small, single-stage mining operation much better than the slower Dodge type. Some years since this type was developed with very wide openings for reduction crushing applications, but it was not able to seriously challenge the gyratory in this field, especially when the high-speed modern versions of the latter type were introduced.
Due to the pronounced vertical components of motion in the single-toggle machine, it is obvious that a wiping action takes place during the closing strokes; either, the swing jaw must slip on the material, or the material must slip along the stationary jaw. It is inevitable that such action should result in accelerated wear of the jaw plates; consequently, the single-toggle crusher is not an economical machine for reducing highly abrasive, or very hard, tough rock. Moreover, the large motion at the receiving opening greatly accentuates shocks incidental to handling the latter class of material, and the full impact of these shocks must be absorbed by the bearings in the top of the swing jaw.
The single-toggle machine, like the Dodge type, is capable of making a high ratio-of-reduction, a faculty which enables it to perform a single-stage reduction of hand-loaded, mine run ore to a suitable ball mill, or rod mill, feed.
Within the limits of its capacity, and size of receiving openings, it is admirably suited for such operations. Small gravel plant operations are also suited to this type of crusher, although it should not be used where the gravel deposit contains extremely hard boulders. The crusher is easy to adjust, and, in common with most machines of the jaw type, is a simple crusher to maintain.
As rock particles are compressed between the inclined faces of the mantle and concaves there is a tendency for them to slip upward. Slippage occurs in all crushers, even in ideal conditions. Only the particles weight and the friction between it and the crusher surfaces counteract this tendency. In particular, very hard rock tends to slip upward rather than break. Choke feeding this kind of material can overload the motor, leaving no option but to regulate the feed. Smaller particles, which weigh less, and harder particles, which are more resistant to breakage, will tend to slip more. Anything that reduces friction, such as spray water or feed moisture, will promote slippage.
Leading is a technique for measuring the gap between fixed and moveable jaws. The procedure is performed while the crusher is running empty. A lead plug is lowered on a lanyard to the choke point, then removed and measured to find out how much thickness remains after the crusher has compressed it. This measures the closed side setting. The open side setting is equal to this measurement plus the throw of the mantle. The minimum safe closed side setting depends on:
Blake (Double Toggle) Originally the standard jaw crusher used for primary and secondary crushing of hard, tough abrasive rocks. Also for sticky feeds. Relatively coarse slabby product, with minimum fines.
Overhead Pivot (Double Toggle) Similar applications to Blake. Overhead pivot; reduces rubbing on crusher faces, reduces choking, allows higher speeds and therefore higher capacities. Energy efficiency higher because jaw and charge not lifted during cycle.
Overhead Eccentric (Single Toggle) Originally restricted to sampler sizes by structural limitations. Now in the same size of Blake which it has tended to supersede, because overhead eccentric encourages feed and discharge, allowing higher speeds and capacity, but with higher wear and more attrition breakage and slightly lower energy efficiency. In addition as compared to an equivalent double toggle, they are cheaper and take up less floor space.
Since the jaw crusher was pioneered by Eli Whitney Blake in the 2nd quarter of the 1800s, many have twisted the Patent and come up with other types of jaw crushers in hopes of crushing rocks and stones more effectively. Those other types of jaw crusher inventors having given birth to 3 groups:
Heavy-duty crushing applications of hard-to-break, high Work Index rocks do prefer double-toggle jaw crushers as they are heavier in fabrication. A double-toggle jaw crusher outweighs the single-toggle by a factor of 2X and well as costs more in capital for the same duty. To perform its trade-off evaluation, the engineering and design firm will analyze technical factors such as:
1. Proper selection of the jaws. 2. Proper feed gradation. 3. Controlled feed rate. 4. Sufficient feeder capacity and width. 5. Adequate crusher discharge area. 6. Discharge conveyor sized to convey maximum crusher capacity.
Although the image below is of a single-toggle, it illustrates the shims used to make minor setting changes are made to the crusher by adding or removing them in the small space between the crushers mainframe and the rea toggle block.
The jaw crusher discharge opening is the distance from the valley between corrugations on one jaw to the top of the mating corrugation on the other jaw. The crusher discharge opening governs the size of finished material produced by the crusher.
Crusher must be adjusted when empty and stopped. Never close crusher discharge opening to less than minimum opening. Closing crusher opening to less than recommended will reduce the capacity of crusher and cause premature failure of shaft and bearing assembly.
To compensate for wear on toggle plate, toggle seat, pitman toggle seat, and jaws additional shims must be inserted to maintain the same crusher opening. The setting adjustment system is designed to compensate for jaw plate wear and to change the CSS (closed side setting) of the jaw crusher. The setting adjustment system is built into the back frame end.
Here also the toggle is kept in place by a compression spring. Large CSS adjustments are made to the jaw crusher by modifying the length of the toggle. Again, shims allow for minor gap adjustments as they are inserted between the mainframe and the toggle block.
is done considering the maximum rock-lump or large stone expected to be crushed and also includes the TPH tonnage rate needing to be crushed. In sizing, we not that jaw crushers will only have around 75% availability and extra sizing should permit this downtime.
As a rule, the maximum stone-lump dimension need not exceed 80% of the jaw crushers gape. For intense, a 59 x 79 machine should not see rocks larger than 80 x 59/100 = 47 or 1.2 meters across. Miners being miners, it is a certainty during day-to-day operation, the crusher will see oversized ore but is should be fine and pass-thru if no bridging takes place.
It will be seen that the pitman (226) is suspended from an eccentric on the flywheel shaft and consequently moves up and down as the latter revolves, forcing the toggle plates outwards at each revolution. The seating (234) of the rear toggle plate (239) is fixed to the crusher frame; the bottom of the swing jaw (214) is therefore pushed forward each time the pitman rises, a tension rod (245) fitted with a spring (247) being used to bring it back as the pitman falls. Thus at each revolution of the flywheel the movable jaw crushes any lump of ore once against the stationary jaw (212) allowing it to fall as it swings back on the return half-stroke until eventually the pieces have been broken small enough to drop out. It follows that the size to which the ore is crushed.
The jaw crusher is not so efficient a machine as the gyratory crusher described in the next paragraph, the chief reason for this being that its crushing action is confined to the forward stroke of the jaw only, whereas the gyratory crusher does useful work during the whole of its revolution. In addition, the jaw crusher cannot be choke-fed, as can the other machine, with the result that it is difficult to keep it working at its full capacity that is, at maximum efficiency.
Tables 5 and 6 give particulars of different sizes of jaw crushers. The capacity figures are based on ore weighing 100 lb. per cubic foot; for a heavier ore, the figures should be increased in direct proportion to its weight in pounds per cubic foot.
The JAW crusher and the GYRATORY crusher have similarities that put them into the same class of crusher. They both have the same crushing speed, 100 to 200 R.P.M. They both break the ore by compression force. And lastly, they both are able to crush the same size of ore.
In spite of their similarities, each crusher design has its own limitations and advantages that differ from the other one. A Gyratory crusher can be fed from two sides and is able to handle ore that tends to slab. Its design allows a higher-speed motor with a higher reduction ratio between the motor and the crushing surface. This means a dollar saving in energy costs.
A Jaw crusher on the other hand requires an Ely wheel to store energy. The box frame construction of this type of crusher also allows it to handle tougher ore. This design restricts the feeding of the crusher to one side only.
The ore enters from the top and the swing jaw squeezes it against the stationary jaw until it breaks. The broken ore then falls through the crusher to be taken away by a conveyor that is under the crusher.Although the jaws do the work, the real heart of this crusher is the TOGGLE PLATES, the PITMAN, and the PLY WHEEL.
These jaw crushers are ideal forsmall properties and they are of the high capacity forced feed design.On this first Forced Feed Jaw Crusher, the mainframe and bumper are cast of special alloy iron and the initial cost is low. The frame is ribbed both vertically and horizontally to give maximum strength with minimum weight. The bumper is ruggedly constructed to withstand tremendous shock loads. Steel bumper can be furnished if desired. The side bearings are bronze; the bumper bearings are of the antifriction type.
This bearing arrangement adds both strength and ease of movement. The jaw plates and cheek plates are reversible and are of the best-grade manganese steel. The jaw opening is controlled by the position of an adjustable wedge block. The crusher is usually driven by a V-to-V belt drive, but it can be arranged for either V-to-flat or fiat belt drive. The 8x10 size utilizes a split frame and maybe packed for muleback transportation. Cast steel frames can be furnished to obtain maximum durability.
This second type of forced feed rock crusher is similar in design to the Type H listed above except for having a frame and bumper made of cast steel. This steel construction makes the unit lighter per unit of size and adds considerable strength. The bearings are all of the special design; they are bronze and will stand continuous service without any danger of failure. The jaw and cheek plates are manganese steel; and are completely reversible, thus adding to their wearing life. The jaw opening is controlled by the position of an adjustable wedge block. The crushers are usually driven by V-to-V but can be arranged for V-to-flat and belt drive. The 5x6 size and the 8x10 size can be made with sectionalized frame for muleback transportation. This crusher is ideal for strenuous conditions. Consider a multi jaw crusher.
Some jaw crushers are on-floor, some aboveground, and others underground. This in many countries, and crushing many kinds of ore. The Traylor Bulldog Jaw crusher has enjoyed world wide esteem as a hard-working, profit-producing, full-proof, and trouble-free breaker since the day of its introduction, nearly twenty years ago. To be modern and get the most out of your crushing dollars, youll need the Building breaker. Wed value the privilege of telling you why by letter, through our bulletins, or in person. Write us now today -for a Blake crusher with curved jaw plates that crush finer and step up production.
When a machine has such a reputation for excellence that buyers have confidence in its ability to justify its purchase, IT MUST BE GOOD! Take the Type G Traylor Jaw Crusher, for instance. The engineers and operators of many great mining companies know from satisfying experience that this machine delivers a full measure of service and yields extra profits. So they specify it in full confidence and the purchase is made without the usual reluctance to lay out good money for a new machine.
The success of the Type G Traylor Jaw Crusheris due to several characteristics. It is (1) STRONG almost to superfluity, being built of steel throughout; it is (2) FOOL-PROOF, being provided with our patented Safety Device which prevents breakage due to tramp iron or other causes of jamming; it is (3) ECONOMICAL to operate and maintain, being fitted with our well-known patented Bulldog Pitman and Toggle System, which saves power and wear by minimizing frictionpower that is employed to deliver increased production; it is (4) CONVENIENT to transport and erect in crowded or not easily accessible locations because it is sectionalized to meet highly restrictive conditions.
Whenever mining men need a crusher that is thoroughly reliable and big producer (which is of all time) they almost invariably think first of a Traylor Type G Jaw Crusher. By experience, they know that this machine has built into it the four essentials to satisfaction and profit- strength, foolproofness, economy, and convenience.
Maximum STRENGTH lies in the liberal design and the steel of which crushers parts are made-cast steel frame, Swing Jaw, Pitman Cap and Toggles, steel Shafts and Pitman rods and manganese steel Jaw Plates and Cheek Plates. FOOLPROOFNESS is provided by our patented and time-tested safety Device which prevents breakage due to packing or tramp iron. ECONOMY is assured by our well-known Bulldog Pitman and Toggle System, which saves power and wear by minimizing friction, the power that is used to deliver greater productivity. CONVENIENCE in transportation and erection in crowded or not easily accessible locations is planned for in advance by sectionalisation to meet any restrictive conditions.
Many of the worlds greatest mining companies have standardized upon the Traylor Type G Jaw Crusher. Most of them have reordered, some of them several times. What this crusher is doing for them in the way of earning extra dollars through increased production and lowered costs, it will do for you! Investigate it closely. The more closely you do, the better youll like it.
Those of us who recycle our empty drink cans know the annoying storage problem these containers present. For an object with very little metal, a can takes up a huge amount of space, and should you possess a greater than average thirst you can soon end up with a lot of space taken up with stacks of cans. The solution of course is to crush them, and while there are many simple solutions involving hinged blocks of wood or lever systems, this is 2019! We have Machines to that kind of thing for us! [All Things Electro-Mechanical] thinks so anyway, for he has created an automatic can crusher that is a joy to behold.
At its heart is a 120V AC powered linear actuator, which crushes a can held in a welded steel guide. As the can is crushed it drops into a waiting bin, and when the actuator retracts a fresh can drops down from a hopper. Control is handled by a Raspberry Pi, and there are end sensors for the actuator and an optical sensor for the can hopper. As it stands, once the last can is in place the machine stops due to the optical sensor registering no can in the hopper, but no doubt a software change could cause it to execute a single crush cycle after the last can it detects.
This machine would be an ideal candidate for a simple industrial automation system, but however it is controlled it would save its owner from an embarrassing test of strength. Take a look, weve posted the two videos showing it in action below the break.
Cool, but I cant help but notice those cans appear to have been pre-squeezed so theyll nicely collapse. An improved version would squeeze the sides of the one above the linear actuator (a solenoid on each side smashing into it would probably be enough).
I was thinking more like a chamber that the can would be pushed into and the plunger would be powered by a 500 psi pneumatic cylinder and an auto eject and reload powered by waste gas. Think: over sized Chicago typewriter mechanism. High speed crushing with uniform, minimal volume output.Now that would be entertaining!
Im blessed by living 1/2 mile from a recycling center. Current price for AL cans is 35c/lb. Get about 1$/30gallon bag uncrushed. The economics of this device would be for someone whos gotta transport massive amounts , from perhaps a bar in the middle of nowhere . Well, it would be no doubt a A+ on your resume !.
One more consideration is safety. It looks very easy for a kid (or adult) to stick a finger into where it would also get crushed. Another improvement would be to design the hopper so that you can dump cans in at any orientation and they will get sorted out into the proper orientation for crushing. As for Denting the cans to allow less force the crush you could probably rig some sort of lever that the crushing actuator briefly pushed on as it goes by to dent the can, it does not take much.
You would have to be disabled in some way to not be able to react fast enough to move out of the way of that thing. Its really really slow. Agree about the hopper though, seems youll be spending a lot of time waiting since you can only load a new can every every 15 seconds or so.
I have seen injuries from some pretty slow moving equipment, including a lathe carriage on a large lathe (48 swing) that was traveling at about 2/min (50mm/min) (crush and trap injury, non-fatal). Inattention or unawareness can kill, even at those speeds.
TL;DW. I mean, DAMN, thats the slowest can crusher Ive ever seen. If you send the kid out with a bag of cans, hes going to take one look at that machine, remember the last time, and just stomp on them instead.
How about a video of it crushing a full can of, oh, say carb cleaner ? (something that would go BOOM !!!! as our 2 knuckleheads from the 80s would say heh heh heh heh heh fire ! fire ! fire ! kill it with fire !!
Having to bring empty single use containers back to the store (deposit system) is the dumbest recycling effort ever seen altogether. I bring my empty cans to the next recycling container (150m) but I do not bring liquid-dripping empty cans back to a store.
As one commenter has to do, some reclaiming places wont take uncrushed cans. I dont know as of now but in Michigan there is a 10 cent deposit on each can, money! However the stores wont take them crushed. I found this when leaving Michigan after crushing everyones cans on a trip to save space in a small car. Thus my name for this type of machine, muck fish-again machine. Thats not more carp and suckers on your line, but garbage sacks stacked with whole cans forming hexagonal prisms of thirty gallon size weighing very little. That is how they handle them to reclaim. I am for a deposit on all trash from fast food and convenience stores, but there are those sanitation and butts problems, lemon slices too.
Then there Fosters, tall ones, and Resin deviants to consider in any can handling system, yet alone those aluminum bottles. The UPC tag should simplify the worth in recycling, uncrushed of course. It a mess.
Yeah, people in states that have deposits always look at crushers and yell WTF!!??. Here in states where they are only worth scrap metal, crushing makes it easier to store (wait for higher prices) and easier to transport.
When I was a teenager, we built an automatic can crusher. It had a flywheel with an arm coming off it like a crankshaft, connected to a piston that would crush the cans. There was a large hopper above it that funneled the cans into the crusher, aligning them as they got to the bottom of the hopper. The hopper was the hardest part to get right. The flywheel was connected, on the other side of the bearings, to a half horsepower 120v AC motor via reduction gears, pulleys and a belt. The hopper held about 20 gallons. Just turn it on and dump your cans in. It would crush about 20 cans a minute, maybe more.The can crusher was necessitated by all the lake parties at the cabin. We would save all the cans and bring them in in the spring when aluminum prices were high. We usually got about $350 a year from them.
I like the engineering spirit in this innovative IT-fueled can crusher. However, the very best way to solve any space issues with empty soda (and also beer) cans is to leave them in the store. Aluminum is an extremely energy consumptive resource and except for life style and perception nothing really speaks to aluminum cans for packaging sugar water. Cheers and thanks for all the fish.
I don not want to drink them in the store, so I take them to the lake, or to any place I want to drink the contents. The can is a lightweight, practical container, not as heavy and breakable as glass. Luckily it is also often cheaper. I bring my empty cans to a recycling bin. Luckily we dont have a deposit system here.
Your statement are all true and valid. They actually helped a lot on the commercial success story of aluminum cans. No doubts. On the other hand consuming aluminum cans is not really environmentally friendly, given the amount of energy used for producing the aluminum from natural resources. Also the fact that they are seen to be recyclable doesnt rehabilitate them when considering that the recycling process again is energy consuming, not a last because of the trucks carrying around the trash, and then later on the sugar water filled new cans again.
I used to love to crush alumin[i]um cans end to end. Then I dropped some off at a recycling center and saw a lot of cans that had been crushed that way laying on the ground, They easily fell through the mesh of their bulk containers. Cans crushed sideways remained in the bins.
With the prosperity and development of the crushing industry, rock crusher is becoming more and more important. We often use it to crush limestone, river pebble, granite, basalt, and quartz stone and other materials. Moreover, itis widely used to crush ore and large pieces of material in mining smelting, building material, road, railway, water conservancy chemical industry and other fields.
The crusher has a bright prospect. With the development of the mining industry, more and more rocks appear. In order to save energy and generate economic benefits, people will pay more and more attention to the industrial rock crusher. As a result, itsdemand will increase significantly.
There are many types of rock crushers. Generally, itmainly consists of jaw crusher, cone crusher, hammer crusher, vertical shaft impact crusher, impact crusher and so on. According to the requirements of materials size, different types of crushers are used in different crushing stages. Here, Aimix will introduce detailed informations to you.
Firstly, You should consider the size of raw materials you want to process. If the materials are very big particles, you can choose the primary crushing machine(jaw rock crusher). Because jaw crusher is suitable for crushing large stone materials. On the contrary, you should choose Aimixs other kind of crusher machines(cone crusher orimpact crusher) in order to crush smaller stone materials.
Secondly, you should consider the performance of cheap rock crusher. Aimix, a reliable crusher supplier, adopts advanced technology to manufacture all kinds of crushers. Therefore, our crushers have simple structure, easy maintenance, stable performance and low operation cost. So you can choose our small rock crusher for sale without any hesitation.
Lastly, price is a very important factor you should think about. We willrecommend suitable crusher to different customers according to their budgets and requirements. We ensure that all customers will get best crusher with the most reasonable price.
Aimixs impact crusher is one important type of rock crusher machine for sale. It adopts the latest technology, absorbs the advantages of many domestic and foreign impact crushers, and has very superior performance. Its excellent features are as follows:
Lastly, the crushing ratio is large, and it can reach to 40%. So it can simplify the crushing process, can make the three section crushing into two or one section crushing, and reduce the equipment cost of the mineral processing factory.
This kind of portable rock crusher designed and manufactured by Aimix Group is a superior product. And it uses the most advanced technology and conception. Therefore, it has so many unparalleled advantages.
Firstly, the maintenance of the mini rock crusher machine is simple. The discharge port of cone crushers hydraulic motor can be adjusted. And cone crusher allows the fixed cone to be fully removed to adjust the collar nut to replace the liner, thus it can greatly simplify the replacement work of the liner. And all parts can be maintained or repaired from the top or side, so equipment maintenance is very convenient. And you can find more informations on Aimxs crusher maintenance manual.
Secondly, the rock crushing equipment has large productioncapacity. The cone crusher has higher speed stroke, so the rated power of the cone crusher is increased, and the processing capacity of the equipment is greatly improved.
Thirdly, this rock crusher machine has a two-way iron release hydraulic cylinder, which allows the iron to go through the crushing chamber, and reduces the shutdown due to debris in the crushing chamber.
Fourthly, large diameter spindle and heavy main frame ensure that the equipment has durable and reliable working condition. The independent thin oil lubrication system can ensure the bearing lubrication has double protection.
The type of rock crusher for sale is mainly composed of frame, rock crusher transmission shaft, eccentric sleeve, spherical bearing, crushing cone, adjusting device, adjusting sleeve, spring and discharging port. In order to give customers a better understanding of the crusher, Aimix will describe the detailed informations of the following parts .
Firstly, the main frame of the rock crushing plant. The main frame consists of the upper frame part and the lower frame part. The two parts are connected by hydraulic cylinder. The upper shelf is a welding piece, and the upper side of the shelf is welded with a wear-resistant copper plate. And the lower frame is a whole cast steel.
Secondly, the adjusting device. Hydraulic motor drives pinion, and the pinion drives the adjusting cap on the gear, thereby the fixed cone will be driven to rotate. In this way, the gap between the fixed cone and the mobile cone will be adjusted.
Third, hydraulic control station. It mainly includes fuel tank with oil table, motor oil pump, filter device, energy storage device, control device, pressure switch, safety protection device, etc. A terminal box and a button control cabinet are also equipped beside the small portable rock crushers.
The rock crushing machine mainly used in the primary stage is jaw crusher. As everyone knows, diesel jaw crusher is a coarsely crushing machine. Besides, this kind of crusher machine is widely used to crush rock and large pieces of materials in mining smelting, building material, road, railway, water conservancy, chemical industry and so on. PE400-600-jaw-crusherModel: PE-400*600 Feed opening size(mm): 400*600 Max.Feeding size(mm):340 Adjusting range of discharge opening(mm):40-100 Processing capacity(t/h): 16-60 Rotation speed of eccentric shaft(r/min):275 Mixing power(kw): 30 Total weight(T): 7 Dimension(L*W*H)(mm): 1730*1730*1760
The working principle of jaw rock crushers for sale is: when the stone crushing equipmentworks, motor drives belt and pulley to move, and the eccentric shaft drives the mobile jaw plate. When the mobile jaw plate rises, the angle between elbow plate and mobile jaw plate becomes larger. So the mobile jaw plate will be close to the fixed jaw plate. At the same time, materials can be crushed. When the mobile jaw plate down, the angle between elbow plate and the movable jaw becomes small.In addition,under the effect of rod and spring, the mobile jaw plate will be far from the fixed jaw plate. Meanwhile, the finished products will be discharged.
Crushing chamber of the gold rock crusher is composedof a fixed jaw plate and a mobile jaw plate. The latterplate is periodically reciprocated against the fixed jaw plate, sometimes separated, and sometimes closed. When they are separated, the material enters the crushing chamber and the finished product is discharged from the discharge port. When they are closed, the material between the two jaw plates is crushed by crushing, bending and splitting.
In short, this is how acrusher works. If you still have questions about the working principle ofthecrusher, you can contact us online or send us an e-mail. Aimix will provide you more detailed informations (such as: rock crusher youtube).
Impact crusher has wide applications. This kind of rock crushing equipment for sale has become the crucial equipment to crush stone materials in highway, high-speed railway, water conservancy project and other fields. The crusher for sale can processall kinds of coarse, medium and fine materials, such as: limestone, feldspar, calcite, granite, talc, barite, fluorite, rare earth, coke, coal gangue, gypsum, etc. Besides, this type of small rock crusher can be used inmetal and non-metallic mineral, metallurgy, cement, chemical, refractory, ceramic and other industrial sectors.
The mini rock crusher for saleis a crushing machine that uses impact energy to crushmaterials.Then, how does an small portable rock crusher for salework?When impact crusher is working, the rotordrivenby the motor has high-speed rotation.When the materials gointo the plate hammer area, they could be crushed byplate hammer on the rotor. Then materials are thrown to the counterattack device to be crushed again,and they are re-brokenbyhammer.The process is repeated, and the materialscan be repeatedlycrushed bythree counterattack cavitiesuntil the materialsare crushedto the required size. And then they are discharged from the discharge port.
In order to design and develop the perfect rock crusher plant, Aimxs experts have made great efforts. And this kind of crushercombineshigh crushing chamber and high crushing frequency. Moreover, Aimxs will introduce the working principle of rock crushing plant for sale.
When the mobile rock crusher for sale works, the V-belt, pulley, drive shaft, small bevel gear, and large bevel gear driven by the motor drive the eccentric sleeve to rotate. The axis of the rock crusher cone driven by the eccentric shaft sleeve swing rotationally, so that the surface of the crushing wall sometimes approaches and sometimes leaves the surface of the mortar wall. Therefore, materials in the the ring crushing chamber composed of fixed cone and mobile cone can be crushed by impacting, squeezing and bending constantly. After repeated squeezing, impacting and bending, materials can be crushed to the required particle size and discharged from the lower part.
In the case of unbreakable materials go into the crushing chamber or the machine is overloaded due to some reasons, the spring insurance system will work. The discharge port will be enlarged, and the unbreakable materials are discharged from the crushing chamber. If the impurities can not be dischargedwe can use cavity cleaning system. So that the discharge port will continue to increase. And the impurities can be discharged from the crushing chamber. Under the effect of the spring, the discharge port will automatically reset, and the gold crusher machine will back to normal work.
A stone crusher vibrating screen is needed in this crushing stage. In order to meet the requirements of the rock crushing industry, Aimix Group has been committed to the development and research of this kind of small scale rock crusher for several years. So far, our technology has reached world advanced level. Therefore, Aimixs vibratory screen has many superior advantages compared with ordinary vibratory sieve:
3. Itcan savemore energy than ordinary screens. 3YK1225-vibrating-screenModel: 3YK1225 Number of screen: 3 Screen area(): 9 Maximum feed size(mm): 400 Capacity(m3/h): 10-70 Vibration power(r/min):800-970 Double amplitude(mm):8 Motor power(kw): 5.5 Sieve angle(): 20 Total weight(kg): 3850 Long * wide * high(mm): 3070*1860*1210
Aimix, one of the most professional rock crusher manufacturers, has manufactured and designed all kinds of crusher machines and crusher plantsfor several years. So far, our products have been exported to more than 60 countries, such as: India, Iran, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Oman, Pakistan, etc. In addition, we can customize all kinds of crusher machines and all the spare parts, such as: rock crusher screen, rock crusher cone for saleand so on. In addition, we have the best quality and the most reasonable price. Due to the reliable quality and professional service, our rock type crusher machines are popular with all the customers.
We suggest that you buy crushers from professional crusher machine suppliers! If you need to purchase a crusher equipment, you can contact us online. We will show you detailed rock crusher videos and give you products photos! Dont hesitate to choose us!Get in Touch with Mechanic