gold mining equipment

gold mining equipment

911MPE hassmall gold mining equipment for sale andmore specifically mineral processing equipment. Our equipment is best used in small scale extractive metallurgyoperations operated by small miners or hobbyist prospectors and mining fanatics. 911MPE offers gold mining equipment as well as processing equipment applicable to most any base metals: copper, lead, zinc, nickel, tin, tungsten and more. For the relatively small size of equipment offered, sample preparation and metallurgical laboratories can economically buy good alternatives to the usually unaffordable equipment for sale in the classic market place.

911MPE has for target market what mining professionals consider the pilot-plant scale mining operation or artisanal mining operations with a focus around under 500TPD. Metals you can extract include: gold, silver or other of the precious group as well as the classic base metals; copper, lead, zinc, nickel, molybdenum. Much of our ultra-small scale equipment allows you to process from just a few kilo (pounds) per day and work on your passion for a small budget.

You can buy from us mineral processing equipment starting from crushing, grinding, classification, dredging, gravity separation, flotation, pumps, water treatment and smelting. A line of ovens, furnaces and laboratory equipment is also available.

Making a complete list of gold mining equipment starts with defining the type of gold mining you are doing and the budget you have at your disposal. The type of mining relates to hard rock,eluvial, or placer; alluvial deposits. The capital budget you have to invest in buying your equipment with dictate the scale at which you want to mine and influence the long-term operating costs of your mining operation.

Since most of the information online provides lists of gold mining equipment for amateur level mining with equipment like: gold pans, metal detectors, mini sluice box, blue bowl, geologist rock pick, soil scoop, hand screens/classifiers. The items listed just now fall closer to gold prospecting tools and equipment than actual mining.

I will present here what I consider are major equipment lists for 3 types of mining operations. Remember now, a metallurgist is writing. This will not be flawless and since my speciality is process equipment, that is mostly what will be discussed.

Some amateur level gold prospecting equipment such as metal detectors are often classified as mining equipment by small miners/prospectors operating as a hobby. These items include but are not limited to:

gold leaching equipment - resources gold technology

gold leaching equipment - resources gold technology

Resources gold leaching equipment leads the field of gold cyanidation with distinctive technology designed for application versatility and outstanding performance. Cyanidation and gold leaching achieve new levels of safety and performance in even the most difficult applications far surpassing the performance of other forms of gold leaching equipment.

Resources gold leaching equipment combines performance and safety with compact design allowing an entire leach facility to occupy only a fraction of the space needed by alternative methods. Unique proprietary technology overcomes the current boundaries of gold chemistry and allows dissolution under circumstances previously not possible with other gold leaching equipment.

Home Gold Processing Plants Mine Surface Infrastructure Gold Leaching Equipment Solid Liquid Separation Cyanide Destruction Mine Backfill FAQ Environmental Industry Links Site Map

Copyrights: 2006-2016 Resources, LLC / Resources Mining Technologies / Resources Gold Technology / Resources Water Technology

major mines & projects | wharf mine

major mines & projects | wharf mine

The Wharf Operation deposits are considered Tertiary epithermal replacement mineralization, both intrusive-hosted and sediment-hosted (Coeur internal report, 2014). Depth of mineralization at the Wharf Operation (~1.5 km; Paterson and Giebink, 1989) is considered deeper than normal for epithermal deposits, but low temperature of mineralization are consistent with epithermal-type deposits (Paterson, 1990), although these temperatures may represent late stage of fluorite mineralization. The main trends of mineralization at Wharf parallel the strike of a major joint sets that Shapiro and Gries (1970) measured in upper and lower Deadwood Fm. outcrops. At Golden Reward, the mineralized trends strike north-south. Mineralized trends at Golden Reward may reflect more of an influence from basement structure, as the later faults in the Golden Reward graben area may have been reactivated along faults or moved along existing foliation planes, and mineralization occurred along the same trend as the faulting. Gold or gold-bearing minerals may be disseminated in porphyry, or may be confined to fractures (Paterson and Giebink, 1989; Paterson, 1990). Highly fractured porphyry is known to be the most mineralized, and preliminary work shows a correlation of fractured porphyry with gold, in contrast to unfractured and unmineralized rocks within mineralized zones. This, however, may be due again to gold-bearing sulfides occurring as the primary economic mineral. Porphyry near fractures is usually the most oxidized, grading outwards into gray, blocky porphyry with very small (< 0.25 mm) grains of disseminated sulfides. Atomic absorption (AA) assaying is limited in determining gold encapsulated in sulfides, but assays of fractured samples that are oxidized will readily measure gold formerly in sulfides. Additional fire assays may help to better understand this association. Visible native gold observed at Wharf has been only seen twice during current mining activities; one occurrence was found within a fluorite vein. Because fluorite is considered a late-stage mineral (e.g., Paterson et al., 1989), the fluorite-gold occurrence may indicate a later, minor mineralizing event, distinct from earlier, goldbearing sulfide mineralization. Thin sections of very high-grade (1.173 and 0.615 oz/ton Au) samples from the Annie Creek mine analyzed by Schurer and Fuchs (1991) show native gold associated with hematite, goethite, jarosite which forms from oxidation of iron sulfides, and arseniosiderite which forms from oxidation of arsenopyrite; quartz was also associated with gold. A thin section from the lowestgrade sample in this study (0.195 oz/ton Au) showed no native gold, but abundant sulfides, which was assumed to indicate lattice or submicron gold. The discussion suggests that oxidation of arsenic-bearing sulfides may have remobilized gold in an arsenic complex and deposited it as native gold in higher-grade samples (Schurer and Fuchs, 1991).

The Wharf Operation is currently a conventional truck and loader heap leach gold mine. The Wharf Operation consists of five heap leach pads, which are all load/offload pads. The entire planned mining disturbance falls within the current permitted area. Wharf leases nearly all of the earth moving equipment used at the mine. The current earth moving equipment under lease through local equipment dealers includes: (14) 777 trucks, (1) D-10 and (2) D-9 dozers, (4) 993 front end loaders, (2) 16M motor graders, and (2) DM 45 hammer drills. Relationships with local dealers span over 15 years, and the earthmoving equipment is under contract through 2017.

Ore is trucked to the crusher located at the east end of the plant/pad area to be crushed to a nominal size of 80 percent minus -inch passing. The crushing plant can process between 4.2 and 4.6M tons of ore per year, depending on ore hardness. Lime is added to the crushed ore. Once crushed, the ore is trucked to leach pads to be stacked in 20-foot-high lifts.CrushingA single crushing circuit is used to process ore before being transferred to the leach pads. This crushing circuit has undergone numerous modifications over its history to accommodate operational conditions and optimize performance.Ore is hauled from the pit with CAT 777 and 785 haul trucks that dump directly into a hopper or onto a stockpile adjacent to the hopper. Stockpiled ore is fed into the hopper by a loader at times when a direct ore haul is not available.Ore is transferred by an apron chain feeder to a vibrating grizzly where oversize rock is diverted in to a Nordberg C140 jaw crusher. The jaw crusher reduces the rock down to a 6-inch nominal size before dropping onto a conveyor belt along with the fines from the grizzly. Powdered lime is added to the ore from a silo as it is conveyed up to the secondary crushing stage. The lime application rate can be adjusted as needed to control solution pH during leaching.Before being fed into the secondary crusher, the ore passes over a screen deck to remove final product sized material. These fines are conveyed to the final product pile and oversize rock drops into a Nordberg HP 500 cone crusher where it is reduced to 2 inch nominal size. Crushed ore is then conveyed to an adjacent screen plant to remove product size material before being conveyed to the tertiary crushing stage. The tertiary stage of the crushing system consists of four Nordberg Omnicone 1560 cone crushers. Ore enters the tertiary stage through a diverter that distributes the rock to the four cone crushers. Each cone has its own screen deck to remove product size material before dropping into the crusher. This product size material is conveyed to the final product pile. Rock that is larger than product size falls in the tertiary cones and is crushed down to -inch nominal size. The total crushing system throughput of 750 to 1,000 tons per hour can be achieved with only three of the tertiary cones operating. A fourth cone can be left in standby in the event of a failure or planned maintenance on one of the other cones.After leaving the tertiary crushers the ore is conveyed back to the screen plant and any material not meeting the final product size is recirculated back into the tertiary cones until it meets specifications. The final product size target is 90 percent passing -inch and 80 percent passing -inch.

Stacked ore is then leached with dilute sodium cyanide solution. Gold and silver in the pregnant (metal-bearing) leach solution (PLS) are recovered by adsorption on activated carbon and the barren (non-metal bearing) leach solution is recycled to the heap leach pad. Spent ore is rinsed, neutralized and denitrified and then removed from the leach pad to be placed on a designated spent ore storage area.Gold and silver is recovered from loaded carbon utilizing a modified pressure Zadra method. The rich electrolyte (RE) from the elution process is then processed by electrowinning, depositing the metals into an electrolytic sludge with 90-98% gold and silver. Precious metals in the electrolytic sludge are further purified by smelting at a commercial refinery.Heap LeachThere are currently five on/off heap leach pads used for the leaching cycle; the newest pad (Pad #5) was constructed in 2008. In 2013, Wharf received certification by the International Cyanide Man ........

theta (open cut) project theta gold mines

theta (open cut) project theta gold mines

The Theta (Open Cut) Project sits across two mining rights MR83 and MR341 (see Map1) owned and operated by Theta Golds South African 74%-owned subsidiary Transvaal Gold Mining Estates Ltd (TGME). The existing CIL plant site and tailings-storage facilities is closely positioned between the two tenements.

As the mining rights and permits are mapped against the surface farm land boundaries, the Company made a decision to begin an underground-to-openpit mining approval amendment process starting only on MR83 as Stage-One development.

On 16 May 2019, the Company announced its very first Feasibility Study for the Theta Open Cut Project Starter Pits within Mining Right 83 (MR83) only (see Map1, Map2, Figure1). On 20 April 2020, a final Optimised Feasibility Study was released to the market.

Compared to the May 2019 original Feasibility Study, the new optimised plan has a new mining schedule with a reduced environmental footprint, reflects an increase in the production rate from 500 Ktpa to 600 Ktpa, includes the mining of several old mine waste rock dumps and increases the overall mine operational flexibility.

During the development/construction of the Stage-one Theta Starter-pits within MR83, the Company will prepare for Reserve drilling into MR341 targeting a combined Ore Reserve in excess of 500,000 ounces.

The Theta Open-pit Starter Project includes the Columbia Hill deposit and part of the Theta Hill deposit within Mining Right 83 (MR83) (see Map2, Figure 1) in the Pilgrims Rest area of South Africa. Waste Rock dumps of various sizes and from four main areas which were sampled by Rand Mines in the 1990s are now included in the new mine schedule and add easy gold ounces for the planned mine operations. The bulk of the waste rock dumps (75%) have been scheduled to be processed in the last year of Mine Schedule and as such have limited effect on the payback period. The payback period has been reduced from 14 months in the May 19 FS to 8 months.

The optimised study reflects strong project economics and commercial viability across a range of gold prices. The new mine schedule significantly enhances all the project economics despite a reduction in the LoM grade.

Table 1 below sets out the comparison of the initial May 19 FS to the Optimised Study at various gold price scenarios. Salient details between the Optimised Study run at $1,500/oz vs the May19 FS base case at $1,257/oz include:

The Ore Reserves estimated for the Theta Project represent the Iota section of Columbia Hill, and approximately 35% of the Theta Hill and Browns Hill deposits within the MR83 boundary. The Theta Hill and Browns Hill deposits extend to the south and into Mining Right 341 (MR341) (see Figure1). MR83 is fully permitted for underground mining and an amendment to include open-pit mining is in progress. There is an inclusion of a portion of historical waste rock dumps (inferred resources) in the schedule, albeit that 75% of this material is processed at the end of the mining schedule. The dumps are within a short trucking distance of the gold plant (average ~4 km). Further expansion opportunity exists to extend the project to the south into MR341 and this will be considered in future development work.

A whole new CIL Plant has been planned and recently redesigned to treat ore at a rate of 600 ktpa and increased by 20% from the May 19 FS (see ASX release 28 Jan 2020 Results of the Independent Plant Design Optimisation Study). Annual plant throughput and total deposition volume are constrained by the current approved Tailings Storage Facility (TSF) at 600 ktpa and 2.5 Mt respectively. Future tailings dam expansions have also been considered in the study and will require design and approvals before implementation.

All processing layouts were configured in and around the existing CIL Plant infrastructure to allow for potential future plant expansions. The plant capital has allowed for all new equipment, except for the mill (see ASX release 2 Oct 2019: Theta Agrees to Purchase Mill Operated by Glencore).

The Optimised Study mine schedule for the Theta Open Pit Starter Project considers the following Mineral Resources (Table 2) in the LoM plan. Appropriate modifying factors were applied to various Mineral Resource categories as with a Reserve Calculation. Where Inferred Mineral Resources were included, more conservative modifying factors were applied to reflect the added risk of including Inferred Mineral Resources in the financial analysis.

The Ore Reserve statement from the May 19 FS is presented below. The Ore Reserve calculation considered Mineral Resources in the Indicated category as the Theta Project does not contain any Measured Mineral Resources (see Table 2). The graph below (see Figure 3) illustrates the effect of the modifying factors on the diluted scheduled tonnes for the Theta Project. Pit designs are provided in Appendix A.

The Mineral Resource to Ore Reserve conversion requires application of appropriate factors that would account for any changes to the Mineral Resources (Figure 6) in the life of mine plan as a result of mining the ore. As part of the technical studies the potential ore loss and dilution to the Mineral Resources was determined and applied to the resources available for conversion to Ore Reserves. The ore loss reduces the tonnage and content, while the dilution would add additional tonnage with no gold content. Note ore reserve included previously undiscovered reefs (Bevetts and Shale Reef).

minera irl announces updated resources and mine life

minera irl announces updated resources and mine life

LIMA, Peru, June 28, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Minera IRL Limited (Minera or the Company) (BVL:MIRL) (CSE:MIRL), is pleased to announce the results of an updated Mineral Resource Estimate (2021 MRE) for its Corihuarmi Gold Mine (Corihuarmi) located in central Peru. The 2021 MRE, which was compiled and completed by consulting firm Mining Plus in accordance with the requirements of National Instrument 43-101 (NI 43-101), confirms the existence of sufficient resources to extend the life of mine (LOM) at Corihuarmi to August 2024, including measured and indicated resources totalling 13.8 million tonnes at an average grade of 0.21 grams per tonne (g/t).

Diego Benavides, CEO of Minera IRL Limited, stated: This is great news for us, as Corihuarmi which, by the way, translates from Quechua into English as the Golden Woman has historically provided the capital needed to operate our business. This 2021 MRE confirms our expectation that it can continue to do so, and this also translates to further capacity to advance the technical work required to get Ollachea ready for construction kickoff. With strong gold prices, consistent gold production and an extended LOM, we look forward to the continued success of our corporate community, including our shareholders and our neighbors in the communities bordering both Corihuarmi and Ollachea.

Corihuarmi has been in production since 2008. An initial NI 43-101 compliant Feasibility Study completed in April 2006 (the 2006 Technical Report) provided for a small mine with a life span of only four years, with total mineral reserves of 144,000 ounces of gold.

The LOM has been extended twice since the 2006 Technical Report, with the last extension completed by Mining Plus in 2018 (2018 Technical Report). The 2018 Technical Report provided for a 2.8-year LOM that expired in October 2020. Between 2008 and 2020, Corihuarmi produced more than 366,827 ounces of gold.

Based on the results of the 2021 MRE, Mining Plus has calculated Measured and Indicated Resources of 13.83 million tonnes at Corihuarmi (see Mineral Resources below). The Company expects to continue producing gold at an average grade of 0.21 g/t to August 2024.

The update of the resources has been carried out using the support data generated by the site. Gold grade was estimated into the block model using Reverse Circulation Drill holes (RC), Diamond Drill holes (DDH) and supported with rotary air drilling called long holes drilled in areas with limited assay information, and it was estimated applying industry-standard estimation methodology. Mineral resources are reported above a reasonable cutoff grade based on production costs and metallurgical recovery from the Corihuarmi Gold Mine.

In calculating the mineral resources, Mining Plus used a cut-off grade of 0.1 g/t Au inside the latest pit design for 2021, along with a low strip ratio. Both the pit design and cut-off grade were calculated using a gold price of US $1,500.

The mineral resources have been estimatedin accordance with widely accepted CIM Estimation of Mineral Resource and Mineral Reserves Best Practices Guidelines (November 2019) and are reported in accordance with NI 43-101. The mineral resources are summarized as follows at an effective date of February 28, 2021.

In the opinion of Mining Plus, the estimated resources are suitable for a public report and represent the metal content in-situ close to the surface and easily mineable in the current Mine operation area.

The Corihuarmi Mineral Resources were estimated by Geologist Maria Muoz, MAIG QP(Geo). Ms. Muoz is a full-time employee of Mining Plus Peru SAC and is an independent Qualified Person (QP) as defined by the National Instrument 43-101 who takes responsibility for it.

Minera IRL Limited is the CSE and BVL listed holding company of Minera IRL S.A. and Compaa Minera Kuri Kullu S.A., two precious metal mining companies engaged in mining exploration and development in Peru, with a primary focus on gold. Minera is led by an agile and experienced senior management team with extensive mining industry experience, particularly in South America. Minera operates the Corihuarmi Gold Mine located 5,000 meters above sea level in Central Peru and is currently advancing the Ollachea Gold Project located in the city of Puno, Southern Peru. For more information, please visit www.minera-irl.com.

Mining Plus is an Australian engineering and mining technical services provider, consisting of professionals specialising in geology, mining engineering (Surface & Underground), geotechnical engineering, and operational management. Part of the Mining Plus core business is Resource and Reserve Estimation, mine planning, and the respective sign for the relevant authorities. Mining Plus has a global presence and a local office in Lima, Peru.

Certain information in this news release, including information about the life of mine for Corihuarmi, expected or anticipated mining or production rates, our expectation that the final report will be filed on SEDAR within 45 days, and that the technical work required for Ollachea can be advanced, constitute forward-looking statements. Forward looking statements are based on assumptions. While management believes these assumptions and statements are reasonable in context, forward-looking statements are inherently subject to political, legal, regulatory, business, and economic risks and competitive uncertainties and contingencies. The Company cautions readers that forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause Minera IRLs actual results and future performance to be materially different than those expected or estimated future results, performance or achievements and that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance, results, or achievements.

Minera IRL assumes no obligation, except as may be required by law, to update or revise them to reflect new events or circumstances. Risks, uncertainties and contingencies and other factors that might cause actual performance to differ from forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, Perus ability to contain the COVID-19 crisis, changes in the capital or precious metals markets, the studies to be conducted by Mining Plus, Sepro Mineral Systems Corp. and others in order to produce a PEA, and changes to legislative, political, social, health or economic developments both within Peru and in general.

gold prospecting equipment at kellyco | gold panning supplies

gold prospecting equipment at kellyco | gold panning supplies

Having the right gold prospecting equipment will change your entire approach to this fun hobby. With the right equipment, your chances of finding this precious metal is much greater than having the bare minimum. With several key items included in any gold panning kit, being aware of the best items to have within your budget will help ensure you have a successful gold prospecting hunt.

With a wide range of gold prospecting equipment for sale, you certainly dont want to be wasting money purchasing the wrong items. At Kellyco, we have you covered for every circumstance and any budget. As a result, there are a number of different items that we believe should form the basis of any treasure hunter kit.

This hobby doesnt need an individual to have a wide range of mining equipment. Instead, gold prospecting can be easily achieved on a small budget while still enjoying the exciting experience of gold panning.

Looking through the pages of gold prospecting equipment, you may feel confused as to what is worth spending your money on. However, we feel that there are some key items that should form the basis of any gold prospecting kits.

The exact items will depend on how serious you want to take gold prospecting. If you love the idea of dredging rivers or streams to see how much gold you can uncover, then we have the equipment that you will need to do just that. Also, if the idea of some gentle gold panning or metal detecting is more up your street, then we have you covered as well.

First, if you love the idea of covering rivers and streams to uncover any gold that may lie in the water or bed, then a dredger would be important. This item comes with a motor, sluice, classifier, and suction hose to bring up the material from the bottom and to then be sorted through.

At Kellyco, we stock each individual component that would be required to either establish your dredging kit or to replace items that may be tired or require updating. From a wide array of suction hoses to attach to your power jet, to a variety of engines with different HP, our team of gold prospecting experts will be able to advise you on the best equipment to purchase for your bounty hunting adventures.

Of course, for those who are beginners with gold prospecting there are more inexpensive ways to build your kit. A simple gold panning kit costs very little and yet it is a wonderful way for someone to be introduced to the joys of gold panning. But, if you want to invest some extra money, then there are several items that should be on any list.

First, you need to consider if you wish to use a water sluice or a drywasher. As the name suggests, a drywasher uses alternative methods in that it focuses on air to separate the gold from other debris. Also, having a range of classifying meshes to hand can help you quickly sort through debris and be left with pure gold at the end of it all.

Of course, you may be drawn to the idea of gold prospecting with a metal detector, and that is an area where we certainly excel. With several options available, we have several gold detectors and search coils from manufacturers such as Whites, Nokta Makro, and Fisher.

However, dont break your budget on a gold detector, there are several cheap gold detectors at great quality. With every type of gold detector, no matter the budget, you will be able to distinguish between rocks, debris, other metals, and the gold itself. It does most of the hard work for you allowing you to simply enjoy the act of uncovering the gold.

For those just starting out with gold prospecting, we also have a number of kits that can be used as a way of an introduction. From the Minelab gold panning kit complete with a riffle pan and classifier, to Garrett producing their own sets, some of the biggest names in the industry understand exactly what you need when searching for gold panning equipment.

We know that you may have a number of questions surrounding what to buy and whether or not certain items are worthy of the investment. If this sounds like you, then make life easier for yourself by giving us a call here at Kellyco. A member of our team of expert detectorists will be happy to advise you on the best items to purchase that will allow you to get started with gold prospecting.

segilola gold project, osun, lagos, nigeria

segilola gold project, osun, lagos, nigeria

Preliminary feasibility study (PFS) for the gold project was completed in September 2017, while the definitive feasibility study (DFS) and the preliminary economic assessment (PEA) study were completed in February 2019.

Construction of the gold project is expected to be started in the second quarter of 2019 and will continue for 18 months. First gold pour is anticipated to be made in the third quarter of 2020, while production is expected to average at 80,000oz through its initial mine life of five years.

Gold mineralisation at Segilola project is mainly contained within structural compartments formed by the intersection of a westerly-dipping footwall calc-silicate suite of rocks and sub-vertical shear zones.

Most of the mineralisation is associated with steep westerly-dipping, north-trending pegmatitic quartz-feldspar veins identified within variably deformed gneissic rocks and schist. The vein system extends over a strike length of approximately 2,000m and downwards to 400m from the surface.

A combination of conventional open-pit and underground methods of mining, involving drilling and blasting, followed by loading and hauling, is proposed for the Segilola gold project. Major mining fleet will comprise 200t excavators and 90t dump trucks.

The processing plant will have a nameplate capacity of 650,000 tonnes of ore a year. Run-of-mine (ROM) ore will be crushed in a conventional crushing circuit and forwarded to a two-stage grinding unit to produce a P80 size of 106m.

The crushed material will be forwarded to a gravity circuit followed by gold extraction using the carbon-in-leach process. The extracted material will undergo elution at high pressure and temperature, electro-winning, and smelting processes to produce gold dor.

theta gold mines

theta gold mines

Primary listing on the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX:TGM) with a secondary listing on OTC Markets (OTC:TGMGF), an advanced gold developer with over 6Moz of very shallow gold mineral resources (JORC) under control, targeting high margin shallow underground and open-cut mining. Our goal is to become a responsible, sustainable and highly profitable gold mining group.

Begin to unlock the 6Moz gold resources, Theta plans to build a production profile of over 160,000 ounces per annum within the first 5 years. Between 2019 and 2021, Theta released both its initial maiden open-cut and underground Mining Reserves totaling 580,000 oz avg. 4g/t Au and shall continue to convert its resources into mining reserves in order to support future production ramp-up and extending mine life.

newmont corporation - about us - about mining - lifecycle of a mine

newmont corporation - about us - about mining - lifecycle of a mine

From the discovery of buried minerals to reclaiming land after closure of a mine, our operations can sometimes span 30 years or even longer. This means we may conduct business in or near a community for decades, and even generations. Throughout that time, Newmont's core values safety, integrity, sustainability, responsibility and inclusion give guidance to the actions of our employees and partners to ensure that we create value and improve lives through sustainable and responsible mining.

Before pursuing any new opportunity, we rigorously evaluate the geologic, biological, social, political, financial, infrastructure and cultural landscape in order to determine the viability and value of a project.

Our Global Supply Chain group plays a critical strategic and governance role throughout the life of a mine, ensuring that our network of local and global partners meet strict environmental, social, safety and ethical criteria to supply their goods and services in a manner that aligns with our vision and values.

We also proactively maintain our property, facilities and equipment at each stage of the lifecycle to ensure that our operations are safe, efficient and responsible. Properly managing and maintaining these mobile and fixed assets ensures that our business runs effectively and according to plan.

With odds of only one in 3,000 discoveries leading to mine development, and only 10 percent of the worlds gold deposits containing enough gold to mine, exploration can be labor-intensive, time consuming and expensive. Exploration can last anywhere from a couple of years to sometimes even decades. It also marks the first contact between Newmont and the community, and these interactions are critical to shaping positive future relationships.

The first step is prospecting. For explorers working in the field, accessing land is essential to discovering deposits. Explorers must recognize formal and informal ownership to obtain necessary permissions to enter onto prospective land. Once land access is secured, community relationships must be maintained through continuous communication during periods of inactivity and across multiple work teams, contractors and consultants.

Drilling helps us evaluate the type and grade of minerals in the ground. As crews drill, they mark the exact location and depth of each sample taken. Samples are then sent to an accredited lab, which identifies the concentration of elements, including gold, within them.

Assay information from the lab is combined with geologic, geochemical and geophysical data in a process known as geologic modeling of the ore body. Using information obtained from sampling, testing, mapping and observation, geologists use complex computer programs to create 3D models of what the underground mineral occurrence might look like. Geologic models are provided to resource model experts who statistically estimate the distribution of mainly gold and copper throughout the ore body shape.

Following several years of intensified drilling, the models are ultimately used by mine engineers to determine mining methods, optimum mine size and schedule, and equipment requirements that will maximize the safety and efficiency of production all of which takes place in the next stage of the mine lifecycle: development and design.

Newmont crews work to determine whether the prospective site can be safely operated in an environmentally sound, economically viable and socially responsible manner. Expanded work activities take place during the design and development stage, with more people on the ground conducting studies on the common, technical and business elements required to move forward into construction. Common elements are defined by activities that require the participation and input of multiple departments and cross-functional coordination, including (but not limited to) project execution planning, capital cost estimation, organizational modeling and risk assessments.

Technical elements, such as asset management, geology and resource modeling, project engineering and metallurgical process planning, are evaluated in order to determine the mining and process requirements of a prospective site all of which is done with full consideration of the international, national, regional and local laws and regulations, as well as Newmonts own standards and voluntary commitments. A full review of business elements such as human resources, insurance, legal, security, and health and safety is also included in the work activity required to evaluate a projects feasibility.

Typical project development can take up to 10 years from when the exploration group discovers the gold deposit, with the time expanding depending on economic conditions, legal requirements, technical difficulty and other factors.

Newmont crews work to determine whether the prospective site can be safely operated in an environmentally sound, economically viable and socially responsible manner. Expanded work activities take place during the design and development stage, with more people on the ground conducting studies on the common, technical and business elements required to move forward into construction. Common elements are defined by activities that require the participation and input of multiple departments and cross-functional coordination, including (but not limited to) project execution planning, capital cost estimation, organizational modeling and risk assessments.

Technical elements, such as asset management, geology and resource modeling, project engineering and metallurgical process planning, are evaluated in order to determine the mining and process requirements of a prospective site all of which is done with full consideration of the international, national, regional and local laws and regulations, as well as Newmonts own standards and voluntary commitments. A full review of business elements such as human resources, insurance, legal, security, and health and safety is also included in the work activity required to evaluate a projects feasibility.

Typical project development can take up to 10 years from when the exploration group discovers the gold deposit, with the time expanding depending on economic conditions, legal requirements, technical difficulty and other factors.

While we are busy designing the mine, we must simultaneously partner with local stakeholders to design a sustainable path forward that takes into account a vision for the mine site after mining operations close. This means listening to their input and prioritizing development objectives together while managing our current impacts at the same time.

Newmont engages during this phase in various ways, which can include public consultation activities driven by the social and environmental impact analysis process (social and environmental impact assessments). The decision to progress to mine construction does not sit solely with Newmont; the decision involves the local communities and government. Without their consent, the project cannot proceed. We value the feedback that stakeholders provide, and seek to design our projects in ways that create long-term mutual value.

In order for Newmont to create mutual value for our stakeholders, we must invest wisely, which is why we have a robust system in place to identify if, how and when we move opportunities through our project pipeline. Our Investment Council is chartered to make investment decisions across the organization based on independent Investment Value Assurance reviews at each stage in the pipeline:

Examines a range of options for the technical and economic viability of a mineral project, factoring in mine designs, production schedules, gold recoveries, plant design, labor and other operational expenses. Once the operational, financial, social and regulatory factors are examined and the risks and uncertainties are understood and accounted for and mitigation plans are in place, a single business plan is selected to move forward into the next stage.

An integrated set of Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) processes lead to actual mine construction. First, and engineering contractor is hired to complete a thorough research-based engineering design. The next phase involves the procurement of all necessary mining equipment and materials including, preparing a request for proposals, attracting qualified contractors to bid for the project, and ensuring that the required materials and equipment are delivered in a timely and efficient manner.

Each site must continue to engage in collaborative and honest stakeholder engagement to ensure the expectations of all parties are aligned. With the economic certainty of an approved project, Newmont can start to implement training programs and partnerships with development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and government agencies to kick-start economic empowerment in the community.

Once we have secured the necessary permits, capital investments and local stakeholder support, the construction phase can begin. Crucial to building the mine is ensuring that the best skilled personnel are available, materials are judiciously used, and time and other resources are optimally applied.

The first step is prospecting. For explorers working in the field, accessing land is essential to discovering deposits. Explorers must recognize formal and informal ownership to obtain necessary permissions to enter onto prospective land. Once land access is secured, community relationships must be maintained through continuous communication during periods of inactivity and across multiple work teams, contractors and consultants.

When operating a mine, we use stringent controls to prevent or manage any environmental impacts. Newmont environmental management systems are designed to ensure all environmental considerations including management, monitoring, maintenance, training and action plans are incorporated within an overall framework as an integral part of mining operations.

During the production phase, Newmont, governments, civil society and local stakeholders continue to work together to implement community development programs to catalyze long- term, sustainable socio-economic growth so that communities can thrive long after mining operations cease. We strive to reclaim land as we progress called concurrent reclamation and to incorporate stakeholder input in our closure plan.

The specialized machinery and heavy equipment that we use for production must be managed with discipline. These assets are maintained on a regular basis to ensure the safety, productivity and longevity of our operations.

Haul trucks transport the ore from open pits or underground to processing operations. Some ore may be stockpiled for later processing. Rock that is not economical to process is stored in overburden rock storage areas.

Newmont uses two ore processing techniques to extract gold: mill processing and heap leaching. The grade and type of ore determine the processing method used. Additionally, the geochemical makeup of the ore, including its hardness, sulfur content, carbon content and other minerals found within it, impacts the cost and methods used to extract gold.

Newmont is committed to ensuring long-term environmental stability and leaving a positive legacy for local communities. In part, this commitment means developing an integrated closure approach: taking into account community interests while managing technical environmental challenges and reclaiming mine-disturbed lands in a manner suitable for long-term beneficial use after our mines close.

Planning for closure begins during the earliest stages of project evaluation, well before construction starts at a new site. Reclamation activities commence during the production stage and continue post-operations until closure objectives can be achieved. Our goal is to minimize, to the extent possible, the disturbance of land in all stages of the mine lifecycle beginning with our exploration activities. Our goal is to reclaim all areas disturbed concurrently, when land is no longer needed for future mining operations, and to leverage facilities (e.g., roads, housing, etc.) for their long-term benefit to communities around the mine site.

Our Closure and Reclamation Technical Teams use a systematic approach to complete annual updates to closure and reclamation planning, cost estimates and concurrent reclamation opportunities. This approach provides a globally consistent reclamation and closure process at every stage of the mine lifecycle.

In developing and implementing reclamation plans, Newmont seeks to apply the latest thinking, technologies and approaches to effectively manage mining impacts and deliver reclamation and closure performance. All operations look to balance environmental solutions with post-mining beneficial land use.

To restore the landscape for future uses such as ranching, recreation or wildlife habitat protection, we progressively rehabilitate areas of disturbed land in the mining area, which offers a number of advantages:

During this stage, engagement activities with the local communities continue, and emphasize monitoring, land use and information about on-site activities. Communities are obviously still interested in site activities and often participate in reviewing technical issues and decision making. In some cases, a small number of people remain employed, depending on on-site activities, which often translates into local purchases of goods and services and payment of fees and property taxes.

The purpose of this post-closure period is to ensure that all reclaimed mine lands, water management structures and revegetation are working as intended. Additionally, reclamation and long-term stabilization often occur incrementally, requiring a phased approach as well as ongoing performance monitoring. There are maintenance activities to be conducted to address erosion, and monitoring to ensure that post-closure performance criteria are being met and intended land uses are being achieved. Normally, there are financial surety instruments in place, which require that Newmont demonstrate successful closure in order to be released from financial liability. In many cases, long-term water management obligations require active water treatment and monitoring that could last for decades. In such cases, financial trusts are often established in cooperation with regulatory agencies to ensure adequate funding for personnel, supplies and equipment to fulfill these ongoing obligations.

new gold inc. - assets - rainy river

new gold inc. - assets - rainy river

Rainy River commenced processing ore on September 14, 2017 and completed its first gold pour on October 5, 2017. Commercial production followed on October 19, 2017. Development of the underground mine began in the second half of 2018.

The mine occupies approximately 6,050 hectares, comprising 87 patented mining rights and surface rights claims (including eight leasehold interest mining rights and/or surface rights claims). In addition, New Gold has a land package of approximately 17,240 hectares surrounding the mine site, including patented mining rights and/or surface rights and unpatented claims. All unpatented claims are in good standing and assessment work credits are sufficient to maintain that standing for several years.

The Rainy River district comprises multiple volcanogenic-style gold deposits situated within the Late Archean Wabigoon Subprovince of Ontario. Local stratigraphy comprises a series of tholeiitic mafic volcanic rocks structurally overlain by calc-alkalic dacitic metavolcanic rocks that host the bulk of gold mineralization in the district.

Mineralized zones generally follow the regional northwesterly strike and southerly dip of stratigraphy. The largest of these, the ODM/17 Zone, extends 1,600 metres along strike, 975 metres down dip (open at depth), and has a true width of 200 metres. Three principal styles of gold mineralization have been identified at Rainy River: gold-bearing sulphide quartz stringers and veins in felsic quartz-phyric rocks, (ODM/17, Beaver Pond, 433 and HS Zones), quartz-ankerite-pyrite shear veins in mafic volcanic rocks (CAP/South Zone), and sulphide-bearing silver-enriched quartz veinlets in dacitic tuffs and breccias (Intrepid Zone). Most of the gold mineralization identified to date occurs in the sulphide bearing stringers and veins within the felsic quartz-phyric rocks. A fourth style of mineralization characterized by copper-nickel-platinum minerals occurs within a small, younger mafic-ultramafic intrusion (34 Zone) situated within the main cluster of gold and silver deposits. All deposits show some degree of deformation, excepting the copper-nickel-platinum-bearing type.

The Rainy River project represents one of Canadas newest emerging gold districts. The Rainy River district was first explored for nickel sulphide style mineralization in the mid-1960s. The eventual recognition of the districts gold potential in 1988 led to the discovery of gold mineralization in what has become a large system of stratiform gold-rich volcanogenic style sulphide deposits. After three years of commercial production, the Rainy River Mine accounts for 2.6 million ounces of gold reserves and an additional 2.0 million ounces of measured and indicated resources1.

In March 2021, the Company completed an early-stage reconnaissance drilling program designed to test targets of coincident geochemical soil anomalies, magnetic geophysical anomalies, and evidence of quartz veins and/or shear zones within the North East Trend area located approximately 15 kilometres north from the Rainy River Mine. Results to date define narrow intervals of gold bearing mineralization, supporting the preliminary geological and geochemical interpretations.

As we compile additional data and complete interpretations of all reconnaissance drilling, follow-up drilling is planned to commence in the second half of 2021. Field exploration activities have also been planned to refine follow-up drill targets, inclusive of soil geochemical survey, geological survey, geological mapping, and trenching.

Additionally, New Gold's exploration efforts focuses on identifying and generating new targets to define additional mineralization within the broader Company's landholdings and potentially extend the commercial life of the mine.

New Gold is committed to responsible mining in all mining, processing and environmental work across our operations and facilities from exploration, to mining, to rehabilitation and closure. As an organization, we strive to reach the highest standards in employee health and safety, environmental protection and community development and engagement. We believe these are key drivers to achieving a productive and profitable business.

Our policies and practices are guided by principles found in the United Nations Global Compact of which we are signatories, and our operational standards are based on the Mining Association of Canadas Towards Sustainable Mining Protocols.

New Gold is committed to working closely with communities to make a positive contribution to the community and regions in which we live and work. We recognize that our growth and success depend on the long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability of each of the communities in which we operate.

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Please note that you are now entering a website directly or indirectly maintained by a third party (the "External Site") and that you do so at your own risk. The terms of this disclaimer are supplemental to the Legal Notice maintained at www.newgold.com, which is applicable to your use of the External Site. References to the Company in this disclaimer include New Gold Inc. and all of its subsidiaries, affiliates and related companies.

The Company has no control over the External Site, any data or other content contained therein or any additional linked websites. The link to the External Site is provided for convenience purposes only. The information and other content on the External Site is not meant to modify, qualify, supplement or amend information disclosed by or on behalf of the Company under corporate, securities or other legislation in any jurisdiction, and should not be used to make investment decisions involving the Companys securities.

By clicking Accept you acknowledge and agree that neither the Company nor third party provider Virtua Research, Inc. (Virtua) is responsible, or accepts or assumes any responsibility or liability whatsoever for, the content, the data or the technical operation of the External Site. Further, by entering the External Site, you also acknowledge and agree that you completely and irrevocably waive any and all rights and claims against the Company and Virtua and further acknowledge and agree that in no event shall the Company or Virtua, its officers, employees, directors and agents be liable for any (i) indirect, consequential, incidental, special, compensatory or punitive damages, (ii) damages for loss of income, loss of business profits, business interruption, loss of data or business information, loss of or damage to property, (iii) claims of third parties, or (iv) other pecuniary loss, arising out of or related to the Legal Notice, this disclaimer or the External Site.

By entering the External Site, you further acknowledge and agree that the disclaimer of warranties and limitations of liability set out in this disclaimer shall apply regardless of the causes, circumstances or form of action giving rise to the loss, damage, claim or liability, even if such loss, damage, claim or liability is based upon breach of contract (including, without limitation, a claim of fundamental breach or breach of a fundamental term), tort (including, without limitation, negligence), strict liability or any other legal or equitable theory, and even if the Company and Virtua are advised of the possibility of the loss, damage, claim or liability. The waiver and release specifically includes, without limitation, any and all rights and claims pertaining to the processing of personal data, including but not limited to any rights under any applicable data protection statute(s). If in any jurisdiction, any part of this disclaimer is held to be unenforceable by a court of competent jurisdiction, such part of this disclaimer shall be restricted or eliminated to the minimum extent and the remaining disclaimer shall otherwise remain in full force and effect.

Please note the information presented is deemed representative at the time of its original release. Changes in historical information may occur due to adjustments in accounting and reporting standards & procedures.

In addition to disclosing results determined in accordance with GAAP, the Company may also disclose certain non-GAAP (such as cash costs and all-in sustaining costs) results of operations, including certain ratios, operational and miscellaneous data, as well as net income, diluted earnings per share, operating expenses, and operating income that make certain adjustments or exclude certain charges and gains that are outlined in the schedules included in this website and other non-GAAP measures. Management of the Company believes that this non-GAAP information provides investors with additional information to assess the Companys operating performance by making certain adjustments or excluding costs or gains and assists investors in comparing the Companys operating performance to prior periods. Management uses this non-GAAP information, along with GAAP information, in evaluating its historical operating performance. Neither the Company nor Virtua takes any responsibility for third party pricing data provided for informational purposes and certain ratio results formulated from the provided third party pricing data. The non-GAAP information is not prepared in accordance with GAAP, have no standardized meaning under GAAP and may not be comparable to non-GAAP information used by other companies. The non-GAAP information should not be viewed as a substitute for, or superior to, other data prepared in accordance with GAAP. See the Companys cautionary statements in its latest interim and annual MD&As.

the worlds top 10 highest-grade copper mines

the worlds top 10 highest-grade copper mines

Grade is king. This is very true, especially in todays challenging mineral commodities market conditions. The grade of metal in ore is usually directly related to the ability of a particular mine to make money and be profitable.

All things being equal, a higher grade generally means lower production costs per ounce/pound/ton, making high-grade ore deposits a crucial consideration for mining investors. Mines that can provide good returns in any market environment are the best of breed.

Why have only reserves been taken into account? This is because a mineral reserve is the part of the mineral resource that has demonstrated economic viability in current market conditions. Therefore, ore reserves are much less speculative than ore resources and relatively precisely reflect changes in the economic wellbeing of mines.

The following analysis covers those currently active copper mining operations throughout the world that are separate reporting units and which have most recent reserves figures, calculated according to international standards and disclosed by the owners/operators after December 31, 2014.

For a more accurate comparison, copper operations have been split into underground and open-pit, since these mining methods utilize different techniques and equipment. In this research, the focus is on ore grade in reserves while putting aside other crucial parameters like ore tonnage and volume of metal contained in ore.

1. Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) CLC open-pit copper mine, Sevilla Province, Spain. Source: first-quantum.com First Quantums CLC copper deposit is exceptionally rich, and with ore reserves grading 5% copper it is believed to be the highest-grade open-pit active copper mine worldwide. CLC is located approximately 20 kilometres northwest of the city of Seville and forms part of the Iberian Pyrite Belt, a mineral-rich area that stretches across the southwest of the peninsula. The mine uses leaching and electrowinning technology to produce copper cathode. The CLC Hydrometallurgical Plant is one of the most technologically advanced in the world for treating copper. 2. Kamoto Oliveira Virgule (KOV) Drilling at KOV mine. Source: glencore.com The KOV mine is part of Glencores Katanga operation located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). KOV is believed to contain the largest high-grade open-pit copper reserve/resource in the world. Being slightly behind first-ranked CLC by copper grade in ore reserves, KOV is much bigger in terms of ore tonnage and contained metal. While operations at nearly all Katanga producing units are currently suspended by Glencore pending the completion of the Whole Ore Leach Project in 2017, KOV technically is the only mine still active. 3. Kinsevere Solvent extraction circuits (high and low-grade ore) at Kinsevere copper mine, DRC. Source: www.mmg.com Kinsevere is a world-class copper mine located in DRC. Kinsevere was acquired by MMG in 2012 and is an important part of the companys portfolio of high-quality base metals assets. Conventional mining methods are used at Kinsevere to remove waste material and extract ore. Due to ground conditions, most areas can be mined without blasting. Ore is hauled to the run of mine (ROM) stockpile while waste material is stockpiled on the surface or used on the walls of the tailings storage facility. With 3.5% copper grade in reserves, Kinsevere is the third-ranked copper mine on this list. 4. Sepon Sepon copper mining and processing complex. Source: mmg.com Sepon is MMGs open-pit copper mine located in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos. Sepon produces 99.9% copper cathode using a whole-of-ore leach, solvent extraction and electrowinning (SX-EW) process. Copper cathodes are transported via road and sea to manufacturers of cable, wire and tube in Asia and Europe. Sepon has 2.7% copper grade in reserves and holds fourth place in our list of highest-grade open-pit copper mines. 5. Antas Antas open-pit copper mine, Brazil. Source: avancoresources.com Avanco Resources Antas open-pit copper-gold mine is located in the Carajs mineral-rich province in northern Brazil. The Carajs region is regarded as one of the most prospective mineral provinces in the world for the discovery of high-grade large-tonnage copper-gold and iron ore resources. Antas is a high-grade, low-cost copper mine with gold byproduct credits and significant exploration potential. 2.5% copper grade in reserves puts this mine fifth on the list. 1. Sudbury Morrison underground polymetallic mine, part of KGHMs Sudbury Operations. Source: kghm.com KGHMs Sudbury operations are located on the western border of the richly-mineralized North Range of the Sudbury Igneous Complex in Ontario, Canada, about 400 km north of Toronto. The Sudbury Complex is a unique geological structure, being the site of a 1.85 billion-year-old meteorite impact crater. Today, Sudbury is one of the most productive mining camps with one of the richest and largest polymetallic deposits in the world. Minerals are extracted by some of the biggest mining companies, including KGHM, Vale and Glencore. With 7.9% copper grade in reserves, Sudbury leads the pack of richest underground copper mines. Although having very limited copper reserves, this copper operation is benefitting from the recent copper prices wave in the short term. 2. Kinsenda Kinsenda underground copper mine, DRC. Source: Metorex Group Metorexs Kinsenda underground copper mine is located in the Democratic Republic of Congo, near the border town of Kasumbalesa. The Kinsenda operation ranks as one of the worlds highest grade rookie underground copper mines in the world. Currently, Kinsenda is in transition from the development phase to commissioning and full-scale production. This mine has both high-grade and high-tonnage ore reserves/resources that put this operation well above its peers. With 4.8% copper grade in reserves, Kinsenda is the second highest-grade underground active copper mine. 3. DeGrussa DeGrussa underground copper-gold mine, Western Australia. Source: sandfire.com.au Sandfires DeGrussa copper-gold mine, located 900 km northeast of Perth in Western Australia, is one of the Asia-Pacific regions premiere, high-grade copper mines. It only took three years for Sandfire to bring DeGrussa from discovery into production. Commencing with an initial two-year open pit mining operation which was completed in April 2013, the DeGrussa operation is based on a long-term underground mine delivering sulphide ore to an on-site 1.5 Mtpa concentrator. DeGrussa boasts 4.4% copper grade in reserves and 5.7% copper grade in resources. 4. CSA Underground workshop, CSA Mine, Cobar, New South Wales, Australia. Source: Glencore.com Glencores CSA underground copper mine is located in Cobar, central-western New South Wales, Australia. The mine initially started in 1871 with an erratic production history until 1964, when Broken Hill South Ltd began large-scale production. Since 1965 the mine has extracted substantial quantities of zinc, lead, silver and copper, but today, CSA focuses on mining copper, with a silver co-product. The mineproduces over 1.1 million tonnes of copper ore and in excess of 185,000 tonnes of copper concentrate per annum. The concentrate contains approximately 29% copper and is exported to smelters in India, China and Southeast Asia. With 4.3% copper grade in reserves, this mine holds fourth place in our list of highest-grade underground copper operations. 5. Reed Drift development on the 110 metre level, Reed mine, Canada. Source: hudbayminerals.com Hudbay Minerals Reed underground copper mineis in Manitoba, Canada. Reed is a small high-grade copper deposit that commenced initial production in September 2013 and achieved commercial production at the end of the first quarter of 2014. It is located 120 kilometres from Flin Flon, where ore is trucked to the Flin Flon concentrator for processing. 4.1% copper grade in reserves puts the Reed mine fifth on the list. Data retrieved from the IntelligenceMine database. Experts since 1989, the IntelligenceMine team analyze mining news and hundreds of documents daily to keep you on top of global mining. Get access to more than 12,000 listed and private company profiles, 33,000 mines, projects and processing facilities and 1.6m regulatory and source documents. IntelligenceMine also provides powerful multi-faceted search with comparative result grids, sorting and download capabilities, an online interactive mapper and more. Sign up for Mining Intelligenceand get rich insights about miners, juniors and projects. Our online tool puts rich data at your fingertips.

First Quantums CLC copper deposit is exceptionally rich, and with ore reserves grading 5% copper it is believed to be the highest-grade open-pit active copper mine worldwide. CLC is located approximately 20 kilometres northwest of the city of Seville and forms part of the Iberian Pyrite Belt, a mineral-rich area that stretches across the southwest of the peninsula. The mine uses leaching and electrowinning technology to produce copper cathode. The CLC Hydrometallurgical Plant is one of the most technologically advanced in the world for treating copper.

The KOV mine is part of Glencores Katanga operation located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). KOV is believed to contain the largest high-grade open-pit copper reserve/resource in the world. Being slightly behind first-ranked CLC by copper grade in ore reserves, KOV is much bigger in terms of ore tonnage and contained metal. While operations at nearly all Katanga producing units are currently suspended by Glencore pending the completion of the Whole Ore Leach Project in 2017, KOV technically is the only mine still active.

Kinsevere is a world-class copper mine located in DRC. Kinsevere was acquired by MMG in 2012 and is an important part of the companys portfolio of high-quality base metals assets. Conventional mining methods are used at Kinsevere to remove waste material and extract ore. Due to ground conditions, most areas can be mined without blasting. Ore is hauled to the run of mine (ROM) stockpile while waste material is stockpiled on the surface or used on the walls of the tailings storage facility. With 3.5% copper grade in reserves, Kinsevere is the third-ranked copper mine on this list.

Sepon is MMGs open-pit copper mine located in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos. Sepon produces 99.9% copper cathode using a whole-of-ore leach, solvent extraction and electrowinning (SX-EW) process. Copper cathodes are transported via road and sea to manufacturers of cable, wire and tube in Asia and Europe. Sepon has 2.7% copper grade in reserves and holds fourth place in our list of highest-grade open-pit copper mines.

Avanco Resources Antas open-pit copper-gold mine is located in the Carajs mineral-rich province in northern Brazil. The Carajs region is regarded as one of the most prospective mineral provinces in the world for the discovery of high-grade large-tonnage copper-gold and iron ore resources. Antas is a high-grade, low-cost copper mine with gold byproduct credits and significant exploration potential. 2.5% copper grade in reserves puts this mine fifth on the list.

KGHMs Sudbury operations are located on the western border of the richly-mineralized North Range of the Sudbury Igneous Complex in Ontario, Canada, about 400 km north of Toronto. The Sudbury Complex is a unique geological structure, being the site of a 1.85 billion-year-old meteorite impact crater. Today, Sudbury is one of the most productive mining camps with one of the richest and largest polymetallic deposits in the world. Minerals are extracted by some of the biggest mining companies, including KGHM, Vale and Glencore. With 7.9% copper grade in reserves, Sudbury leads the pack of richest underground copper mines. Although having very limited copper reserves, this copper operation is benefitting from the recent copper prices wave in the short term.

Metorexs Kinsenda underground copper mine is located in the Democratic Republic of Congo, near the border town of Kasumbalesa. The Kinsenda operation ranks as one of the worlds highest grade rookie underground copper mines in the world. Currently, Kinsenda is in transition from the development phase to commissioning and full-scale production. This mine has both high-grade and high-tonnage ore reserves/resources that put this operation well above its peers. With 4.8% copper grade in reserves, Kinsenda is the second highest-grade underground active copper mine.

Sandfires DeGrussa copper-gold mine, located 900 km northeast of Perth in Western Australia, is one of the Asia-Pacific regions premiere, high-grade copper mines. It only took three years for Sandfire to bring DeGrussa from discovery into production. Commencing with an initial two-year open pit mining operation which was completed in April 2013, the DeGrussa operation is based on a long-term underground mine delivering sulphide ore to an on-site 1.5 Mtpa concentrator. DeGrussa boasts 4.4% copper grade in reserves and 5.7% copper grade in resources.

Glencores CSA underground copper mine is located in Cobar, central-western New South Wales, Australia. The mine initially started in 1871 with an erratic production history until 1964, when Broken Hill South Ltd began large-scale production. Since 1965 the mine has extracted substantial quantities of zinc, lead, silver and copper, but today, CSA focuses on mining copper, with a silver co-product. The mineproduces over 1.1 million tonnes of copper ore and in excess of 185,000 tonnes of copper concentrate per annum. The concentrate contains approximately 29% copper and is exported to smelters in India, China and Southeast Asia. With 4.3% copper grade in reserves, this mine holds fourth place in our list of highest-grade underground copper operations.

Hudbay Minerals Reed underground copper mineis in Manitoba, Canada. Reed is a small high-grade copper deposit that commenced initial production in September 2013 and achieved commercial production at the end of the first quarter of 2014. It is located 120 kilometres from Flin Flon, where ore is trucked to the Flin Flon concentrator for processing. 4.1% copper grade in reserves puts the Reed mine fifth on the list.

Data retrieved from the IntelligenceMine database. Experts since 1989, the IntelligenceMine team analyze mining news and hundreds of documents daily to keep you on top of global mining. Get access to more than 12,000 listed and private company profiles, 33,000 mines, projects and processing facilities and 1.6m regulatory and source documents. IntelligenceMine also provides powerful multi-faceted search with comparative result grids, sorting and download capabilities, an online interactive mapper and more.

Bravo and Congratulation for you KGHM and your Partners for successive mining operation at the richest polymetallic deposit. Mining discussion are open, if any.Save yourselv, and be happy, Szczesc Wam Boze. W. Jura

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