## common & basic formulas for mineral processing calculations

The control of a milling operation is a problem in imponderables: from the moment that the ore drops into the mill scoop the process becomes continuous, and continuity ceases only when the products finally come to rest at the concentrate bins and on the tailing dams. Material in process often cannot be weighed without a disturbance of continuity; consequently, mill control must depend upon the sampling of material in flux. From these samples the essential information is derived by means of analyses for metal content, particle size distribution, and content of water or other ingredient in the ore pulp.

The following formulas were developed during a long association not only with design and construction, but also with the operation of ore dressing plants. These formulas are herein the hope that they would prove of value to others in the ore dressing industry.

Pulp densities indicate by means of a tabulation the percentages of solids (or liquid-to-solid ratio) in a sample of pulp. This figure is valuable in two waysdirectly, because for each unit process and operation in milling the optimum pulp density must be established and maintained, and indirectly, because certain important tonnage calculations are based on pulp density.

As used in these formulas the specific gravity of the ore is obtained simply by weighing a liter of mill pulp, then drying and weighing the ore. With these two weights formula (2) may be used to obtain K, and then formula (1) to convert to S, the specific gravity. A volumetric flask of one liter capacity provides the necessary accuracy. In laboratory work the ore should be ground wet to make a suitable pulp. This method does not give the true specific gravity of the ore, but an apparent specific gravity which is more suitable for the intended purposes.

A mechanical classifier often receives its feed from a ball mill and produces (1) finished material which overflows to the next operation and (2) sand which returns to the mill for further size-reduction. The term circulating load is defined as the tonnage of sand that returns to the ball mill, and the circulating load ratio is the ratio of circulating load to the tonnage of original feed to the ball mill. Since the feedto the classifier, the overflow of the classifier, and the sand usually are associated with different proportions of water to solid, the calculation of circulating load ratio can be based on a pulp density formula.

Example: A mill in closed circuit with a classifier receives 300 dry tons of crude ore per day, and the percentages of solid are respectively 25, 50, and 84% in the classifier overflow, feed to classifier, and sand, equivalent to L: S ratios of 3.0, 1.0, and 0.190. Then the circulating load ratio equals

A more accurate basis for calculation of tonnage in a grinding circuit is the screen analysis. Samples of the mill discharge, return sand, and the classifier overflow are screen sized, and the cumulative percentages are calculated on several meshes. Let:

The efficiency of a classifier, also determined by means of screen analyses, has been defined as the ratio, expressed as percentage, of the weight of classified material in the overflow to the weight of classifiable material in the feed. Overflow having the same sizing test as the feed is not considered classified material. Let:

When no other method is available an approximation of the tonnage in a pulp stream or in a batch of pulp can be quickly obtained by one of these methods. In the dilution method water is added to astream of pulp at a known rate, or to a batch of pulp in known quantity, and the specific gravity of the pulp ascertained before and after dilution.

In both cases Dx and D2 are dilutions (tons of water per ton of ore) before and after addition of water. These are found from the specific gravities of the pulp, by formulas (4) and (6) or directly by the use of the tabulation on these of Pulp Density Tables.

The Pulp Density Tables were compiled to eliminate the many complicated calculations which were required when using other pulp density tables. The total tank volume required for each twenty-four hour period of treatment is obtained in one computation. The table gives a figure, in cubic feet, which includes the volume of a ton of solids plus the necessary volume of water to make a pulp of the particular specific gravity desired. Multiply this figure by the number of dry tons of feed per twenty-four hours. Then simply adjust this figure to the required treatment time, such as 16, 30, 36, 72 hours.

In the chemical method a strong solution of known concentration of common salt, zinc sulphate, or other easily measured chemical is added to the flowing pulp at a known rate, or to a batch of pulp in known quantity. The degree of dilution of this standard solution by pulp water is ascertained by chemical analysis of solution from a filtered sample, and the tonnage of ore is then calculated from the percentage solid. This method is impractical for most purposes, but occasionally an exceptional circumstance makes its employment advantageous. It has also been suggested as a rapid and accurate method of determining concentrate moistures, but in this application the expense is prohibitive, since ordinary chemicals of reasonable cost are found to react quickly with the concentrate itself.

With the above chart the per cent solids or specific gravity of a pulp can be determined for ores where gravities do not coincide with those in the Pulp Density Tables.This chart can also be used for determining the specific gravity of solids, specific gravity of pulps, orthe per cent solids in pulp if any two of the three are known.

These are used to compute the production of concentrate in a mill or in a particular circuit. The formulas are based on assays of samples, and the results of the calculations are generally accurate as accurate as the sampling, assaying, and crude ore (or other) tonnage on which they depend.

The simplest case is that in which two products only, viz., concentrate and tailing, are made from a given feed. If F, C, and T are tonnages of feed r on-centrate, and tailing respectively; f, c, and t are the assays of the important metal; K, the ratio of concentration (tons of feed to make one ton of concentrate); and R, the recovery of the assayed metal; then

When a feed containing, say, metal 1 and metal z, is divided into three products, e.g., a concentrate rich in metal 1, another concentrate rich in metal z, and a tailing reasonably low in both l and z, several formulas in terms of assays of these two metals and tonnage of feed can be used to obtain the ratio of concentration, the weights of the three products, and the recoveries of 1 and z in their concentrates. For simplification in the following notation, we shall consider a lead-zinc ore from whicha lead concentrate and a zinc concentrate are produced:

The advantages of using the three-product formulas (20-25) instead of the two-product formulas (14-19), are four-fold(a) simplicity, (b) fewer samples involved, (c) intermediate tailing does not have to be kept free of circulating material, (d) greater accuracy if application is fully understood.

In further regard to (d) the three-product formulas have certain limitations. Of the three products involved, two must be concentrates of different metals. Consider the following examples (same as foregoing, with silver assays added):

In this example the formula will give reliable results when lead and zinc assays or silver and zinc assays, but not if silver and lead assays, are used, the reason being that there is no concentration of lead or silver in the second concentrate. Nor is the formula dependable in a milling operation, for example, which yields only a table lead concentratecontaining silver, lead, and zinc, and a flotation concentrate only slightly different in grade, for in this case there is no metal which has been rejected in one product and concentrated in a second. This is not to suggest that the formulas will not give reliable results in such cases, but that the results are not dependablein certain cases one or more tonnages may come out with negative sign, or a recovery may exceed 100%.

To estimate the number of cells required for a flotation operation in which: WTons of solids per 24 hours. RRatio by weight: solution/solids. LSpecific gravity, solution. SSpecific gravity, solids. NNumber of cells required. TContact time in minutes. CVolume of each cell in cu. ft.

Original feed may be applied at the ball mill or the classifier. TTons of original feed. XCirculation factor. A% of minus designated size in feed. B% of minus designated size in overflow. C% of minus designated size in sands. Circulating load = XT. Where X = B-A/A-C Classifier efficiency: 100 x B (A-C)/A (B-C)

Original feed may be applied at theball mill or the primary classifier. TTons of original feed. XPrimary circulation factor. YSecondary circulation factor. A% of minus designated size in feed. B% of minus designated size in primary overflow. C% of minus designated size in primary sands. D% of minus designated size in secondary overflow. E% of minus designated size in secondary sands. Primary Circulating Load = XT. Where X = (B-A) (D-E)/(A-C) (B-E) Primary Classifier Efficiency: 100 xB (A C)/A (B C) Secondary Circulating Load = YT. Where Y = (D-B)/(B-E) Secondary Classifier Efficiency: 100 xD (B-E)/B (D E) Total Circulating Load (X + Y) T.

Lbs. per ton = ml per min x sp gr liquid x % strength/31.7 x tons per 24 hrs.(26) Solid reagents: Lbs. per ton = g per min/31.7 x tons per 24 hrs.(27) Example: 400 ton daily rate, 200 ml per min of 5% xanthate solution Lbs. per ton = 200 x 1 x 5/31.7 x 400 = .079

Generally speaking, the purpose of ore concentration is to increase the value of an ore by recovering most of its valuable contents in one or more concentrated products. The simplest case may be represented by a low grade copper ore which in its natural state could not be economically shipped or smelted. The treatment of such an ore by flotation or some other process of concentration has this purpose: to concentrate the copper into as small a bulk as possible without losing too much of the copper in doing so. Thus there are two important factors. (1) the degree of concentration and (2) the recovery ofcopper.

The question arises: Which of these results is the most desirable, disregarding for the moment the difference in cost of obtaining them? With only the information given above the problem is indeterminate. A number of factors must first be taken into consideration, a few of them being the facilities and cost of transportation and smelting, the price of copper, the grade of the crude ore, and the nature of the contract between seller and buyer of the concentrate.

The problem of comparing test data is further complicated when the ore in question contains more than one valuable metal, and further still when a separation is also made (production of two or more concentrates entirely different in nature). An example of the last is a lead-copper-zinc ore containing also gold and silver, from which are to be produced. (1) a lead concentrate, (2) a copper concentrate, and (3) a zinc concentrate. It can be readily appreciated that an accurate comparison of several tests on an ore of this nature would involve a large number of factors, and thatmathematical formulas to solve such problems would be unwieldy and useless if they included all of these factors.

The value of the products actually made in the laboratory test or in the mill is calculated simply by liquidating the concentrates according to the smelter schedules which apply, using current metal prices, deduction, freight expense, etc., and reducing these figures to value per ton of crude ore by means of the ratios of concentration.

The value of the ore by perfect concentration iscalculated by setting up perfect concentrates, liquidating these according to the same smelter schedulesand with the same metal prices, and reducing theresults to the value per ton of crude ore. A simple example follows:

The value per ton of crude ore is then \$10 for lead concentrate and \$8.50 for zinc, or a total of \$18.50 per ton of crude ore. By perfect concentration, assuming the lead to be as galena and the zinc as sphalerite:

The perfect grade of concentrate is one which contains 100% desired mineral. By referring to the tables Minerals and Their Characteristics (pages 332-339) it is seen that the perfect grade of a copper concentrate will be 63.3% when the copper is in the form of bornite, 79.8% when in the mineral chalcocite, and 34.6% when in the mineral chalcopyrite.

A common association is that of chalcopyrite and galena. In concentrating an ore containing these minerals it is usually desirable to recover the lead and the copper in one concentrate, the perfect grade of which would be 100% galena plus chalcopyrite. If L is the lead assay of the crude ore, and C the copper assay, it is easily shown that the ratio of concentration of perfect concentration is:

% Pb in perfect concentrate = K perfect x L.(30) % Cu in perfect concentrate = K perfect x C..(31) or, directly by the following formula: % Pb in perfect concentrate = 86.58R/R + 2.5.(32) where R represents the ratio:% Pb in crude ore/% Cu in crude ore Formula (32) is very convenient for milling calculations on ores of this type.

by (29) K perfect = 100/5.775+2.887 = 11.545 and % Pb in perfect concentrate = 11.545 x 5 = 57.7% and % Cu in perfect concentrate = 11.545 x 1 = 11.54% or, directly by (32), % Pb = 86.58 x 5/5 + 2.5 = 57.7%

Occasionally the calculation of the grade of perfect concentrate is unnecessary because the smelter may prefer a certain maximum grade. For example, a perfect copper concentrate for an ore containing copper only as chalcocite would run 79.8% copper, but if the smelter is best equipped to handle a 36% copper concentrate, then for milling purposes 36% copper may be considered the perfect grade.

Similarly, in a zinc ore containing marmatite, in which it is known that the maximum possible grade of zinc concentrate is 54% zinc, there would be no point in calculating economic recovery on the basis of a 67% zinc concentrate (pure sphalerite). For example, the following assays of two zinc concentrates show the first to be predominantly sphalerite, the second marmatite:

The sulphur assays show that in the first case all of the iron is present as pyrite, and consequently the zinc mineral is an exceptionally pure sphalerite. This concentrate is therefore very low grade, from the milling point of view, running only 77.6% of perfect grade.On the other hand, the low sulphur assay of concentrate B shows this to be a marmatite, for 10% iron occurs in the form of FeS and only 2.5% iron as pyrite. The zinc mineral in this case contains 55.8% zinc, 10.7% iron, and 33.5% sulphur, and clearly is an intermediate marmatite. From the milling point of view cencentrate B is high grade, running 93% of perfect grade, equivalent to a 62% zinc concentrate on a pure sphalerite.

## gyratory crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Gyratory crushers were invented by Charles Brown in 1877 and developed by Gates around 1881 and were referred to as a Gates crusher [1]. The smaller form is described as a cone crusher. The larger crushers are normally known as primary crushers as they are designed to receive run-on-mine (ROM) rocks directly from the mines. The gyratory crushers crush to reduce the size by a maximum of about one-tenth its size. Usually, metallurgical operations require greater size reduction; hence, the products from the primary crushers are conveyed to secondary or cone crushers where further reduction in size takes place. Here, the maximum reduction ratio is about 8:1. In some cases, installation of a tertiary crusher is required where the maximum reduction is about 10:1. The secondary crushers are also designed on the principle of gyratory crushing, but the construction details vary.

Similar to jaw crushers, the mechanism of size reduction in gyratory crushers is primarily by the compressive action of two pieces of steel against the rock. As the distance between the two plates decreases continuous size reduction takes place. Gyratory crushers tolerate a variety of shapes of feed particles, including slabby rock, which are not readily accepted in jaw crushers because of the shape of the feed opening.

The gyratory crusher shown in Figure 2.6 employs a crushing head, in the form of a truncated cone, mounted on a shaft, the upper end of which is held in a flexible bearing, whilst the lower end is driven eccentrically so as to describe a circle. The crushing action takes place round the whole of the cone and, since the maximum movement is at the bottom, the characteristics of the machine are similar to those of the Stag crusher. As the crusher is continuous in action, the fluctuations in the stresses are smaller than in jaw crushers and the power consumption is lower. This unit has a large capacity per unit area of grinding surface, particularly if it is used to produce a small size reduction. It does not, however, take such a large size of feed as a jaw crusher, although it gives a rather finer and more uniform product. Because the capital cost is high, the crusher is suitable only where large quantities of material are to be handled.

However, the gyratory crusher is sensitive to jamming if it is fed with a sticky or moist product loaded with fines. This inconvenience is less sensitive with a single-effect jaw crusher because mutual sliding of grinding surfaces promotes the release of a product that adheres to surfaces.

The profile of active surfaces could be curved and studied as a function of the product in a way to allow for work performed at a constant volume and, as a result, a higher reduction ratio that could reach 20. Inversely, at a given reduction ratio, effective streamlining could increase the capacity by 30%.

Maintenance of the wear components in both gyratory and cone crushers is one of the major operating costs. Wear monitoring is possible using a Faro Arm (Figure 6.10), which is a portable coordinate measurement machine. Ultrasonic profiling is also used. A more advanced system using a laser scanner tool to profile the mantle and concave produces a 3D image of the crushing chamber (Erikson, 2014). Some of the benefits of the liner profiling systems include: improved prediction of mantle and concave liner replacement; identifying asymmetric and high wear areas; measurement of open and closed side settings; and quantifying wear life with competing liner alloys.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100mm. They are classified as jaw, gyratory, and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear, and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake. A Fritsch jaw crusher with maximal feed size 95mm, final fineness (depends on gap setting) 0.315mm, and maximal continuous throughput 250Kg/h is shown in Fig. 2.8.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes. Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor. Crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough to pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of the product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure, forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions. A design for a hammer crusher (Fig. 2.9) essentially allows a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, the circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A and B zones is established and the high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100 mm in size. They are classified as jaw, gyratory and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing of hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes.

Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor and crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around of the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions.

A design for a hammer crusher (Figure 2.6) allows essentially a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A- and B-zones is established and high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Jaw crushers are mainly used as primary crushers to produce material that can be transported by belt conveyors to the next crushing stages. The crushing process takes place between a fixed jaw and a moving jaw. The moving jaw dies are mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion. The jaw dies must be replaced regularly due to wear. Figure 8.1 shows two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is installed on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action of the moving jaw. A double toggle crusher has, basically, two shafts and two toggle plates. The first shaft is a pivoting shaft on the top of the crusher, while the other is an eccentric shaft that drives both toggle plates. The moving jaw has a pure reciprocating motion toward the fixed jaw. The crushing force is doubled compared to single toggle crushers and it can crush very hard ores. The jaw crusher is reliable and robust and therefore quite popular in primary crushing plants. The capacity of jaw crushers is limited, so they are typically used for small or medium projects up to approximately 1600t/h. Vibrating screens are often placed ahead of the jaw crushers to remove undersize material, or scalp the feed, and thereby increase the capacity of the primary crushing operation.

Primary gyratory crushers are used in the primary crushing stage. Compared to the cone type crusher, a gyratory crusher has a crushing chamber designed to accept feed material of a relatively large size in relation to the mantle diameter. The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has capacities starting from 1200 to above 5000t/h. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Therefore, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.

The cone crusher is a modified gyratory crusher. The essential difference is that the shorter spindle of the cone crusher is not suspended, as in the gyratory, but is supported in a curved, universal bearing below the gyratory head or cone (Figure 8.2). Power is transmitted from the source to the countershaft to a V-belt or direct drive. The countershaft has a bevel pinion pressed and keyed to it and drives the gear on the eccentric assembly. The eccentric assembly has a tapered, offset bore and provides the means whereby the head and main shaft follow an eccentric path during each cycle of rotation. Cone crushers are used for intermediate and fine crushing after primary crushing. The key factor for the performance of a cone type secondary crusher is the profile of the crushing chamber or cavity. Therefore, there is normally a range of standard cavities available for each crusher, to allow selection of the appropriate cavity for the feed material in question.

Depending on the size of the debris, it may either be ready to enter the recycling process or need to be broken down to obtain a product with workable particle sizes, in which case hydraulic breakers mounted on tracked or wheeled excavators are used. In either case, manual sorting of large pieces of steel, wood, plastics and paper may be required, to minimise the degree of contamination of the final product.

The three types of crushers most commonly used for crushing CDW materials are the jaw crusher, the impact crusher and the gyratory crusher (Figure 4.4). A jaw crusher consists of two plates, with one oscillating back and forth against the other at a fixed angle (Figure 4.4(a)) and it is the most widely used in primary crushing stages (Behera etal., 2014). The jaw crusher can withstand large and hard-to-break pieces of reinforced concrete, which would probably cause the other crushing machines to break down. Therefore, the material is initially reduced in jaw crushers before going through any other crushing operation. The particle size reduction depends on the maximum and minimum size of the gap at the plates (Hansen, 2004).

An impact crusher breaks the CDW materials by striking them with a high-speed rotating impact, which imparts a shearing force on the debris (Figure 4.4(b)). Upon reaching the rotor, the debris is caught by steel teeth or hard blades attached to the rotor. These hurl the materials against the breaker plate, smashing them into smaller particle sizes. Impact crushers provide better grain-size distribution of RA for road construction purposes, and they are less sensitive to material that cannot be crushed, such as steel reinforcement.

Generally, jaw and impact crushers exhibit a large reduction factor, defined as the ratio of the particle size of the input to that of the output material. A jaw crusher crushes only a small proportion of the original aggregate particles but an impact crusher crushes mortar and aggregate particles alike and thus generates a higher amount of fine material (OMahony, 1990).

Gyratory crushers work on the same principle as cone crushers (Figure 4.4(c)). These have a gyratory motion driven by an eccentric wheel. These machines will not accept materials with a large particle size and therefore only jaw or impact crushers should be considered as primary crushers. Gyratory and cone crushers are likely to become jammed by fragments that are too large or too heavy. It is recommended that wood and steel be removed as much as possible before dumping CDW into these crushers. Gyratory and cone crushers have advantages such as relatively low energy consumption, a reasonable amount of control over the particle size of the material and production of low amounts of fine particles (Hansen, 2004).

For better control of the aggregate particle size distribution, it is recommended that the CDW should be processed in at least two crushing stages. First, the demolition methodologies used on-site should be able to reduce individual pieces of debris to a size that the primary crusher in the recycling plant can take. This size depends on the opening feed of the primary crusher, which is normally bigger for large stationary plants than for mobile plants. Therefore, the recycling of CDW materials requires careful planning and communication between all parties involved.

A large proportion of the product from the primary crusher can result in small granules with a particle size distribution that may not satisfy the requirements laid down by the customer after having gone through the other crushing stages. Therefore, it should be possible to adjust the opening feed size of the primary crusher, implying that the secondary crusher should have a relatively large capacity. This will allow maximisation of coarse RA production (e.g., the feed size of the primary crusher should be set to reduce material to the largest size that will fit the secondary crusher).

The choice of using multiple crushing stages mainly depends on the desired quality of the final product and the ratio of the amounts of coarse and fine fractions (Yanagi etal., 1998; Nagataki and Iida, 2001; Nagataki etal., 2004; Dosho etal., 1998; Gokce etal., 2011). When recycling concrete, a greater number of crushing processes produces a more spherical material with lower adhered mortar content (Pedro etal., 2015), thus providing a superior quality of material to work with (Lotfi etal., 2017). However, the use of several crushing stages has some negative consequences as well; in addition to costing more, the final product may contain a greater proportion of finer fractions, which may not always be a suitable material.

The first step of physical beneficiation is crushing and grinding the iron ore to its liberation size, the maximum size where individual particles of gangue are separated from the iron minerals. A flow sheet of a typical iron ore crushing and grinding circuit is shown in Figure 1.2.2 (based on Ref. [4]). This type of flow sheet is usually followed when the crude ore contains below 30% iron. The number of steps involved in crushing and grinding depends on various factors such as the hardness of the ore and the level of impurities present [5].

Jaw and gyratory crushers are used for initial size reduction to convert big rocks into small stones. This is generally followed by a cone crusher. A combination of rod mill and ball mills are then used if the ore must be ground below 325 mesh (45m). Instead of grinding the ore dry, slurry is used as feed for rod or ball mills, to avoid dusting. Oversize and undersize materials are separated using a screen; oversize material goes back for further grinding.

Typically, silica is the main gangue mineral that needs to be separated. Iron ore with high-silica content (more than about 2%) is not considered an acceptable feed for most DR processes. This is due to limitations not in the DR process itself, but the usual customer, an EAF steelmaking shop. EAFs are not designed to handle the large amounts of slag that result from using low-grade iron ores, which makes the BF a better choice in this situation. Besides silica, phosphorus, sulfur, and manganese are other impurities that are not desirable in the product and are removed from the crude ore, if economically and technically feasible.

Beneficiation of copper ores is done almost exclusively by selective froth flotation. Flotation entails first attaching fine copper mineral particles to bubbles rising through an orewater pulp and, second, collecting the copper minerals at the top of the pulp as a briefly stable mineralwaterair froth. Noncopper minerals do not attach to the rising bubbles; they are discarded as tailings. The selectivity of the process is controlled by chemical reagents added to the pulp. The process is continuous and it is done on a large scale103 to 105 tonnes of ore feed per day.

Beneficiation is begun with crushing and wet-grinding the ore to typically 10100m. This ensures that the copper mineral grains are for the most part liberated from the worthless minerals. This comminution is carried out with gyratory crushers and rotary grinding mills. The grinding is usually done with hard ore pieces or hard steel balls, sometimes both. The product of crushing and grinding is a waterparticle pulp, comprising 35% solids.

Flotation is done immediately after grindingin fact, some flotation reagents are added to the grinding mills to ensure good mixing and a lengthy conditioning period. The flotation is done in large (10100m3) cells whose principal functions are to provide: clouds of air bubbles to which the copper minerals of the pulp attach; a means of overflowing the resulting bubblecopper mineral froth; and a means of underflowing the unfloated material into the next cell or to the waste tailings area.

Selective attachment of the copper minerals to the rising air bubbles is obtained by coating the particles with a monolayer of collector molecules. These molecules usually have a sulfur atom at one end and a hydrophobic hydrocarbon tail at the other (e.g., potassium amyl xanthate). Other important reagents are: (i) frothers (usually long-chain alcohols) which give a strong but temporary froth; and (ii) depressants (e.g., CaO, NaCN), which prevent noncopper minerals from floating.

## morenci copper mine, arizona - mining technology | mining news and views updated daily

The Detroit Copper Company started mining at Morenci, 16km south of Silver City, Arizona, in 1872. Copper Queen Consolidated Mining bought the property in 1885, with the company name changed to Phelps Dodge in 1917.

Ninety years later in March 2007, Phelps Dodge merged with Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold, whose principal asset is the massive Grasberg copper-gold mine in Indonesia, in an agreed \$25.9bn takeover by Freeport, the smaller of the two companies.

Morenci is the largest copper producer in North America and remains a major contributor to Phelpss copper output, which is second only to that of Chiles Codelco. In 1986, Phelps Dodge Morenci was established as a partnership between Phelps Dodge Mining Company (72%) and Sumitomo Metal Mining Arizona Inc. The latter belongs to Sumitomo Corp. (15%) and Sumitomo Metal Mining (13%).

For many years as an integrated mine-concentrator-smelter operation, Morenci pioneered the large-scale hydrometallurgical treatment of mined copper ore by dump leaching, solvent extraction (SX) and electrowinning (EW) during 1985, in parallel with conventional treatment.

In 1999, Phelps Dodge started a \$220m mine-for-leach (MFL) conversion project, and from mid-2001 until 2006 produced all its copper this way. However, in 2005, the company announced the go-ahead for a \$210m project to create the worlds first commercial copper-concentrate leaching / direct electrowinning operation at Morenci, a proprietary technology that allows primary sulphide ore treatment by leaching in combination with secondary ore processing.

As well as new leach-electrowin capacity, the project required reopening the mothballed Morenci concentrator. This programme was accelerated in 2006 to provide copper-in-concentrate for treatment at Phelpss Miami smelter, also in Arizona, before completion of the hydrometallurgical facilities at Morenci.

A feasibility study was conducted for an expansion project to raise the current milling rate from 50,000tpd to 115,000tpd. The Morenci mill expansion project began operations in in May 2014 and achieved full milling rates in the second quarter of 2015.

Copper mineralisation, identified by a regiment of California Volunteers in 1865, turned out to be part of a major porphyry copper ore body extending across a dissected mountain terrain. Both sulphide and oxide ores occur, pyrite and chalcocite being the main sulphide minerals, and chrysocolla and malachite the predominant oxides. Molybdenite, galena and sphalerite are also present.

Phelps mined underground until the 1930s depression, converting to an open-cut operation with rail haulage in 1937. The topography prevented development as a single pit: today the working area extends across 2.5km x 2.2km but is worked as three pits: the Metcalf (within the original Morenci pit), the NWX (Northwest Extension) and the Coronado.

Electric rotary rigs, mainly made by Bucyrus, drill blast holes and P&H 4100 and 2800 series electric rope shovels load the truck fleet. This includes more than 60 Caterpillar units, both 793 (218t capacity) and 797 (272t) models.

When hydrometallurgical processing started, these two mills worked in parallel with two leaching / solvent extraction operations and one electrowinning tankhouse. The MFL conversion required an expansion of the hydrometallurgical facilities to yield 365,000t/y of cathode copper, but led to the Metcalf concentrator being closed and the Morenci unit placed on care-and-maintenance until 2006.

While high-graded ore is conveyed to leach pads within the pit, the bulk of the primary crusher output (63,500t/d of ore) is secondary crushed and conveyed to the Stargo dump-leaching site. This ore is agglomerated for spreading by two Rahco mobile stacking units. Leaching is bacterially assisted, with air blown into alternate lifts.

The total heap and dump leach-liquor yield is 16,500m/h, copper recovery was 58.5% in 2003. Four SX plants, namely Central, Metcalfe, Stargo and Modoc, feed three tankhouses (Central, Southside and Stargo). The new leaching-electrowinning capacity was incorporated into the existing complex, which is already the worlds largest.

## primary crushing

The term primary crusher, by definition, might embrace any type and size of crushing machine. The term implies that at least two stages of crushing are involved, but in many cases the machine which performs the function of initial crusher is the only crusher in the plant. The factors influencing the selection of a crusher for this service are much the same, regardless of how many crushing stages there are in the flowsheet; therefore, the term primary crusher, by common usage, is applied to the crusher which takes up the job of reduction where the blasting operations leave off. Selecting the right type and size of primary crusher is a problem of prime importance in the designing of a crushing plant of any nature and size. Usually this machine is the largest and most expensive single item of equipment in the plant; a mistake in the choice can only be remedied fully by replacement; and, because the entire primary crusher-house arrangement is generally tailored.to fit the crusher, such .replacement is almost always a costly procedure. While personal favouritism toward some particular type of crusher may safely be allowed to swing a close decision, it should never blind the engineer or operator to the merits of other types, nor to the limitations of his favorite. The following factors all have a more or less important bearing upon the choice of the primary crusher.

The first three of these factors will almost always be ascertainable at least to a close approximation before the matter of crusher choice is taken up. Sometimes, as when a new crushing plant, or a new primary crusher set-up, is to be installed at an existing operation the last three factors will be pre-established. Otherwise, it is sound practice to consider them as a part of the problem of crusher selection. The primary crushing setup is closely linked to the quarrying or mining operation, and it is only by careful adjustment of all equipment selections to the general plan of operation that optimum operating results may be realized.

While it is convenient to discuss the influence of these several factors separately, it is well to keep in mind that they are more or less closely interlocked, and that a change in one of them may necessitate altering one or more of the others.In addition to the factors listed there are usually a few which are peculiar to each individual problem such as labor costs and so on. Any plant design problem is an economic as well as an engineering one. We are concerned here ,chiefly with the engineering phases.

Characteristics of the material to be crushed include the geological classification of the rock, its physical structure, its chemical analysis (at least so far as abrasive constituents are concerned), and at least a qualitative evaluation of its resistance to crushing that is, whether soft, medium, hard, or very hard and tough. Frequently such information may be obtained from contiguous deposits which are being operated; sometimes the values must be arrived at by laboratory tests. It is never safe to make blanket assumptions, even on such a material as limestone, which can sometimes prove to be quite tough, as well as to contain significant amounts of abrasive silica.

Physical, or geological, structure of the deposit often has an important bearing upon selection of size or type, or both. If the deposit is thinly stratified, as, for example, many deposits of limestone are, it is safe to assume that the rock can be blasted economically into a condition for feeding a gyratory crusher of medium proportions, or, if other characteristics are suitable, a sledging roll crusher, such as the Fairmount machine. If, on the other hand, the formation is of massive character, again, some limestones are, the gyratory crusher might be ruled out in favour of the jaw crusher, unless the operation is of sufficient magnitude to warrant installation of a large size of gyratory. The proposed quarrying or mining procedure will of course have some bearing upon the size of rock to go to the crusher, regardless of its physical structure, as will be pointed out in further detail later on. If the chemical analysis of the rock discloses that substantial amounts of free silica or any other abrasive are present, crushers of the sledging roll or hammermill types are usually ruled out unless the material is extremely soft and friable. There are occasional speciality applications where such machines may be indicated for crushing abrasive materials, but from the standpoint of, economical operation their use for such service is rarely justifiable. The same restriction holds true for hard and tough materials. For such rock or ore our choice of a primary crusher is restricted to the gyratory and jaw types except, again, for the occasional specialty application where economy in maintenance may be sacrificed for other considerations such as lower first cost, or space restrictions.

The significance of this factor is so obvious that it sometimes does not receive quite as much thought as it should. From the standpoint of minimum requirement, it is of course closely tied up with product size, or crusher setting. But the primary crusher can seldom be chosen solely on the basis of capacity; it should never be selected with a view to just meeting the average capacity required to feed the rest of the crushing plant. Just how much the rated capacity of the primary crusher (at the required discharge setting) should exceed the average capacity of the plant depends upon how uniformly the crusher will be fed; or to put it more definitely, what percentage of the total operating period the crusher will operate at full rated capacity. The answer to this is not always an easy one to predetermine, as it may depend upon several details of plant design and quarry operation.

In the average quarry operation, the only surge capacity between the quarry and the primary crusher consists of whatever quantity of rock may be, at the moment, loaded in cars or trucks, and usually this is not large. For that reason, any operating delays occurring in loading, transportation or primary crushing quickly affect all three of them, with the result that the feed to the balance of the crushing plant is cut-off until the trouble is rectified. If the plant as a whole is to maintain its rated average output, these departments must be capable of making up for such interruptions, and they can only do this if they have reserve capacity over and above the average requirement.

Such interruptions to continuous production are not uncommon in the primary crusher house; they may assume serious proportions if the crusher receiving opening is not large enough for the material it is expected to handle, and the largest crushers of any type will occasionally bridge or block. Crusher capacity tables are predicated upon a continuous feed of rock of a size that will readily enter the crushing chamber; it is obvious therefore that a crusher whose rating just equals the average plant requirement would have no reserve to compensate for the conditions we have outlined. For the average quarry operation this reserve should be not less than 25 percent, and preferably about 50 percent.

Since the minimum dimension of the feed opening of a crusher determines the maximum size of lump that it can take, the choice of a primary breaker is dependent as much on the size of the feed as on the hourly tonnage. Thus a 15 in. by 24 in. jaw crusher would be suitable for a small mine hoisting 300 tons in eight hours from underground workings from which lumps larger than 14 in. are not likely to be received. A crusher of these dimensions will break 40 tons per hour to 2-in. size with a power consumption of 30 h.p. On the other hand, a 14-in. gyratory crusher, working as it should at full capacity, will crush 100 tons per hour to the same size with a power consumption of 70 h.p. ; at 40 tons per hour, it would still require about 50 h.p. The jaw crusher is evidently the more economical machine in this case, and its first cost is only about half that of the gyratory crusher.

If the capacity of the primary breaker is required to be 100 tons per hour or over, a gyratory crusher is likely to be more economical than the other type, since it costs no more than a jaw crusher of similar capacity and consumes less power. Moreover, the difference in power consumption between the two types of machine is greater in practice than in theory; this is due to the fact that, since the gyratory crusher can be choke-fed, it is easier to keep it running at maximum efficiency.

The position is different when mining is done by power-shovel. The maximum size of lump delivered to the crushing plant is much larger than from underground workings, and it is not advisable to use a bin for the storage of the ore on account of the difficulty of handling very large lumps through a bin gate. Consequently the ore is generally sent direct to a preliminary breaker which reduces it to a size suitable for feeding the normal primary breaker. The first machine is often of the jaw type, although this depends on the circumstances. Suppose, to take an instance, that the shovels were equipped with 3-yd. dippers and that 2,000 tons were being mined per day. A 48 in. by 60 in. jaw crusher is more than large enough to take the maximum size of lump that could get through the jaws of the dipper, and it would break the whole days output to 6-in. size in eight hours with a power consumption of under 200 h.p. On the other hand, a 42-in. gyratory crusher, which is the smallest that could be installed with safety, has a maximum capacity of over 5,000 tons in eight hours with a power consumption of about 275 h.p. The jaw breaker would therefore be the more economical machine. It could, if necessary, be installed near the scene of mining operations, and would be set to deliver a 6- or 8-in. product, which could be conveniently transported to the crushing section of the flotation plant where it would be fed through the coarse ore bin to the primary breaker in the ordinary way.

The choice of a primary breaker is an individual problem for every installation. The type of mining and the regularity, size, and rate atwhich the ore is delivered, are the main determining factors, but all local conditions should be taken into consideration before a decision is made.

## primary crusher selection & design

The crusher capacities given by manufacturers are typically in tons of 2,000 lbs. and are based on crushing limestone weighing loose about 2,700 lbs. per yard3 and having a specific gravity of 2.6. Wet, sticky and extremely hard or tough feeds will tend to reduce crusher capacities.

Selectiingwhat size a crusher needs to be is based on factors such as the F80 size of the rocks to be crushed, the production rate, and the P80 desired product output size. Primary crushers with crush run-of-mine rock from blast product size to what can be carried by the discharge conveyor or fit/math the downstream process.A typical example of primary crushing is reducing top-size from 900 to 200 mm.

Ultimately, the mining sequence will certainly impact the primary crusher selection. Where you will mine ore and where from, is a deciding factor not so much for picking between a jaw or gyratory crusher but its mobility level.

The mom and dad of primary crushers are jaw and gyratory crushers. In open-pit mines where high tonnage is required, thegyratory crushers are typically the choice as jaw crushers will not crush over 500 TPH with great ease. There are exceptions like MPI Mineral Park in AZ where 50,000 TPD was processed via 2 early century vintage jaw crushers of a:

The rated capacity at 5 closed-side setting was 490 stph based on standard 100lbs/ft3 feed material. These crushers were fed a very fine ore over a 4 grizzly which allowed the 1000 TPH the SAG mills needed.

In under-ground crushing plants where the diameter of the mine-shaft a skip forces limits on rock size, a jaw crusher will be the machine of choice. Again, if crushing on surface, both styles of stone crushing machines should be evaluated.

## cone crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Cone crushers were originally designed and developed by Symons around 1920 and therefore are often described as Symons cone crushers. As the mechanisms of crushing in these crushers are similar to gyratory crushers their designs are similar, but in this case the spindle is supported at the bottom of the gyrating cone instead of being suspended as in larger gyratory crushers. Figure5.3 is a schematic diagram of a cone crusher.

The breaking head gyrates inside an inverted truncated cone. These crushers are designed so that the head-to-depth ratio is larger than the standard gyratory crusher and the cone angles are much flatter and the slope of the mantle and the concaves are parallel to each other. The flatter cone angles help to retain the particles longer between the crushing surfaces and therefore produce much finer particles. To prevent damage to the crushing surfaces, the concave or shell of the crushers is held in place by strong springs or hydraulics which yield to permit uncrushable tramp material to pass through.

The secondary crushers are designated as Standard cone crushers having stepped liners and tertiary Short Head cone crushers, which have smoother crushing faces and steeper cone angles of the breaking head. The approximate distance of the annular space at the discharge end designates the size of the cone crushers. A brief summary of the design characteristics is given in Table5.4 for crusher operation in open-circuit and closed-circuit situations.

The Standard cone crushers are for normal use. The Short Head cone crushers are designed for tertiary or quaternary crushing where finer product is required. These crushers are invariably operated in closed circuit. The final product sizes are fine, medium or coarse depending on the closed set spacing, the configuration of the crushing chamber and classifier performance, which is always installed in parallel.

For finer product sizes, i.e., less than 6mm, special cone crushers known as Gyradisc crushers are available. The operation is similar to the standard cone crushers, except that the size reduction is caused more by attrition than by impact [5]. The reduction ratio is around 8:1 and as the product size is relatively small the feed size is limited to less than 50mm with a nip angle between 25 and 30. The Gyradisc crushers have head diameters from around 900 to 2100mm. These crushers are always operated under choke feed conditions. The feed size is less than 50mm and therefore the product size is usually less than 69mm.

Maintenance of the wear components in both gyratory and cone crushers is one of the major operating costs. Wear monitoring is possible using a Faro Arm (Figure 6.10), which is a portable coordinate measurement machine. Ultrasonic profiling is also used. A more advanced system using a laser scanner tool to profile the mantle and concave produces a 3D image of the crushing chamber (Erikson, 2014). Some of the benefits of the liner profiling systems include: improved prediction of mantle and concave liner replacement; identifying asymmetric and high wear areas; measurement of open and closed side settings; and quantifying wear life with competing liner alloys.

In Chapter4, we have already seen the mechanism of crushing in a jaw crusher. Considering it further we can see that when a single particle, marked 1 in Figure11.5a, is nipped between the jaws of a jaw crusher the particle breaks producing fragments, marked 2 and 3 in Figure11.5b. Particles marked 2 are larger than the open set on the crusher and are retained for crushing on the next cycle. Particles of size 3, smaller than the open set of the crusher, can travel down faster and occupy or pass through the lower portion of the crusher while the jaw swings away. In the next cycle the probability of the larger particles (size 2) breaking is greater than the smaller sized particle 3. In the following cycle, therefore, particle size 2 is likely to disappear preferentially and the progeny joins the rest of thesmaller size particles indicated as 3 in Figure11.5c. In the figures, the position of the crushed particles that do not exist after comminution is shaded white (merely to indicate the positions they had occupied before comminution). Particles that have been crushed and travelled down are shown in grey. The figure clearly illustrates the mechanism of crushing and the classification that takes place within the breaking zone during the process, as also illustrated in Figure11.4. This type of breakage process occurs within a jaw crusher, gyratory crusher, roll crusher and rod mills. Equation (11.19) then is a description of the crusher model.

In practice however, instead of a single particle, the feed consists of a combination of particles present in several size fractions. The probability of breakage of some relatively larger sized particles in preference to smaller particles has already been mentioned. For completeness, the curve for the probability of breakage of different particle sizes is again shown in Figure11.6. It can be seen that for particle sizes ranging between 0 K1, the probability of breakage is zero as the particles are too small. Sizes between K1 and K2 are assumed to break according a parabolic curve. Particle sizes greater than K2 would always be broken. According to Whiten [16], this classification function Ci, representing the probability of a particle of size di entering the breakage stage of the crusher, may be expressed as

The classification function can be readily expressed as a lower triangular matrix [1,16] where the elements represent the proportion of particles in each size interval that would break. To construct a mathematical model to relate product and feed sizes where the crusher feed contains a proportion of particles which are smaller than the closed set and hence will pass through the crusher with little or no breakage, Whiten [16] advocated a crusher model as shown in Figure11.7.

The considerations in Figure11.7 are similar to the general model for size reduction illustrated in Figure11.4 except in this case the feed is initially directed to a classifier, which eliminates particle sizes less than K1. The coarse classifier product then enters the crushing zone. Thus, only the crushable larger size material enters the crusher zone. The crusher product iscombined with the main feed and the process repeated. The undersize from the classifier is the product.

While considering the above aspects of a model of crushers, it is important to remember that the size reduction process in commercial operations is continuous over long periods of time. In actual practice, therefore, the same operation is repeated over long periods, so the general expression for product size must take this factor into account. Hence, a parameter v is introduced to represent the number of cycles of operation. As all cycles are assumed identical the general model given in Equation (11.31) should, therefore, be modified as

Multiple vectors B C written in matrix form:BC=0.580000.200.60000.120.180.6100.040.090.20.571.000000.700000.4500000=0581+00+00+000.580+00.7+00+000580+00+00.45+000.580+00+00+000.21+0.60+00+000.20+0.60.7+00+000.20+0.60+00.45+000.20+0.60+00+000.121+0.180+0.610+000.120+0.180.7+0.610+000.120+0.180+0.610.45+000.120+0.180+0.610+000.041+0.090+0.20+0.5700.040+0.090.7+0.20+0.5700.040+0.090+0.20.45+0.5700.040+0.090+0.20+0.570=0.580000.20.42000.120.1260.274500.040.0630.090

Now determine (I B C) and (I C)(IBC)=10.5800000000.210.42000000.1200.12610.27450000.0400.06300.0910=0.420000.20.58000.120.1260.725500.040.0630.091and(IC)=000000.300000.5500001

Now find the values of x1, x2, x3 and x4 as(0.42x1)+(0x2)+(0x3)+(0x4)=10,thereforex1=23.8(0.2x1)+(0.58x2)+(0x3)+(0x4)=33,thereforex2=65.1(0.12x1)+(0.126x2)+(0.7255x3)+(0x4)=32,thereforex3=59.4(0.04x1)+(0.063x2)+(0.09x3)+(1x4)=20,thereforex4=30.4

In this process, mined quartz is crushed into pieces using crushing/smashing equipment. Generally, the quartz smashing plant comprises a jaw smasher, a cone crusher, an impact smasher, a vibrating feeder, a vibrating screen, and a belt conveyor. The vibrating feeder feeds materials to the jaw crusher for essential crushing. At that point, the yielding material from the jaw crusher is moved to a cone crusher for optional crushing, and afterward to effect for the third time crushing. As part of next process, the squashed quartz is moved to a vibrating screen for sieving to various sizes.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100mm. They are classified as jaw, gyratory, and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear, and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake. A Fritsch jaw crusher with maximal feed size 95mm, final fineness (depends on gap setting) 0.315mm, and maximal continuous throughput 250Kg/h is shown in Fig. 2.8.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes. Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor. Crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough to pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of the product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure, forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions. A design for a hammer crusher (Fig. 2.9) essentially allows a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, the circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A and B zones is established and the high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100 mm in size. They are classified as jaw, gyratory and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing of hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes.

Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor and crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around of the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions.

A design for a hammer crusher (Figure 2.6) allows essentially a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A- and B-zones is established and high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

For a particular operation where the ore size is known, it is necessary to estimate the diameter of rolls required for a specific degree of size reduction. To estimate the roll diameter, it is convenient to assume that the particle to be crushed is spherical and roll surfaces are smooth. Figure6.2 shows a spherical particle about to enter the crushing zone of a roll crusher and is about to be nipped. For rolls that have equal radius and length, tangents drawn at the point of contact of the particle and the two rolls meet to form the nip angle (2). From simple geometry it can be seen that for a particle of size d, nipped between two rolls of radius R:

Equation (6.2) indicates that to estimate the radius R of the roll, the nip angle is required. The nip angle on its part will depend on the coefficient of friction, , between the roll surface and the particle surface. To estimate the coefficient of friction, consider a compressive force, F, exerted by the rolls on the particle just prior to crushing, operating normal to the roll surface, at the point of contact, and the frictional force between the roll and particle acting along a tangent to the roll surface at the point of contact. The frictional force is a function of the compressive force F and is given by the expression, F. If we consider the vertical components of these forces, and neglect the force due to gravity, then it can be seen that at the point of contact (Figure6.2) for the particle to be just nipped by the rolls, the equilibrium conditions apply where

As the friction coefficient is roughly between 0.20 and 0.30, the nip angle has a value of about 1117. However, when the rolls are in motion the friction characteristics between the ore particle will depend on the speed of the rolls. According to Wills [6], the speed is related to the kinetic coefficient of friction of the revolving rolls, K, by the relation

Equation (6.4) shows that the K values decrease slightly with increasing speed. For speed changes between 150 and 200rpm and ranging from 0.2 to 0.3, the value of K changes between 0.037 and 0.056. Equation (6.2) can be used to select the size of roll crushers for specific requirements. For nip angles between 11 and 17, Figure6.3 indicates the roll sizes calculated for different maximum feed sizes for a set of 12.5mm.

The maximum particle size of a limestone sample received from a cone crusher was 2.5cm. It was required to further crush it down to 0.5cm in a roll crusher with smooth rolls. The friction coefficient between steel and particles was 0.25, if the rolls were set at 6.3mm and both revolved to crush, estimate the diameter of the rolls.

It is generally observed that rolls can accept particles sizes larger than the calculated diameters and larger nip angles when the rate of entry of feed in crushing zone is comparable with the speed of rotation of the rolls.

Jaw crushers are mainly used as primary crushers to produce material that can be transported by belt conveyors to the next crushing stages. The crushing process takes place between a fixed jaw and a moving jaw. The moving jaw dies are mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion. The jaw dies must be replaced regularly due to wear. Figure 8.1 shows two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is installed on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action of the moving jaw. A double toggle crusher has, basically, two shafts and two toggle plates. The first shaft is a pivoting shaft on the top of the crusher, while the other is an eccentric shaft that drives both toggle plates. The moving jaw has a pure reciprocating motion toward the fixed jaw. The crushing force is doubled compared to single toggle crushers and it can crush very hard ores. The jaw crusher is reliable and robust and therefore quite popular in primary crushing plants. The capacity of jaw crushers is limited, so they are typically used for small or medium projects up to approximately 1600t/h. Vibrating screens are often placed ahead of the jaw crushers to remove undersize material, or scalp the feed, and thereby increase the capacity of the primary crushing operation.

Primary gyratory crushers are used in the primary crushing stage. Compared to the cone type crusher, a gyratory crusher has a crushing chamber designed to accept feed material of a relatively large size in relation to the mantle diameter. The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has capacities starting from 1200 to above 5000t/h. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Therefore, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.

The cone crusher is a modified gyratory crusher. The essential difference is that the shorter spindle of the cone crusher is not suspended, as in the gyratory, but is supported in a curved, universal bearing below the gyratory head or cone (Figure 8.2). Power is transmitted from the source to the countershaft to a V-belt or direct drive. The countershaft has a bevel pinion pressed and keyed to it and drives the gear on the eccentric assembly. The eccentric assembly has a tapered, offset bore and provides the means whereby the head and main shaft follow an eccentric path during each cycle of rotation. Cone crushers are used for intermediate and fine crushing after primary crushing. The key factor for the performance of a cone type secondary crusher is the profile of the crushing chamber or cavity. Therefore, there is normally a range of standard cavities available for each crusher, to allow selection of the appropriate cavity for the feed material in question.

The main task of renovation construction waste handling is the separation of lightweight impurities and construction waste. The rolling crusher with opposite rollers is capable of crushing the brittle debris and compressing the lightweight materials by the low-speed and high-pressure extrusion of the two opposite rollers. As the gap between the opposite rollers, rotation speed, and pressure are all adjustable, materials of different scales in renovation construction waste can be handled.

The concrete C&D waste recycling process of impact crusher+cone crusher+hoop-roller grinder is also capable of handling brick waste. In general, the secondary crushing using the cone crusher in this process with an enclosed crusher is a process of multicrushing, and the water content of waste will become an important affecting factor. The wet waste will be adhered on the wall of the grinding chamber, and the crushing efficiency and waste discharging will be affected. When the climate is humid, only coarse impact crushing is performed and in this case the crushed materials are used for roadbase materials. Otherwise, three consecutive crushings are performed and the recycled coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and powder materials are collected, respectively.

The brick and concrete C&D waste recycling process of impact crusher+rolling crusher+hoop-roller grinder is also capable of handling the concrete waste. In this case, the water content of waste will not be an important affecting factor. This process is suitable in the regions with wet climates.

The renovation C&D waste recycling process of rolling crusher (coarse/primary crushing)+rolling crusher (intermediate/secondary crushing)+rolling crusher (fine/tertiary crushing) is also capable of handling the two kinds of waste discussed earlier. The particle size of debris is crushed less than 20mm and the lightweight materials are compressed, and they are separated using the drum sieve. The energy consumption is low in this process; however, the shape of products is not good (usually flat and with cracks). There is no problem in roadbase material and raw materials of prefabricated product production. But molders (the rotation of rotors in crusher is used to polish the edge and corner) should be used for premixed concrete and mortar production.

## copper mining and processing - from mine to copper plate

The above flowsheet shows a basic copper mine process, from mine to metal. There are two distinct types of copper ore, the sulfide ore and the oxide ore. The sulfide ores are beneficiated in flotation cells, while the oxide ores are generally leached. First the copper ore from a open pit mine is blasted, loaded and transported to the primary crushers. Then the ore is crushed and screened, with the fine sulfide ore (~-0.5 mm) going to froth flotation cells for recovery of copper. The coarser ore goes to the heap leach, where the copper is subjected to a dilute sulfuric acid solution to dissolve the copper. Then the leach solution containing the dissolved copper is subjected to a process called solvent extraction (SX). The SX process concentrates and purifies the copper leach solution so the copper can be recovered at a high electrical current efficiency by the electrowinning cells. It does this by adding a chemical reagent to the SX tanks which selectively binds with and extracts the copper, is easily separated from the copper (stripped), recovering as much of the reagent as possible for re-use. The concentrated copper solution is dissolved in sulfuric acid and sent to the electrolytic cells for recovery as copper plates (cathodes). From the copper cathodes, it is manufactured into wire, appliances, etc. that are used in every day life. Below are some photos of the process equipment at an Arizona Copper Mine.

The primary crusher at a copper mine. The truck dumps ore into the crusher which crushes the ore. Screens size and distribute the classified ore to a series of conveyors, like those above, for transportation to the mill for further processing.

Conveyors and trucks deposit coarse ore on a heap leach pad, which has a series of pipes and hoses dispensing a diluted sulfuric acid solution to the ore. Copper is dissolved and flows to a pond at the bottom of the pad. This process can take several months. The leached solution is pumped to the SX (Solvent Extraction) circuit, which looks like a series of agitation tanks or cells. The fine sulfide ore is sent to froth flotation cells like those below for recovery.

The concentrates from the flotation cells are sent to the smelter for processing to a copper plate. The copper plate is then dissolved in sulfuric acid and sent to the electrowinning cells for plating onto cathodes, along with the concentrated copper from the SX circuits. The copper leach solution typically consists of 40 gm of copper and 200 gm sulfuric acid per liter. Current densities on the electrowinning cells can be 20-25 amperes per square foot, or more.

Banks of electrowinning cells with cathodes. Copper on the annodes ranges from 99.0 to 99.5 percent pure. Power consumed in electroplating copper ranges from 0.08 to 0.20 KWH per pound of copper. Any gold or silver in the copper does not plate out and drops to the bottom of the cell with the sludge to be recovered later.

## primary crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics

The primary crusher is located in the quarry and consists of a McLanahan 48x72 Shale King Crusher rated at 1,000 TPH (Tons Per Hour). The driving flywheel has a diameter of 2.5 meters and is motor driven through six v-belts. The capacity of the primary crusher had to be increased to 1,250 TPH to produce enough material to serve the wet and both dry lines in the plant. To enable the crusher to operate at the higher capacity, the manufacturer recommended grooving the flywheel for two additional v-belts. To avoid the costs of disassembling, shipping and reassembling, Nesher performed the machining in-place. The operation was performed using portable tools and an auxiliary motor that turned the flywheel for machining the new grooves.

Roll crushers are generally not used as primary crushers for hard ores. Even for softer ores, such as chalcocite and chalcopyrite, they have been used as secondary crushers. Choke feeding is not advisable as it tends to produce particles of irregular size. Both open and closed circuit crushing is employed. For close circuit the product is screened with a mesh size much less than the set.

Figure6.4 is a typical set-up where ores crushed in primary and secondary crushers are further reduced in size by a rough roll crusher in an open circuit followed by finer size reduction in a closed circuit by a roll crusher. Such circuits are chosen as the feed size to standard roll crushers normally does not exceed 50mm.

Secondary coal crusher: Used when the coal coming from the supplier is large enough to be handled by a single crusher. The primary crusher converts the feed size to one that is acceptable to the secondary crusher.

Detail descriptions of designs are given of large gyratory crushers that are used as primary crushers to reduce the size of large run-of-mine ore pieces to acceptable sizes. Descriptions of secondary and tertiary cone crushers that usually follow gyratory crushers are also given in detail. The practical method of operation of each type of gyratory crusher is indicated and the various methods of computing operating variables such as speed of gyration, capacities and power consumption given are prescribed by different authors. The methods of calculations are illustrated to obtain optimum operating conditions of different variables of each type using practical examples.

Shale, a low-moisture content soft rock, is quarried, transferred to blending stockpiles before it is reduced by primary crushers and dry-milled to a powder of less than 250m. This powder is homogenized and stored ready for pelletization in manner similar to that used for making aggregate from PFA except that no fuel is added. However, after the pellets have been produced to the appropriate size, which depends on the expansion required, they are compacted and coated with finely powdered limestone. The resulting pellets are spherical with a green strength sufficient for conveying to a three-stage kiln consisting of a pre-heater, expander and cooler. Unlike other aggregates produced from argillaceous materials, the feedstock is reduced to a powder and then reconstituted to form a pellet of predetermined size. The expansion (bloating) is controlled during kilning to produce an aggregate of the required particle density. Different particle densities are produced by controlling the firing temperature and the rotational speed of the kiln. The coating of limestone applied to the green pellet increases the degree of surface vitrification which results in a particle of low permeability. This product gives versatility to the designer for pre-selecting an appropriate concrete density. As Figure7.6 shows, while the particle shape and surface texture of the aggregate remain essentially the same, the internal porosity can be varied according to the bloating required for the specified density.

Mined crushed stone is loaded into trucks or onto conveyors and transported to the processing facility. The broken stone is dumped into a primary crusher where the large rock fragments are broken into smaller sizes. Crushing to the proper size usually occurs in stages because rapid size reduction, accomplished by applying large forces, commonly results in the production of excessive fines (Rollings and Rollings 1996). After primary crushing, the material is run through one or more secondary crushers. These crushers use compression, impact, or shear to break the rock into smaller pieces. The material is screened after each crushing cycle to separate properly sized particles (throughs) from those needing additional crushing (overs). Additional washing, screening, or other processing may be required to remove undesirable material. The material is then stockpiled awaiting shipment.

After mining, sand and gravel may be used as is, which is called bank-run or pit-run gravel, or it may be further processed. The procedures for processing sand and gravel are similar to those for processing crushed stone. The amount of processing depends on the characteristics of the sand and gravel deposit and the intended use. If the gravel deposits contain very large cobbles or boulders, that material may be run through a primary crusher. The material may be run through one or more secondary crushers, then washed, screened, or further processed to remove undesirable material. The material is then stockpiled awaiting shipment.

The design of belt and apron feeders is fairly standardized, and most of the producing companies use pre-defined models and calculation methods to get short delivery times with a low-cost approach. The main features of the apron and belt feeders are:

Although the conveying devices are reasonably well defined and standardized, there is still room for improvement of the overall plant layout and construction, e.g. crushing plant, silo discharge system, train unloading system, etc. One of the most obvious ways to improve the overall design of such systems is to develop a better understanding of the equipment itself. Today, most OEMs want to be involved in the process of seeking the solution rather than only the supply of the equipment. This will enable the market to make use of the expertise of the equipment supplier and, at the same time, use their knowledge base for developing a wider scope, including other aspects such as silo design, hopper design, electrical and hydraulic issues, etc.

Highland Valley copper mine experienced a decline in mill throughput after implementing larger holes for blasting, which resulted in coarser fragmentation and a coarser product from the primary crushers [24]. In the quarry at Vrsi, as drilling geometry decreased from 3.0m4.5m to 2.9m3.0m while other parameters such as borehole sizes were constant, a significant savings of 14% was achieved for the quarry [25]. Due to a mine-to-mill implementation at the Red Dog Mine, the mine achieved savings exceeding \$30 million per year [26]. This indicates that, at least in some ores, improved internal fragmentation carries through the crushing and grinding circuits. The mine-to-mill project in the same mine identified further benefit, specifically the marked reduction in SAG feed size and throughput variability [5]. A second but important benefit was the reduced wear in the gyratory crusher, resulting in a significantly longer period between relines. When electronic detonators with very short delay time were applied in the Chuquicamata open pit copper mine, the fragmentation was markedly improved [27]. In the Aitik copper mine a raised specific charge from 0.9 to 1.3kg/m3 gave rise to an increase in the throughput by nearly 7% due to more fines produced and shorter grinding time achieved [28].

Jaw crushers are mainly used as primary crushers to produce material that can be transported by belt conveyors to the next crushing stages. The crushing process takes place between a fixed jaw and a moving jaw. The moving jaw dies are mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion. The jaw dies must be replaced regularly due to wear. Figure 8.1 shows two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is installed on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action of the moving jaw. A double toggle crusher has, basically, two shafts and two toggle plates. The first shaft is a pivoting shaft on the top of the crusher, while the other is an eccentric shaft that drives both toggle plates. The moving jaw has a pure reciprocating motion toward the fixed jaw. The crushing force is doubled compared to single toggle crushers and it can crush very hard ores. The jaw crusher is reliable and robust and therefore quite popular in primary crushing plants. The capacity of jaw crushers is limited, so they are typically used for small or medium projects up to approximately 1600t/h. Vibrating screens are often placed ahead of the jaw crushers to remove undersize material, or scalp the feed, and thereby increase the capacity of the primary crushing operation.

Primary gyratory crushers are used in the primary crushing stage. Compared to the cone type crusher, a gyratory crusher has a crushing chamber designed to accept feed material of a relatively large size in relation to the mantle diameter. The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has capacities starting from 1200 to above 5000t/h. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Therefore, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.

The cone crusher is a modified gyratory crusher. The essential difference is that the shorter spindle of the cone crusher is not suspended, as in the gyratory, but is supported in a curved, universal bearing below the gyratory head or cone (Figure 8.2). Power is transmitted from the source to the countershaft to a V-belt or direct drive. The countershaft has a bevel pinion pressed and keyed to it and drives the gear on the eccentric assembly. The eccentric assembly has a tapered, offset bore and provides the means whereby the head and main shaft follow an eccentric path during each cycle of rotation. Cone crushers are used for intermediate and fine crushing after primary crushing. The key factor for the performance of a cone type secondary crusher is the profile of the crushing chamber or cavity. Therefore, there is normally a range of standard cavities available for each crusher, to allow selection of the appropriate cavity for the feed material in question.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100 mm in size. They are classified as jaw, gyratory and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing of hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes.

Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor and crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around of the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions.

A design for a hammer crusher (Figure 2.6) allows essentially a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A- and B-zones is established and high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

## rock crushers

The size requirement of the primary rock crusher is a function of grizzly openings, ore chute configuration, required throughput, ore moisture, and other factors. Usually, primary crushers are sized by the ability to accept the largest expected ore fragment. Jaw crushers are usually preferred as primary crushers in small installations due to the inherent mechanical simplicity and ease of operation of these machines. Additionally, jaw crushers wearing parts are relatively uncomplicated castings and tend to cost less per unit weight of metal than more complicated gyratory crusher castings. The primary crusher must be designed so that adequate surge capacity is present beneath the crusher. An ore stockpile after primary crushing is desirable but is not always possible to include in a compact design.

Many times the single heaviest equipment item in the entire plant is the primary crusher mainframe. The ability to transport the crusher main frame sometimes limits crusher size, particularly in remote locations having limited accessibility.

In a smaller installation, the crushing plant should be designed with the minimum number of required equipment items. Usually, a crushing plant that can process 1000s of metric tons per operating day will consist of a single primary crusher, a single screen, a single secondary cone crusher, and associated conveyor belts. The discharge from both primary and secondary crushers is directed to the screen. Screen oversize serves as feed to the secondary crusher while screen undersize is the finished product. For throughputs of 500 to 1,000 metric tons per operating day (usually 2 shifts), a closed circuit tertiary cone crusher is usually added to the crushing circuit outlined above. This approach, with the addition of a duplicate screen associated with the tertiary cone crusher, has proven to be effective even on ores having relatively high moisture contents. Provided screen decks are correctly selected, the moist fine material in the incoming ore tends to be removed in the screening stages and therefore does not enter into subsequent crushing units.

All crusher cavities and major ore transfer points should be equipped with a jib-type crane or hydraulic rock tongs to facilitate the removal of chokes. In addition, secondary crushers must be protected from tramp iron by suspended magnets or magnetic head pulleys. The location of these magnets should be such that recycling of magnetic material back into the system is not possible.

Crushing plants for the tonnages indicated may be considered to be standardized. It is not prudent to spend money researching crusher abrasion indices or determining operating kilowatt consumptions for the required particle size reduction in a proposed small crushing plant. Crushing installations usually are operated to produce the required mill tonnage at a specified size distribution under conditions of varying ore hardness by the variation of the number of operating hours per day. It is normal practice to generously size a small crushing plant so that the daily design crushing tonnage can be produced in one, or at most two, operating shifts per working day.

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