Since mid-1999, Kirunas haulage level at a depth of 775m has been replaced by the next level down at 1,045m and expansion is being carried out to increase the depth further, which will support production until 2030. The deepening requires relocation of the town and rail infrastructure.
In 2019, Kiruna produced 14.7Mt of iron ore products. The production in 2018 and 2017 was 15Mt and 14.8Mt, respectively. The mine produced 50,000t of ore feed material a day in June 2020. Mining at the site was briefly halted in 2019 after an earthquake of magnitude 4.1, the countrys biggest-ever, occurred in May that year.
The ore bed was then covered by further volcanic deposits (quartz porphyry) and sedimentary rocks before being tilted to its current dip of 50-60. The ore contains a very pure magnetite-apatite mix, containing more than 60% iron and an average of 0.9% phosphorus. Black ore contains less apatite than grey ore.
As of December 2019, the mine was estimated to contain 208Mt of proved reserves and 408Mt of probable reserves. The reserves decreased from the 2018 estimate of 624Mt of proven reserves and 62Mt of probable reserves due to the application of the Pan European Reserves and Resources Reporting Committee (PERC) reporting standard.
The mine is divided into eight production areas, each containing its own group of ore passes and ventilation systems. Mining the ventilation shafts for the current production level was carried out by SIAB using Indau 500 raise borers while Skanska Raise Drilling developed a total of 32 ore passes between the 775 and 1,045m levels using Tamrock and Robbins raise borers.
Ore is mined using sublevel caving, with sublevels spaced at 28.5m vertically. With a burden of 3.0m-3.5m per ring, this yields around 8,500t for each blast. LKAB subsidiary Kimit AB supplies the explosives and prepares the holes for blasting.
Seven 500t-capacity shuttle trains, controlled from the 775m level, collect ore from ten groups of ore passes and deliver it to one of four crushing stations. -100mm ore is then skip hoisted in two stages to the 775m level and then to surface.
After blasting, load-haul-dump machines (some of which are fully automated) carry the run-of-mine ore to the nearest ore pass, from which it is loaded automatically on to one of the trains operating on the 1,045m level.
After primary crushing, sampling using a Morgrdshammer automatic sampler to obtain the apatite and magnetite contents, and hoisting to surface, the ore is processed in Kirunas complex of a sorting plant, two concentrators and two pellet plants to give pellet and sinter fines products.
Ore is transported via remote-controlled shuttle trains to the crushing plant. The ore is then skip-hoisted approximately 1.4km vertically in two stages to the processing plant. Mining is carried out in ten production areas in stages between the current 1,045m level and the new 1,365m level.
The new level (KUJ1365) is the seventh since underground mining started. It is being developed in five stages. The first stage involved the construction of three groups of shafts. The first sections of the new main level were commissioned in May 2013. The remaining four stages will add more production areas, groups of shafts, trains, crushers and skip hoists for the new level.
The company also invested $925m in a third pelletising plant at Kiruna that was commissioned on 17 June 2008. The project also included a concentrator and ancillary equipment. The worlds largest grate-kiln pelletising plant, KK4 has an initial capacity of 5Mt/y of pellets, with the potential to increase its capacity to 6Mt/y.
With the contribution of the pelletising plants, the production capacity of LKAB increased by nearly 10Mtpa. Due to market slow down, one of the pelletising plants in Kiruna was closed in December 2009.
LKABs aim is to make Kiruna a one-product operation, with the focus exclusively on pellet production. As a result, it also invested in new flotation equipment for the Svappavaara concentrator that was inaugurated in May 2008.
The flotation enables it to produce pellet feed from some higher-phosphorus Kiruna ores. The project provides around 1Mtpa of additional output through efficiency savings. The company has been working on driving a 1,400m-long exploration drift northwards from the 1,365m level towards Luossavaara and the Per Geijer ores to the east of Luossavaara since November 2018. Several drill holes are planned to be drilled in 2020. LKAB expects to make decisions regarding a potential expansion involving a completely new production system in the mid-2020s.
Midroc Electro was contracted to provide fully automatic process control and train transportation systems for the new mining level. As a subcontractor to Mirdroc Electric, Bombardier Transportation is providing its fully automated driverless INTERFLO 150 train control technology to support the operations of the new level.
There are many ways of improving recovery processes for a wide variety of ores using sorting equipment. At STEINERT we always take the same approach: sorting waste rock and ore with low concentrations out from the process at an early stage to save energy and resources and to unlock more enriched ore more effectively. With preconcentration there are customers who can double the grade of their material.
The STEINERT XSS T EVO 5.0 with dual energy x-ray transmission (XRT) is ideally suited for ore sorting because the x-ray radiation can penetrate stones with particle sizes up to 100 mm. Metals can thus be detected, even when they are not on the surface. By altering the configuration of the machine, you can select the desired minimum content yourself, and adapt this dynamically. This enables you to respond to changes in the market situation or in the input material.
In addition to XRT, we offer other sensors that can be combined with one another. Thus, XRF (x-ray fluorescence) can be used to determine and sort individual chemical elements very precisely. Optical sorting and lasers are very well suited to the detection of ores with different colours, such as copper oxide, or crystalline structures in quartz.
By using ore sorting equipment, ore concentrates can be created at very low cost in small or remote mining installations. The entire processing line can be planned in semi-mobile form and consists only of crushers, screens, belts and sorting machines. This allows immense cost savings for transport, since the waste rock is disposed of on-site. Additionally, higher prices can be achieved with the concentrate since the ore content is considerably greater.
But larger plants, with integrated recovery facilities, also profit enormously from our ore sorting technology. STEINERT ore sorting solutions complement and reduce the burden on the downstream stages of conventional processing. This greatly reduces the overall costs for process materials such as water and leaching agent, while the material recovery facility can be made smaller, because the waste rock is no longer processed.
In southern Africa, two x-ray sorters are used to pre-concentrate sulphide gold ore into two different grain size categories. While the input material has an average gold content of less than 0.8 g/t, the sorted product achieves a concentration of more than 4 g/t with an efficiency of approximately 90%.
An initial pilot system based on the STEINERT XSS T EVO 5.0 x-ray sorter ran successfully for several months and far exceeded the expected 5000 t per month. With an annual capacity 150,000 tonnes, the system replaced 150 manual sorters, and the pre-concentrated chromite provides a higher quality. The sorting machine processes material in grain sizes from 25 to 75 mm with an average CrO content of 13 to 18% and generates a product with over 38% CrO content. Further sorting machines will shortly be installed to increase production.
Gold CIL process (carbon in leach) is an efficient method of extracting and recovering gold from its ore. By cyaniding and carbon leaching crushed gold ore slurry simultaneously, CIL process lowers the gold mining operation cost and increases gold recovery rate to 99%, which is the first choice of modern gold mining and gold beneficiation plant.
The hematite processing line adopting stage grinding and stage separation for high separation efficiency. The combination of strong magnetic separation and reverse flotation process ensures the concentrate grade and environmental protection.
Quartz sand purification is removal of a small amount of impurities and the high difficulty separation technique to obtain refined quartz sand or high purity quartz sand. The purification technologies of quartz sand at home and abroad are washing, classifying and desliming, scrubbing, magnetic separation, flotation, acid leaching, microbial leaching, etc.
The precious metal minerals are mainly gold and silver mines. Xinhai Mining has more than 20 years of experience in beneficiation for gold and silver mines, especially gold ore beneficiation technology, gold gravity selection process and placer gold selection process.
With Class B design qualification, Xinhai can provide accurate tests for more than 70 kinds of minerals and design a reasonable beneficiation process. In addition, Xinhai can also provide customized complete set of mineral processing equipment and auxiliary parts.
Xinhai can provide the whole and one-stop mineral processing plant service for clients, solving all the mine construction, operation, management problems, devoting to provide modern, high-efficiency, and energy-saving mine roject construction and operation solution for clients away from worries.
Through mineral processing experiment, the mineral processing flow is customized. Multiple tests are carried out in every link, and make sure the final processing flow to guarantee the successful mineral processing plant construction. From every details, Xinhai builds green high-efficiency mineral processing plant for mineral processing plant.
According to tailing processing technology, Xinhai has tailings reprocessing technology and tailings dry stacking. Tailings dry stacking is the self-launched tailings dewatering technology, which is the effective technology in green mine construction.
Prominer maintains a team of senior gold processing engineers with expertise and global experience. These gold professionals are specifically in gold processing through various beneficiation technologies, for gold ore of different characteristics, such as flotation, cyanide leaching, gravity separation, etc., to achieve the processing plant of optimal and cost-efficient process designs.
Based on abundant experiences on gold mining project, Prominer helps clients to get higher yield & recovery rate with lower running cost and pays more attention on environmental protection. Prominer supplies customized solution for different types of gold ore. General processing technologies for gold ore are summarized as below:
For alluvial gold, also called sand gold, gravel gold, placer gold or river gold, gravity separation is suitable. This type of gold contains mainly free gold blended with the sand. Under this circumstance, the technology is to wash away the mud and sieve out the big size stone first with the trommel screen, and then using centrifugal concentrator, shaking table as well as gold carpet to separate the free gold from the stone sands.
CIL is mainly for processing the oxide type gold ore if the recovery rate is not high or much gold is still left by using otation and/ or gravity circuits. Slurry, containing uncovered gold from primary circuits, is pumped directly to the thickener to adjust the slurry density. Then it is pumped to leaching plant and dissolved in aerated sodium cyanide solution. The solubilized gold is simultaneously adsorbed directly into coarse granules of activated carbon, and it is called Carbon-In-Leaching process (CIL).
Heap leaching is always the first choice to process low grade ore easy to leaching. Based on the leaching test, the gold ore will be crushed to the determined particle size and then sent to the dump area. If the content of clay and solid is high, to improve the leaching efficiency, the agglomeration shall be considered. By using the cement, lime and cyanide solution, the small particles would be stuck to big lumps. It makes the cyanide solution much easier penetrating and heap more stable. After sufficient leaching, the pregnant solution will be pumped to the carbon adsorption column for catching the free gold. The barren liquid will be pumped to the cyanide solution pond for recycle usage.
The loaded carbon is treated at high temperature to elute the adsorbed gold into the solution once again. The gold-rich eluate is fed into an electrowinning circuit where gold and other metals are plated onto cathodes of steel wool. The loaded steel wool is pretreated by calcination before mixing with uxes and melting. Finally, the melt is poured into a cascade of molds where gold is separated from the slag to gold bullion.
Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.
Heavy Medium Cyclone is constructed with cylinder and cones, utilizes centrifugal separation principle to separate light product (clean coal) and heavy product (gangue). The device is widely applied in
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When an ore has a low percentage of the desired metal, a method of physical concentration must be used before the extraction process begins. In one such method, the ore is crushed and placed in a machine where, by shaking, the heavier particles containing the metal are separated from the lighter rock particles by gravity. Another method is the flotation process, used commonly for copper sulfide ores. In certain cases (as when gold, silver, or occasionally copper occur free, i.e., uncombined chemically in sand or rock), mechanical or ore dressing methods alone are sufficient to obtain relatively pure metal. Waste material is washed away or separated by screening and gravity; the concentrated ore is then treated by various chemical processes.
After crushing, grinding, magnetic separation, flotation, and gravity separation, etc., iron is gradually selected from the natural iron ore. The beneficiation process should be as efficient and simple as possible, such as the development of energy-saving equipment, and the best possible results with the most suitable process. In the iron ore beneficiation factory, the equipment investment, production cost, power consumption and steel consumption of crushing and grinding operations often account for the largest proportion. Therefore, the calculation and selection of crushing and grinding equipment and the quality of operation management are to a large extent determine the economic benefits of the beneficiation factory.
There are many types of iron ore, but mainly magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (Fe2O3) are used for iron production because magnetite and hematite have higher content of iron and easy to be upgraded to high grade for steel factories.
Due to the deformation of the geological properties, there would be some changes of the characteristics of the raw ore and sometimes magnetite, hematite, limonite as well as other types iron ore and veins are in symbiosis form. So mineralogy study on the forms, characteristics as well as liberation size are necessary before getting into the study of beneficiation technology.
1. Magnetite ore stage grinding-magnetic separation process The stage grinding-magnetic separation process mainly utilizes the characteristics of magnetite that can be enriched under coarse grinding conditions, and at the same time, it can discharge the characteristics of single gangue, reducing the amount of grinding in the next stage. In the process of continuous development and improvement, the process adopts high-efficiency magnetic separation equipment to achieve energy saving and consumption reduction. At present, almost all magnetic separation plants in China use a large-diameter (medium 1 050 mm, medium 1 200 mm, medium 1 500 mm, etc.) permanent magnet magnetic separator to carry out the stage tailing removing process after one stage grinding. The characteristic of permanent magnet large-diameter magnetic separator is that it can effectively separate 3~0mm or 6~0mm, or even 10-0mm coarse-grained magnetite ore, and the yield of removed tails is generally 30.00%~50.00%. The grade is below 8.00%, which creates good conditions for the magnetic separation plant to save energy and increase production.
2.Magnetic separation-fine screen process Gangue conjoined bodies such as magnetite and quartz can be enriched when the particle size and magnetic properties reach a certain range. However, it is easy to form a coarse concatenated mixture in the iron concentrate, which reduces the grade of the iron concentrate. This kind of concentrate is sieved by a fine sieve with corresponding sieve holes, and high-quality iron concentrate can be obtained under the sieve.
There are two methods for gravity separation of hematite. One is coarse-grained gravity separation. The geological grade of the ore deposit is relatively high (about 50%), but the ore body is thinner or has more interlayers. The waste rock is mixed in during mining to dilute the ore. For this kind of ore, only crushing and no-grinding can be used so coarse-grained tailings are discarded through re-election to recover the geological grade.
The other one is fine-grain gravity separation, which mostly deals with the hematite with finer grain size and high magnetic content. After crushing, the ore is ground to separate the mineral monomers, and the fine-grained high-grade concentrate is obtained by gravity separation. However, since most of the weak magnetic iron ore concentrates with strong magnetic separation are not high in grade, and the unit processing capacity of the gravity separation process is relatively low, the combined process of strong magnetic separation and gravity separation is often used, that is, the strong magnetic separation process is used to discard a large amount of unqualified tailings, and then use the gravity separation process to further process the strong magnetic concentrate to improve the concentrate grade.
Due to the complexity, large-scale mixed iron ore and hematite ore adopt stage grinding or continuous grinding, coarse subdivision separation, gravity separation-weak magnetic separation-high gradient magnetic separation-anion reverse flotation process. The characteristics of such process are as follows:
(1) Coarse subdivision separation: For the coarse part, use gravity separation to take out most of the coarse-grained iron concentrate after a stage of grinding. The SLon type high gradient medium magnetic machine removes part of the tailings; the fine part uses the SLon type high gradient strong magnetic separator to further remove the tailings and mud to create good operating conditions for reverse flotation. Due to the superior performance of the SLon-type high-gradient magnetic separator, a higher recovery rate in the whole process is ensured, and the reverse flotation guarantees a higher fine-grained concentrate grade.
(2) A reasonable process for narrow-level selection is realized. In the process of mineral separation, the degree of separation of minerals is not only related to the characteristics of the mineral itself, but also to the specific surface area of the mineral particles. This effect is more prominent in the flotation process. Because in the flotation process, the minimum value of the force between the flotation agent and the mineral and the agent and the bubble is related to the specific surface area of the mineral, and the ratio of the agent to the mineral action area. This makes the factors double affecting the floatability of minerals easily causing minerals with a large specific surface area and relatively difficult to float and minerals with a small specific surface area and relatively easy to float have relatively consistent floatability, and sometimes the former has even better floatability. The realization of the narrow-level beneficiation process can prevent the occurrence of the above-mentioned phenomenon that easily leads to the chaos of the flotation process to a large extent, and improve the beneficiation efficiency.
(3) The combined application of high-gradient strong magnetic separation and anion reverse flotation process achieves the best combination of processes. At present, the weak magnetic iron ore beneficiation plants in China all adopt high-gradient strong magnetic separation-anion reverse flotation process in their technological process. This combination is particularly effective in the beneficiation of weak magnetic iron ore. For high-gradient strong magnetic separation, the effect of improving the grade of concentrate is not obvious. However, it is very effective to rely on high-gradient and strong magnetic separation to provide ideal raw materials for reverse flotation. At the same time, anion reverse flotation is affected by its own process characteristics and is particularly effective for the separation of fine-grained and relatively high-grade materials. The advantages of high-gradient strong magnetic separation and anion reverse flotation technology complement each other, and realize the delicate combination of the beneficiation process.
The key technology innovation of the integrated dry grinding and magnetic separation system is to "replace ball mill grinding with HPGR grinding", and the target is to reduce the cost of ball mill grinding and wet magnetic separation.
HPGRs orhigh-pressure grinding rollshave made broad advances into mining industries. The technology is now widely viewed as a primary milling alternative, and there are several large installations commissioned in recent years. After these developments, anHPGRsbased circuit configuration would often be the base case for certain ore types, such as very hard, abrasive ores.
The wear on a rolls surface is a function of the ores abrasivity. Increasing roll speed or pressure increases wear with a given material. Studs allowing the formation of an autogenous wear layer, edge blocks, and cheek plates. Development in these areas continues, with examples including profiling of stud hardness to minimize the bathtub effect (wear of the center of the rolls more rapidly than the outer areas), low-profile edge blocks for installation on worn tires, and improvements in both design and wear materials for cheek plates.
With Strip Surface, HPGRs improve observed downstream comminution efficiency. This is attributable to both increased fines generation, but also due to what appears to be weakening of the ore which many researchers attribute to micro-cracking.
As we tested , the average yield of 3mm-0 and 0.15mm-0 size fraction with Strip Surface was 78.3% and 46.2%, comparatively, the average yield of 3mm-0 and 0.3mm-0 with studs surface was 58.36% and 21.7%.
These intelligently engineered units are ideal for classifying coarser cuts ranging from 50 to 200 mesh. The feed material is dropped into the top of the classifier. It falls into a continuous feed curtain in front of the vanes, passing through low velocity air entering the side of the unit. The air flow direction is changed by the vanes from horizontal to angularly upward, resulting in separation and classification of the particulate. Coarse particles dropps directly to the product and fine particles are efficiently discharged through a valve beneath the unit. The micro fines are conveyed by air to a fabric filter for final recovery.
Air Magnetic Separation Cluster is a special equipment developed for dry magnetic separation of fine size (-3mm) and micro fine size(-0.1mm) magnetite. The air magnetic separation system can be combined according to the characteristic of magnetic minerals to achieve effective recovery of magnetite.
After rough grinding, adopt appropriate separation method, discard part of tailings and sort out part of qualified concentrate, and re-grind and re-separate the middling, is called stage grinding and stage separation process.
According to the characteristics of the raw ore, the use of stage grinding and stage separation technology is an effective measure for energy conservation in iron ore concentrators. At the coarser one-stage grinding fineness, high-efficiency beneficiation equipment is used to advance the tailings, which greatly reduces the processing volume of the second-stage grinding.
If the crystal grain size is relatively coarse, the stage grinding, stage magnetic separation-fine sieve self-circulation process is adopted. Generally, the product on the fine sieve is given to the second stage grinding and re-grinding. The process flow is relatively simple.
If the crystal grain size is too fine, the process of stage grinding, stage magnetic separation and fine sieve regrind is adopted. This process is the third stage of grinding and fine grinding after the products on the first and second stages of fine sieve are concentrated and magnetically separated. Then it is processed by magnetic separation and fine sieve, the process is relatively complicated.
At present, the operation of magnetic separation (including weak magnetic separation and strong magnetic separation) is one of the effective means of throwing tails in advance; anion reverse flotation and cation reverse flotation are one of the effective means to improve the grade of iron ore.
In particular, in the process of beneficiation, both of them basically take the selected feed minerals containing less gangue minerals as the sorting object, and both use the biggest difference in mineral selectivity, which makes the two in the whole process both play a good role in the process.
Based on the iron ore processing experience and necessary processing tests, Prominer can supply complete processing plant combined with various processing technologies, such as gravity separation, magnetic separation, flotation, etc., to improve the grade of TFe of the concentrate and get the best yield. Magnetic separation is commonly used for magnetite. Gravity separation is commonly used for hematite. Flotation is mainly used to process limonite and other kinds of iron ores
Through detailed mineralogy study and lab processing test, a most suitable processing plant parameters will be acquired. Based on those parameters Prominer can design a processing plant for mine owners and supply EPC services till the plant operating.
Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.
iron processing, use of a smelting process to turn the ore into a form from which products can be fashioned. Included in this article also is a discussion of the mining of iron and of its preparation for smelting.
Iron (Fe) is a relatively dense metal with a silvery white appearance and distinctive magnetic properties. It constitutes 5 percent by weight of the Earths crust, and it is the fourth most abundant element after oxygen, silicon, and aluminum. It melts at a temperature of 1,538 C (2,800 F).
Iron is allotropicthat is, it exists in different forms. Its crystal structure is either body-centred cubic (bcc) or face-centred cubic (fcc), depending on the temperature. In both crystallographic modifications, the basic configuration is a cube with iron atoms located at the corners. There is an extra atom in the centre of each cube in the bcc modification and in the centre of each face in the fcc. At room temperature, pure iron has a bcc structure referred to as alpha-ferrite; this persists until the temperature is raised to 912 C (1,674 F), when it transforms into an fcc arrangement known as austenite. With further heating, austenite remains until the temperature reaches 1,394 C (2,541 F), at which point the bcc structure reappears. This form of iron, called delta-ferrite, remains until the melting point is reached.
The pure metal is malleable and can be easily shaped by hammering, but apart from specialized electrical applications it is rarely used without adding other elements to improve its properties. Mostly it appears in iron-carbon alloys such as steels, which contain between 0.003 and about 2 percent carbon (the majority lying in the range of 0.01 to 1.2 percent), and cast irons with 2 to 4 percent carbon. At the carbon contents typical of steels, iron carbide (Fe3C), also known as cementite, is formed; this leads to the formation of pearlite, which in a microscope can be seen to consist of alternate laths of alpha-ferrite and cementite. Cementite is harder and stronger than ferrite but is much less malleable, so that vastly differing mechanical properties are obtained by varying the amount of carbon. At the higher carbon contents typical of cast irons, carbon may separate out as either cementite or graphite, depending on the manufacturing conditions. Again, a wide range of properties is obtained. This versatility of iron-carbon alloys leads to their widespread use in engineering and explains why iron is by far the most important of all the industrial metals.
There is evidence that meteorites were used as a source of iron before 3000 bc, but extraction of the metal from ores dates from about 2000 bc. Production seems to have started in the copper-producing regions of Anatolia and Persia, where the use of iron compounds as fluxes to assist in melting may have accidentally caused metallic iron to accumulate on the bottoms of copper smelting furnaces. When iron making was properly established, two types of furnace came into use. Bowl furnaces were constructed by digging a small hole in the ground and arranging for air from a bellows to be introduced through a pipe or tuyere. Stone-built shaft furnaces, on the other hand, relied on natural draft, although they too sometimes used tuyeres. In both cases, smelting involved creating a bed of red-hot charcoal to which iron ore mixed with more charcoal was added. Chemical reduction of the ore then occurred, but, since primitive furnaces were incapable of reaching temperatures higher than 1,150 C (2,100 F), the normal product was a solid lump of metal known as a bloom. This may have weighed up to 5 kilograms (11 pounds) and consisted of almost pure iron with some entrapped slag and pieces of charcoal. The manufacture of iron artifacts then required a shaping operation, which involved heating blooms in a fire and hammering the red-hot metal to produce the desired objects. Iron made in this way is known as wrought iron. Sometimes too much charcoal seems to have been used, and iron-carbon alloys, which have lower melting points and can be cast into simple shapes, were made unintentionally. The applications of this cast iron were limited because of its brittleness, and in the early Iron Age only the Chinese seem to have exploited it. Elsewhere, wrought iron was the preferred material.
Although the Romans built furnaces with a pit into which slag could be run off, little change in iron-making methods occurred until medieval times. By the 15th century, many bloomeries used low shaft furnaces with water power to drive the bellows, and the bloom, which might weigh over 100 kilograms, was extracted through the top of the shaft. The final version of this kind of bloomery hearth was the Catalan forge, which survived in Spain until the 19th century. Another design, the high bloomery furnace, had a taller shaft and evolved into the 3-metre- (10-foot-) high Stckofen, which produced blooms so large they had to be removed through a front opening in the furnace.
The blast furnace appeared in Europe in the 15th century when it was realized that cast iron could be used to make one-piece guns with good pressure-retaining properties, but whether its introduction was due to Chinese influence or was an independent development is unknown. At first, the differences between a blast furnace and a Stckofen were slight. Both had square cross sections, and the main changes required for blast-furnace operation were an increase in the ratio of charcoal to ore in the charge and a taphole for the removal of liquid iron. The product of the blast furnace became known as pig iron from the method of casting, which involved running the liquid into a main channel connected at right angles to a number of shorter channels. The whole arrangement resembled a sow suckling her litter, and so the lengths of solid iron from the shorter channels were known as pigs.
Despite the military demand for cast iron, most civil applications required malleable iron, which until then had been made directly in a bloomery. The arrival of blast furnaces, however, opened up an alternative manufacturing route; this involved converting cast iron to wrought iron by a process known as fining. Pieces of cast iron were placed on a finery hearth, on which charcoal was being burned with a plentiful supply of air, so that carbon in the iron was removed by oxidation, leaving semisolid malleable iron behind. From the 15th century on, this two-stage process gradually replaced direct iron making, which nevertheless survived into the 19th century.
By the middle of the 16th century, blast furnaces were being operated more or less continuously in southeastern England. Increased iron production led to a scarcity of wood for charcoal and to its subsequent replacement by coal in the form of cokea discovery that is usually credited to Abraham Darby in 1709. Because the higher strength of coke enabled it to support a bigger charge, much larger furnaces became possible, and weekly outputs of 5 to 10 tons of pig iron were achieved.
Next, the advent of the steam engine to drive blowing cylinders meant that the blast furnace could be provided with more air. This created the potential problem that pig iron production would far exceed the capacity of the finery process. Accelerating the conversion of pig iron to malleable iron was attempted by a number of inventors, but the most successful was the Englishman Henry Cort, who patented his puddling furnace in 1784. Cort used a coal-fired reverberatory furnace to melt a charge of pig iron to which iron oxide was added to make a slag. Agitating the resultant puddle of metal caused carbon to be removed by oxidation (together with silicon, phosphorus, and manganese). As a result, the melting point of the metal rose so that it became semisolid, although the slag remained quite fluid. The metal was then formed into balls and freed from as much slag as possible before being removed from the furnace and squeezed in a hammer. For a short time, puddling furnaces were able to provide enough iron to meet the demands for machinery, but once again blast-furnace capacity raced ahead as a result of the Scotsman James Beaumont Nielsens invention in 1828 of the hot-blast stove for preheating blast air and the realization that a round furnace performed better than a square one.
The eventual decline in the use of wrought iron was brought about by a series of inventions that allowed furnaces to operate at temperatures high enough to melt iron. It was then possible to produce steel, which is a superior material. First, in 1856, Henry Bessemer patented his converter process for blowing air through molten pig iron, and in 1861 William Siemens took out a patent for his regenerative open-hearth furnace. In 1879 Sidney Gilchrist Thomas and Percy Gilchrist adapted the Bessemer converter for use with phosphoric pig iron; as a result, the basic Bessemer, or Thomas, process was widely adopted on the continent of Europe, where high-phosphorus iron ores were abundant. For about 100 years, the open-hearth and Bessemer-based processes were jointly responsible for most of the steel that was made, before they were replaced by the basic oxygen and electric-arc furnaces.
Apart from the injection of part of the fuel through tuyeres, the blast furnace has employed the same operating principles since the early 19th century. Furnace size has increased markedly, however, and one large modern furnace can supply a steelmaking plant with up to 10,000 tons of liquid iron per day.
Throughout the 20th century, many new iron-making processes were proposed, but it was not until the 1950s that potential substitutes for the blast furnace emerged. Direct reduction, in which iron ores are reduced at temperatures below the metals melting point, had its origin in such experiments as the Wiberg-Soderfors process introduced in Sweden in 1952 and the HyL process introduced in Mexico in 1957. Few of these techniques survived, and those that did were extensively modified. Another alternative iron-making method, smelting reduction, had its forerunners in the electric furnaces used to make liquid iron in Sweden and Norway in the 1920s. The technique grew to include methods based on oxygen steelmaking converters using coal as a source of additional energy, and in the 1980s it became the focus of extensive research and development activity in Europe, Japan, and the United States.
Compared to the simple extraction, the semi-continuous process allows to increase the throughput by around 25%. Overlapping extraction still increases throughput by an additional 40%. Soaking extraction increases, in many cases, the effectiveness of the process while the multi-step extraction allows to fractionate the different extracted components with extreme precision.
We build atomization systems. We use PGSS (Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions), SAS (Supercritical Anti Solvent) and SAA (Supercritical Assisted Atomization). Application of supercritical fluids, especially of supercritical CO, is a convenient method for the preparation of pharmaceuticals submicron particles or nanoparticles. The method enables the preparation of particles in a narrow size distribution and at the same time it does not leave any unwanted residues of solvents or other chemicals.
For SFF (Supercritical Fluid Fractionation) it is meant the separation of one or more components (from a mixture) with the employment of a miscible or immiscible solvent, thanks to a favorable repartition coefficient of the solute.The repartition coefficient is given by the ratio between the solute concentration in the SCF at the equilibrium and the concentration of the solute in the starting matrix at the equilibrium. The extraction is a convenient process only if the component to extract shows simultaneously: 1) a favorable repartition coefficient (meaning a high solubility in the SCF); 2) afavorable separation factor (if evaluated in relation to possible compounds being extracted from the mixture).
In NEA (Near-critical Expansion Atomization) process, the carbon dioxide is used in this process for the atomization and the crystallization of the product. The product subjected to the process is maintained in the liquid phase in a feed tank at a controlled temperature and subsequently conveyed, at the desired pressure, to the atomization tower where there is contact with the carbon dioxide released to atmospheric pressure.The result is the formation of microscopic droplets (atomization) immediately cooled to temperatures much lower than 0 C.
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In the USA, Mt. Baker Mining and Metals (MBMM) builds high quality, robust, industrial machines used across many industries. Select an industry below to learn more about how our products can help you with your projects.
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Oxygen Concentrator is a medical equipment /device whichextract the Oxygen from the air around us by removing thenitrogen and other gases. Extracted/ Concentrated Oxygen is delivered to the patient through oxygen mask or nasal cannula to improve Oxygenation in the blood.
Definition of oxygen concentrator: An oxygen concentrator is a type of medical equipment used to provide oxygen to people with breathing-related problems. Specially to the people who have a lower than average concentration of oxygen in their blood also need an oxygen concentrator to inhale the oxygen via nose
Typically, A doctor prescribe the oxygen concentrator after a comprehensive medical examination of the patient. Doctor will prescribe the oxygen flow (in litre / minutes) that a patient need to inhale to maintain the oxygen saturation in the blood. Most of the time the doctors will also teach the patients how to use these concentrators safely while travelling and at home.
The oxygen concentrators collect the air from surrounding, compress it as required & then pass it through a sieve bed zeolite, Zeolite absorb the nitrogen and pass the oxygen and then deliver filtered oxygen to the patient in a through a flowmeter delivery system with continuous flow.
An oxygen concentrator is a medical device used to supply oxygen to those who need it. People may need it if they have a condition that causes or results in low levels of oxygen in their blood. These oxygen concentrators are normally obtained by prescription and therefore can not be purchased via the counter. Oxygen concentrators are powered by connection to an electrical outlet or battery. If the concentrator is powered by an electric battery, the battery must be charged by plugging into an outlet. Several parts comprise a concentrator, including a compressor, a seven-bed filter and circuit boards.
An oxygen concentrator has a compressing element, but should not be confused with a compressed oxygen or oxygen tank. Whereas a tank has a fixed amount of oxygen it dispenses, a concentrator filters in the air, compresses it and delivers air continuously. The air supply never runs out. Instead of refilling the compressed air, the concentrator only needs power. Buy oxygen concentrator of wide brand fromhospitalsstore.com. Lowest price of range of Oxygen Concentrator .
Here is list for top- selling Oxygen Concentrators in2021: Product Price Philips /Respironics Oxygen Concentrator Everflo 5L , Brand New with 3 years warranty 63,500.00 Philips Simply Go Portable Oxygen Concentrator 195,000.00 Oxymed 10 Litre Oxygen Concentrator with 2 years warranty Medical grade 94,000.00 BPL Oxygen Concentrator OXY 5 NEO ( 5Lilter ) with 1 year manufacturer warranty 59,000.00 Devilbiss Oxygen Concentrator Compact 5L, Model 525 (USFDA Approved ) 3 years warranty . 66,000.00 Oxymed Mini Oxygen Concentrator with 5L Capacity 42,800.00 DeVilbiss Oxygen Concentrator, 10 liter 135,000.00
Anoxygen concentratoris a medical grade machine which isused todeliveroxygento patients with breathing related disorders. .Theoxygen concentratoris also equipped with special sieve beds and filters, and these will help to remove the Nitrogen from the air, in order to deliver fully purifiedoxygento the patient.
It takes in air, modifies it and delivers it in a new form.An oxygen concentrator takes in the air and purifies it for use by people who need medical oxygen due to low levels of oxygen in their blood.It works by: taking air from its surroundings Compressing air, while the cooling mechanism prevents the concentrator from overheating Remove nitrogen from the air via filter and sieve beds Adjusting delivery settings with an electronic interface Providing purified oxygen via a nasal cannula or mask oxygen concentrator works by:
In India to purchase anoxygen concentrator,you don'tneed any prescription but if you are a patient or you want to buy oxygen concentrator for a patient then you should constult with your doctor before buying a oxygen concentrator becausedoctors decide the amount of oxygen according to the condition of the patient and which oxygen concentrator ( portable or home oxygen concentrator) is suitble for your need so buy a oxygen concenrator when your doctor prescribed it.
Before buying an oxygen machine you have to first see how much oxygen concentration you are taking will fulfill you requirement. And Different oxygen concentrators have a variety of features and perks that can make them more or less suitable for each individual patient.The choice of an oxygen concentrator depends on its oxygen capacity or oxygen flow as well as its oxygen concentration and power input etc.
Here we are listingsome of the bestOxygen concentrator by brands available in the market .You can buy your Oxygen concentrator machineat Hospitalsstore.com online . Hospitals store provide all india service and free delivery.
Product Price BPL Oxygen Concentrator OXY 5 NEO ( 5Lilter ) with 1 year manufacturer warranty 59,000.00 Devilbiss Oxygen Concentrator Compact 5L, Model 525 (USFDA Approved ) 3 years warranty . 66,000.00 Medsun Oxygen Concentrator 5LPM flow with Oxygen Purity Indicator OPI 35,500.00 Oxygen Concentrator Machine JAY-5, Oxygen Flow 5L with 1 year warranty USFDA Approved 35,700.00 Philips /Respironics Oxygen Concentrator Everflo 5L , Brand New with 3 years warranty 63,500.00 BPL Oxygen Concentrator OXY 10 Neo Dual ( 10litre ) with 1 year manufacturer warranty 129,920.00 Oxymed 10 Litre Oxygen Concentrator with 2 years warranty Medical grade 94,000.00
Before buying oxygen concentrator the first question that will come to mind is which oxygen concentrator is the best. So there is no need to be concerned; let us tell you about the top best oxygen concentrator available in India 2021. Here mationed all oxygen concentrator are branded and gives 93+/-3 oxygen concentration.
Product Price Philips /Respironics Oxygen Concentrator Everflo 5L , Brand New with 3 years warranty 63,500.00 Devilbiss Oxygen Concentrator Compact 5L, Model 525 (USFDA Approved ) 3 years warranty . 66,000.00 DeVilbiss Oxygen Concentrator, 10 liter 135,000.00 BPL Oxygen Concentrator OXY 5 NEO ( 5Lilter ) with 1 year manufacturer warranty 59,000.00 BPL Oxygen Concentrator OXY 10 Neo Dual ( 10litre ) with 1 year manufacturer warranty 129,920.00 Oxymed Mini Oxygen Concentrator with 5L Capacity 42,800.00
Oxygen concentrator and oxygen tank both supply oxygen to patient but both are different. oxygen concentrator supply maximum flow of 10 LPM but a crictical patient may need more Flow of oxygen so oxygen tank is suitable for that patient.
Using an oxygen concentrator without a prescription can result in serious health issues such as oxygen toxicity. You want to buy oxygen concentrator for a patient then you should constult with your doctor before buying a oxygen concentrator becausedoctors decide the amount of oxygen according to the condition of the patient and which oxygen concentrator ( portable or home oxygen concentrator) is suitble for patient'sneed. so use a oxygen concentrator under doctor's supervision.Get in Touch with Mechanic