Box cut (mining) is a cutting technique. In general, this cut is downcast adequately until, rock not worn by exposure to the weather is found in order to permit the progress of the decline. This type of cut is created to provide a secure and safe portal as way in to a decline to an underground mine. In most mining areas, it is box cut that serves as the first step in the excavation process. Outlining a box shape, it consists of a single rectangular cut made in the surface of the earth. In general, this type of mining technique is used for extracting coal, however it is applied to other material types i.e., from metals to minerals. Based on where these supplies rest in relation to the surface of the earth, this cut may be the single excavation method used on a project, or may be the first of many techniques in use. This cut, when compared with others, it is relatively fast and easy. All that it takes is a basic shoring supplies and a large excavator. In addition, it also serves as a useful method of subsoil investigation prior to investing in other equipment.
A wide range of shoring techniques come as a dependant factor to support the trenches created by this cut. Long anchor bolts are used to pin the walls of the trench into the adjoining rock or soil, which helps prevent the collapse of a geologic formation. In order to reduce the risk of dirt or rock sliding, wire meshes are also used to cover the walls, which in turns gives safety to workers below. To endow with maximum strength and stability, the walls of the trench may be covered with shotcrete, especially with long-term mining projects. The walls of the trench must be sloped out to further take the edge off risk; this applies to very deep box cuts significantly.
Looking at what the nature has to offer, it conveys a lot of information when it comes to things that it holds in it, within it and on it. With need for minerals and its wide spread application getting widened each day, the stint of its very existence is getting blink and its depreciation in its source which is its over usage is on the high.
literally means extraction .Our Mother Earth has lots of resources deep within her and mining is the method of extracting all these valuable resources from the earth through different means.There are different methods to extract these resources which are found in different forms beneath the earth's surface.
The metal mining was one of the traditions that have been passed on meritoriously over the past years so that we meet our day-to-day needs of the desired material usage starting from the equipments that are ornamental as well as purposeful coordination of information's.
Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral and is one of the two types of pure jade. The other is known as nephrite jade. Jadeite is the rarer of the two jades, and as a result, it is considered to be more precious and valuable. Due to its striking and emerald green color it is also known as "imperial jadeite".
Surface mining is basically employed when deposits of commercially viable minerals or rock are found closer to the surface; that is, where overstrain (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively very less or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for heavy handling or tunneling.
Underground mining is carried out when the rocks, minerals, or precious stones are located at a distance far beneath the ground to be extracted with surface mining. To facilitate the minerals to be taken out of the mine, the miners construct underground rooms to work in.
Gold is a chemical component with the symbol Au that springs up from the Latin derivative aurum that means shining dawn and with the atomic number 79. It is a very sought-after valuable metal which, for many centuries, has been utilized as wealth. The metal resembles as nuggets or grain like structures in rocks, subversive "veins" and in alluvial deposits. It is one of the currency metals.
Platinum, is a heavy, malleable,ductile, highly inactive, silverish-white transition metal. Platinum is a member of group 10 elements of the periodic table.It is one among the scarce elements found in Earth's crust and has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is also achemical element.
Diamonds and supplementary valuable and semi-precious gemstones are excavated from the earth level via 4 main types on mining. These diamond withdrawal methods vary depending on how the minerals are situated within the earth, the steadiness of the material neighboring the preferred mineral, and the nonessential damage done to the surrounding environment.
Mount Arthur Coal Mine is an open-cut coal mine first owned by Coal Operations Australia Ltd, and then by Hunter Valley Energy Coal Pty Ltd (HVEC), both wholly owned subsidiaries of BHP Billiton. The mine is 8 km south of Muswellbrook in the Upper Hunter Valley. It consists of two areas: the northern open-cut (formerly known as Mount Arthur North) and the southern open-cut (including Bayswater No. 2, Bayswater No. 3, and the South Pit extension).Underground operations were authorised in 2008 for the Mount Arthur Underground Project for a mining rate of up to 8 Mt/year. The project comprises longwall mining operations from five coal seams with transport of ROM coal by conveyor, but no underground mining is currently taking place.
This unique report on Global Open Cut Mining Equipment Market till 2025 presents quality data on the global market revenue, sales, growth rate and leading market players. The supply chain analysis completes the Open Cut Mining Equipment market understanding for a new entrant as well as existing players. The import and export data along with consumption statistics from major countries is sure to enrich the strategists understanding of the market. Open Cut Mining Equipment market research report provides the newest industry data and industry future trends, allowing you to identify the products and end users driving Revenue growth and profitability. The industry report lists the leading competitors and provides the insights strategic industry Analysis of the key factors influencing the market. The report includes the forecasts, Analysis and discussion of important industry trends, market size, market share estimates and profiles of the leading industry Players. Global Open Cut Mining Equipment Market: Product Segment Analysis Draglines Shovels Workshops Trucks Drilling Equipment Other Global Open Cut Mining Equipment Market: Application Segment Analysis Coal Production Gold and Copper Production Other Minerals Global Open Cut Mining Equipment Market: Regional Segment Analysis USA Europe Japan China India South East Asia The Players mentioned in our report Tenova TAKRAF FAMUR Group Joy Global Inc. Wirtgen Group Vermeer Corp Caterpillar Atlas Copco Sulzer SANDVIK United Heavy Machinery Plants There are 10 Chapters to Deeply Display the World Open Cut Mining Equipment Market. Chapter 1 About the Open Cut Mining Equipment Industry Chapter 2 World Market Competition Landscape Chapter 3 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Market share Chapter 4 Supply Chain Analysis Chapter 5 Company Profiles Chapter 6 Globalisation & Trade Chapter 7 Distributors and Customers Chapter 8 Import, Export, Consumption and Consumption Value by Major Countries Chapter 9 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Market Forecast through 2025 Chapter 10 Key success factors and Market Overview
Table of Content Chapter 1 About the Open Cut Mining Equipment Industry 1.1 Industry Definition and Types 1.1.1 Draglines 1.1.2 Shovels 1.1.3 Workshops 22.214.171.124 Trucks 126.96.36.199 Drilling Equipment 188.8.131.52 Other 1.2 Main Market Activities 1.3 Similar Industries 1.4 Industry at a Glance Chapter 2 World Market Competition Landscape 2.1 Open Cut Mining Equipment Markets by Regions 2.1.1 USA Market Revenue (M USD) and Growth Rate 2015-2025 Sales and Growth Rate 2015-2025 Major Players Revenue (M USD) in 2019 2.1.2 Europe Market Revenue (M USD) and Growth Rate 2015-2025 Sales and Growth Rate 2015-2025 Major Players Revenue (M USD) in 2019 2.1.3 China Market Revenue (M USD) and Growth Rate 2015-2025 Sales and Growth Rate 2015-2025 Major Players Revenue (M USD) in 2019 2.1.4 India Market Revenue (M USD) and Growth Rate 2015-2025 Sales and Growth Rate 2015-2025 Major Players Revenue (M USD) in 2019 2.1.5 Japan Market Revenue (M USD) and Growth Rate 2015-2025 Sales and Growth Rate 2015-2025 Major Players Revenue (M USD) in 2019 2.1.6 South East Asia Market Revenue (M USD) and Growth Rate 2015-2025 Sales and Growth Rate 2015-2025 Major Players Revenue (M USD) in 2019 2.2 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Market by Types Draglines Shovels Workshops Trucks Drilling Equipment Other 2.3 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Market by Applications Coal Production Gold and Copper Production Other Minerals 2.4 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Market Analysis 2.4.1 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Market Revenue and Growth Rate 2015-2020 2.4.2 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Market Consumption and Growth rate 2015-2020 2.4.3 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Market Price Analysis 2015-2020 Chapter 3 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Market share 3.1 Major Production Market share by Players 3.2 Major Revenue (M USD) Market share by Players 3.3 Major Production Market share by Regions in 2019, Through 2025 3.4 Major Revenue (M USD) Market share By Regions in 2019, Through 2025 Chapter 4 Supply Chain Analysis 4.1 Industry Supply chain Analysis 4.2 Raw material Market Analysis 4.2.1 Raw material Prices Analysis 2015-2020 4.2.2 Raw material Supply Market Analysis 4.2 Manufacturing Equipment Suppliers Analysis 4.3 Production Process Analysis 4.4 Production Cost Structure Benchmarks 4.5 End users Market Analysis Chapter 5 Company Profiles 5.1 Tenova TAKRAF 5.1.1 Company Details (Foundation Year, Employee Strength and etc) 5.1.2 Product Information (Picture, Specifications and Applications) 5.1.3 Revenue (M USD), Price and Operating Profits 5.2 FAMUR Group 5.2.1 Company Details (Foundation Year, Employee Strength and etc) 5.2.2 Product Information (Picture, Specifications and Applications) 5.2.3 Revenue (M USD), Price and Operating Profits 5.3 Joy Global Inc. 5.3.1 Company Details (Foundation Year, Employee Strength and etc) 5.3.2 Product Information (Picture, Specifications and Applications) 5.3.3 Revenue (M USD), Price and Operating Profits 5.4 Wirtgen Group 5.4.1 Company Details (Foundation Year, Employee Strength and etc) 5.4.2 Product Information (Picture, Specifications and Applications) 5.4.3 Revenue (M USD), Price and Operating Profits 5.5 Vermeer Corp 5.5.1 Company Details (Foundation Year, Employee Strength and etc) 5.5.2 Product Information (Picture, Specifications and Applications) 5.5.3 Revenue (M USD), Price and Operating Profits 5.6 Caterpillar 5.6.1 Company Details (Foundation Year, Employee Strength and etc) 5.6.2 Product Information (Picture, Specifications and Applications) 5.6.3 Revenue (M USD), Price and Operating Profits 5.7 Atlas Copco 5.7.1 Company Details (Foundation Year, Employee Strength and etc) 5.7.2 Product Information (Picture, Specifications and Applications) 5.7.3 Revenue (M USD), Price and Operating Profits 5.8 Sulzer 5.8.1 Company Details (Foundation Year, Employee Strength and etc) 5.8.2 Product Information (Picture, Specifications and Applications) 5.8.3 Revenue (M USD), Price and Operating Profits 5.9 SANDVIK 5.9.1 Company Details (Foundation Year, Employee Strength and etc) 5.9.2 Product Information (Picture, Specifications and Applications) 5.9.3 Revenue (M USD), Price and Operating Profits 5.10 United Heavy Machinery Plants 5.10.1 Company Details (Foundation Year, Employee Strength and etc) 5.10.2 Product Information (Picture, Specifications and Applications) 5.10.3 Revenue (M USD), Price and Operating Profits Chapter 6 Globalisation & Trade 6.1 Business Locations 6.2 Supply channels 6.3 Marketing strategy 6.4 Barriers to Entry Chapter 7 Distributors and Customers 7.1 Major Distributors and contact information by Regions 7.2 Major Customers and contact information by Regions Chapter 8 Import, Export, Consumption and Consumption Value by Major Countries 8.1 USA 8.2 Germany 8.3 China 8.4 Japan 8.5 India Chapter 9 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Market Forecast through 2025 9.1 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Demand by Regions Forecast through 2025 9.2 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Price(by Regions, Types, Applications)Analysis Forecast through 2025 9.3 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Revenue (M USD)(by Regions, Types, Applications) Forecast through 2025 9.4 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Market Analysis 9.4.1 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Market Revenue and Growth Rate 2015-2020 9.4.2 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Market Consumption and Growth rate 2015-2020 9.4.3 World Open Cut Mining Equipment Market Price Analysis 2015-2020 Chapter 10 Key success factors and Market Overview
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Although autonomous vehicles have been under development for decades, their productive use in mining is relatively new. As the technology becomes more refined and accessible, it is now more commonplace for new mines, and those with sufficient remaining mine life to consider running an Autonomous Haulage System (AHS). Whilst their use has been accredited with improvements in safety, reductions in wear and increased utilization, there are AHS specific requirements which need to be considered in order to properly quantify any potential benefit an AHS fleet could deliver to an operation.
The ideas expressed in this paper are based on the authors experience as a Mine Planning Engineer working with AHS fleets over a nine-year period. The paper intends to give an individual with little to no AHS experience some insight into the various aspects of an AHS operation which require attention, above what a manned fleet would usually need. As with most new technologies, the benefits are eagerly promoted by those who develop them, but not a lot of focus is put on the additional attention and resources this new technology requires. This paper will provide the reader with some understanding of what an autonomous fleet needs to operate effectively in an open cut mine.
To answer all the questions above and have a control and communication network, Wi-Fi or Long-Term Evolution (LTE) coverage must be established throughout the trucks operating environment. This network allows the trucks to be controlled from great distances. For example, there are operations in Australia which have control centres in major citys servicing remote mines, thousands of kilometres away (Suncor Energy, 2018).
In order to provide the first piece of information, the trucks need to be fitted with Global Positioning System (GPS) beacons. This is in addition to several other components like Lidar, Radar, vehicle controllers, and Wi-Fi. Although there are concepts around AHS dedicated trucks, current operating models are based on traditional manned machines which have been in service for many years. Therefore, in addition to the standard cost of each manned machine, they also need to be retrofitted to effectively convert them to AHS trucks.
The importance of accurate survey is highlighted by the need to provide the second piece of information. Routes and boundaries are set by the survey department. These are usually updated on a daily basis and then sent out to the trucks (through the site Wi-Fi network). Accurate survey accounts for the rapid rate at which the layout of a mining operation changes. Take, for example, a truck which on Monday is driving on a large stockpile and then dumping ore to build it northwards. In order for it to dump at that stockpile, a boundary had to be established by survey and then communicated to the truck. On Tuesday, the stockpile is closed as a dumping location and is reclaimed southwards, past the point of the previous tip head. On Wednesday the stockpile is re-opened as a dumping location. If the new tip head position is not re-surveyed, a truck could potentially drive straight off the stockpile because as far as it is aware, the tip head is still in the same position it was on Monday. This example demonstrates the need for high quality, frequently updated survey data to establish a safe working environment.
The final piece of information needed is the location of other equipment. This information is provided by retrofitting both heavy and light vehicles in the AHS operating area with GPS, network capability and emergency stops which effectively pause the movement of the AHS fleet at the touch of a button. It is very important that all these systems are reliable to establish a safe and efficient operating environment. Most AHS control systems will effectively halt operations when other equipment comes within a trucks operating bubble. Inaccurate locations may cause unwarranted interference with haulage operations. Generally, if a heavy or light vehicles location is completely lost (loss of GPS or Wi-Fi signal) it will result in the trucks automatically pulling up until the location can be re-established.
At this point in time, there are no exclusive autonomous mining environments. Other equipment like dig units, graders and light vehicles still need to operate in a mine around AHS trucks. Their operators need to be trained in how to properly interact with AHS equipment. This takes on different forms depending on which piece of equipment is operating with the trucks. For example, a dig unit operator would need to learn how to use the network to set a load or stop point for the autonomous trucks in order to instruct the trucks when to reverse into position for loading and when to leave the loading point. They would also need to know how to position their bucket for an AHS truck as it can be used as a reference point by the truck for positioning correctly.
Light vehicle users would need to know how their behaviour affects the productivity of trucks. Depending on how the rules of the environment are set up, a light vehicle could hold up a truck by being parked in the opposite lane of an oncoming truck. A clear understanding by staff of the rules-based system which governs an AHS environment is needed for safe and productive mining.
An operations communication network and equipment GPS are relied upon by the trucks to navigate the mine. However, in addition to this, the trucks are usually fitted with Radar and Lidar to detect obstacles and avoid collisions. The effectiveness of all these systems is impacted by the weather. Radar and Lidar, as hazard detection devices, can be quite sensitive to things like dust or snow.
Figure 2 illustrates challenging conditions faced by AHS operations at Rio Tintos West Angelas Mine. The operation is well known for its dusty production environment which can have a detrimental impact on the AHS fleets productivity. It is important that operational delays caused by the weather at an individual site are understood and then managed by mine operations, along with being accounted for during mine planning.
Although improvements are always being made to the capabilities of AHS fleets, they currently require special consideration when designing infrastructure like pits and stockpiles. In general, this refers to working space design factors such as maximum gradients, minimum turning circles, and minimum road widths. If the working environment is not set up to allow for these requirements, there is a risk of un-necessarily triggering the autonomous trucks safety systems (Radar, Lidar, GPS Proximity) to stop the truck. These design factors are of particular importance when introducing AHS to an already producing operation. Pit designs may need to be reviewed and modified, impacting stripping ratios and ultimately costs.
This is somewhat related to road design in that the AHS system is unforgiving of poor construction and maintenance. Larger open pit operations tend not to have the level of accuracy commonly found in the civil construction industry. If this trend is carried forward when an AHS fleet is implemented it can result in frequent delays. Strict adherence to AHS specific design factors is needed by the pit development team.
Poor road conditions which result in incidents where rocks are dropped from trays can set off the Radar/Lidar emergency stop systems and interrupt production until someone is sent out to investigate and remove any obstruction. Had this same obstacle been present in a manned vehicle, the operator may have been able to drive around the obstacle and simply call for a clean-up.
As mentioned, Mine Planning needs to account for AHS delays due to poor weather conditions, in which a manned fleet may have continued to operate. Understanding how localized conditions will affect the AHS trucks and to what degree, is usually initiated once the AHS trucks are on site. To this end, there is usually an implementation period for the technology to be established and understood and for staff to be trained. A common implementation method is to use a manned fleet in areas of the mine where ore is being sourced. This is usually kept separate to the AHS fleet in order to avoid delays in feeding the crusher and obtaining that important revenue stream. The AHS fleet will then be set up in a separate area of the mine where pre-stripping of waste is needed. This creates a pit-to-dump AHS only area, where all the fixed and mobile infrastructure required to run AHS trucks can be calibrated to the specific site. This will minimize the impact on the operation. It can also serve as a training facility, where staff can be introduced to and gain experience in the operation of an AHS fleet before it is rolled out, sitewide.
Once management has confidence in the operation of the AHS fleet, it can then be integrated into the main operation with manned trucks. The AHS trucks will usually maintain their assignment to waste runs until the stockpile and run of mine (ROM) areas have been properly set up for their use. Following this, the remaining manned trucks can be retrofitted, and the operation can exclusively run autonomous trucks.
It is the job of the Mine Planner to account for these initial requirements for segregation and then adjust the plan as unforeseen delays may occur. Data gathered from the implementation period, will also help to predict future performance and thus create more accurate mine development plans.
Up to now, the implementation of AHS fleets in mining has been undertaken by large firms. This is mainly due to the experimental nature of the technology. Now that AHS is being rolled out on a wider basis, it is becoming accepted as a permanent part of a modern mining operation. Although the technology has been proven to deliver improvements in equipment utilization, safety, and mechanical wear, it is also important to carefully consider the potential for safety compromises due to poor environmental controls, or the negative impact on productivity due to inadvertent triggering of safety systems. In addition, the impact of design control factors on the economics of the operation should be considered.
The Research Report Open Cut Mining Equipment market is updated with the most up-to-date information owing on the market impact of the COVID-19. The report has been carefully researched with aspects of the current impact of the pandemic that the world has witnessed market overview, dynamics, trends and future opportunities. The report sets out future forecasts for this industry for the year 2021, for instance, the CAGR, market share, size, demand and consumption rate and manufacturing capabilities of the largest key competitors. As well, the Open Cut Mining Equipment research studies presents the market data, including trends, consumer behavior and the competitive landscape in a manner that allow individuals and businesses to identify opportunities in the global marketplace.
The Open Cut Mining Equipment Market research report provides detailed information and a professional study for the period 2020 to 2026. However, the report shares the details of upstream raw materials, downstream demand, and production value with a few major factors subject to market growth.
The global Open Cut Mining Equipment market is segmented on the basis of the type of product, application, and region. The analysts preparing the report provide a thorough assessment of all of the segments included in the report. The segments are analyzed on the basis of their market share, revenue, market growth rate, and other vital factors. Furthermore, the segmentation study identifies high-growth segments of the global market Open Cut Mining Equipment and understands how the leading segments can grow over the forecast period.
In short, the Open Cut Mining Equipment report provides an overview of the principal geographical area, market landscapes and analysis of production and consumption, supply and demand, cost as well as revenue analysis, of major players and their manufacturing facilities in-line with future forecasts. Moreover, the report uses SWOT and PESTLE analysis to analyze the market investment feasibility and return analysis.
To conclude, the Open Cut Mining Equipment report helps decision makers obtain the required information and market context to support effective business decision making to achieve business objectives. This report assists decision makers and strategy planners with a good understanding of the target market. Our research reports are available in either format (Doc, pdf, ppt, XML, etc.). Also, the Open Cut Mining Equipment market research report is presented as a critical tool in the Open Cut Mining Equipment-market analysis. Our experienced industry experts have solid and cutting-edge knowledge to fully analyze a market.
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