crushing products size and shape -what to expect

crushing products size and shape -what to expect

I have madea number of general remarks regarding the character of product delivered by crushers of various types, and under different conditions of operation. Generalities are of value only if we have some standard to which comparisons may be referred; therefore, we should like to present more specific information on the kind of product to be expected from crushing equipment under average operating conditions. Much of the data on which sizing/designcurves and tables are based comes from operations involving those two very important types: gyratory and jaw crushers; therefore these curves and tables are more nearly representative of the work of these types than of rolls or hammermills. They may be used for these latter types however if due allowance is made for peculiarities of each type, as pointed out in the descriptions of the different machines.

The preparation of a set of product gradation curves involves a considerable amount of work in the collection of the necessary test data, and a certain degree of discrimination in sorting such data and weeding out erroneous results. There are several reasons why no set of product gradation curves can be regarded as more than reasonably close approximations. First among these is the variation in physical structure of the many materials for which crushers are used; rocks exhibit a high degree of rugged individualism in their reaction to crushing. This variation is frequently quite pronounced between different ledges in the same quarry.

Gradation of the crusher feed also has its effect upon the product analysis. This is true even of screened feed, although deviations from the average are not likely to be so wide as they are for unscreened material, such as quarry-run or mine-run rock. We have commented on other variable factors, such as choke versus regulated feed, straight versus curved concaves, and so forth.

Fortunately, most materials do follow a certain definite gradation pattern and, by averaging a large number of test results, it is possible to plot a group of curves which can be classed as fairly close approximations. Even though approximate, these curves are of great value in crushing-plant design, or in the solution of problems concerning additions or alterations in the plant flowsheet. They simplify the problem of selecting secondary and tertiary crushers, as well as elevating and conveying equipment, and they are invaluable in the calculation of screen sizes. In short, they eliminate much of the old-time guess work in the preparation of the plant flowsheet.

Gyratory and jaw crushers are always rated at certain open-side or close-side discharge settings. In order that we may select the particular curve, of a group of curves, which will most nearly represent the product of a crusher having any given discharge setting, it is important to know approximately what percentage of the total output will pass a screen opening of equal dimension. It was universal practice in past years to designate such screen openings as ring-size for the very logical reason that the leading screen of that day, the revolving type, was, almost without exception, fitted with sections having round holes. Now that the vibrating screen, with its wire cloth or square-punched steel plate sections, has pre-empted the field there is no longer any excuse for adhering to the ring-size product designation.Above is alist of the approximate percentages of product passing a square opening test sieve whose holes are equal to the discharge setting of the crusher. Several different conditions are tabulated, and each condition is accompanied by estimates for four different classes of material.

In gravel pit operations it will usually be found that some one of these listed base rocks will predominate, and no great error will be introduced if this predominant rock is used as the basis for product calculations. Most base rocks will be close enough in physical structure to one of the listed varieties so that the percentages can be used for them without serious error. The same statement applies to the product gradation curves to be discussed. It must be remembered that the entire process of securing and compiling data of this nature is, at best, one which is susceptible of only approximate results.

It was formerly the custom to consider one set of product gradation, or screen analysis, curves as being suitable to represent the products of both primary (unscreened) and secondary (screened) feeds, making no allowance for the undersize material which is always present, to some extent, in quarry-run and mine-run materials. The average quarry does not produce as much of this undersize rock as the average mine, but the usual practice in mining operations is to scalp off most of the undersize ahead of the primary crusher, whereas this practice is the exception rather than the rule in quarry operations. As a matter of fact, where the secondary crushers are fitted with straight concaves, or jaw plates, as used to be standard practice, the dif-ference between product curves on screened and unscreened feed was not significant, and no great discrepancy was introduced by considering them under the one heading.

With the introduction of non-choking concaves in the standard gyratory crushers and reduction crushers, and the development of high speed fine-reduction crushers with high choke points, it soon became apparent that there was a substantial difference in the screen analyses of the two kinds of product, that is, crusher products on unscreened and screened feeds. The difference is especially significant in the lower part of the curve, where undersize in the feed would naturally show up, and where the cleaner breaking of the non-choke crushing chamber would likewise be reflected.

Here above isshown a family of curves for primary crushing of unscreened feed, such as the average quarry-run material in which the undersize (minus crusher setting) rock is present in proportions normally resulting from blasting operations. The same curves may be used for mining operations with stationary bar grizzlies ahead of the primary crusher.

In such operations the amount of undersize going into the crusher will usually be about the same as for the quarry operation without pre-scalping. It should be noted that the test data on which these curves are based were taken from gyratory and jaw crusher operations, but, as we have stated before, they may be used for other types of crushers if allowance is made for the characteristics peculiar to each type. As a matter of fact, so far as crushers of the Fairmount single-roll type are concerned, there is a natural compensation which brings the curves fairly well into line. The Fairmount crusher is inherently a somewhat cleaner breaking machine than either the standard gyratory or standard jaw types, but the class of rock for which the former crusher is largely used is usually subject to greater than average degradation during the blasting and loading operations in the quarry, which tends to level out the difference in crushing performance.Using Crusher and Screen Charts

The method of using the curves is so simple as to require little comment. The vertical axes represent material sizes, which may be taken as either square or round openings; provided of course that the same shape of opening is used throughout any particular analysis. The horizontal axes represent cmmdative percentages passing corresponding screen openings. If we wish to check the product to be expected from a crusher set at some predetermined discharge opening, we first refer to the table showing the approximate percentage of product which will pass an opening equivalent to the crusher setting. This gives us a point in the group of curves which may, or may not, be exactly on one of them. In the latter case we interpolate by following an imaginary curve between the two curves on either side of our point. We can thus tabulate cumulative percentages passing all of the product sizes in which we may be interested. Non-cumulative percentages; which are important because they are used to determine expected amounts of specific products are simply the difference between the upper and lower cumulative percentages for the particular product limits under consideration.

For those not familiar with the use of product gradation curves an example may be helpful. Suppose that a tentative selection of a 3.5 open- side discharge setting has been made for a standard gyratory primary crusher to be used for crushing quarry-run limestone. Referring to the table which lists percentages of product passing an equivalent square opening, we find that 85 to 90% of the crusher product should pass a 3.5 square opening. Choosing the lower percentage, to be on the conservative side,, we follow the horizontal line, denoting the 3.5 product size in the curve chart, over to the vertical line marking the 85% value. We find that the point we have established does not fall directly upon any of the group of curves, but lies so close to one of them that it may be used without appreciable error into our calculations.

Let us suppose that we wish to know how much of the product of our primary crusher will be retained on a 1.5 square opening screen, so that we may estimate the size and number of secondary crushers required to recrush the plus 1.5 contingent. Following the curve down to the 1.5 line, we find that 43% of the primary crusher output may be expected to pass this screen opening; 57% will be retained, which means that we must provide secondary crushing capacity to take care of 57 tons for each 100 tons fed to the primary crusher.

Occasionally it happens that we wish to scalp off a salable product from the output of the primary crusher; for example, a plus 1.5 minus 3.5 material for highway base- rock. The difference between the cumulative percentages at the 3.5 and 1.5 points on the curve gives us the amount, of such product to be expected from the output of the primary crusher This is 85 minus 43, or 42% of the primary crusher product.

If our problem had covered a crushing condition calling for 80 instead of 85%passing the opening equivalent to the crusher setting, we would have found that our point fell exactly on a curve, regardless of what crusher setting we had selected. This is because all of the family of curves are based on the 80% line. Obviously a group of curves might be based on any percentage line, but it is usual practice to choose the 80 or 85% values.

It will be noted that the curves bend upward in very marked fashion above the 75-85% region. This simply reflects the tendency of practically all materials to slab, or spall, to some extent in the crusher. As a matter of fact, product gradation in this upper range (above the open- side setting of the crusher) is of a distinctly uncertain and variable nature, and about all that a group of curves can do is to reflect the general tendency. Fortunately the exact screen analysis in this fraction of the primary crusher output is recrushed in succeeding stages, and all that is required is to know approximately how much of it there will be to recrush.

Although the group of curves we have been considering are intended for calulations involving primary crushing operations, they may also be used for secondary crusher products in those cases where no screening is performed between primary and secondary stages. Such an arrangement is seldom encountered in modern plant design, except where large jaw crushers, set very wide, are followed by a secondary, usually of the standard gyratory type, to reduce further the very coarse output of the jaw crusher to a size which can be handled by the recrushing, screening, and elevating equipment in the balance of the plant. In such cases it is simplest to consider the two-stage set-up as a single machine with discharge opening equal to that of the secondary crusher.

The group of curves on the rightischarted from screen analyses of the products of crushers receiving screened feed. They are useful in predicting the character of output from secondary and tertiary crushers, and are of great value in the preparation of plant flowsheets, and in calculating vibrating screen capacities. Their use in the latter connection will be discussed in the screening section of this series.

There is no need for extended comment on this group of curves; the method of taking off cumulative percentages, and non-cumulative fractions, is exactly the same as for the chart we previously discussed. The difference in the shape of these curves is attributable to the absence of fines in the crusher feed, and to the cleaner breaking action of the modem reduction crusher.

The product gradation curves for screened feed, described under the preceding sub-heading, can be used as a basis for calculating approximate screen analysis of products from closed-circuit crushing stages, but the values cannot be taken directly from the curves.

For example, consider a crusher set to turn out a product 70% of which will pass a 5/8 square opening, and in closed circuit with a screen which is equipped to remove the minus 3/4 product. Thecurve shows that approximately 85% of the crusher product will pass the 3/4 square openings.

Suppose that we wish to know how much minus 0.25 fines we may expect from the circuit.We do not go to the curve which touches the 100 percent ordinate at the 3/4 value; we calculate the percentage from the same curve which was used to predict the proportion of minus 0.75 in the crusher discharge. This curve shows approximately 29 percent of minus 3/4 in the material as it comes from the crusher, or 29 tons of fines in each 100 tons of crusher output. But, for the circulating load, we are only interested in that fraction of the crusher output which will pass the 3/4 screen, which is 85 tons.That part of the product gradation curve which lies below the 85 percent valuerepresents the gradation of the finished product, and 29 tons out of each 85 would be minus 0.25.

Let x equal percentage of minus 0.25 in the finished product, then x:100=29:85 or x = 34.1 percent of minus 0.25 rock from the closed circuit operation. Any other size of product may be estimated in a similar manner. Note that if we had used a curve touching the 100 percent ordinate at the 0.75 value, we would have arrived at a value approximately 50 percent for the minus 0.25 fraction; a value which is obviously erroneous for rock of average characteristics. We will comment on closed circuit crushing, and upon certain assumptions which have to be made in closed circuit calculations, in a later discussion of reduction-crushing.

Although the long established practice of designating crusher products by ring-size is not compatible with present-day screening practice, there are occasions when it is desirable to convert our calculations from one shape of opening to the other. So far as the curves themselves are concerned, once we have established the shape of screen openinground or squarewe can use them for either so long as we stick to one shape throughout the process of taking off percentages-passing. If, as occasionally happens, we have to deal with both shapes of screen opening in the same set of calculations, one or the other of them must be converted to equivalent sizes of the opposing shape. For example, if most of the screen openings are to be square, but one or two of them must be round, the round-hole sizes should be expressed in terms of equivalent square openings.

Inasmuch as the table of crusher settings versus equivalent product percentages is based on square openings, it is necessary to convert to equivalent round openings before this table can be used for such openings.

Below is the information needed to make conversions from round to square holes, or vice versa. The two columns at the left showing equivalent sizes for flat testing screens, are the columns to use in connection with crusher product calculations.Admittedly, listings of equivalent round and square holes, such as we show in this table, can be only approximately correct for the many different materials with which we must deal in crushing and screening computations. The infinite variety of shapes encountered renders absolute accuracy an impossible attainment. Practical experience, however, indicates that the comparisons shown in our table are in most cases close enough for all practical purposes.

Product SizeCorresponding Size Holes Through a flat testing screen Allis-Chalmers vibrating screenRevolving Screen Round holes Square holesRound holes Square holesRound holes 1/83/325/321/85/32 3/83/327/323/161/4 1/43/149/321/41/16 1/21/411/321/123/8 3/83/107/163/81/2 1/43/81/23/163/18 1/21/101/41/25/8 3/21/25/81/1811/10 3/82/1011/106/83/4 11/105/83/411/107/8 3/411/107/83/41 7/83/415/187/81 1/8 17/81 1/1612/101 1/4 1 3/811 2/181 1/181 3/8 1 1/41 1/161 3/81 1/71 2/14 1 3/81 1/81 1/161 1/41 3/4 1 1/21 1/41 3/181 3/81 7/8 1 5/81 3/81 3/41 3/102 1 3/41 1/21 7/81 3/162 1/4 1 7/81 5/821 3/42 3/8 21 3/42 1/81 7/82 1/2 2 1/81 7/82 1/422 5/8 2 1/41 15/182 3/82 1/162 3/4 2 3/822 1/22 1/82 11/16 2 1/22 1/82 6/82 1/43 1/8 2 5/82 1/42 3/42 3/83 5/12 2 3/42 3/82 7/82 1/23 1/2 2 7/82 1/232 5/83 5/8 32 5/83 1/42 3/43 3/4 3 1/42 3/43 1/234 3 1/233 3/43 1/44 3/8 3 3/43 1/443 1/24 3/4 43 1/24 1/43 3/45 4 1/23 7/84 3/44 1/85 1/2 54 1/45 1/44 1/26 1/4 5 1/24 3/45 3/456 7/8 65 1/46 1/25 1/27 1/2 6 1/25 1/275 3/48 767 1/26 1/28 3/4 7 1/26 1/2879 3/8 878 3/47 1/210 8 1/27 1/49 1/47 3/410 1/2 97 3/49 1/28 1/411 1/4 9 1/28108 1/211 3/4 108 1/210 1/2912 1/2

small jaw crushers

small jaw crushers

Both types of Small Jaw Crushers are of the forced feed type. The main shaft is eccentric and on this eccentric shaft is mounted the movable jaw, imparting a rotary movement to the jaw. This rotary movement followed by the movable jaw actually pushes the feed down into the crusher, as well as crushing. From this action is derived the name Forced Feed. As a result of this action a higher ratio of reduction and larger capacity can be obtained than with the Blake type crusher.

These crushers are ideal for mines where a large ratio of reduction is required. The high speeds made possible by anti-friction bearings and the high capacity and ratio of reduction due to the forced feed principle, produce ideal grinding circuit feeds.

The main frame is cast in one piece except in the 5x 6 and 8x10 sizes which are sectionalized for small muleback transportation. The frame is heavily ribbed for strength. The lower halves of the eccentric bearings are cast integral with the main frame to insure perfect alignment.

The small and ruggedly constructed swing jaw, or bumper, is mounted on heavy duty roller bearings. The entire bearing assembly is totally enclosed. Lateral thrust adjustment of each roller bearing assembly is provided.

Standard jaw and cheek plates are of manganese steel. The jaw plates are reversible for longer life. Cast iron toggles, designed to break when subjected to excessive stress, provide the safety factor in these units. Two different lengths of toggles are available to take care of wear on the rock crusher jaws.Adjustable toggle seat provides adjustment of jaw opening for any size product desired.

The main frame is of cast steel, heavily ribbed for strength and rigidity with minimum weight. Two general styles of Type J Crushers are available, one equipped with bronze bearings and the other with anti-friction bearings.

Sizes run from the 5x 6 to the 24x 40. Each size is individually designed and correctly proportioned. Bearing sizes are from two to three sizes larger than those normally used. Shaft diameters are correspondingly oversize which results in long life for both shaft and bearings.

Capacities in the following tables are based on material weighing 100 lbs. per cubic foot (average stone), with crusher set to produce 15-20% oversize above ring size, with uniform feeding of material, and properly sized for entering the jaw opening of the crusher. The average capacity may vary as much as 25%, depending on the character of the material being crushed.

When crushing quarry stone or similar material use straight face jaws. When crushing minus 3 or 4 material, especially if of abrasive nature, use curved face jaws for maximum jaw life and for more satisfactory product.

Small Jaw Crushers (or the Blake Type) are an exceedingly strong, serviceable machine, widely used in milling operations, also for general crushing equipment and work. It is especially adapted to handling blocky ore requiring large jaw openings 3, 4, or 5 in size.

The massive proportion of the frame, cast in one piece of highest quality cast iron, absorbs the severest strains incident to crushing. The babbitted bearings for the pitman shaft are cast integral with the frame and are water cooled. Swing jaw shaft bearings also cast integral with frame.

The pitman is made of cast steel and water jacketed. Under the water jacket, a cap is so arranged that a small amount of water flowing through the chamber will effectually dissipate excess heat generated by the bearing. The swing jaw is made of open hearth annealed steel and it is heavily ribbed in the back, also is provided with a recess for the toggle seat. Crusher jaws are of standard manganese steel 5 thick and accurately ground on the back and sides. Crusher is fitted with hard iron false plates. The cheek plates are of manganese steel 1 thick. The two toggle plates are made of gray cast iron and fit in toggle seats made of manganese steel. The tension rod is made of forged round iron connected to the swing jaws by means of an eye bolt.

Small(Forced Feed Type) Jaw Crusher is ideal for small properties. A high ratio of reduction is obtained by the forced feed method of operation. The pitman moves on an eccentric shaft and rotates so that the material is constantly forced downward through the opening. An outstanding feature of this type of crusher, is that the jaws can be set at a certain opening and maintain this setting assuring a uniform product size. This is accomplished by the single toggle bottom pivot adjustment, which will not slip, but may be adjusted with ease when desired.

For limited tonnages these crushers will give a product fine enough for ball or rod mill feed, eliminating the need for secondary crushing. This forced feed crusher is made in three different types as described in detail in the information on each type, which follows. The capacities of all types are the same and are shown in the table on the following page.

This small jaw crusher is ideal for small properties and is of the high capacity forced feed design. The main frame and bumper are cast of special alloy iron and the initial cost is low. The frame is ribbed both vertically and horizontally to give maximum strength with minimum weight. The bumper is ruggedly constructed to withstand tremendous shock loads. Steel bumper can be furnished if desired. The side bearings are bronze; the bumper bearings are of the antifriction type. This bearing arrangement adds both strength and ease of movement. The jaw plates and cheek plates are reversible and are of the best grade manganese steel. The jaw opening is controlled by the position of an adjustable wedge block. The crusher is usually driven by a V-to-V belt drive, but it can be arranged for either V-to-flat or flat belt drive. The 8x 10 size utilizes a split frame and may be packed for muleback transportation. Cast steel frames can be furnished to obtain maximum durability.

This type of crusher is similar in design to the Type I listed above except for having a frame and bumper made of cast steel. This steel construction makes the unit lighter per unit of size, and adds considerable strength. The bearings are all of special design; they are bronze and will stand continuous servicewithout any danger of failure. The jaw and cheek plates are manganese steel; and are completely reversible, thus adding to their wearing life. The jaw opening is controlled by the position of an adjustable wedge block. The crushers are usually driven by V-to-V but can be arranged for V-to-flat and belt drive. The 5x 6 size and the 8x 10 size can be made with sectionalized frame for muleback transportation. This crusher is ideal for strenuous conditions.

This type of crusher is ideal for very heavy crushing. It is similar to the Types I and II but has the additional feature of antifriction bearings. These bearings are special and are designed to take any load that can be imposed. The heavily ribbed cast steel frame makes this a unit of exceptional strength. It is ideal for hard crushing problems where continuity and ease of motion are essential. The jaw and cheek plates are manganese steel, and are easily replaceable. The unit is adjustable by means of a wedge and screw adjustment. This unit is generally arranged for V-to-V drive, but V-to-flat and belt drive are used with equal success.

The design of this littlecrusher is based on a minimum of parts, ease of replacement of parts in the field, and interchangeability of parts. The pitman is supported at its upper end by a heavy shaft, receives its motion from an eccentric machined on the shaft and is positioned on its lower end by an inclined toggle. On the downward stroke,the top of the movable jawmoves toward the stationary jaw held in the frame. This downwardaction has a tendency to force feed the materialthrough the jaws. On the upward stroke, the togglemoves the lower end of the pitman towards the stationaryjaw on the frame, thus breaking any material in the lower finishing zone of crushing cavity. For each half revolutionof the shaft there is a breaking stroke at the top and afinishing stroke at the bottom of the jaws.

The frame is constructed of a heavily-ribbed, one-piece electric steel casting, carefully heat treated. The pitman is designed as a box section and is made of steel to obtainthe maximum strength with the minimum weight. Eccentricshaft is turned from alloy steel bar, accurately machined and polished. Jaw plates can be furnished either corrugated or smooth and are cast of abrasion-resistant manganese steel. Adjustment of size of product and also compensation for jaw wear may be made while the crusher is operating, by raising or lowering an adjustable wedge which closes or opens the jaw opening at the bottom. The pitman and side bearings are bronze bushed and are provided with flood system oil lubrication. Toggle is designed as a safety link which breaks should tramp iron enter the crusher. Two counter balanced flywheels are furnished with crown faces, flat faces, or with one of the two wheels grooved for V-belts as desired.

caterpillar parts | cat used & new heavy equipment

caterpillar parts | cat used & new heavy equipment

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used jaw crushers for sale. metso equipment & more | machinio

used jaw crushers for sale. metso equipment & more | machinio

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1.We are factory and be able to give you the lowest price than market one; 2.Our products have been exported to over 80 countries and widely used in global mining and construction industry; 3.we have a prof...

1.We are factory and be able to give you the lowest price than market one; 2.Our products have been exported to over 80 countries and widely used in global mining and construction industry; 3.we have a prof...

1.We are factory and be able to give you the lowest price than market one; 2.Our products have been exported to over 80 countries and widely used in global mining and construction industry; 3.we have a prof...

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estimate jaw crusher capacity

estimate jaw crusher capacity

My friend Alex the SAG Mill Expert, says this equation you picked up doesnt look right.The numerator is calculating the volume of one swing of a jaw, times thedensity of material in the chamber, times the number of cycles perminute. This should give you the mass of material crushed per minute.

The example youve given is missing information needed to calculate theA term it doesnt tell you the height of the crushing chamber. The two measurements youve got are the top opening width and top openinglength; A should be the jaw throw (not given) times the crushing chamber height (also not given).

Tables hereincontain information that is typical of output from crushers discussed above. The capacities are based on the crusher receiving full, continuous feed of clean, dry, friable stone weighing 100 lb/cu ft.

These capacity tables show several significant differences between the two common types of primary crushers. A jaw crusher has a wider range of settingsgenerally, a maximum of two to three times the smallest setting. The tables also show that for a comparable maximum size of feed and setting, a gyratory crusher has a much greater capacity than a jaw crusher. Thegyratory crusher obtains this advantage only at the cost of greater power to drive the crusher.

The selection of an appropriate primary crusher for a given use has to be based on a consideration of several factors. These are not limited to the design features of the crusher. If the feed is blasted rock from a quarry, the size and method of handling the feed influence crusher selection. For instance, a power shovel is limited by the dimensions of the dipper in the maximum size of rock it can handle well. It may be that the bucket of a 1- yd shovel would be too small to load the maximum size rock allowed in a jaw crusher with a 42-in. opening.

If a 60-in. gyratory crusher is to process material from a quarry where a shovel loads the raw material, the shovel would probably have to have a dipper capacity of at least 5 cu yd to be compatible. It may be more economical to change the blasting pattern to produce larger rock that can be handled by a larger loader-hauler combination and still fit in the primary crusher. Generally, a large reduction ratio will be required of the primary crusher.

If gravel has relatively small maximum particle sizes, a large feed opening is not needed. It may be more economical to feed all of the pit-run material into the primary crusher rather than to remove the part that is already smaller than the crusher setting. That calls for a crusher with a higher capacity. There are many feasible solutions to the crusher selection problem, so the aggregate producer must select crushers with total operations and economics in mind.The selection of reduction crushers is also a complex problem.

The economic selection of any particular crusher depends on the ability of the crusher to handle the maximum size of feed, reducing this at the highest possible reduction ratio and least cost for the original installation, maintenance, and power. For any particular aggregate production plant, it is advisable to make preliminary determinations of the types of crushers needed. If most of the feed is coarse and stage crushing is required, primary crushers that meet the requirements of reduction and economy and have straight crushing surfaces may be most economical.

Where only a very small percentage of the feed approaches the size of the feed opening of the crusher,nonchoking crushing surfaces in a high capacity crusher may be advisable for the sake of economy. If the plant requires several stages, and several different types of crushers could be used for each stage, the costs of each feasible combination must be analyzed to find the crusher plant with the least total cost.

jaw plates: how to choose the right one for different types of jaw crushers | fote machinery

jaw plates: how to choose the right one for different types of jaw crushers | fote machinery

The jaw plate is an important part in the jaw crusher equipment, and its service life directly affects the whole jaw crusher equipment. Therefore, you must consider the hardness and toughness of the jaw plate when you want to choose a correct one.

The wear of jaw plate depends on the types of your material and other variables such as material sizes. Too many fines enter the jaw crusher cavity will accelerate the wear speed of jaw plates because the fines fills the valleys which is necessary for the crusher to crush efficiently.

Generally, a jaw crusher finishes the crushing process by squeezing the material between stationary and moving jaw plates. The peaks and valleys of the jaw plates are offset from one another and use the mechanical advantage of leverage to break the rock.

Without this, the crusher has to rely on energy and friction to crush the rock. The compaction will also impose increased loads on the jaw crusher plates as much as five times the normal crushing force.

If the feeding material is over-sized, it also seriously affects the service life. In most applications, the reduction ratio of a jaw crusher is 6 to 1. Exceeding the reduction ratio will generate the crushing forces that break the crushers design limits and affect your overall production and machine performance.

That the jaw plate is severely worn can lead to uneven particle size and low efficiency, which indicates that you have to replace the jaw plates. If you want to choose a correct one, you should consider their different materials according to the purpose and real situation.

High manganese steel contains a relatively high carbon content which plays an important role in wear resistance. In general, the hardness increases with the growth of carbon content. Under non-strong impact conditions, increasing the carbon content is beneficial to improve the wear resistance of steel. And this is why high manganese steel has good deformation hardening ability.

Medium manganese steel has strong hardening ability and stable performance, which creates the function of self-protection when the law plates are subjected to impact and wear. The medium manganese steel jaw plate has achieved good results in the actual production process, and improves service life by 20% compared with that of the high manganese steel jaw plate.

Medium-carbon-low-alloy cast steel is a widely used wear-resistant material at present. Mainly because of its high hardness and suitable toughness, it can resist fatigue spalling caused by repeated extrusion of materials, and shows good wear resistance.

It can also be adjusted by composition and heat treatment to make the hardness and toughness be changed within a large range. That shows high flexibility strong adaption to the requirements of different working conditions.

The hardness of the material-The hardness of the material is also an important factor in choosing the jaw plate. The material hardness determines the toughness and strength requirements of the corresponding jaw plate.

For large jaw crushers, the crushed material is huge-block, which forces the jaw plate to accept strong impact and wear. For that situation, the high manganese steel can give full play to the advantages of good toughness and hardness.

Note: If the flare angle between the moving and fixed jaw plates is too large, it is easy to cause the sliding of the abrasive, deformation and insufficient hardening of the high manganese steel. So sometimes you should adjust the appropriate flare angle during use.

If you need to deal with materials with high hardness such as granite, quartz stone, concrete, etc., the medium manganese steel is the most suitable because of its strong hardening ability. Besides, it has a self-protection mechanism when crushing high hardness materials, which can greatly reduce the wear rate.

Medium and small sized jaw crushers usually bear a low impact load, so under such conditions, medium-carbon-low-alloy steel materials are more suitable. Not only can the disadvantages of high manganese steel difficult to reach the application hardness be avoid, but it also bring good technical and economic benefits.

Fote crusher manufacturer is committed to producing various types of high-quality crushers, and also sell jaw plates and other parts of various materials. You only need to leave some simple information on our website, such as crusher model and specifications, materials, or other requirements, and we will quickly match the jaw plate suitable for your jaw crusher machines.

As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.

Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.

jaw crusher working principle

jaw crusher working principle

A sectional view of the single-toggle type of jaw crusher is shown below.In one respect, the working principle and application of this machine are similar to all types of rock crushers, the movable jaw has its maximum movement at the top of the crushing chamber, and minimum movement at the discharge point. The motion is, however, a more complex one than the Dodge motion, being the resultant of the circular motion of the eccentric shaft at the top of the swing jaw. combined with the rocking action of the inclined toggle plate at the bottom of this jaw. The motion at the receiving opening is elliptical; at the discharge opening, it is a thin crescent, whose chord is inclined upwardly toward the stationary jaw. Thus, at all points in the crushing chamber, the motion has both, vertical and horizontal, components.

It will be noted that the motion is a rocking one. When the swing jaw is rising, it is opening, at the top, during the first half of the stroke, and closing during the second half, whereas the bottom of the jaw is closing during the entire up-stroke. A reversal of this motion occurs during the downstroke of the eccentric.

The horizontal component of motion (throw) at the discharge point of the single-toggle jaw crusher is greater than the throw of the Dodge crusher at that point; in fact, it is about three-fourths that of Blake machines of similar short-side receiving-opening dimensions. The combination of favorable crushing angle, and nonchoking jaw plates, used in this machine, promotes a much freer action through the choke zone than that in the Dodge crusher. Capacities compare very favorably with comparable sizes of the Blake machine with non-choking plates, and permissible discharge settings are finer. A table of ratings is given.

The single-toggle type jaw crusher has been developed extensively. Because of its simplicity, lightweight, moderate cost, and good capacity, it has found quite a wide field of application in portable crushing rigs. It also fits into the small, single-stage mining operation much better than the slower Dodge type. Some years since this type was developed with very wide openings for reduction crushing applications, but it was not able to seriously challenge the gyratory in this field, especially when the high-speed modern versions of the latter type were introduced.

Due to the pronounced vertical components of motion in the single-toggle machine, it is obvious that a wiping action takes place during the closing strokes; either, the swing jaw must slip on the material, or the material must slip along the stationary jaw. It is inevitable that such action should result in accelerated wear of the jaw plates; consequently, the single-toggle crusher is not an economical machine for reducing highly abrasive, or very hard, tough rock. Moreover, the large motion at the receiving opening greatly accentuates shocks incidental to handling the latter class of material, and the full impact of these shocks must be absorbed by the bearings in the top of the swing jaw.

The single-toggle machine, like the Dodge type, is capable of making a high ratio-of-reduction, a faculty which enables it to perform a single-stage reduction of hand-loaded, mine run ore to a suitable ball mill, or rod mill, feed.

Within the limits of its capacity, and size of receiving openings, it is admirably suited for such operations. Small gravel plant operations are also suited to this type of crusher, although it should not be used where the gravel deposit contains extremely hard boulders. The crusher is easy to adjust, and, in common with most machines of the jaw type, is a simple crusher to maintain.

As rock particles are compressed between the inclined faces of the mantle and concaves there is a tendency for them to slip upward. Slippage occurs in all crushers, even in ideal conditions. Only the particles weight and the friction between it and the crusher surfaces counteract this tendency. In particular, very hard rock tends to slip upward rather than break. Choke feeding this kind of material can overload the motor, leaving no option but to regulate the feed. Smaller particles, which weigh less, and harder particles, which are more resistant to breakage, will tend to slip more. Anything that reduces friction, such as spray water or feed moisture, will promote slippage.

Leading is a technique for measuring the gap between fixed and moveable jaws. The procedure is performed while the crusher is running empty. A lead plug is lowered on a lanyard to the choke point, then removed and measured to find out how much thickness remains after the crusher has compressed it. This measures the closed side setting. The open side setting is equal to this measurement plus the throw of the mantle. The minimum safe closed side setting depends on:

Blake (Double Toggle) Originally the standard jaw crusher used for primary and secondary crushing of hard, tough abrasive rocks. Also for sticky feeds. Relatively coarse slabby product, with minimum fines.

Overhead Pivot (Double Toggle) Similar applications to Blake. Overhead pivot; reduces rubbing on crusher faces, reduces choking, allows higher speeds and therefore higher capacities. Energy efficiency higher because jaw and charge not lifted during cycle.

Overhead Eccentric (Single Toggle) Originally restricted to sampler sizes by structural limitations. Now in the same size of Blake which it has tended to supersede, because overhead eccentric encourages feed and discharge, allowing higher speeds and capacity, but with higher wear and more attrition breakage and slightly lower energy efficiency. In addition as compared to an equivalent double toggle, they are cheaper and take up less floor space.

Since the jaw crusher was pioneered by Eli Whitney Blake in the 2nd quarter of the 1800s, many have twisted the Patent and come up with other types of jaw crushers in hopes of crushing rocks and stones more effectively. Those other types of jaw crusher inventors having given birth to 3 groups:

Heavy-duty crushing applications of hard-to-break, high Work Index rocks do prefer double-toggle jaw crushers as they are heavier in fabrication. A double-toggle jaw crusher outweighs the single-toggle by a factor of 2X and well as costs more in capital for the same duty. To perform its trade-off evaluation, the engineering and design firm will analyze technical factors such as:

1. Proper selection of the jaws. 2. Proper feed gradation. 3. Controlled feed rate. 4. Sufficient feeder capacity and width. 5. Adequate crusher discharge area. 6. Discharge conveyor sized to convey maximum crusher capacity.

Although the image below is of a single-toggle, it illustrates the shims used to make minor setting changes are made to the crusher by adding or removing them in the small space between the crushers mainframe and the rea toggle block.

The jaw crusher discharge opening is the distance from the valley between corrugations on one jaw to the top of the mating corrugation on the other jaw. The crusher discharge opening governs the size of finished material produced by the crusher.

Crusher must be adjusted when empty and stopped. Never close crusher discharge opening to less than minimum opening. Closing crusher opening to less than recommended will reduce the capacity of crusher and cause premature failure of shaft and bearing assembly.

To compensate for wear on toggle plate, toggle seat, pitman toggle seat, and jaws additional shims must be inserted to maintain the same crusher opening. The setting adjustment system is designed to compensate for jaw plate wear and to change the CSS (closed side setting) of the jaw crusher. The setting adjustment system is built into the back frame end.

Here also the toggle is kept in place by a compression spring. Large CSS adjustments are made to the jaw crusher by modifying the length of the toggle. Again, shims allow for minor gap adjustments as they are inserted between the mainframe and the toggle block.

is done considering the maximum rock-lump or large stone expected to be crushed and also includes the TPH tonnage rate needing to be crushed. In sizing, we not that jaw crushers will only have around 75% availability and extra sizing should permit this downtime.

As a rule, the maximum stone-lump dimension need not exceed 80% of the jaw crushers gape. For intense, a 59 x 79 machine should not see rocks larger than 80 x 59/100 = 47 or 1.2 meters across. Miners being miners, it is a certainty during day-to-day operation, the crusher will see oversized ore but is should be fine and pass-thru if no bridging takes place.

It will be seen that the pitman (226) is suspended from an eccentric on the flywheel shaft and consequently moves up and down as the latter revolves, forcing the toggle plates outwards at each revolution. The seating (234) of the rear toggle plate (239) is fixed to the crusher frame; the bottom of the swing jaw (214) is therefore pushed forward each time the pitman rises, a tension rod (245) fitted with a spring (247) being used to bring it back as the pitman falls. Thus at each revolution of the flywheel the movable jaw crushes any lump of ore once against the stationary jaw (212) allowing it to fall as it swings back on the return half-stroke until eventually the pieces have been broken small enough to drop out. It follows that the size to which the ore is crushed.

The jaw crusher is not so efficient a machine as the gyratory crusher described in the next paragraph, the chief reason for this being that its crushing action is confined to the forward stroke of the jaw only, whereas the gyratory crusher does useful work during the whole of its revolution. In addition, the jaw crusher cannot be choke-fed, as can the other machine, with the result that it is difficult to keep it working at its full capacity that is, at maximum efficiency.

Tables 5 and 6 give particulars of different sizes of jaw crushers. The capacity figures are based on ore weighing 100 lb. per cubic foot; for a heavier ore, the figures should be increased in direct proportion to its weight in pounds per cubic foot.

The JAW crusher and the GYRATORY crusher have similarities that put them into the same class of crusher. They both have the same crushing speed, 100 to 200 R.P.M. They both break the ore by compression force. And lastly, they both are able to crush the same size of ore.

In spite of their similarities, each crusher design has its own limitations and advantages that differ from the other one. A Gyratory crusher can be fed from two sides and is able to handle ore that tends to slab. Its design allows a higher-speed motor with a higher reduction ratio between the motor and the crushing surface. This means a dollar saving in energy costs.

A Jaw crusher on the other hand requires an Ely wheel to store energy. The box frame construction of this type of crusher also allows it to handle tougher ore. This design restricts the feeding of the crusher to one side only.

The ore enters from the top and the swing jaw squeezes it against the stationary jaw until it breaks. The broken ore then falls through the crusher to be taken away by a conveyor that is under the crusher.Although the jaws do the work, the real heart of this crusher is the TOGGLE PLATES, the PITMAN, and the PLY WHEEL.

These jaw crushers are ideal forsmall properties and they are of the high capacity forced feed design.On this first Forced Feed Jaw Crusher, the mainframe and bumper are cast of special alloy iron and the initial cost is low. The frame is ribbed both vertically and horizontally to give maximum strength with minimum weight. The bumper is ruggedly constructed to withstand tremendous shock loads. Steel bumper can be furnished if desired. The side bearings are bronze; the bumper bearings are of the antifriction type.

This bearing arrangement adds both strength and ease of movement. The jaw plates and cheek plates are reversible and are of the best-grade manganese steel. The jaw opening is controlled by the position of an adjustable wedge block. The crusher is usually driven by a V-to-V belt drive, but it can be arranged for either V-to-flat or fiat belt drive. The 8x10 size utilizes a split frame and maybe packed for muleback transportation. Cast steel frames can be furnished to obtain maximum durability.

This second type of forced feed rock crusher is similar in design to the Type H listed above except for having a frame and bumper made of cast steel. This steel construction makes the unit lighter per unit of size and adds considerable strength. The bearings are all of the special design; they are bronze and will stand continuous service without any danger of failure. The jaw and cheek plates are manganese steel; and are completely reversible, thus adding to their wearing life. The jaw opening is controlled by the position of an adjustable wedge block. The crushers are usually driven by V-to-V but can be arranged for V-to-flat and belt drive. The 5x6 size and the 8x10 size can be made with sectionalized frame for muleback transportation. This crusher is ideal for strenuous conditions. Consider a multi jaw crusher.

Some jaw crushers are on-floor, some aboveground, and others underground. This in many countries, and crushing many kinds of ore. The Traylor Bulldog Jaw crusher has enjoyed world wide esteem as a hard-working, profit-producing, full-proof, and trouble-free breaker since the day of its introduction, nearly twenty years ago. To be modern and get the most out of your crushing dollars, youll need the Building breaker. Wed value the privilege of telling you why by letter, through our bulletins, or in person. Write us now today -for a Blake crusher with curved jaw plates that crush finer and step up production.

When a machine has such a reputation for excellence that buyers have confidence in its ability to justify its purchase, IT MUST BE GOOD! Take the Type G Traylor Jaw Crusher, for instance. The engineers and operators of many great mining companies know from satisfying experience that this machine delivers a full measure of service and yields extra profits. So they specify it in full confidence and the purchase is made without the usual reluctance to lay out good money for a new machine.

The success of the Type G Traylor Jaw Crusheris due to several characteristics. It is (1) STRONG almost to superfluity, being built of steel throughout; it is (2) FOOL-PROOF, being provided with our patented Safety Device which prevents breakage due to tramp iron or other causes of jamming; it is (3) ECONOMICAL to operate and maintain, being fitted with our well-known patented Bulldog Pitman and Toggle System, which saves power and wear by minimizing frictionpower that is employed to deliver increased production; it is (4) CONVENIENT to transport and erect in crowded or not easily accessible locations because it is sectionalized to meet highly restrictive conditions.

Whenever mining men need a crusher that is thoroughly reliable and big producer (which is of all time) they almost invariably think first of a Traylor Type G Jaw Crusher. By experience, they know that this machine has built into it the four essentials to satisfaction and profit- strength, foolproofness, economy, and convenience.

Maximum STRENGTH lies in the liberal design and the steel of which crushers parts are made-cast steel frame, Swing Jaw, Pitman Cap and Toggles, steel Shafts and Pitman rods and manganese steel Jaw Plates and Cheek Plates. FOOLPROOFNESS is provided by our patented and time-tested safety Device which prevents breakage due to packing or tramp iron. ECONOMY is assured by our well-known Bulldog Pitman and Toggle System, which saves power and wear by minimizing friction, the power that is used to deliver greater productivity. CONVENIENCE in transportation and erection in crowded or not easily accessible locations is planned for in advance by sectionalisation to meet any restrictive conditions.

Many of the worlds greatest mining companies have standardized upon the Traylor Type G Jaw Crusher. Most of them have reordered, some of them several times. What this crusher is doing for them in the way of earning extra dollars through increased production and lowered costs, it will do for you! Investigate it closely. The more closely you do, the better youll like it.

jaw crushers | mclanahan

jaw crushers | mclanahan

Jaw Crushers are used to reduce the sizeof many different types of materials in many applications. The Jaw Crusher was first introduced by Eli Whitney Blake in 1858 as a double-toggle Jaw Crusher. Introduced in 1906, McLanahans Universal Jaw Crusher was one of the first modern era overhead eccentric Jaw Crushers. On the overhead eccentric style Jaw Crusher, the moving swing jaw is suspended on the eccentric shaft with heavy-duty double roll spherical roller bearings.

The swing jaw undergoes two types of motion: one is a swing motion toward the opposite chamber side (called a stationary jaw die due to theaction of a toggle plate), and the second is a vertical movement due to the rotation of the eccentric. These combined motions compress and push the material through the crushing chamber at a predetermined size.

More than 110 years of engineering and customer service experience keep customers running to McLanahan tomeet their production goals. McLanahan Jaw Crushers are proudly made in the USA and have imperial designs. With our grass roots design coupled with listening to customer needs for product enhancement over the years, McLanahan offers traditional hydraulic-shim adjustment Jaw Crushers as well asH-Series Jaw Crushers that featurehydraulic discharge setting adjustment, adjust-on-the-fly chamber clearing in the event the site loses power (once power is restored) and hydraulic relief for overload events with auto-reset.

Whether the traditional hydraulic-shim adjustment or the H-Series Jaw Crushers, both machines have an aggressive nip angle that providesconsistent crushing throughout the entire crushing chamber, which leads to increased production and less downtime on maintenance.

A Jaw Crusher uses compressive force for breaking material. This mechanical pressure is achieved by the crusher'stwo jaws dies, one of which is stationary and the other is movable. These two vertical manganese jaw dies create a V-shaped cavity called the crushing chamber, where the top of the crushing chamber is larger than the bottom. Jaw Crushers are sized by the top opening of the crushing chamber. For example, a 32 x 54 Jaw Crusher measures 32" from jaw die to jaw dieat the top opening or gape opening and54 across the width of the two jaw dies.

The narrower bottom opening of the crushing chamber is used to size the discharge material. A toggle plate and tension rods hold the pitman tight near the bottom of the moving swing jaw. The toggle plate is designed to perform like a fuse and protect the crusher in the event that an uncrushable materialenters the crushing chamber. As a rule, Jaw Crushers have a 6:1 or 8:1 ratio for crushing material. Still using the 32 x 54 Jaw Crusher example, the top size of thefeed entering the crushing chamber has to follow the F80 rule that 80% of the top size feed material is smaller than the gape opening. Using the F80 rule with the 32 x 54 Jaw Crusher, the32 gape opening equals a26 top sized feed, and with the 6:1 ratio of reduction, the discharge setting would be around 4.

Since the crushing of the material is not performed in one stroke of the eccentric shaft, massive weighted flywheels are attached to the eccentric shaft andpowered by a motor. The flywheels transfer the inertia required to crush thematerial until it passes the discharge opening.

While Jaw Crushers are mostly used as the first stage of material reduction in systems that may use several crushers to complete the circuit, the Jaw Crusher has also been used as a second-stage crushing unit. Depending on the application requirements, Jaw Crushers can be used in stationary, wheeled portable and track-mounted locations. The Jaw Crusher is well suited for a variety of applications, including rock quarries, sand and gravel, mining, construction and demolitionrecycling, construction aggregates, road and railway construction, metallurgy, water conservancy and chemical industry.

F100 is the maximum gape opening on a Jaw Crusher. F80 is the feed size to the Jaw Crusher, calculated by taking 80 times the gape opening divided by 100. P80 is the percent passing the closed side setting in tph.

A best practice, if possible, is to blend the material arriving from the source. This will ensure a constant and well-graded feed to the crushing chamber. In turn, this will produce a steady rate of tph andpromote inter-particle crushing that helps break any flat or elongated material. It also aids in equal work hardening the manganese jaw dies and prolonging the life of the jaw dies.

Usually a Jaw Crusher is in an open circuit, but it can be used in a close circuit if the return load is not greater than 20% of the total feed and the raw feed is free of fines smaller than the closed side setting.

Efficiency can be defined by the ratio of the work done by a machine to the energy supplied to it. To apply what this means to your crusher, in your reduction process you are producing exactly the sizes your market is demanding. In the past, quarries produced a range of single-size aggregate products up to 40 mm in size. However, the trend for highly specified aggregate has meant that products have become increasingly finer. Currently, many quarries do not produce significant quantities of aggregate coarser than 20 mm; it is not unusual for material coarser than 10 mm to be stockpiled for further crushing.

jaw crushers for sale

jaw crushers for sale

The jaw crushers we offer for sale include Superior, Type B Blake, Fine-Reduction, and Dodge sizes, 4 by 6 to 84 by 66 inches. A reciprocating machine, the crushes material in a straight line between jaws without grinding or rubbing surfaces.

As you compare this jaw crusher feature for feature with other makes youll see how this modern crusher lowers principal costspower consumption; lubrication; jaw plate, toggle plate, and bearing wear youll understand why we say the crusher promises you a new low cost per ton of material crushed!

Firstthose who have rock or ore tougher and more abrasive than most material. Secondthe operators whove had difficulty with other designs of crushers. And finallythe operators who naturally buy the bestexpecting their added investment to be written off in comparatively short time through lower operating and maintenance costs!

Compare the dimensions with those of conventional jaw crushers. It measures up to 20% longer; has up to 35% deeper crushing chamber! And while you naturally expect to pay more for this bigger,deluxe crusher, it follows that you get more too! For example:

You get a crushing chamber with a full-width receiving opening increased capacity! You get an acute crushing chamber that minimizes slippage very important with hard, tough materials. You cut down crushing power required through longer pitman and front toggle. You reduce packing, get closer setting through the longer jaw, non-choking plates. You lower maintenance cost, get longer jaw plate, toggle, and bearing life through lower structural stresses, simplified design.

Frames of these crushers are built for maximum rigidity designed to prevent distortion during operation. Side members are heavy steel plate, reinforced by steel ribbing. End members are cast steel, of box section design, to provide maximum strength.

The side frames are deep-welded and then stress-relieved in thehuge annealing furnaces to eliminate possible failure adjacent to welds. The result is a uniformly strong frame that will remain true during the long service life of the crusher.

A jaw crusher frames are of sectionalized construction to facilitate handling. This design minimizes heavy lifts makes the crusher suitable for installations where parts must be passed down a shaft or through a tunnel. End members are attached between side members with vertical tongue and groove joints and held together with fitted bolts. Long-bearing surfaces prevent angular distortion.

Important differences in design show up visually when a cross-section of the crushing chamber of a conventional crusher is superimposed over that of the crusher. Now you can see the advantages of the 1 /3 deeper chamber using non-choking jaw plates. Its more acute crushing angle is carried to the very top of the chamberpermits nipping the largest material that can enter the receiving opening!

Lower plates on the swing and stationary jaws are suspended from projections on jaws. These plates also support the upper plates. This exclusive feature permits the free expansion of manganese steel jaw plates greatly minimizes the possibility of buckling or warping prevents costly shutdowns!

SWING AND STATIONARY JAWS on the jaw crusher are annealed cast steel box section construction designed for maximum rigidity. The jaw swings on a sturdy shaft that is clamped to the crusher frame. This shaft also serves as a reinforcing tie across the top of the frame. The entire design facilitates lubrication and replacement of shaft bearings.

Jaw plates are constructed of manganese steel and have corrugated crushing surfaces which reduce the power required for fracturing material. The jaw plates are built into two pieces to jaw. Those on the swing jaw are interchangeable. Plates on the stationary jaw are the non-choking type, not interchangeable. Lower plates on both jaws are suspended from jaw projections and support upper plates. The main advantage of this construction (see above) is to permit the free flow of manganese steel. All four plates are held in place by large through-bolts equipped with springs to prevent bolt breakage.

Heres still another feature youll find on the jaw crusher! Renewable wearing plates between the cast manganese steel jaw plates and swing and stationary jaws provide a firm backing for the jaw plates. If, for any reason, looseness develops in the jaw plates, these wearing plates, not the jaws, take the wear! By protecting expensive jaw castings, these wearing plates increase crusher life simplify maintenance minimize causes for shutdowns.

The heavy, two-piece corrugated manganese steel jaw plate is designed to fracture the toughest kinds of rock or ore with a minimum of power. The unobstructed clearances above, between, and below the plate sections permit free flow of manganese steel.

This construction eliminates the need for extra holding pieces, greatly minimizes the shearing of bolts. The amply designed shaft not only supports the swing jaw but reinforces the frame, serving as a tie between sides.

Notice the extra length of this jaw as compared to conventional types. Designed up to one-third longer, it exerts greater pressures in the upper portion of the crushing chamber, distributes crushing action more evenly. The result is a gradual reduction of ore to the choking point, and increased capacity!

Another, southern iron ore mining company, chose this 48 by 42-inch crusher to replace a conventional design that had failed. They explained, In our process, weve got to have a ruggedly designed crusher capable of continuous operation!

CRUSHERSin sizes from 36 by 25 to 60 by 48 inchesare giving these and other operators more for their money more capacity; more crusher life; more satisfaction! It can pay you too, to know more about this great crusher! Why not call in your use today!

All sizes of crushers feature a three-piece toggle plate construction. Worn ends may be replaced no need to discard the entire toggle. Bronze toggle ends fit into replaceable hardened steel toggle seats in swing jaw. Properly lubricated, this assembly materially reduces maintenance.

Toggle plates for these jaw crushers are of three-piece construction, consisting of an iron center section (2) to which are bolted two replaceable bronze ends (1 and 3). Toggle seats are carefully machined and equipped with protecting shields that deflect dust and dirt.

A toggle block, arranged for both vertical and horizontal adjustment, is provided at the rear of the frame. By inserting shims above the toggle block, the crushing stroke can be adjusted. Insertion of shims behind the toggle block adjusts the size of the discharge opening. Parallel alignment is assured and unnecessary strain in the crushing machine is avoided.

The pitman in any jaw crusher is essentially a tension member. However, because it also has a vertical reciprocating movement, it is desirable to keep its weight as low as possible, consistent with maintaining the required strength.

In the crusher this is accomplished by designing the pitman as a skeleton member, first to provide the necessary strength for tension and with stiffness against overturning thrust provided for by deep integral webs.

The pitman is designed with only four large-cap bolts, and the pitman cap is ribbed for proper distribution of the load to these bolts. The pitman is swung on the eccentric shaft which is supported by removable, water-cooled bearings on the frame.

The pitman is a two-piece annealed cast steel construction, with a cap designed for water cooling. Bearing surfaces on both pitman and cap are babbitted and are joined together by four large forged steel bolts. The elimination of excess bolts inherently found in conventional design results in a more uniform distribution of load.

The pitman (eccentric) shaft is heat-treated, forged steel constructionof ample diameter so that stress, even under the shock of suddenly clogged jaws, is low. The shaft is carried in removable, water-cooled, babbitted bearings designed to permit quick removal or replacement without having to strip the crusher.

Heres a typical toggle plate for jaw crushers. It is constructed in three pieceswith the center section of iron, two ends of bronze, designed for quick bolting to the center section. This unique construction materially reduces replacement and maintenance costs makes it unnecessary to discard toggles when ends alone are worn!

A critical point in the operation of large jaw crushers is the arrangement of the swing jaw and its supporting shaft. While in most crushers the jaw is pressed on the shaft and the latter swings in frame, in the jaw crusher the opposite principle is usedshaft is clamped in frame and jaw swings on the shaft!

Another point has been lubrication. In operation, the actual movement of the swing jaw is relatively small. The result is difficulty in proper lubrication of bearing surfaces. The crusher uses a special means of lubrication and in addition is designed with the new replaceable, graphite-impregnated Scor-proof bushings which greatly reduce wear on the expensive shaftssince these bushings, and not the shaft, now take the wear!

Very careful attention is required in the lubrication of heavy mechanical units like the jaw crusher. A thorough study made of existing types of lubrication systems resulted in the selection of a pair of systems that assure positive delivery of lubricant to point of maximum pressure.

The 48 by 42-inch jaw crusher and smaller sizes are force-fed by an automatic high-pressure lubricator to the swing jaw, pitman, and main bearings as illustrated in Figure 1. A motor-driven pump forces the lubricant through pressure buildup cylinders and out to distributors which dispense a precise amount to each of the points on the bearings. No oil return is provided.

The 60 by 48-inch jaw crusher and larger sizes are lubricated by a closed circuit oiling system to the pitman and main bearings, as illustrated by the solid lines in Figure 2, and by high-pressure lubrication fittings connected to the swing jaw bearings, as illustrated by the dotted lines in Figure 2. A motor-driven gear pump forces the oil through pressure-type filters and a condenser-type cooler to a distribution manifold mounted on the crusher. The oil flows through the bearings, lubricating and cooling, and back to the reservoir for recirculation. The swing jaw bearings require servicing by portable grease equipment.

The capacity of the jaw crusher is greater than that of conventional jaw crushers. One reason is its uniform-wear crushing chamber with full-width receiving opening. Another reasonits a more acute crushing angle.

Slippage is reduced packing and choking are prevented by a more even distribution of crushing action throughout the entire length of the crushing chamber. The result is a gradual reduction of material to the choking point increased capacity!

Capacities given below are approximate and are based on standard speeds, jaw motions, and jaw plates, with a feed of quarry or mine run material weighing 100 lb per cu ft crushed. Most stone and low-grade ores are considered weighing 100 lb per cu ft crushed.

The table is based on continuous feeding. Reserve for normal interruption of feeding should be provided. A heavy-duty apron feeder is recommended for most installations, particularly where large cars or trucks are used in the quarry or mine.

When feed to crushers is scalped over grizzlies or screens the number of rejections, or material that will have to be crushed should be determined in establishing the tonnage to be handled by the crusher. The number of fines received from mine or quarry will vary widely depending on each application and should be taken into consideration in determining the overall capacity.

Whatever equipment you operate, you can be certain of careful, considerate handling of orders for repair or replacement parts. In most cases parts are shipped directly from stockyoure assured of fast delivery. The view at left shows a small portion of crushing, cement, and mining equipment parts normally carries.

Repair parts temporarily depleted or not carried in stock will be furnished in time to meet requirements whenever possible. Anticipation of future needs, placing orders in advance, will greatly aid in avoiding unforeseen delays. Genuine parts are exact duplicates or improvements of original components of your machinery, not makeshift substitutes.

cat used parts - cleveland brothers cat

cat used parts - cleveland brothers cat

Used Caterpillar parts from Cleveland Brothers offer the best value for replacing or repairing industrial heavy machinery. Cleveland Brothers has a huge selection of used parts for Caterpillar equipment, as well as other brand names. Our professional staff brings the experience and skill our customers have come to expect over the years. And because the part is made by Caterpillar, youll know youre getting a reliable product that wont let you down when you need it most. Caterpillar is widely recognized as the worldwide leader in the heavy industrial equipment industry, producing top-quality parts and used machines in all types of industries since 1925.

Used parts are an integral component of Cleveland Brothers repair and maintenance services. Oftentimes a used part will perform just as effectively as a new part the only difference being the lower price. Cleveland Brothers is dedicated to improving our customers bottom lines, and utilizing economical used parts without sacrificing performance is a great way to save money. Used parts offer an economical alternative to purchasing brand-new parts, making them an excellent choice for any cost-conscious operation.

You never know when a vital part or component on your heavy industrial equipment might fail, possibly resulting in a loss of critical productive time. With a distribution network of 28 branches in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Maryland, Cleveland Brothers is capable of providing a diverse group of industrial customers with used parts and repair services. And because theres a location near you, we can get you the part you need quickly, minimizing costly downtime.

Cleveland Brothers is a proud member of the Caterpillar Dealers Used Parts Association (CDUPA), an industry association which certifies the quality of used Caterpillar parts. Founded in 1995, CDUPA was formed to unify used Caterpillar parts dealers across the nation. The CDUPA mission statement reads, We are committed to working together to improve communications and support action that will enhance product support activities for all CAT dealers. With this iron-clad commitment to quality, you can be sure our parts meet and exceed industry standards for performance, meaning youll find the best used parts at Cleveland Brothers.

Unless you possess firsthand knowledge of the construction and operation of your Caterpillar equipment, finding the right part can prove to be a daunting task. We can help you weigh your decisions when youre in the market for a used Caterpillar part. Our knowledgeable and courteous Used Parts staff has over 100 years combined experience working with Caterpillar parts, and our repair and maintenance services ensure the consistent high performance of your heavy machinery. You will be able to select the part you need with a high level of confidence, and at a price that fits your parts budget.

And speaking of price, Cleveland Brothers aims to find the perfect part at the lowest price to keep your costs low and improve your profit margins. Sometimes, a new part is the best option for your specific case. However, in many cases, your best value may not be a new part. If we can provide a used part that meets the same high performance standards as its newer counterpart, we will. We stock over 4,400 used CAT parts and reconditioned components for a wide variety of machines at a guaranteed low price.

No other used parts supplier can provide the kind of high-quality used parts at such great prices. Cleveland Brothers takes our responsibility to our customers seriously, and we provide nothing short of the best used parts to maximize their productivity and profit.

In addition to the vast selection of individual used Caterpillar parts, Cleveland Brothers also offers an assortment of used attachments for your Caterpillar machine, as well as many non-CAT machines. Used attachments can transform a piece of single-use equipment into a valuable multi-purpose machine, giving you increased flexibility without having to bear the cost of a new machine. A partial list of available attachments includes snow removal attachments, winches, tailgates, and buckets. Our experts can offer advice and training on how to use the attachments safely and productively.

At Cleveland Brothers, we understand that not being able to find the right part for your Caterpillar machine when you need it can be a frustrating experience. An inoperable machine means costly lost productivity and theres also the lost time and high aggravation that comes with the search process. Thats why, in addition to our extensive parts inventory, we have a worldwide locator system, which can source any parts not currently in stock. This means that if we dont have it, we can get it for you quickly. Although we specialize in Caterpillar equipment, we also supply parts for your non-CAT equipment including John Deere parts, Komatsu parts, Volvo parts and Hitachi parts.

You can also search for the used Caterpillar parts you need via the Internet. By registering for free access to the Cleveland Brothers Parts Store, youll be able to browse through our used parts inventory at your leisure in the comfort of your office. You will be able to gather the information you need to make an informed buying decision, such as product specs and prices, and youll even have the capability to place an order if youre ready to do so. Youll be able to sign up for the free Cleveland Brothers newsletter containing a wealth of information, as well as news about special offers.

With more than 60 years of providing quality Caterpillar parts to Central and Western Pennsylvania and the surrounding areas, its easy to see why we have become the most trusted CAT dealer in the region. We are committed to providing quality heavy industrial products at competitive prices, as well as to delivering world-class customer service. Make Cleveland Brothers your one stop parts source for new or used Caterpillar parts. Call today or let us know what you need through our on-line contact form.

Cleveland Brothers Equipment Co., Inc. is your source for new and used heavy equipment and industrial machinery that grows your business and increases productivity. Cleveland Brothers works with companies to determine the ideal Caterpillar machinery and tools for their diverse operational requirements.

Caterpillar equipment, forestry vehicles, power systems, hydraulics and rental vehicles are just a few of the many solutions available from Cleveland Brothers our huge inventory of parts and our global partner network allows us to equip customers with the highest-quality machinery and equipment available on the market today.

CAT equipment, attachments, tools and service programs are at the core of Cleveland Brothers' success. Our staff of nearly 600 technicians brings decades of experience working with CAT machinery to light when working on a personal level with each and every customer. With flexible financing options and unrivaled customer service, our friendly and knowledgeable sales representatives are here to help you throughout the process of purchasing your new or used heavy equipment.

CAT heavy machinery sets the standard against which all other industrial equipment is measured. The superior engineering and materials used in the manufacturing of CAT equipment over the years has won the company its sterling reputation among owners and operators across the world. Cleveland Brothers is proud of our extensive experience of providing CAT equipment to our customers for many years.

In our online inventory, you can find our listings of currently available new CAT equipment and heavy machinery, as well as further details about each product. Our inventory is frequently updated as Cleveland Brothers stocks new CAT equipment, crushers and screeners, power systems and rental vehicles.

CAT equipment is a substantial investment for any company, and Cleveland Brothers recognizes the importance of providing full support before and after your purchase in order to ensure your equipment is always working at peak performance. Repair and maintenance services from Cleveland Brothers are available to help customers make sure they're getting the most out of their new CAT equipment.

CAT equipment available from Cleveland Brothers includes many categories of industrial vehicles. In each of these categories, customers can find a variety of vehicle models to match their individual needs. Some examples of our CAT equipment include:

These plus many more form the huge inventory of Cleveland Brothers new equipment. Contact us today for more information about any of our vehicles and to speak with a sales representative who can help you find the best match for your company.

Cleveland Brothers carries an extensive inventory of high-performance, robust used machinery and attachments. In addition to Caterpillar used equipment, we offer brand names such as Deere, Komatsu, Godwin, Sullair and more. Used compact equipment and power system components are available as well.

Used machinery is an affordable alternative to new equipment, especially when you buy from Cleveland Brothers. We maintain state-of-the-art departments dedicated to restoring, repairing and inspecting every piece of used machinery we offer our customers. Our dedication to each customer is evident in the importance we place on ensuring the used machinery we offer performs to meet our highest standards.

Cleveland Brothers has online information about each piece of used machinery in our inventory, from detailed usage histories to serial numbers and price estimates for the products we currently have available. Contact Cleveland Brothers directly to inquire about a specific piece of equipment or for assistance with finding the perfect match for your job site.

Used power system components, equipment and tools are thoroughly inspected by our professional staff. Each product comes with a detailed report about any repairs and maintenance completed by our inspectors to correct hydraulic or mechanical defects. We provide used power system equipment such as:

A major component of Cleveland Brothers' interactions with our customers involves our full-scale repair and maintenance services. Our parts and service department consists of a support network of Cleveland Brothers professional technicians who are just a phone call away if your equipment breaks down or malfunctions.

Cleveland Brothers boasts a fleet of over 175 Field Service Trucks for incredible responsiveness to our customers. We understand the damaging impact any amount of downtime can have on a customer's business operations and bottom line. This drives our commitment to getting your heavy machinery back up and running as soon as possible.

Of course, preventing break downs and malfunctions is the best way to maximize productivity and profits. Cleveland Brothers' preventive maintenance programs aim to do just that, through regular inspections and maintenance to keep machines performing at peak capacity at all times. Regardless of the size of your company, the brand name of your equipment or the extent of damage to be repaired, Cleveland Brothers can supply the parts and expertise necessary to decrease your machinery's downtime as much as possible.

A crucial aspect of our service programs is our new and used parts program. With over 170,000 line items in the Cleveland Brothers' inventory of parts, the parts needed to repair your vehicle quickly and efficiently are never far away from our technicians. We also maintain an extensive network of parts drops across Pennsylvania, Maryland and West Virginia for easy access and rapid delivery.

Cleveland Brothers is one of the few CAT equipment suppliers to maintain such an extensive parts and service program. Our focus is on responding to the needs and requirements of our diverse customers. For this reason, customers can order parts and equipment 24 hours a day through our Online PartStore. Just complete a simple online form to gain access to this powerful storefront showcasing our selection of new and used parts.

Cleveland Brothers is proud to offer forestry and logging companies the kind of superior machinery and equipment they require for their diverse business operations. Many of the vehicles and tools are manufactured for logging purposes, and the Cleveland Brothers staff has learned the intricacies and special requirements that come with providing logging equipment and vehicles to many customers. Our inventory of new and used forestry equipment reflects the needs and demands of our customers in addition to Cleveland Brothers' dedication to helping our customers grow and expand their business.

Our selection of CAT and Peterson Pacific logging machines includes equipment for each step of logging operations, from road building and wood extraction to loading and millyard processing. Many of our forestry machines can additionally be outfitted with work tools and attachments to provide the versatility needed when working in challenging conditions and terrain.

Cleveland Brothers offers a full suite of innovative online tools for customers to find the best equipment to match their operational requirements. Our Build & Quote feature allows users to customize equipment and heavy machinery to their liking and view the estimated price, possible financing options and monthly payment expectations based on their selection. Users can also update their Cleveland Brothers profile, manage their CAT equipment fleet, sign up for Cleveland Brothers newsletters and access the Online PartStore. If you don't yet have an account with us, you can sign up for one using our easy-to-use application through our website.

The Cleveland Brothers Equipment Co., Inc. is the most trusted supplier of CAT equipment and other industrial products for Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Maryland. Our customers rely on us to provide them with the tools they need to succeed at an unbeatable price. We take this responsibility seriously; after all, our success as a company depends on helping our customers thrive and grow.

Contact Cleveland Brothers today for more information about any of the parts and equipment we offer. Explore our website to find what will work for you and increase your company's productivity and output. Whether your company is a fledgling small business or a large corporation, Cleveland Brothers guarantees a personal, professional experience.

jaw crusher - sciencedirect

jaw crusher - sciencedirect

Designs of different types of jaw crushers such as Blake, Dodge with single and double toggles used for initial comminution of minerals, as received from mines, are described in detail. The method of calculating operating variables such as the critical speed, toggle frequency and throw and power consumptions are explained and illustrated with practical examples with solutions. Further, inter-related mathematical relations between variables such as critical speed, toggle throw, frequencies of operation and crusher power and throughput, as derived by different workers, are indicated.

laboratory jaw crushers - gilson co

laboratory jaw crushers - gilson co

Laboratory Jaw Crushers are designed for economic size reduction of typical aggregates and common minerals at an output scaled for laboratory testing. Adjustable jaw openings allow close control of output size. High operating rpm promotes efficient size reduction with lower dust generation compared to other crushers and pulverizers. Crushers are mounted on sturdy welded steel base frames with CSA-rated electric motors and are fully equipped with pulleys, feed hoppers, and safety guards. Replacement Jaw Plate sets are available.

LC-27 2.25x3in Laboratory Jaw Crusher reduces 2in (50mm) aggregate, ore, and rock materials to a product with 80% passing a No. 14 (1.4mm) sieve. Jaw opening easily adjusts down to 1mm minimum to closely control output size. The maximum throughput is approximately 50lb (22kg) per hour at 525rpm. The rate of operation is regulated by the variable speed controller. Jaw plates are high-impact, wear-resistant AR450 steel. It has a 1hp electric motor. Electrical cord and plug are included for operation on 110V/50-60Hz electrical supplies. A variable speed controller can also operate on 220V/50-60Hz power sources with a slight reduction in speed.

LC-28 3x4in Laboratory Jaw Crusher reduces 3in feed aggregate and rock material to a product with 50% passing 0.25in (6.3mm) sieve. Jaw opening quickly adjusts from 0.375 to 1.5in (9.5 to 38mm). The operation of the overheadeccentric is regulated by the variable speed controller up to 375rpm and quickly crushes material for final testing or to prepare for secondary crushing. Throughput is up to 500 pounds (227 kg) per hour for most materials. High-manganese steel jaw plates can be rotated when worn for extended service life. The 3hp electric motor is 220V and operates on either 50 or 60Hz electrical supplies.

a fundamental model of an industrial-scale jaw crusher - sciencedirect

a fundamental model of an industrial-scale jaw crusher - sciencedirect

In this study, an analytical perspective is used to develop a fundamental model of a jaw crusher. Previously, jaw crushers were modelled in regard to certain aspects, for example, energy consumption (Legendre and Zevenhoven, 2014) or kinematics (Oduori et al., 2015). Approaches to date have been mainly property specific. In this work a physical modelling approach has been used to derive the modules, which are based on established facts of comminution machines, from the literature. A modelling methodology mainly inspired by Evertsson has been applied (Evertsson, 2000). The modules are divided into kinematics, flow, breakage, capacity, pressure and power. Each module has been derived and tested decoupled from the other modules to provide increased transparency of the module and its behaviour. The results of the modelling are presented for a baseline case of one industrial-scale jaw crusher and compared to manufacturer data. Future work will include validation and DEM simulations.

failure analysis of jaw crusher and its components using anova | springerlink

failure analysis of jaw crusher and its components using anova | springerlink

In this present scenario, with the subsequent rise in the ever increasing demand of production from mines, the role of mineral processing plant has grown leaps and bounds with time. So, the need of the hour is to have sophisticated and handy equipments which can be operated with ease and can help in enhancing the productivity from mines. In this regard, Crusher is one of the primary and essential equipment which is employed for comminuting the mineral in processing plants. Hence, any kind of failure of its components will accordingly hinder the performance of the plant. Therefore, to minimize sudden failures, proper brainstorming needs to be done to improve performance and operational reliability of jaw crushers and its components. Though traditional maintenance practices exist in mineral processing plants, a methodical approach to analyse the failure rates of components is imperative for improving operational reliability of equipment by implementing effective maintenance strategies. This paper considers the methods for analysing failures of jaw crusher and its critical components in a mineral processing plant using statistical tools namely life data analysis (LDA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The shape and scale parameters using LDA method have been also examined. Further by implementing ANOVA, parameters such as the shape, scale and time are evaluated to examine the failure rates of crusher and its components. The data for these three parameters have been generated through Monte-Carlo Simulation method. A 23 factorial design is used for the failure rate analysis.

Ross R (1994) Graphical method for plotting and evaluating Weibull distribution data. In: Proceeding of the international conference properties and applications of dielectric materials, vol 1, pp 250253

Carpentier AS, Riva A, Tisseur P, Didier G, Henaut A (2004) The operons, a criterion to compare the reliability of transcriptome analysis tools: ICA is more reliable than ANOVA, PLS and PCA. Comput Biol Chem 28:310

Hajjaji N, Renaudina V, Houasb A, Ponsa MN (2010) Factorial design of experiment (DOE) for parametric energetic investigation of a steam methane reforming process for hydrogen production. Chem Eng Process 49:500507

Baradeswaran A, Vettivel SC, Perumal AE, Selvakumar N, Issac RF (2014) Experimental investigation on mechanical behaviour, modelling and optimization of wear parameters of B4C and graphite reinforced aluminium hybrid composites. Mater Des 63:620632

Mandal N, Doloi B, Mondal B (2011) Development of flank wear prediction model of Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) cutting tool using response surface methodology. Int J Refract Metal Hard Mater 29:273280

Sinha, R.S., Mukhopadhyay, A.K. Failure analysis of jaw crusher and its components using ANOVA. J Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 38, 665678 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-015-0393-6

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