bituminous mixture - an overview | sciencedirect topics

bituminous mixture - an overview | sciencedirect topics

In the absence of a specific standard procedure for petrographic examination of bituminous mixtures, the guidance of EN 12407 (British Standards Institution, 2007) or ASTM C856 (ASTM International, 2004) may be adapted. An initial visual and low-power microscopical examination is conducted to determine the number of layers, their thickness, and to look for any macroscopic evidence of deterioration. Coarse aggregate and chippings exposed at the upper surface of roads can be examined for evidence of damage. Observation of slices cut perpendicular to the road surface is particularly useful for studying the properties of coarse aggregate. Details of the aggregate size, shape, and distribution can be accurately determined using image analysis techniques (Schlangen, 1999). Slices that have been impregnated with fluorescent resin are useful for observing the air void structure (Eriksen, 1999). High-power microscopical examination of thin sections is used to identify the surface texture, geological type, and potential durability of aggregates and fillers used and to assess the effectiveness of the bitumen coating.

The stiffness modulus of bituminous mixtures is fundamental to the analysis of the stressstrain response of pavement under traffic loading. It can be measured using various methods such as the resilient modulus test, indirect tensile test and uniaxial direct tensile test.

The stiffness modulus of bituminous mixtures containing coarse RCA in relation to that of reference NA bituminous mixtures is given in Figure 12.12. The results at low RCA content (less than 40%) are inconsistent, showing that the stiffness modulus could be higher or lower than that of the reference NA bituminous mixtures. However, the use of coarse RCA is not likely to result in an increase in stiffness modulus, given that the adhered cement paste is weak and has low elastic modulus. Notwithstanding this, it becomes clear that the stiffness modulus of bituminous mixtures decreases as the coarse RCA content increases. On average, every 10% increase in coarse RCA can lead to about 3% reduction in stiffness modulus of bituminous mixtures, giving a total of 30% reduction when NA is fully replaced by coarse RCA. For mixed-size and fine RCA, the trend of the results is not definite, but in general, they should also result in a reduction in stiffness modulus due to the presence of adhered cement paste.

In order to investigate anisotropy of bituminous mixtures, wave propagation tests can be performed in different directions. First, this method was used on parallelepipedic specimens sawn into plate (604015cm3) made using the French LPC wheel compactor (according to European standard EN12697-33:2003+A1:2007, AFNOR, 2007b). Orientation of the sample relative to the compactor wheel displacement is indicated in Figure 3.30. X direction corresponds to the displacement of the wheel, Z is the vertical direction, and Y is perpendicular to X and Z. The dimensions of the specimen are indicated in Table 3.2.

Figure 3.30. Parallelepipedic specimen sawn into plate made with the French LPC compactor. X, Y, and Z orientations are given from vertical direction and wheel displacement (Di Benedetto et al., 2009).

Wave propagation tests and interpretation using the back analysis presented in Section 3.6 were done for specimens in directions X, Y, and Z at a temperature of 26C. As the obtained anisotropy is less than 15% (see results below), the hypothesis of isotropy could still be considered with a good approximation for the dynamic back analysis. The Poissons ratio and the phase angle of parallelepipedic samples, which are unknown, were evaluated to =10 and =0.3. From these values and the dynamic tests, the complex modulus can be determined using previously presented methods. Values of propagation times, velocities of the P waves, and the obtained complex modulus are given in Table 3.2.

Table 3.3. 2S2P1D model parameters for bituminous materials presented in Figures 3.16 and 3.17: two binders (B5070 and Orthoprne), two corresponding mixtures (E5070 and Orthochape), and bituminous mastic of sealing sheet (Paraforpont)

This last observation reveals that, of the specimens made with the plate compactor, Z direction is the softest. Other wave propagation tests were also made on specimens obtained from a gyratory compactor (according to European standard NF EN 12697-31, AFNOR, 2007a), which is also slightly anisotropic, with a stiffer vertical direction Z. In both cases, this is explained by a different geometrical organization of the granular skeleton, whose effects are far from negligible.

Using fly ash to substitute the filler in bituminous mixtures is not only a way of disposing of this waste in a safe manner but it is a way of reducing the energy requirements for the preparation and placement of this composite in road pavements.

This paper describes briefly the background work carried out in the laboratories of CEMU to develop the mix design and to evaluate the reductions of energy requirements for the production of a bituminous mixture, i.e., hot rolled asphalt (HRA) which is used in the UK to surface motorways and heavily trafficked roads. Hot rolled asphalt is prepared in site plants heating the aggregates and bitumen at 160C and is placed and compacted normally at not less than 125C. Thus the energy requirements for the preparation, placement and compaction of HRA is very high. The HRA designed at CEMU is a low energy mix which contains fly ash. It can be prepared at a temperature of 125C and placed and compacted at a temperature as low as 85C. This mix was used for the construction of the overlay of a very heavily trafficked road, the A689 in the north of England.

The construction of the overlay for the pavement is described and the results of the in situ pavement are assessed with results obtained during four years of monitoring the performance of the section paved with the new low energy HRA.

Bituminous mixtures, sometimes called asphalt mixtures, are blends of aggregates with different gradations, filler type and content and hardness with bitumen of different grades and quantities. Numerous types of bituminous material are designed to meet certain target mixture volumetrics (density and void content); some may incorporate performance-enhancing additives such as fibres and modified binders.

AC, formerly known in the United Kingdom as dense bitumen macadam; HRA; and SMA are the most commonly used asphalt materials for road paving in European countries. The remaining materials within the EN 13108 series tend to be used on specialised applications such as bridges and airports.

AC materials are continuously graded, dense materials. In the United Kingdom, AC is typically used in binder course and base layers on trunk roads and motorways, whereas AC surface course has been specified for less travelled roads. High modulus base such as Enrob Module lev falls within this AC family. HRA materials are gap-graded dense materials, and the majority are generally of low stiffness and/or have low resistance to permanent deformation because of their high binder content and lack of design. However, these materials are also durable and are highly resistant to cracking. SMA materials rely on an interlocking aggregate skeleton and are always designed well because the exact mixture depends on the grading, shape and surface roughness of the aggregate. SMAs are binder-rich materials and usually need the addition of fibres and/or the use of a polymer-modified binder (PMB) to prevent binder drainage.

Egnatia road, a multibillion-euro revival of ancient Via Egnatia is being realized. A closed motorway, fully developed to meet the highest safety standards, it had to overcome exceptional engineering problems. Innovations ranging from long-span bridges and tunnels in a seismogenous area down to the application of a 25mm, close-graded surfacing had to be adopted. Innovative methods most of the time necessitate innovative materials, which in the case of the thin surfacing, was EAF slag.

In addition, the physical, mechanical, and chemical consistency of EAF slag played an important role in simplifying the bituminous mix production process. It is yet left to examine the behavior of the skid-resistant course through time due to extreme weather conditions of the area. Long-term experience in mixes with similar characteristics (4mm asphaltic concrete, which is the normal practice) leads us to believe that this is not something to be expected.

Asbestos-containing materials (ACM) were widely employed in constructions until the 1990s, when the use of asbestos was banned in many countries around the world after recognition of its carcinogenic effects. ACM must be removed and disposed-off before the demolition of buildings both from outside and inside. Asbestos detection and subsequent removal is a fundamental step of any demolition activity carried out in the construction sector in order to avoid human exposure to such hazardous mineral.

Asbestos was largely utilized in many applications and was considered a miraculous material for its unique technical properties, such as heat and corrosive chemicals resistance. Unfortunately, asbestos causes lung cancer, mesothelioma, cancer of the larynx and ovary, and asbestosis (fibrosis of the lungs). The human exposure occurs through inhalation of airborne fibers in working environments, outdoor in places close to factories handling asbestos, indoor in housing and buildings in which friable ACM are present (Bloise et al., 2017). Hazardous respirable fibers are characterized by the following geometrical dimensions: length L > 5 m, width W < 3 m, L/W ratio > 3: 1 (1 m = 1/1000 mm).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 125 million people in the world are exposed to asbestos at the workplace and worldwide the asbestos-related deaths are 112,000 every year. In Europe, the wide-ban of asbestos was the object of the Directive 1999/77/EC, to be implemented by 2005, but unfortunately, between 20,000 and 30,000 cases of asbestos-related diseases are recorded every year and more than 300,000 citizens are expected to die from mesothelioma by 2030.

Asbestos is still found in ships, trains, machinery, tunnels, pipes in public and private water distribution networks, and especially in many public and private buildings. The legislation around the world has not only restricted the extraction and use of new asbestos, but also has forced the removal of thousands of tons of asbestos products from buildings and materials (Guthrie Jr and Mossman, 1993).

Other contaminants, both inorganic (i.e., brick, tiles and ceramics, gypsum-based materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, etc.) and organic (i.e., bituminous mixtures and tars, insulation materials, wood, plastics, etc.), are present in construction and demolition waste (C&DW). Their identification and removal are important mainly for two reasons, that is:

to reutilize these materials (i.e., recycled aggregates) and/or well separated and classified pollutants outside or inside the construction sector, through the production of concrete partially or totally embedding recycled aggregates or partially utilizing the other recovered materials (i.e., brick, tiles and ceramics, glass, and plastics). In this latter case, a contaminants-inside-a-contaminant detection/sorting logic has to be applied.

In this chapter, an overview of asbestos and other contaminants detectable inside C&DW is carried out and innovative detection/recognition strategies, and related technologies are presented and discussed in a full ACM and other contaminants removal perspective.

Road transport is one of the most widely used means of mobility for people and goods. The construction and conservation of this type of infrastructure therefore involves very significant economic costs for various public administrations. Hot bituminous mixtures require large amounts of aggregates and asphalt binders for road surfacing and for other sorts of bituminous surface courses. Hence, investigation into the use of recycled materials for the manufacture of bituminous surface courses is of great interest from an environmental point of view.24

The application of various types of waste materials for modification of asphalts has been successfully used in road pavements, obtaining asphaltpolymeric composites, sometimes well-known and regulated.2527

Among the wide variety of waste products that may be used in the preparation of sustainable bituminous mixtures, the use of polymers as recycled raw materials is of great interest for the improvement of these types of waste products and their environmental management. Thermoplastics have dominated in these uses, but nowadays, the literature on the use of PU foam reports good results and have been studied to understand the possibilities to use, but based on manufacture of the polymer in situ, rather than the use of the material as a preprepared waste product.28

Bitumen source is a significant aspect in the advance of new bituminous products, such as dimensionally stable bituminous PU foams, for building applications. Even though it is notorious that PU and bitumen is an instable resulting system and normally is not usually compatible, some references on asphaltPU compounds fall on the possibility to obtain and apply these materials by means of analyzing some practical aspects. The research involved the modification of bitumen characterizing the results with diverse techniques, such as thin layer chromatography or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Conclusions involved that rheological properties of foamed bitumen are improved and the degree of enhancement is dependent on bitumen characteristics. Other cases also considered the consequence to include PU as reactive polymer with functional groups capable to chemically interact with bitumen compounds for obtaining PU modified bitumen (Fig. 10.7).29

Thus, despite bitumen composition, dimensionally stable bituminous foams can be successfully obtained, even from the softest base.30 More stable and less deformable bituminous mixtures were obtained with a lower quantity of cavities, which contributes to greater hardness. On the basis of these results, the quantity of foam present in the composition is the most important factor to explain the variation in the subsequent properties of these composites and its advantages against other conventional products.31

With the intention to increase the existing scope of knowledge about PU asphalts, further works seem to be focused on the potential possibilities of these composites, with the purpose of defining their kinetic relationships and durability through additional assessment, in order to obtain materials with a practical application for road constructions use.

It is generally accepted that adhesion is the property that characterizes the bond between two materials. In the case of asphalt mixtures, this is considered to be the interaction of the binder and the aggregate material and filler.

It is obvious that adhesion between the components of an asphalt mixture is important. However, the measurement of this property is difficult in practice. Most tests are directed toward measuring a lack of adhesion, or stripping, because adhesive failure is directly related to pavement distress or in situ damage (e.g., raveling). In the context of asphalt mixtures, one of the more important aspects of adhesion is the presence of water. Therefore, the susceptibility to moisture or the resistance toward debonding is considered a good indirect indicator of the power of a binder to adhere to aggregates. In this context, it is frequently referred to as a stripping phenomenon. This idea has already been taken up in standards EN 12697-1111 and EN 13697-12,12 which deal with the assessment of the adhesion within asphalt mixtures. Rather than a direct measurement of a property, most test methods addressing adhesion report a ratio of a given mechanical property, for example mixture stiffness, before and after immersion in water.

Asphalt mixtures are composite mixtures, containing aggregates (which are themselves heterogeneous), sand, filler, and perhaps also modifiers. As such, adhesion within an asphalt mixture is extremely complex, and interpretation of results is made difficult by this complexity. In mixture tests, there is the added complication of trying to separate the adhesive contribution from the cohesive, that is, bitumenbitumen, bond strength. However, because adhesion is an interfacial property, test procedures generally consider both the binder and the aggregate.

Many different test methods have been developed purporting to measure adhesion, but in a study conducted by members of CEN TC 227 WG1 and CEN TC 336 WG1 (Besamusca et al., 2012b), a series of six binders was tested, using nine readily available test methods purporting to measure adhesion. The study concluded that there was no easy-to-use test method available that could characterize the adhesion or stickiness of bitumen, and it was unlikely that one would emerge in the near future. The candidate tests evaluated did not measure binder adhesion, but in some cases measured moisture sensitivity of mixtures or temperature dependence.

Many of the tests purporting to measure adhesion in fact assess the kinetic aspects of disbonding, that is, how quickly the binder might strip from the aggregate surface, rather than the fundamental adhesion of the components. While this property is informative for identifying the mixture moisture sensitivity and when it may fail, it is important to understand that it is different from adhesion of bitumen to aggregate. At this time, tests that do measure properties related to adhesion, such as surface energy, are not suitable for inclusion in a specification, as they are either too complex and time consuming or require expensive and sensitive test equipment.

The sustainability of bituminous materials is covered in Chapter 14, which is a new chapter in this edition. After a general introduction, the chapter describes the various forms of bituminous binders, including natural asphalt, refined bitumen and processed binder from renewable sources. The characteristics of bitumen and the various types of bituminous mixtures, including rheology, types, production methods, specifications and design guide are described. A section is dedicated to the sustainability by design, including performance and durability, reuse and recycling, retreading, repaving, ex situ recycling, tar matter and recycling with foam bitumen and low temperature asphalts. This is followed by a section on preservative maintenance and repair, which includes preservative, rejuvenate and restorative treatments. The chapter concludes by suggesting ways for road construction with rammed earth in the future.

macrs asset life table

macrs asset life table

The MACRS Asset Life table is derived from Revenue Procedure 87-56 1987-2 CB 674. The table specifies asset lives for property subject to depreciation under the general depreciation system provided in section 168(a) of the IRC or the alternative depreciation system provided in section 168(g). Use this table to determine an asset's class based on the asset's activity type or description.

Information systems include computers and their peripheral equipment used in administering normal business transactions and the maintenance of business records, their retrieval and analysis. Information systems are defined as follows:

1) Computers: A computer is a programmable electronically activated device capable of accepting information, applying prescribed processes to the information, and supplying the results of these processes with or without human intervention. It usually consists of a central processing unit containing extensive storage, logic, arithmetic, and control capabilities. Excluded from this category are adding machines, electronic desk calculators, etc., and other equipment described in class 00.13.

2) Peripheral equipment consists of the auxiliary machines which are designed to be placed under control of the central processing unit. Nonlimiting examples are: Card readers, card punches, magnetic tape feeds, high speed printers, optical character readers, tape cassettes, mass storage units, paper tape equipment, keypunches, data entry devices, teleprinters, terminals, tape drives, disc drives, disc files, disc packs, visual image projector tubes, card sorters, plotters, and collators. Peripheral equipment may be used on-line or off-line. Does not include equipment that is an integral part of other capital equipment that is included in other classes of economic activity, i.e., computers used primarily for process or production control, switching, channeling, and automating distributive trades and services such as point of sale (POS) computer systems. Also, does not include equipment of a kind used primarily for amusement or entertainment of the user.

bitumen | mining | britannica

bitumen | mining | britannica

Bitumen, dense, highly viscous, petroleum-based hydrocarbon that is found in deposits such as oil sands and pitch lakes (natural bitumen) or is obtained as a residue of the distillation of crude oil (refined bitumen). In some areas, particularly in the United States, bitumen is often called asphalt, though that name is almost universally used for the road-paving material made from a mixture of gravel, sand, and other fillers in a bituminous binder. Bitumen is also frequently called tar or pitchthough, properly speaking, tar is a byproduct of the carbonization of coal and pitch is actually obtained from the distillation of coal tar.

Bitumen is defined by the U.S. Geological Survey as an extra-heavy oil with an API gravity less than 10 and a viscosity greater than 10,000 centipoise. At the temperatures normally encountered in natural deposits, bitumen will not flow; in order to be moved through a pipe, it must be heated and, in some cases, diluted with a lighter oil. It owes its density and viscosity to its chemical compositionmainly large hydrocarbon molecules known as asphaltenes and resins, which are present in lighter oils but are highly concentrated in bitumen. In addition, bitumen frequently has a high content of metals, such as nickel and vanadium, and nonmetallic inorganic elements, such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Depending on the use to which bitumen is put, these elements may be contaminants that have to be removed from the finished product. By far most refined bitumen is used in paving asphalt and roofing tiles, as is a large amount of natural bitumen. However, most of the bitumen extracted from Canadas oil sands is upgraded into synthetic crude oil and sent to refineries for conversion into a full range of petroleum products, including gasoline.

list of petroleum products | britannica

list of petroleum products | britannica

This is a list of products produced from petroleum. Types of unrefined petroleum include asphalt, bitumen, crude oil, and natural gas. (See also fossil fuel; hydrocarbon; oil; petrochemical; petroleum production; petroleum refining; pitch lake; tar sand.)

what is natural language processing? | ibm

what is natural language processing? | ibm

Natural language processing (NLP) refers to the branch of computer scienceand more specifically, the branch of artificial intelligence or AIconcerned with giving computers the ability to understand text and spoken words in much the same way human beings can.

NLP combines computational linguisticsrule-based modeling of human languagewith statistical, machine learning, and deep learning models. Together, these technologies enable computers to process human language in the form of text or voice data and to understand its full meaning, complete with the speaker or writers intent and sentiment.

NLP drives computer programs that translate text from one language to another, respond to spoken commands, and summarize large volumes of text rapidlyeven in real time. Theres a good chance youve interacted with NLP in the form of voice-operated GPS systems, digital assistants, speech-to-text dictation software, customer service chatbots, and other consumer conveniences. But NLP also plays a growing role in enterprise solutions that help streamline business operations, increase employee productivity, and simplify mission-critical business processes.

Human language is filled with ambiguities that make it incredibly difficult to write software that accurately determines the intended meaning of text or voice data. Homonyms, homophones, sarcasm, idioms, metaphors, grammar and usage exceptions, variations in sentence structurethese just a few of the irregularities of human language that take humans years to learn, but that programmers must teach natural language-driven applications to recognize and understand accurately from the start, if those applications are going to be useful.

The Python programing language provides a wide range of tools and libraries for attacking specific NLP tasks. Many of these are found in the Natural Language Toolkit, or NLTK, an open source collection of libraries, programs, and education resources for building NLP programs.

The NLTK includes libraries for many of the NLP tasks listed above, plus libraries for subtasks, such as sentence parsing, word segmentation, stemming and lemmatization (methods of trimming words down to their roots), and tokenization (for breaking phrases, sentences, paragraphs and passages into tokens that help the computer better understand the text). It also includes libraries for implementing capabilities such as semantic reasoning, the ability to reach logical conclusions based on facts extracted from text.

The earliest NLP applications were hand-coded, rules-based systems that could perform certain NLP tasks, but couldn't easily scale to accommodate a seemingly endless stream of exceptions or the increasing volumes of text and voice data.

Enter statistical NLP, which combines computer algorithms with machine learning and deep learning models to automatically extract, classify, and label elements of text and voice data and then assign a statistical likelihood to each possible meaning of those elements. Today, deep learning models and learning techniques based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs) enable NLP systems that 'learn' as they work and extract ever more accurate meaning from huge volumes of raw, unstructured, and unlabeled text and voice data sets.

Purpose-built for healthcare and life sciences domains, IBM Watson Annotator for Clinical Data extracts key clinical concepts from natural language text, like conditions, medications, allergies and procedures. Deep contextual insights and values for key clinical attributes develop more meaningful data. Potential data sources include clinical notes, discharge summaries, clinical trial protocols and literature data.

low cost industrial fruit orange natural pulp juice making machine production plant processing line

low cost industrial fruit orange natural pulp juice making machine production plant processing line

2021-6-22Multi-purpose fruit pulp making machine is applicable to process a variety of fresh fruits and vegetables beating separation, like mango, orange, grape, macaque peach meat, mulberry notes, waxberry, peach (pitted), etc. GELGOOG also offers Mango Washing Machine. Features of mango pulp making machine:

Producers of orange drinks and nectars frequently specify FCOJ with very low or low pulp content, which refers to <1% and <3% sinking pulp respectively (measured in reconstituted juice). To achieve such low levels in a traditional centrifuge, pulp discharge intervals need to be very short, which results in flow variations and high equipment wear.

Business Type: Manufacturer/Factory , Trading Company. Main Products: Fruit Processing Plant , Beverage Production Line , UHT Machine , Juice Filling Machine. Mgmt. Certification: ISO 9001. City/Province: Shanghai, Shanghai. Related Products: China Machine, Gantry Machine.

2016-8-2The process of jelly making is also similar except that only fruit extract is used for making of jelly and pectin is added for gel formation after boiling. 3.3 Squash Squashes are sweetened juice of fruits containing minimum prescribed quantity of pulp. As per Indian Standards, squash should contain at least 25 per cent (by volume) of fruit juice.

2016-8-2The process of jelly making is also similar except that only fruit extract is used for making of jelly and pectin is added for gel formation after boiling. 3.3 Squash Squashes are sweetened juice of fruits containing minimum prescribed quantity of pulp. As per Indian Standards, squash should contain at least 25 per cent (by volume) of fruit juice.

Efficient production - for any volume. While apple and orange drinks remain perennial favourites, more niched products come and go, as consumers alternately get inspired and tire of the latest craze. Offering reliable, cost-efficient processing solutions, Tetra Pak helps beverage producers maintain margins on both high and low volume products.

Omega Juicers is #1 in home juicing. See the Omega difference. Boost your immune system with the J8006HDS slow masticating juicer. Healthy Living Starts Today with Omega Juicers. Omega Cold Press 365 Horizontal Slow Masticating Juicer. Cold Press Juicing at Home. Professional Grade Slow Juicers.

2012-10-16Jackfruit is also used for further processing. For instance, jackfruit leather and jackfruit chips can be made from dried jackfruit pulp (Nakasone and Paull 1998). Pureed jackfruit is also manufactured into baby food, juice, jam, jelly, and base for cordials (Roy and Joshi 1995). Jackfruits are made into candies, fruit-rolls, marmalades, and ...

2020-4-9To make cold process soap, you'll heat your choice of oils in a soap pot until they reach approximately 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Then, you'll slowly add a lye-water mixture and blend the soap until it thickens to trace. After the mixture reaches trace,

2020-2-24Asiastar beverage machinery Co., Ltd. As one professional beverage machine manufacturer in China, was established in 2006. With 10 years running experience, we can offer complete solution to design, manufacture, pack, transport, install, maintain the beverage packing machines according to our customers requirement.

2019-11-25 From fruit to juice: complete processing lines, from the feed of the raw material to juice Optimal extraction using Flottweg Separation Technology assures high yields in the produc - tion of fruit and vegetable juices Cost-conscious and gentle processing

Brazil: Orange juice inventories may be higher than strategic limit in 20/21, but below that in 21/22. The volume of orange juice stocked at Brazilian processors in the 2020/21 season (June 2021) is expected to be higher than the strategic limit (250 thousand tons).

juice filler machine. Shanghai Doan Machinery Technology Co.,Ltd is a road repair machine manufacturing factory ,which is specialized in manufacturing Asphalt Distributor,Crack Router,Crack Sealing Machine,Chip Spreader,road roller,Asphalt Mixing Plant ,etc. we own dozens of advanced production lines and advanced production technology and high quality professional management

2018-5-17Mango Pulp Processing plant ? 14. What will be the income and expenditures for Mango Pulp Processing Business? 15. What are the Projected Balance Sheets of Mango Pulp Manufacturing plant ? 16. What are the requirement of utilities and overheads for setting up Mango Pulp Manufacturing plant? 17. What is the Built up Area Requirement and cost for

2013-1-1The cost of pulsed electric field (PEF) pasteurization of orange juice was estimated. The cost analysis was based on processing conditions that met the US FDA (5 log reduction) requirement for fruit juice pasteurization and that achieved a sufficient microbial shelf-life.PEF-treated samples processed at 30 kV/cm and 60 C had reductions in Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and ...

2021-6-16Fruit juice production and packaging are a profitable business in India. Additionally, you can start with a specific product. Or you can establish a multi-fruit juice processing plant. Definitely, if you go with different types of juice production, investment will be higher.

2021-6-15Processing Machine. Our Indigenous patent pending design ensure low energy cost and high yield. End product quality and plant operations are taken into consideration during the design process. Whole unit can be mounted in a container as well, making it a processing on wheels solution.

2021-6-25This temporary move is driven by our cap supplier streamlining production to meet increased demand during Covid-19. However, rest assured that the Floridas Natural orange juice behind the white cap is the same delicious juice, made by Florida farmers, from only 100% Florida oranges.

Omega Juicers is #1 in home juicing. See the Omega difference. Boost your immune system with the J8006HDS slow masticating juicer. Healthy Living Starts Today with Omega Juicers. Omega Cold Press 365 Horizontal Slow Masticating Juicer. Cold Press Juicing at Home. Professional Grade Slow Juicers.

2020-4-9To make cold process soap, you'll heat your choice of oils in a soap pot until they reach approximately 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Then, you'll slowly add a lye-water mixture and blend the soap until it thickens to trace. After the mixture reaches trace,

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