list of goods and services not eligible for input tax credit | sag infotech

list of goods and services not eligible for input tax credit | sag infotech

Input tax credit is considered very significant for every business unit which is always in the need to invest in the business in the manner of capital. The need of capital is required each and every time a business gets ready for its next project. This time in GST, a business unit will be eligible for input tax credit, only if certain cases are met with the transactions.

Recommended: All Decisions & Latest Updates on 32nd GST Council Meeting Get to know all major decisions taken in the 32nd GST council meeting discussed over GST threshold limit, composition schemes and real estate

Invoice matching of both the parties will be the key issue for checking and granting the input tax credit to the dealer while in certain cases, input tax credit may not be available for some rules and regulation purpose.

Read Also: Input Tax Credit Guide Under GST: Calculation with Proper Examples A complete guide for understanding the basics of input tax credit and it calculation with detailed examples under GST (Goods and Services Tax) India

Disclaimer:- "All the information given is from credible and authentic resources and has been published after moderation. Any change in detail or information other than fact must be considered a human error. The blog we write is to provide the updated information. You can raise any query on matters related to blog content. Also, note that we dont provide any type of consultancy so we are sorry for unable to reply to consultancy queries."

We are supplying good to our clients GST rate is 12% and also we are paying rent, digital marketing charges to our suppliers they are charging GST of 18% . is this ITC can be claimable? after ITC only we need to generate the challans? pls guide

I am running a restaurant under Regular scheme and has to pay 5% GST without availing ITC. As such, while filing GST 3B, is it necessary to mention the GST paid on purchase bills in Table 4 A 5 ( all other ITC ) and subsequently reverse the same under ineligible ITC- Sec.17(5) or can he simply skip the Table 4, as I am not supposed to avail ITC. Kindly advice.

My client has purchased from his GST registered vendor in March. However, the vendor has not been filing his returns GST3B since March 2020. Now he updating GST3B by including my invoices also. However, I have claimed this Input in March itself.

Sim Must Be Post Paid and as in income tax 25% disallowed for the personal use and as per sec 17-5 supply which are used for personal use ITC must not be taken and business hrs are only 9 to 8 and after that is used for personal use so 40% allowed and 60% disallowed

I am starting a retail brand outlet. can I claim ITC in respect of following- 1. painting work at the store 2. tuffen glass installed 3. hangers purchased 4. false ceiling 5. electrical wiring 6. led bulbs, fans, etc 7. mirrors installed in trial rooms 8. pillar boxing

Whether ITC could be availed on Vendor providing Milk and Tea Services at Factories, Guest House Groceries items purchased, Drinking water and Cabs/Taxi Service used for business visits/business purpose, etc.

According to specific provisions under GST law, a statement issued by a bank can be treated as a tax invoice. Accordingly, you should be eligible to claim the input tax credit, based on a statement issued by the bank, as long as it contains all the prescribed particulars, including your GST registration number

Security service charges (2 security for office purpose) Rs.10000/-(Taxable value) Add:CGST 9% 900 SGST 9% 900 Total bill amount 11800 (NB: GST amount is included in the above bill and not on reverse charge mechnism)

Hai sir, We have a quarry business and we have own tippers for supply of material, and we are paying insurance for those vehicle, pls. advise whether we are eligible for gst input on insurance premium paid

A Travel agent who charges GST @5% without claiming ITC on Input Services. Can he claim ITC on Computer Purchased in his office and ITC on Audit Fee as they are not directly related to the output supply? Please quote the relevant provisions of ITC.

I have purchased Computer software for my company. I have taken ITC on the said software. I have treated it as Capital goods also. Can I take depreciation on the amount excluding GST over useful years?

No your answere wrong, he is asking of depreciation of remaining amount i e basic price of the capital goods , he can claim depreciation on that but not portion of GST , if he claim ITC on capital goods and take deprecaiation excluding GST amount .

You can extract a report for your sale, from the Report->Payment->Tax Merchant report and give it to your CA. You can take credit of the sale tax as paid by Amazon for its all components of service fees.

But for the pharmacy section, it will be categorized as the normal business venture and all the GST paid on input and other valuable even including the software part can be accounted for setting off the output tax liability.

Yes. The mobile phones/ laptops would be covered under the definition of inputs as they are used in the course/ furtherance of business and hence, the input tax paid on such goods will be available as an input tax credit.

No ITC is available for the activities such as construction, reconstruction, renovation, addition, alteration or repair of an immovable property even it is under the furtherance of business as per the law

In general, the input tax credit is not available for construction, reconstruction, renovation, addition, alteration or repair of an immovable property even when such goods or services or both are used in the course or furtherance of business.

ITC on Outstation Hotel Stays. For businesses, availing accommodation in destinations outside the State where they are registered is common. When a business avails accommodation service from a hotel, the place of supply will always be the place where the service is provided, that is, the location of the hotel.

I have taken a hotel on lease for the past 3 years. I have been giving the GST on the lease amount accordingly. Sin due to covid 19 business has been shotdown. Though I was claiming the ITC. Now my question is can I get the refund of ITC.

The Government has taken restricted meaning of the phrase in respect of in recent clarification and has clarified that the GST paid on insurance and repair on vehicles is allowed when the vehicle is used for business purpose only

We are selling 0% exempted and taxable goods every month. We purchased gunny bags in 5% GST rate for our business purpose and we do not sell the gunny bags. can we avail ITC on gunny bags purchases ..

Sir started a proprietorship firm for supply of pathological & surgical goods, and I have purchased two computers for maintaining the account & Stock and I also purchase a mobile costing of Rs. 60000/- can be avail the ITC on these Items. Kindly suggest me

It has now specifically been mentioned in Section 17(5) of the CGST Act (negative list of ITC) that Input tax credit of GST paid on services of insurance, servicing, repair and maintenance of motor vehicles shall not be allowed.

We are with our under-construction Hotel Project, can we are able to take some ITC On like, ply-wood, electrical material, door material, purchases which are used for the under-construction property (Hotel) Please reply ..

I am planning to construct a hotel. I am paying fees to my architects for services against drawings. They are providing me with IGST bills. Can I avail ITC on the GST bills? In my P/L account I am showing this as expenditure

We have a GST Registered small fire safety business. We have BSNL land line BB phone in cos name, we paid GST every month for BSNL Bill. Can we claim ITC for BSNL Bill? phone used for business purpose.

Sir, we purchased some eatables, food, clothes from the mall for our personal use from our company debit card, can we put it all ineligible ITC section as per section 75 or ineligible ITC other section?

1) I am hiring hotels in company payment mode and asked the vendor to charge IGST on the bill being invoice will be done at SEZ office address but vendor denying to charge IGST he insisted for the charge of SGST and CGST, kindly clear what is the compliance and what should be done in this case.

1. first can car vendor charge 0% GST under LUT, if yes then why? 2. Can the company pay the basic amount, if yes then WHY? 3. Will the company need to pay the government 5% IGST? if yes, then how, as in booking/issuing PO, tax code of 5% is not considered.

request to explain the process of the car on rent used for conveyance /travel of company employee through third party vendor, how and invoice to be done at the address of the company location which is registered under SEZ, please specify the whole process and also explain whether tax credit can be taken or not?

Our company running for 365 days, canteen is there inside premises, we are paying cylinder bills directly to the gas agency. The gas agency is charging bill with SGST & CGST total percentage of 18% can we claim ITC?

You cant claim the credit on the Gas cylinder as the expense has no relation to business or for the furtherance of business. Its directly related to the provision of supply of food & beverages to employees.

1: Staying Charges in 4 Star Hotels: About 25 Rooms: Room Rent Rs. 6000/- + GST (1,50,000/- + GST) 2: Hall Charges for Round Table: Rs. 1,50,000/- + GST 3: Decoration and Presentation Arragement: Rs. 1,50,000/- + GST 4: Food and beverages Charges: Rs: 1,50,000/- + GST

We are manufacturer of chemicals. We have constructed new rooms where we unload semi finished chemical for natural crystallization of our chemical and chemical change its state from liquid to solid when it is kept in such rooms. So can it be treated as plant and machinary and can ITC be claimed on construction bills of such rooms built in factory premises.

Secondly, we have bought car before gst law was implemented for our marketing person to meet our business clients and suppliers, So can ITC be availed on this car repair bill, and new tyre bill. Can it be consider as furtherance of business as the marketing person is using it for business travel

No, Land and Building cannot be treated as plant and machinery. Plant and machinery means apparatus, equipment and machinery fixed to earth by foundation or structural support that are used for making outward supply of goods or services or both and includes such foundation and structural supports but excludes

We are a manufacturer of chemicals. We have constructed new rooms where we unload semi-finished chemical for natural crystallization of our chemical and chemical change its state from liquid to solid when it is kept in such rooms. So can it be treated as plant and machinery and can ITC be claimed on construction bills of such rooms built in factory premises?

Secondly, we have bought a car before GST law was implemented for our marketing person to meet our business clients and suppliers, So can ITC be availed on this car repair bill, and new tyre bill. Can it be considered as a furtherance of business as the marketing person is using it for business travel

Am doing Milk, Ice cream business & GST registered, for supply, I have purchased commercial vehicle a month before, ITC availed for the same Due to some financial problem, I have decided to sale that vehicle @ cost price Shall I raise an invoice to the purchaser with GST, Is he is eligible for ITC Pls clarify

We have retail stores in various malls. Malls give us the empty store and we carry out interior works for the beauty of the stores including false ceiling, AC connection, electrical work etc. We can not alter the immovable property given to us. Can we claim input tax on these lease interior works (called civil works only) for setting up the retail store? Please help, Thanks

There is an amendment in Section 17 of CGST Act, where new clause (ab) in inserted under Subsection 5, providing that GST on insurance, repair & maintenance is not allowed. Kindly help to understand that it is applicable from 1-2-19 or from beginning i.e. 1-7-17? Thanks in Advance

i.Furniture and fittings, ii.Electrical fittings, iii.Registered office buildings and charges paid for computer printer toner refill charges iv. Battery and oil replacement charges for corporate office Generator and Registered office Generator v.Gst paid on Audit Fees.

ITC can be claimed on audit fees. There is no restriction. But it has to be claimed on an invoice basis and not on the provision basis. If you are making provision as on 31st March then ITC cannot be claimed in the year of making provision.

I have contracted with a contractor to provide contract labourers for working in my canteen department for serving food to my employees and other services in that canteen. Could I claim an input tax credit for the tax which I pay to the contractor? Kindly help me with this.

I have recently bought a Mercedes Benz car on my firms name, and the dealer has given me a car insurance policy where my CGST AND SGST amount is very high, can I claim it as its not on my individual name its on my firm name. Please suggest the course of action. and the same way I have paid huge GST on CAR Purchase also so that is also can I claim or not.

I have a query, I am an electronics retailer whose sales LED TV and other goods to customer, I want to buy a Maruti Swift car (motor vehicle) for transportation of LED TV LG and SAMSUNG tv to customer residence as free delivery, so I want to know am i eligible to claim ITC on purchase of motor vehicle? AS I HAVE READ IN GST LAW THAT ITC IS AVAILABLE FOR TRANSPORTATION OF GOODS HERE DO NOTE I AM NOT USING TRANSPORT VEHICLE ITS A PASSENGER VEHICLE MARUTI SWIFT AND AS MOTOR VEHICLE IN GST HAS SAME MEANING MENTIONED IN MOTOR VEHICLE ACT 1988, SO I THINK I CAN USE IT TO TRANSPORT GOODS AND CAN ALSO AVAIL ITC ON BUYING A NEW VEHICLE.

No, ITC cannot be claimed in your case. ITC on motor vehicles is available when the registered person uses it for transportation of goods i.e. the person is involved in the business of transportation of goods.

We have taken a building on lease for 20 years. We want to install a passenger lift and put ACs, furniture, LED etc. in this building to further sub-lease to a firm/company for guest house purpose or hotel purpose. Can our firm avail Credit on GST paid on these items from our rent/lease amt. to be received in the future.

Dear Sir, our company construct an auditorium (Kalyana Mantapa). A lot of materials like electrical fittings, furniture, building material being purchased. we are eligible for claiming the input tax credit?

We have company registered under GST service Transportation of material through Tippers and Tractors etc., only for transportation if purchase of machinery in his firm shall i take ITC and in preparation of Invoice Reverse Charge mechanism paid by consignee how to prepare invoice and E waybill is applicable for transport or not kindly send the reply sir

Yes, you can take ITC for the purchase of machinery as you are involved in the transportation of goods business. If you are registered then normal tax invoice need to be prepared but tax not to be charged on it as recipient shall pay tax on such service. E-way bill shall be applicable if goods are sent by you even if you fall under RCM.

Sir, I am a proprietor of the firm, I had borrowed unsecured loans from friends and relatives, and provide interest to them, as I am registered in GST, shall I have to charge GST no interest paid to my unsecured loans.please let me knowwating for your reply

DEAR SIR, I AM A GOVERNMENT WORK CONTRACTOR. AGAINST GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT TENDERS(LIKE P.W.D.) I BUILT ROAD,BUILDING ETC. FOR THEM TO PUBLIC USE. CAN I AVAIL ITC ON PURCHASE LIKE CEMENT STONE GRIT ETC?

No ITC cannot be availed as No ITC is available in case work contract services when supplied for construction of immovable property except when it is input service for the further supply of work contract services.

Sir, Your reply appears to be incorrect. The input tax credit shall be available to the contractor who himself is undertaking works contract service, as he is using these inputs for further supply of works contract service.

I received hydra service from subcontractor (he is in registered in UP) for work in Client establishment in up. Now subcontractor is billing to me in Delhi GSTN No., I want to know that can we take the ITC in Delhi GSTN.

If you have also taken registration of UP place from where services are being offered, then you can claim ITC for that in UP only i.e. as CGST and SGST would be applicable so that will not be eligible to be set off from Delhi.

If the supplied goods are taxable, the whole ITC on capital goods can be claimed in the first year. However, if the supplied goods include both taxable and exempt supplies, proportionate credit will be available in 5 installments.

We are from Construction Company, it is possible to get GST Input Tax Credit for those employees in Tour & Travelling while they are staying in Lodge. The Bill with GST that we are paying in the name of Company (CGST & SGST)

In case motor vehicle is used for transportation of goods ITC of the same shall be allowed but if such motor vehicle is used for the construction of immovable property then ITC of the same shall not be allowed. So if the truck is used for the construction of immovable property ITC shall not be allowed.

Dear Sir, will you pl advice on the below items for availing ITC for Manufacturing company; 1) Safety goggles, gloves etc 2) Civil materials such as Wash basin, door hinges, closures, aldrops 3) tyres, tubes for tractors, fork lift etc 4) castor wheels

ITC of all the items shall be available to you if these are not used for the construction of immovable property. Goods or services which are used for the construction of immovable property are not eligible for ITC.

We are manufactures of Alloy & Non-alloy steels Can we claim ITC on the purchase of Steels like Angels, beams, Chequer plates etc. whether eligible for ITC if the purchases of both capital & revenue expenditure.. please clarify.

My business is based in Rajkot. I import packaging machines from Taiwan. Once my container is de-stuffed at Nhava Sheva port, If I supply some machines directly to our Bombay dealer, and dealers machines are transported from the port to his godown (around 40 km), do I need to generate an E waybill for that? If yes, how to generate as movement is intrastate and my invoice charges IGST. And first of all, as I am not registered under GST in Maharashtra, can I sale directly in this way?

No ITC shall be allowed on motor vehicles whether used for personal or business purpose in case of general businesses. It shall be allowed only in the case where the vehicles are purchased for further selling or used for transportation services i.e. for business purposes.

I have received commercial rent income and I pay the professional fee to advocate can I claim input credit for professional fees which are charged by the advocate? I have only commercial rental income.

Sir, we are purchasing coffee seeds not roasted under HSN code 0901 which is exempted/nil rated in GST. but we are paying transport charges for inward and outward to transport contractor as the recipient under reverse charge. shall we claim input tax on services received from transport charges?

If hotel vouchers and conference charges exclusively includes Food and beverages bill and outdoor catering bill, then on these expenses ITC will not be available, otherwise ITC will be available for all expenses.

No ITC available for goods or services or both received for construction of immovable property on his own account. Please refer Sec 17(5)(d) of CGST Act,17. ITC will be available only if they are used in providing further works contract or construction services.

Hi sir, I use to supply food items in Jharkhand area. I want to purchase two-wheeler motorcycle for me for taking orders from the market and supplying too. Can I claim ITC on two-wheeler vehicle, which will be used for the business purpose?

We have business works contract like purchase material for construction of the building and provide construction services. but one flats purchases for office staff like the guest house. In this availed ITC or no.

In July 2017 on the purchase of roofing sheet (for factory shed) we have taken credit, is it admissible? and we are taking a credit of tea-coffee powder (& Tea machine Rent also) for factory staff. Can we take credit?

If we purchase utensils, suppose Pressure cooker, can we avail ITC on the same as we are engaged in engineering services and need to send labour to the site along with our engineer. Labours are paid as per minimum wages and demand food extra and they make food for themselves at the site. for that, we need to purchase utensils, this time we have to purchase a pressure cooker. Can we avail the ITC for cooker purchase?

We are in the business of builder/developer and construction of residential and commercial buildings (but not civil contractor) can we get input tax credit for works contract given to other contractors (e.g contract for steel frames or internal roads which including material and labour)

GST Input can be availed on the party of our customers and the member for personal or business use in Hotel and all the stay in Room and lunch bill for the refreshment of guest will be eligible for input. Regular maintenance material will be eligible for input.

When we are Constructing Hotel Project and executed Works contract , Building Material , Gardening and Landscaping , Installing Lifts , Plant and Machinery, Kitchen Equipment , Cutlery and Glassware, Furniture, Bedding , Electrical Equipment and DG set,,Lighting and Fittings, Painting, Interior Decoration,Security Equipment, Computer Equipment, Printing and Stationery , Professional ,Legal , Audit Fees where we have paid CST or VAT or Excise Duty or Service tax or Octroi or Cess as applicable prior to 1.7.2017 and after 1.7.2017 GST is applicable. How do we claim ITC under TRAN 1 or GSTR 3B please explain?

As of now the facility to avail credit under TRAN-1 is not available as the form is closed from 27/12/2017 on GST portal. Any unutilized credit of eligible duties & taxes can now not be availed through GSTR-3B as only it can be carried forward by filling TRAN-1.

Our Organisation is providing Health care services (Hospital, Optical & pharmacy) so could you please clarify regarding GST input, like can we claim input for Travelling Charges incurred for Business, Conveyance charges, Marketing expenses like Camp etc, Incentives to Employees for target completion etc?

Unlike Excise Law, GST Law provides for ITC on the supply of all goods and services including e.g. furniture, stationery etc. How is it possible to comply with Section 17(2) of CGST Act, where you are also supplying exempt goods.

1 Is bricks, paints, steel, sanitary goods, electrical items etc.purchased during construction is eligible for input credit. 2 Construction will take one year after that Hotel will start. Does that make any difference? 3 Weather. Restaurant purchases will be eligible for input. 4 During the running of the hotel, regular maintenance material will eligible for input.

Input cannot be availed on Goods and/or services for construction of an immovable property whether to be used for personal or business use. Restaurant purchases will be eligible for input. Regular maintenance material will be eligible for input.

You can only claim ITC on motor vehicles if it is used in the business for the following purposes only : 1. Such motor vehicles and conveyances are further supplied i.e. sold 2. Transport of passengers 3. used for imparting training on driving, flying, navigating such vehicle or conveyances 4. Transportation of goods

we crush rock betterportable and mobile rock crushing for large and small volume jobs mellott company

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We know rock crushingover the last several decades, we have developed the kind of solid logistics that have allowed us to deploy and operate rock-crushing operations at hundreds of locations, for dozens of customers, in most of the states on the East Coast, including: Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina Virginia, and West Virginia.

distributed control system (dcs) | yokogawa electric corporation

distributed control system (dcs) | yokogawa electric corporation

Adistributed control system(DCS) is a platform for automated control and operation of a plant or industrial process. A DCS combines the following into a single automated system:human machineinterface (HMI), logic solvers, historian, common database, alarm management, and a common engineering suite.

Yokogawa distributed control systems provide the industrys highest field-proven system availability, enterprise-wide interoperability, extensive advanced solutions portfolio, and third-party-certified defense-in-depth cybersecurity to increase productivity and improve plant operations.

This standard provides requirements and recommendations for the activities of the alarm management lifecycle. Lifecycle stages include philosophy, identification, rationalization, detail design, implementation, operation, maintenance, monitoring & assessment, management of change, and audit.

Yokogawa products support the standard, such as Consolidated Alarm Management Software (CAMS)as part of our CENTUM VP platform, Alarm Reporting and Analysis (ARA) , Alarm Master Database (AMD), and Advanced Alarm Administrator (AAA Suite).

Yokogawa continues to be dedicated to the standardization of batch process control, promoting a unified method and architecture for designing batch process control schemes. A standardized approach to batch process control benefits batch processing companies by lowering their costs to build and operate batch processes and reducing the lead-time required to introduce new products.

Yokogawa continues to be active in standards and educational organizations related to the development of batch control standards. We have developed products that comply with the ISA-88 (IEC 61512) standards and utilize the standard approach in our batch control implementation projects. Yokogawa supports the continuing standardization work in the batch process industries.

The ISA88 Batch Control Standards Committee is the leading organization in the world regarding batch process control. The ISA88 committee is responsible for developing and maintaining the ISA88 Batch Control Standard which is recognized as the definitive document regarding batch process control. Internationally the ISA-88 standard is also known as IEC 61512 which is maintained by the IECs Sub-Committee 65A under Technical Committee 65. Yokogawa has been a strong supporter of the ISA88 committee since it was founded in 1988. Our members have contributed to the creation of all parts of the ISA-88 Batch Control System standards. The four parts of the standard are:

ISA-88 Batch Control Part 1: Models and Terminology ISA-88 Batch Control Part 2: Data Structures and Guidelines for Languages ISA-88 Batch Control Part 3: General and Site Recipe Models and Representation ISA-88 Batch Control Part 4: Batch Production Record

Part 1 of the standard was updated in 2010 based upon feedback from the batch control community that had been using ISA-88 since the mid-1990s. For information on how to obtain the updated ISA88 standard or learn more about the ISA88 committee go to ISA.

BatchML, the Batch Markup Language, is an XML implementation of ISA88 family of stanards. BatchML consists of a set of XML schemas written using the World Wide Web Consortium's XML Schema language (XSD) that implement the models and terminology in the ISA-88 standards.

Yokogawa was instrumental in the creation of BatchML and currently works with MESA International to ensure BatchML stays current with ISA-88 updates and remains freely available for the industry to use. For more information on B2MML or to download a copy, go to: Batch Markup Language

The ISA-95 standard provides a framework for exchanging manufacturing data between enterprise and manufacturing systems as well as between different Manufacturing Operations Management (MOM) systems. The standard has been widely adopted by manufacturing companies in the continuous, batch and discrete industries and by system suppliers at the MOM and enterprise levels.

Parts 1 and 2 define a framework for exchanging data between Enterprise (Level 4) and Manufacturing Operations Management (Level 3) systems. Parts 1 and 2 were originally published in 2000 and 2001 respectively. In 2010 updated versions of both Parts were released. The updates incorporate feedback from users of the standard and knowledge gained writing Parts 3, 4 and 5.

IEC Joint Working Group 5 (JWG 5) The international version of ISA-95 is IEC/ISO 62264. This international standard is being developed jointly by IEC and ISO in Joint Working Group 5 (JWG5). IEC participation in Joint Working Group 5 is under Subcommittee 65 (SC 65) of Technical Committee 65 (TC 65). The ISO participation is done by Joint Working Group 5 under Subcommittee 5 of Technical Committee 184.

B2MML (Business To Manufacturing Markup Language B2MML, the Business To Manufacturing Markup Language, is an XML implementation of ISA-95. B2MML consists of a set of XML schemas written using the World Wide Web Consortium's XML Schema language (XSD) that implement the data models in the ISA-95 standard.

Yokogawa was instrumental in the creation of B2MML and currently works with MESA International to ensure B2MML stays current with ISA-95 updates and remains freely available for the industry to use. For more information on B2MML or to download a copy go to B2MML (Business To Manufacturing Markup Language).

ISA-99 is multi-part group of standards and associated technical reports which address the issue of cyber security in industrial automation and control systems. The standards are grouped into four broad areas:

The standards and associated technical reports are in the process of being converted to the IEC format and it is expected that most will be available by the end of 2013. The current status of the standards can be found on the ISA site.

Yokogawa actively supports both ISA-99 and the associated IEC standards and contribute to the creation and maintenance of these standards. The development of new products within Yokogawa follows these standards to ensure we produce secure, reliable systems.

The ISA101 standards committee was formed in 2006 to establish standards, recommended practices, and/or technical reports pertaining to designing, implementing, using, and/or managing human-machine interfaces in manufacturing applications. The committee is co-chaired by Dr. Maurice Wilkins of Yokogawa Corporation of America and Greg Lehmann of URS Corporation.

The areas covered within ISA101's work includes every facet of HMI design and operation, such as: menu hierarchies, screen navigation conventions, graphics and color conventions, dynamic elements, alarming conventions, security methods and electronic signature attributes, interfaces with background programming and historical databases, popup conventions, help screens and methods used to work with alarms, program object interfaces, and configuration interfaces to databases, servers, and networks.

Draft 3 was sent out for a review by the full committee at the end of April 2012, and Draft 4 at the end of June 2013. After discussions at ISA Automation Week in November 2013, a small working group was set up to get the standard into a format and content to be put forward for ballot in 2014.

Technical reports such as HMI philosophy, HMI style guide, HMI design guide, HMI usability and performance, and HMI purchase specifications have been identified for future development as soon as the standard has been accepted. A new working group is soon to be set up for HMI for mobile platforms.

ISA 103 defines the interfaces for both the vertical and the horizontal data flow, called Function Control and Data Access, in the framework of a Client-Server architecture so it will allow application software and configuration tools to interact with field devices in a unified way, while hiding the manufacturer-specific interaction with devices or sub-systems in a software module. ISA 103 supports any field bus, device or sub-system specific software tool that can be integrated as part of a universal life-cycle management tool of a plant automation system.

Yokogawa is very active supporter of ISA 103 activity. Yokogawa products like Plant Resource Manager (PRM) and FieldMate supports ISA 103 based frame application and field instrument products based on HART, FOUNDATION fieldbus , PROFIBUS and ISA100.11a has DTM's (Device Type Manager) based on ISA 103.

ISA 104 (IEC61804); Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL) is an integral technology for field digital protocols enabling configuration/setup, diagnostics, and monitoring of devices from different manufacturers. EDD is a text-based language for describing the digital communication characteristics of sophisticated field instrumentation and equipment parameters: device status, diagnostic data, and configuration details.

Yokogawa is actively supporting ISA-104 and the associated IEC standard IEC 61804 and contribute to the creation and maintenance of these standards. Yokogawa field instrument products supporting field digital protocol like HART, FOUNDATION fieldbus, PROFIBUS and ISA100.11a supports EDD based on ISA-104 standard.

The ISA106 committee is working to produce a standard addressing the automation of procedures in the continuous process industries. This committee was formed in 2010 and published its first work product, a Technical Report, in 2013 titled ISA-TR106.00.01-2013 Procedure Automation for Continuous Process Operations - Models and Terminology. The Technical Report is available at isa.org.

The ISA108 Committee was formed in August 2012 to define standards related to best practices and work processes for design, operation and use of diagnostic and other information provided by intelligent field devices in the process industries.

Yokogawa is actively contributing and supporting the ISA-108 committee. Several members of Yokogawa Electric Corporation, the world headquarters, in Japan and Yokogawa Corporation of America are participating on the committee.

Yokogawa China successfully replaced control system with CENTUM VP at 4th phase of caustic soda production plant in China. Thanks to their project execution capability, the replacement was completed within a shorter period than the planned shutdown time.

Okinawa Prefecture is promoting clean energy with the aim of becoming a low-carbon society in the 21st century. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) technology is particularly well suited for this purpose, and is expected to both reduce the environmental impact that power generation has in the prefecture and lessen the prefecture's dependence on imported fossil fuels.

Samsung Petrochemical Co. Ltd. (SPCL), a major Korean petrochemical company, produces 700,000 tons per year of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) at its Daesan plant. PTA, a white powder substance that is produced by oxidizing and refining para-xylene, is a precursor to polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a polyester material that has excellent thermal resistance and wear resistance and is widely used as a substitute for natural cotton fibers and in film packaging, beverage bottles, tire cords, paints, adhesives, and other applications.

The CENTUM CS 3000 / UOI was selected for this project. The control platform in the UOI is the GE Fanuc CIMPLICITY Human Machine Interface (HMI) system, which fully integrates the controls for the turbine and BOP auxiliaries and uses the same screens/formats at both the turbine and BOP HMI displays. The CIMPLICITY HMI used in the UOI is a SCADA based design that fully supports the customer's requirement for remote operation capability.

The construction of Tuas Power Station started in the mid 1990s. The plant has steadily grown to be a significant player in the competitive Singaporean electricity market. Stage One of Tuas Power Station is equipped with the country's largest steam generators which are capable of producing 600 MW each.

INPEX Corporation (INPEX) is Japan's biggest oil and gas development company and is involved in all aspects of this business, from research to exploration, production, and sales. INPEX is engaged in projects all over the world, in a total of 29 countries, including Japan, where it operates a gas production plant near Oyazawa, a town in Niigata prefecture.

The AFCO project is a showcase of the good coordination between Yokogawa Middle East, Yokogawa Thailand, Yokogawa Singapore, and Yokogawa Electric Corporation. Yokogawa Middle East and Yokogawa headquarters both were involved in the project execution.

Since entering commercial operation in 2000, the environmental control facilities at the Tachibanawan Thermal Power Station have been managed effectively by the CENTUM control system, achieving a stable electricity supply with minimal impact on the environment.

Yokogawa Electric Corporation has completed a unique control system project in Arcadia, Florida, which is located in the heart of a beautiful citrus-growing region. Peace River Citrus Products has installed a Yokogawa CENTUM CS 1000 R3 control system to control a proprietary orange juice production process at its citrus processing plant.

The Itoigawa Power Plant was constructed adjacent to a cement plant in Itoigawa City, Niigata Prefecture, and is operated by an IPP that supplies electricity to Tohoku Electric Power, one of Japan's major power companies. The use of a 149 MW coal-fired CFB boiler in this power plant is a first for an IPP in Japan, and this effectively reduces NOx emissions.

Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM) is the Netherlands' largest natural gas producer. In addition to onshore fields, NAM operates manned platforms and four unmanned monotowers in 19 offshore locations. These connect to a pipeline network that comes ashore at Den Helder.

Nishi Nippon Environment Energy Co., Inc. was founded in 1990 with the concept of a full, safe and comfortable urban life by harmonizing the global environment with energy-savings. Also, as a total energy industry corporation, which is promoting the efficient use of heat energy for the region, it is developing a broad business on the theme of civic improvement in the 21st century by preparing a stable city infrastructure.

Eraring Power Station, located just north of Sydney, is one of the largest power stations in Australia, comprising four 660MW coal-fired units. The power station has operated reliably since 1981. To ensure continued reliability for the next few decades, Eraring Energy, the owner of the power plant, decided to replace the original hard-wired control equipment with a modern integrated control and monitoring system (ICMS).

PT. Tanjung Enim Lestari Pulp and Paper (PT. TEL) operates a pulp mill in Muara Enim, which is 130 km west of Palembang, the capital of Indonesia's South Sumatra province. This is the only pulp mill in the world to produce high-quality, bleached-hardwood kraft pulp solely from plantation grown Acacia mangium trees.

Based in Japan's Nagano Prefecture, Miyota Co., Ltd. is a developer and manufacturer of precision-processed electronic components whose principal business lines are wristwatches, quartz crystal oscillators, and electronic video components such as LCD backlights and microdisplays.

Saudi Aramco's operations span the globe and the energy industry. The world leader in crude oil production, Saudi Aramco also owns and operates an extensive network of refining and distribution facilities, and is responsible for gas processing and transportation installations that fuel Saudi Arabia's industrial sector. An array of international subsidiaries and joint ventures deliver crude oil and refined products to customers worldwide.

PetroChina Guangxi Petrochemical Company has completed construction of a combined refinery and petrochemical production complex in Qinzhou, a port city in China's Guangxi Autonomous Region. With a 10 million ton per year capacity, the refinery is one of China's largest, and is truly world class, using a highly advanced hydrogenation process, with the main process technologies coming from the USA and France.

The Mathura refinery is a strategically important facility that supplies diesel, gasoline, aviation turbine fuel, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, furnace oil, and bitumen to customers throughout northwestern India.

Process automation end users are under more pressure than ever to do more with less. The current economic climate means that many automation capital projects are on hold. With capital budgets tighter than ever, users instead focus on operational budgets (where cost cutting is also a key concern), or on automation investments with a very rapid return on investment.

Alarm management is not just a project that has a start and end date; it's a continuous cycle. Once the alarm system has been reviewed and improvements have been identified, we must check that controls are in place to ensure the alarm system remains functional. The key is to ensure that the system is continuously monitored and any changes are fully documented. There are seven key steps for alarm management. Rationalization is one of those critical steps.

This technical white paper will discuss Yokogawa's CENTUM VP DCS (Distributed Control System) product, hereafter referred to as "CENTUM VP", and the extent of its compliance with Part 11 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, (21 CFR Part 11), the Electronic Records / Electronic Signatures Rule.

FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an enabling technology with the potential to revolutionise operation and maintenance in the process industry and thereby to contribute significantly to reducing these costs, everyday of the lifetime of a plant. Specifically with regard to maintenance, FOUNDATION Fieldbus opens the way to proactive diagnostics and to virtually eliminating preventive maintenance and to avoiding shutdowns.

The worlds of process automation and production management have been converging for some time. What once used to be islands of automation and production management functionality connected through highly proprietary integration schemes that were costly to maintain have developed into integrated platforms that provide seamless data exchange between the world of automation and the plant floor, the functions of production and operations management, and integration with business level systems.

Network-IO can help reduce projects by decreasing the amount of time needed to implement the physical part of the process control system. A system with configurable I/O allows flexible "binding," in which the soft- ware configuration of the system can be loaded into the physical system ata late stage in the project.

Recently, several ARC Advisory Group analysts and management team members had a chance to sit down with the new Yokogawa President and COO, Mr. Takashi Nishijima, and several other top Yokogawa executives to discuss the company's burgeoning presence in the worldwide upstream and midstream oil & gas industry.

In today's dynamic industrial marketplace, the only constant is change. Raw material costs, energy costs, market demands, environmental and safety regulations, technology, and even the nature of the labor force itself are constantly changing, and not always in predictable directions.

Network and system security is now a necessity in process automation industry. YOKOGAWA provides a service lifecycle solution for cyber security to ensure that the security measures and deployments are continuously enhanced, monitored and inspected.

As plant operation becomes more intelligent and complex, the alarm system for safe and stable operation is becoming increasingly important. An alarm warns operators of an abnormal situation in a process and urges them to respond to it.

Recently, there is an increasing demand for operation and monitoring of all the various controllers distributed in the field on the same screens to improve plant operation efficiency. The purpose of the Unified Gateway Station (UGS) is to connect external controllers, such as the STARDOM's FCN/FCJ autonomous controllers and other vendors' controllers, to the CENTUM VP integrated production control system and to operate and monitor those external controllers on the Human Interface Station (HIS) screens, the operation and monitoring screens for the CENTUM VP.

The specifications of the ISA100.11awireless communication standard of the International Society of Automation (ISA) for industrial automation were published, and companies are developing products based on the standard.The ISA100.11a has many features such as high reliability including redundancy, network scalability, and support for various protocols for industrial automation.

Recently, manufacturing industries are trying to slash the total cost of ownership (TCO). Batch processes are not exceptions. Until recently, in comparison to continuous processes, batch processes have generally not yet undergone systematization and standardization.

The manuals of control systems such as a DCS provide a vast amount of information depending on their multi-functionality and functional integration. A conventional large-scale control system our company offers comes with more than 10,000 pages of paper documents.

To improve efficiency and quality in the DCS application coding and inspection phases for an entire CENTUM CS system, engineering tools have been developed, along with the training required to operate these tools. In consideration of the time needed for development, the need for adequate operability, the basis of standard CS software architecture, and the use of freeware (e.g., Perl2and Tcl/Tk3), we began development of these engineering tools with the objectives to reduce development costs and increase efficiency.

A fieldbus is a bidirectional, multidrop, digital communication system developed to replace the conventional 4-20 mA communication lines that connect intelligent field devices with a control system. Fieldbus is continually reviewed in an effort to standardize the fieldbus specifications to comply with the specifications of the IEC and ISA.1

The first stage in creating next-generation production control system that achieves innovative plant operation is providing "Visualized operation"."Visualized operation" for the customer means that he can reliably access and visualize plant data regardless of plant location and time.

One of Yokogawa's corporate philosophies is to contribute to society through broad-ranging activities in the areas of measurement, control, and information. To achieve this philosophy in the control industry, Yokogawa launched CENTUM, the world's first distributed control system (DCS), in 1975.

As the world's societies become more connected, market competition is becoming more ruthless and transactions are performed at ever increasing speeds. Deregulation has ignited global competition throughout the world. The proliferation of Information and Internet technologies have accelerated the growth of global competition, with life cycles for high tech products having lives measured in "dog years" (in each normal year they advance seven years).

The consolidation of control rooms was conducted in several refineries in the 1990s and early 2000s as a means of reducing the number of operators and improving the efficiency for enhancing competitiveness. The characteristics of consolidated control rooms vary, reflecting the history of a refinery.

The manufacturing industry has grown based on solid production technologies for creating quality products. However, the economic environment is changing dramatically, forcing manufacturing firms to face tough global competition; firms must ship the right products at the right time as the market requests.

For large scale geographically dispersed projects, there may be a hierarchy of individual Process Automation systems, which in turn are each responsible for a specific region, and are managed by a higher level system. Engineering of systems on this scale is a huge challenge, because each individual system has its own database and its own configuration.

As a company that has strong relationship with nature and provides products using nature's blessings, Mercian Corporation is committed to the environment. Its environmental philosophy is "Mercian thanks nature's blessings and capability that sustain life, and seeks to balance environmental preservation with creating an affluent society."

Recipe management software refers to the computer software used to manage product names and their corresponding recipes and set the recipe data in the control system in order to control the operations of a plant in which multiple materials are blended to manufacture a number of different products.

As for a controller used in a distributed control system (DCS) shown in Figure 1, covering as many applications as possible with a single controller will bring cost reduction effects such as easy engineering and a small controller installation area. Therefore, the controller is required to process large amounts of data more quickly.

There are already safety systems on the market that have achieved safety integrity level SIL3 of the functional safety standard, IEC61508. However, most of them have achieved SIL3 by conversion of modules into dual-redundant or triplex form.

For safe plant operations, it is critical to correctly understand the conditions encountered by operators inside the plants. In relation to this topic, human cognition has been studied in various fields such as human factors and ergonomics.

In industrialized countries, social trends such as the aging of workers and the decrease in working population are becoming obvious. Substantial problems such as a lack of skilled engineers and increases in the labor cost of knowledge workers are significantly impacting industrial automation users. These problems cause greater economic loss to the users.

The power generation facility in a pulp and paper plant is comprised of units, each of which is composed of a boiler, a turbine, a generator, and auxiliary equipment, and these pieces of equipment were traditionally controlled on a unit/equipment basis. This paper presents an application of CENTUM, Yokogawa's distributed control system (DCS) that integrates the independent control systems of such power generation facilities to achieve labor saving through operations via CRT display and keyboard.

In recent years it has become increasingly common for plants to be provided not only with the control layer of a production control system (DCS, etc.), but also with the protection layer of a safety instrumented system (SIS) to reduce the risk of industrial accidents. The safety instrumented system is indispensable for avoiding risks to a plant failure.

The requirements for water supply and sewage services are becoming increasingly strict, such as consolidation of facilities, operational efficiency, lower cost, and information transparency due to stagnant demand. There is also demand for greater use of information technologies (IT), encouraged by the government's e-Japan strategy.

Instrumentation devices and equipment serve for plants as the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin, which are responsible for the five senses, and act as the central nervous system and brain do for human beings. The reliability and availability of such devices and equipment are the most important requirements of customers.

CENTUM VP is a next-generation Integrated Production Control System which provides solutions to improve operation efficiency (Operational Excellence) based on Yokogawa's VigilantPlant concept. In the development of Integrated Production Control Systems, we have expanded the functions of the Human Machine Interface (HMI) maintaining the main essence of CENTUM series, regardless of the changes of platforms.

Yokogawa proposed the VigilantPlant concept as an ideal plant that achieves fully optimized operation where all the necessary information is given to all the operators involved in the plant operation. In VigilantPlant, operators are able to quickly respond to changes in the external environment while the production activities run without any interruption.

FCSs, the control stations in a CENTUM CS system, have already demonstrated that they are highly reliable, effective and maintainable. These advantages are the result of such features as the dual-redundant hardware configuration, the online modification of application data, and so on.

The environment surrounding process control systems has changed dramatically as the performance of personal computers improves and the Windowsoperating system advances, there has been a move towards the trend of open architecture. As we are already aware, in addition to the traditional high reliability level and the unique operability there has been an increase in demand for the interoperability of human- machine interfaces (HMI), which are responsible for the operation and monitoring of our distributed control system (DCS).

In process control it is not uncommon for systems to be affected by dead times, due to material transfer times. This is evident typically in pipelines. A fluid of densityand flow ratewin a section of pipeAthe length ofdtakes the amount of time = Ad/wto cover the whole distance (see Figure 1).

Industrial automation (IA) systems and products, which utilize measurement, control and information technologies, are used across the world as fundamental infrastructure for achieving safe, stable and highly efficient plant operation. In order to keep the systems and products effective throughout the plant lifecycle, customers need to periodically check their effectiveness and take prompt action if any problem is identified.

In Japanese industries which grew rapidly until the early 1990's, solid production techniques for creating high-quality products supported the development of manufacturing industries. However, the economic environment has been changing rapidly and tough global competition has become unavoidable. Particularly, the manufacturing industry must adapt not only to changes in economic environments but also to changes in social conditions such as emphasis on health, safety, and environment (so called HSE).

Recently, standardization of procedural automation of manual operations has been promoted mainly by the International Society of Automation (ISA), and the functional requirements necessary for automation are being studied by the ISA106 committee in the US.

Upgrading and renewal of plant facilities, including production control systems and safety instrumented systems, are essential for maintaining safe and efficient plant operation. Even though these activities are categorized as R&R, they require investment and customers are often required to evaluate the profitability for obtaining approval.

Conventional safety instrumented system (SIS) is typically installed separated from a distributed control system (DCS) to eliminate interference from the DCS and assure safety. However, users increasingly wish to integrate SIS with DCS while maintaining the safety of safety controllers.

Yokogawa's ProSafe-RS safety instrumented system is used for many applicationsas a system conforming to the safety integrity level (SIL) 3 defined in the IEC61508 international functional safety standard.To deal with temperature inputs, systems were conventionally configured using signal conditioners.

Report functions in process control are often positioned as part of the logger functions. However, plant operation data in a batch process should be not only logged regularly but also acquired and managed for each batch execution. The report function for logging plant operations in a batch process mainly comprises a function to print out plant operation data collected for each batch execution, and there are various approaches available to implement this function.

Drastic changes in the economy of manufacturing industries, has led to increasing demand for plant operations to reduce personnel, improve efficiency, and increase the operation rate of facilities. On the other hand, for plants to operate safely, improvements in reliability and operational safety cannot be neglected.

The CENTUM CS 3000, a reliable distributed production control system, has been introduced worldwide with the objective of operating plants efficiently 24 hours a day, every day. The CS 3000 handles abnormal conditions in a plant appropriately and minimizes the chance of them developing into faults.

In recent years, expectations for control systems using wireless communications have been increasing in the process control market. This is because these systems do not require power and communication wiring for field instruments, enabling reduced initial and maintenance costs, and easy installation.

In this day and age, just simply buying a personal computer, taking it home and turning it on will enable you to be taken to the world of Internet. In such an era, communication connection capability and prospects is increasing in importance. DCSs are no exception for concern.

To date, Yokogawa has focused on DCS (Distributed Control System) which control the entire power generation plant, including boilers, in the electric power industry. In contrast, turbomachinery control has been handled by turbine manufacturers, but as the electric power market has been active internationally, especially in China and India, in recent years, Yokogawa has been developing turbomachinery control systems to to further develop the electric power industry.

For a transfer system in a plant, such as a transfer between tanks in a brewery, the transfer of pellets in a pneumatic transport system, or the transfer of oil at an offsite location, it is necessary to monitor the open/close status of valves or the on/off status of motors or blowers in reference to the transfer pattern (a combination of the transfer source(s) and destination(s), route, etc.).

Due to emerging competitors from the rapidly growing countries such as India and China and the global economic downturn triggered by the Lehman shock, many companies in the process industries are struggling to survive the severe global competition.

The operation and monitoring functions of a plant control system are important means of understanding the condition of the plant and how it operates. Traditionally, user needs for the system focused on such features as increased operability and durability. As a result, these functions were developed for a dedicated machine in the form of dedicated human-machine interface software.

The innovation of wireless technology increases the use of wireless communication in the industry. The introduction of wireless communication to plants, however, requires strict features such as robustness, real-time responsiveness, and low power consumption. This has restricted the use of wireless communication to limited applications such as data logging and device status monitoring that does not require strict real-time responsiveness and data arrival reliability in communication.

By Bruce Jensen, General Manager, Technical Solutions Support Center, VigilantPlant Solutions and Services, Yokogawa Corporation of America, and Joshua Kyaw Zwa, Executive Engineer, System Marketing Department, Marketing Operation, Yokogawa Engineering Asia Pte. Ltd.

Yokogawa's web-based DCS Anywhere has simplified commissioning at the Nanhai petrochemicals complex.With a total investment of 4.2 billion US dollars, the Nanhai petrochemicals complex at Daya Bay in Huizhou, China, has attracted a lot of attention because of its sheer scale.

For the past 35 years, developments of a distributed control system (DCS) have been evolving to raise productivity and enhance plant operation. As field instruments advance, there is a need to exchange large amount of process data and parameters among various diagnostic devices for stability of plant operation.

The 2008 Frost & Sullivan Asia Pacific Company of the Year Award for Distributed Control System (DCS) market is presented to Yokogawa. Yokogawa is the market leader with a dominant market share in the Asia Pacific market.

An exception level of engineering expertise tailored for the local market is one of the primary reasons why Yokogawa has managed to capture and keep the process automation top spot in the Land of Smiles, says Somkid Teraboonchaikul, managing director, Yokogawa Thailand.

As a world's leading supplier of instruments and control systems for industrial process automation, Yokogawa has committed itself to the development of advanced solutions and products in three focused areas measurement technologies, industrial automation and control, and information technologies.

Yokogawa has taken a vital step in their plan to make the world's plants 'silent and boring', and therefore, well-managed, with the release of their new integrated production control system CENTUM VP last month.

Process automation in oil refineries is undergoing major changes, driven by customers frustrated by what they consider to be slow and incremental advances from the main automation original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in the industry. ExxonMobil has become a de facto industry representative and is driving vendors like Yokogawa and others to reevaluate how large-scale automation projects are implemented.

Honeywell and Yokogawa have both been producing Distributed Control System (DCS) platforms for decades, and both are very active in this area. In 1975, Honeywell introduced its TDC2000 platform and Yokogawa brought out CENTUM. These two competing systems emerged from a similar place, oil refining and petrochemical industries, so they started out with similar basic concepts and use cases in mind.

Oil producers looking past today's difficult world markets understand development of new sources will bring a growing list of challenges. An ever-increasing amount of oil and natural gas is being produced by techniques once considered unconventional: tar and extraction, fracking, and deep water offshore drilling. As the costs of these extraction methods have gone down, the range of economically recoverable deposits has increased. When crude oil markets return to more normal levels, these difficult fields, including deep water offshore oil and gas, will become increasingly important.

Many lubricant blending businesses find themselves in a challenging situation: there are opportunities to increase their overall business volume and profits by improving production flexibility, expanding their product slate and optimizing high-margin blends. At the same time, they find themselves constrained by current manufacturing limitations. However, launching a capital project for a significant manufacturing expansion may not be possible, and it may not be necessary.

distributed control system (dcs) | yokogawa america

distributed control system (dcs) | yokogawa america

Adistributed control system(DCS) is a platform for automated control and operation of a plant or industrial process. A DCS combines the following into a single automated system:human machineinterface (HMI), logic solvers, historian, common database, alarm management, and a common engineering suite.

Yokogawa distributed control systems provide the industrys highest field-proven system availability, enterprise-wide interoperability, extensive advanced solutions portfolio, and third-party-certified defense-in-depth cybersecurity to increase productivity and improve plant operations.

This standard provides requirements and recommendations for the activities of the alarm management lifecycle. Lifecycle stages include philosophy, identification, rationalization, detail design, implementation, operation, maintenance, monitoring & assessment, management of change, and audit.

Yokogawa products support the standard, such as Consolidated Alarm Management Software (CAMS)as part of our CENTUM VP platform, Alarm Reporting and Analysis (ARA) , Alarm Master Database (AMD), and Advanced Alarm Administrator (AAA Suite).

Yokogawa continues to be dedicated to the standardization of batch process control, promoting a unified method and architecture for designing batch process control schemes. A standardized approach to batch process control benefits batch processing companies by lowering their costs to build and operate batch processes and reducing the lead-time required to introduce new products.

Yokogawa continues to be active in standards and educational organizations related to the development of batch control standards. We have developed products that comply with the ISA-88 (IEC 61512) standards and utilize the standard approach in our batch control implementation projects. Yokogawa supports the continuing standardization work in the batch process industries.

The ISA88 Batch Control Standards Committee is the leading organization in the world regarding batch process control. The ISA88 committee is responsible for developing and maintaining the ISA88 Batch Control Standard which is recognized as the definitive document regarding batch process control. Internationally the ISA-88 standard is also known as IEC 61512 which is maintained by the IECs Sub-Committee 65A under Technical Committee 65. Yokogawa has been a strong supporter of the ISA88 committee since it was founded in 1988. Our members have contributed to the creation of all parts of the ISA-88 Batch Control System standards. The four parts of the standard are:

ISA-88 Batch Control Part 1: Models and Terminology ISA-88 Batch Control Part 2: Data Structures and Guidelines for Languages ISA-88 Batch Control Part 3: General and Site Recipe Models and Representation ISA-88 Batch Control Part 4: Batch Production Record

Part 1 of the standard was updated in 2010 based upon feedback from the batch control community that had been using ISA-88 since the mid-1990s. For information on how to obtain the updated ISA88 standard or learn more about the ISA88 committee go to ISA.

BatchML, the Batch Markup Language, is an XML implementation of ISA88 family of standards. BatchML consists of a set of XML schemas written using the World Wide Web Consortium's XML Schema language (XSD) that implement the models and terminology in the ISA-88 standards.

Yokogawa was instrumental in the creation of BatchML and currently works with MESA International to ensure BatchML stays current with ISA-88 updates and remains freely available for the industry to use. For more information on B2MML or to download a copy, go to: Batch Markup Language

The ISA-95 standard provides a framework for exchanging manufacturing data between enterprise and manufacturing systems as well as between different Manufacturing Operations Management (MOM) systems. The standard has been widely adopted by manufacturing companies in the continuous, batch and discrete industries and by system suppliers at the MOM and enterprise levels.

Parts 1 and 2 define a framework for exchanging data between Enterprise (Level 4) and Manufacturing Operations Management (Level 3) systems. Parts 1 and 2 were originally published in 2000 and 2001 respectively. In 2010 updated versions of both Parts were released. The updates incorporate feedback from users of the standard and knowledge gained writing Parts 3, 4 and 5.

IEC Joint Working Group 5 (JWG 5) The international version of ISA-95 is IEC/ISO 62264. This international standard is being developed jointly by IEC and ISO in Joint Working Group 5 (JWG5). IEC participation in Joint Working Group 5 is under Subcommittee 65 (SC 65) of Technical Committee 65 (TC 65). The ISO participation is done by Joint Working Group 5 under Subcommittee 5 of Technical Committee 184.

B2MML (Business To Manufacturing Markup Language B2MML, the Business To Manufacturing Markup Language, is an XML implementation of ISA-95. B2MML consists of a set of XML schemas written using the World Wide Web Consortium's XML Schema language (XSD) that implement the data models in the ISA-95 standard.

Yokogawa was instrumental in the creation of B2MML and currently works with MESA International to ensure B2MML stays current with ISA-95 updates and remains freely available for the industry to use. For more information on B2MML or to download a copy go to B2MML (Business To Manufacturing Markup Language).

ISA-99 is multi-part group of standards and associated technical reports which address the issue of cybersecurity in industrial automation and control systems. The standards are grouped into four broad areas:

The standards and associated technical reports are in the process of being converted to the IEC format and it is expected that most will be available by the end of 2013. The current status of the standards can be found on the ISA site.

Yokogawa actively supports both ISA-99 and the associated IEC standards and contribute to the creation and maintenance of these standards. The development of new products within Yokogawa follows these standards to ensure we produce secure, reliable systems.

The ISA101 standards committee was formed in 2006 to establish standards, recommended practices, and/or technical reports pertaining to designing, implementing, using, and/or managing human-machine interfaces in manufacturing applications. The committee is co-chaired by Dr. Maurice Wilkins of Yokogawa Corporation of America and Greg Lehmann of URS Corporation.

The areas covered within ISA101's work includes every facet of HMI design and operation, such as: menu hierarchies, screen navigation conventions, graphics and color conventions, dynamic elements, alarming conventions, security methods and electronic signature attributes, interfaces with background programming and historical databases, popup conventions, help screens and methods used to work with alarms, program object interfaces, and configuration interfaces to databases, servers, and networks.

Draft 3 was sent out for a review by the full committee at the end of April 2012, and Draft 4 at the end of June 2013. After discussions at ISA Automation Week in November 2013, a small working group was set up to get the standard into a format and content to be put forward for ballot in 2014.

Technical reports such as HMI philosophy, HMI style guide, HMI design guide, HMI usability and performance, and HMI purchase specifications have been identified for future development as soon as the standard has been accepted. A new working group is soon to be set up for HMI for mobile platforms.

ISA 103 defines the interfaces for both the vertical and the horizontal data flow, called Function Control and Data Access, in the framework of a Client-Server architecture so it will allow application software and configuration tools to interact with field devices in a unified way, while hiding the manufacturer-specific interaction with devices or sub-systems in a software module. ISA 103 supports any field bus, device or sub-system specific software tool that can be integrated as part of a universal life-cycle management tool of a plant automation system.

Yokogawa is a very active supporter of ISA 103 activity. Yokogawa products like Plant Resource Manager (PRM) and FieldMate support ISA 103 based frame application and field instrument products based on HART, FOUNDATION fieldbus, PROFIBUS and ISA100.11a has DTM's (Device Type Manager) based on ISA 103.

ISA 104 (IEC61804); Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL) is an integral technology for field digital protocols enabling configuration/setup, diagnostics, and monitoring of devices from different manufacturers. EDD is a text-based language for describing the digital communication characteristics of sophisticated field instrumentation and equipment parameters: device status, diagnostic data, and configuration details.

Yokogawa is actively supporting ISA-104 and the associated IEC standard IEC 61804 and contribute to the creation and maintenance of these standards. Yokogawa field instrument products supporting field digital protocol like HART, FOUNDATION fieldbus, PROFIBUS and ISA100.11a supports EDD based on ISA-104 standard.

The ISA106 committee is working to produce a standard addressing the automation of procedures in the continuous process industries. This committee was formed in 2010 and published its first work product, a Technical Report, in 2013 titled ISA-TR106.00.01-2013 Procedure Automation for Continuous Process Operations - Models and Terminology. The Technical Report is available at isa.org.

The ISA108 Committee was formed in August 2012 to define standards related to best practices and work processes for design, operation and use of diagnostic and other information provided by intelligent field devices in the process industries.

Yokogawa is actively contributing and supporting the ISA-108 committee. Several members of Yokogawa Electric Corporation, the world headquarters, in Japan and Yokogawa Corporation of America are participating on the committee.

Yokogawa China successfully replaced control system with CENTUM VP at 4th phase of caustic soda production plant in China. Thanks to their project execution capability, the replacement was completed within a shorter period than the planned shutdown time.

Okinawa Prefecture is promoting clean energy with the aim of becoming a low-carbon society in the 21st century. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) technology is particularly well suited for this purpose, and is expected to both reduce the environmental impact that power generation has in the prefecture and lessen the prefecture's dependence on imported fossil fuels.

Samsung Petrochemical Co. Ltd. (SPCL), a major Korean petrochemical company, produces 700,000 tons per year of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) at its Daesan plant. PTA, a white powder substance that is produced by oxidizing and refining para-xylene, is a precursor to polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a polyester material that has excellent thermal resistance and wear resistance and is widely used as a substitute for natural cotton fibers and in film packaging, beverage bottles, tire cords, paints, adhesives, and other applications.

The construction of Tuas Power Station started in the mid 1990s. The plant has steadily grown to be a significant player in the competitive Singaporean electricity market. Stage One of Tuas Power Station is equipped with the country's largest steam generators which are capable of producing 600 MW each.

INPEX Corporation (INPEX) is Japan's biggest oil and gas development company and is involved in all aspects of this business, from research to exploration, production, and sales. INPEX is engaged in projects all over the world, in a total of 29 countries, including Japan, where it operates a gas production plant near Oyazawa, a town in Niigata prefecture.

The AFCO project is a showcase of the good coordination between Yokogawa Middle East, Yokogawa Thailand, Yokogawa Singapore, and Yokogawa Electric Corporation. Yokogawa Middle East and Yokogawa headquarters both were involved in the project execution.

An international corporation based in Duisburg, Germany that was able to secure a US$ 780 million contract to construct a project marketly known as "Musi Pulp Mill". Construction started Sept. 1997 after financial agreements between the plant's owner, PT TEL and 32 foreign banks has been sealed-off.

Since entering commercial operation in 2000, the environmental control facilities at the Tachibanawan Thermal Power Station have been managed effectively by the CENTUM control system, achieving a stable electricity supply with minimal impact on the environment.

Yokogawa Electric Corporation has completed a unique control system project in Arcadia, Florida, which is located in the heart of a beautiful citrus-growing region. Peace River Citrus Products has installed a Yokogawa CENTUM CS 1000 R3 control system to control a proprietary orange juice production process at its citrus processing plant.

The Itoigawa Power Plant was constructed adjacent to a cement plant in Itoigawa City, Niigata Prefecture, and is operated by an IPP that supplies electricity to Tohoku Electric Power, one of Japan's major power companies. The use of a 149 MW coal-fired CFB boiler in this power plant is a first for an IPP in Japan, and this effectively reduces NOx emissions.

Nishi Nippon Environment Energy Co., Inc. was founded in 1990 with the concept of a full, safe and comfortable urban life by harmonizing the global environment with energy-savings. Also, as a total energy industry corporation, which is promoting the efficient use of heat energy for the region, it is developing a broad business on the theme of civic improvement in the 21st century by preparing a stable city infrastructure.

Eraring Power Station, located just north of Sydney, is one of the largest power stations in Australia, comprising four 660MW coal-fired units. The power station has operated reliably since 1981. To ensure continued reliability for the next few decades, Eraring Energy, the owner of the power plant, decided to replace the original hard-wired control equipment with a modern integrated control and monitoring system (ICMS).

PT. Tanjung Enim Lestari Pulp and Paper (PT. TEL) operates a pulp mill in Muara Enim, which is 130 km west of Palembang, the capital of Indonesia's South Sumatra province. This is the only pulp mill in the world to produce high-quality, bleached-hardwood kraft pulp solely from plantation grown Acacia mangium trees.

Based in Japan's Nagano Prefecture, Miyota Co., Ltd. is a developer and manufacturer of precision-processed electronic components whose principal business lines are wristwatches, quartz crystal oscillators, and electronic video components such as LCD backlights and microdisplays.

Saudi Aramco's operations span the globe and the energy industry. The world leader in crude oil production, Saudi Aramco also owns and operates an extensive network of refining and distribution facilities, and is responsible for gas processing and transportation installations that fuel Saudi Arabia's industrial sector. An array of international subsidiaries and joint ventures deliver crude oil and refined products to customers worldwide.

PetroChina Guangxi Petrochemical Company has completed construction of a combined refinery and petrochemical production complex in Qinzhou, a port city in China's Guangxi Autonomous Region. With a 10 million ton per year capacity, the refinery is one of China's largest, and is truly world class, using a highly advanced hydrogenation process, with the main process technologies coming from the USA and France.

The Mathura refinery is a strategically important facility that supplies diesel, gasoline, aviation turbine fuel, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, furnace oil, and bitumen to customers throughout northwestern India.

The Mars B Project added the following greenfield infrastructure to boost production at the Mars field and nearby exploration discoveries: the Olympus tension leg platform (TLP), which has 24 well slots and a self-contained drilling rig; the West Boreas/South Deimos subsea system; and an oil and gas export system, which includes the WD-143C shallow-water platform. The Olympus tension leg platform (TLP) started producing on February 4, 2014. The TLP is the second at the Mars field and the sixth of its type for Shell in the Gulf of Mexico.

Process automation end users are under more pressure than ever to do more with less. The current economic climate means that many automation capital projects are on hold. With capital budgets tighter than ever, users instead focus on operational budgets (where cost cutting is also a key concern), or on automation investments with a very rapid return on investment.

Alarm management is not just a project that has a start and end date; it's a continuous cycle. Once the alarm system has been reviewed and improvements have been identified, we must check that controls are in place to ensure the alarm system remains functional. The key is to ensure that the system is continuously monitored and any changes are fully documented. There are seven key steps for alarm management. Rationalization is one of those critical steps.

This technical white paper will discuss Yokogawa's CENTUM VP DCS (Distributed Control System) product, hereafter referred to as "CENTUM VP", and the extent of its compliance with Part 11 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, (21 CFR Part 11), the Electronic Records / Electronic Signatures Rule.

FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an enabling technology with the potential to revolutionise operation and maintenance in the process industry and thereby to contribute significantly to reducing these costs, everyday of the lifetime of a plant. Specifically with regard to maintenance, FOUNDATION Fieldbus opens the way to proactive diagnostics and to virtually eliminating preventive maintenance and to avoiding shutdowns.

The worlds of process automation and production management have been converging for some time. What once used to be islands of automation and production management functionality connected through highly proprietary integration schemes that were costly to maintain have developed into integrated platforms that provide seamless data exchange between the world of automation and the plant floor, the functions of production and operations management, and integration with business level systems.

Network-IO can help reduce projects by decreasing the amount of time needed to implement the physical part of the process control system. A system with configurable I/O allows flexible "binding," in which the soft- ware configuration of the system can be loaded into the physical system ata late stage in the project.

Recently, several ARC Advisory Group analysts and management team members had a chance to sit down with the new Yokogawa President and COO, Mr. Takashi Nishijima, and several other top Yokogawa executives to discuss the company's burgeoning presence in the worldwide upstream and midstream oil & gas industry.

In today's dynamic industrial marketplace, the only constant is change. Raw material costs, energy costs, market demands, environmental and safety regulations, technology, and even the nature of the labor force itself are constantly changing, and not always in predictable directions.

Network and system security is now a necessity in process automation industry. YOKOGAWA provides a service lifecycle solution for cyber security to ensure that the security measures and deployments are continuously enhanced, monitored and inspected.

As plant operation becomes more intelligent and complex, the alarm system for safe and stable operation is becoming increasingly important. An alarm warns operators of an abnormal situation in a process and urges them to respond to it.

Recently, there is an increasing demand for operation and monitoring of all the various controllers distributed in the field on the same screens to improve plant operation efficiency. The purpose of the Unified Gateway Station (UGS) is to connect external controllers, such as the STARDOM's FCN/FCJ autonomous controllers and other vendors' controllers, to the CENTUM VP integrated production control system and to operate and monitor those external controllers on the Human Interface Station (HIS) screens, the operation and monitoring screens for the CENTUM VP.

The specifications of the ISA100.11awireless communication standard of the International Society of Automation (ISA) for industrial automation were published, and companies are developing products based on the standard.The ISA100.11a has many features such as high reliability including redundancy, network scalability, and support for various protocols for industrial automation.

Recently, manufacturing industries are trying to slash the total cost of ownership (TCO). Batch processes are not exceptions. Until recently, in comparison to continuous processes, batch processes have generally not yet undergone systematization and standardization.

The manuals of control systems such as a DCS provide a vast amount of information depending on their multi-functionality and functional integration. A conventional large-scale control system our company offers comes with more than 10,000 pages of paper documents.

To improve efficiency and quality in the DCS application coding and inspection phases for an entire CENTUM CS system, engineering tools have been developed, along with the training required to operate these tools. In consideration of the time needed for development, the need for adequate operability, the basis of standard CS software architecture, and the use of freeware (e.g., Perl2and Tcl/Tk3), we began development of these engineering tools with the objectives to reduce development costs and increase efficiency.

A fieldbus is a bidirectional, multidrop, digital communication system developed to replace the conventional 4-20 mA communication lines that connect intelligent field devices with a control system. Fieldbus is continually reviewed in an effort to standardize the fieldbus specifications to comply with the specifications of the IEC and ISA.1

The first stage in creating next-generation production control system that achieves innovative plant operation is providing "Visualized operation"."Visualized operation" for the customer means that he can reliably access and visualize plant data regardless of plant location and time.

One of Yokogawa's corporate philosophies is to contribute to society through broad-ranging activities in the areas of measurement, control, and information. To achieve this philosophy in the control industry, Yokogawa launched CENTUM, the world's first distributed control system (DCS), in 1975.

As the world's societies become more connected, market competition is becoming more ruthless and transactions are performed at ever increasing speeds. Deregulation has ignited global competition throughout the world. The proliferation of Information and Internet technologies have accelerated the growth of global competition, with life cycles for high tech products having lives measured in "dog years" (in each normal year they advance seven years).

The consolidation of control rooms was conducted in several refineries in the 1990s and early 2000s as a means of reducing the number of operators and improving the efficiency for enhancing competitiveness. The characteristics of consolidated control rooms vary, reflecting the history of a refinery.

The manufacturing industry has grown based on solid production technologies for creating quality products. However, the economic environment is changing dramatically, forcing manufacturing firms to face tough global competition; firms must ship the right products at the right time as the market requests.

For large scale geographically dispersed projects, there may be a hierarchy of individual Process Automation systems, which in turn are each responsible for a specific region, and are managed by a higher level system. Engineering of systems on this scale is a huge challenge, because each individual system has its own database and its own configuration.

As a company that has strong relationship with nature and provides products using nature's blessings, Mercian Corporation is committed to the environment. Its environmental philosophy is "Mercian thanks nature's blessings and capability that sustain life, and seeks to balance environmental preservation with creating an affluent society."

Recipe management software refers to the computer software used to manage product names and their corresponding recipes and set the recipe data in the control system in order to control the operations of a plant in which multiple materials are blended to manufacture a number of different products.

As for a controller used in a distributed control system (DCS) shown in Figure 1, covering as many applications as possible with a single controller will bring cost reduction effects such as easy engineering and a small controller installation area. Therefore, the controller is required to process large amounts of data more quickly.

There are already safety systems on the market that have achieved safety integrity level SIL3 of the functional safety standard, IEC61508. However, most of them have achieved SIL3 by conversion of modules into dual-redundant or triplex form.

For safe plant operations, it is critical to correctly understand the conditions encountered by operators inside the plants. In relation to this topic, human cognition has been studied in various fields such as human factors and ergonomics.

In industrialized countries, social trends such as the aging of workers and the decrease in working population are becoming obvious. Substantial problems such as a lack of skilled engineers and increases in the labor cost of knowledge workers are significantly impacting industrial automation users. These problems cause greater economic loss to the users.

The power generation facility in a pulp and paper plant is comprised of units, each of which is composed of a boiler, a turbine, a generator, and auxiliary equipment, and these pieces of equipment were traditionally controlled on a unit/equipment basis. This paper presents an application of CENTUM, Yokogawa's distributed control system (DCS) that integrates the independent control systems of such power generation facilities to achieve labor saving through operations via CRT display and keyboard.

In recent years it has become increasingly common for plants to be provided not only with the control layer of a production control system (DCS, etc.), but also with the protection layer of a safety instrumented system (SIS) to reduce the risk of industrial accidents. The safety instrumented system is indispensable for avoiding risks to a plant failure.

The requirements for water supply and sewage services are becoming increasingly strict, such as consolidation of facilities, operational efficiency, lower cost, and information transparency due to stagnant demand. There is also demand for greater use of information technologies (IT), encouraged by the government's e-Japan strategy.

Instrumentation devices and equipment serve for plants as the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin, which are responsible for the five senses, and act as the central nervous system and brain do for human beings. The reliability and availability of such devices and equipment are the most important requirements of customers.

CENTUM VP is a next-generation Integrated Production Control System which provides solutions to improve operation efficiency (Operational Excellence) based on Yokogawa's VigilantPlant concept. In the development of Integrated Production Control Systems, we have expanded the functions of the Human Machine Interface (HMI) maintaining the main essence of CENTUM series, regardless of the changes of platforms.

Yokogawa proposed the VigilantPlant concept as an ideal plant that achieves fully optimized operation where all the necessary information is given to all the operators involved in the plant operation. In VigilantPlant, operators are able to quickly respond to changes in the external environment while the production activities run without any interruption.

FCSs, the control stations in a CENTUM CS system, have already demonstrated that they are highly reliable, effective and maintainable. These advantages are the result of such features as the dual-redundant hardware configuration, the online modification of application data, and so on.

The environment surrounding process control systems has changed dramatically as the performance of personal computers improves and the Windowsoperating system advances, there has been a move towards the trend of open architecture. As we are already aware, in addition to the traditional high reliability level and the unique operability there has been an increase in demand for the interoperability of human- machine interfaces (HMI), which are responsible for the operation and monitoring of our distributed control system (DCS).

In process control it is not uncommon for systems to be affected by dead times, due to material transfer times. This is evident typically in pipelines. A fluid of densityand flow ratewin a section of pipeAthe length ofdtakes the amount of time = Ad/wto cover the whole distance (see Figure 1).

Industrial automation (IA) systems and products, which utilize measurement, control and information technologies, are used across the world as fundamental infrastructure for achieving safe, stable and highly efficient plant operation. In order to keep the systems and products effective throughout the plant lifecycle, customers need to periodically check their effectiveness and take prompt action if any problem is identified.

In Japanese industries which grew rapidly until the early 1990's, solid production techniques for creating high-quality products supported the development of manufacturing industries. However, the economic environment has been changing rapidly and tough global competition has become unavoidable. Particularly, the manufacturing industry must adapt not only to changes in economic environments but also to changes in social conditions such as emphasis on health, safety, and environment (so called HSE).

Recently, standardization of procedural automation of manual operations has been promoted mainly by the International Society of Automation (ISA), and the functional requirements necessary for automation are being studied by the ISA106 committee in the US.

Upgrading and renewal of plant facilities, including production control systems and safety instrumented systems, are essential for maintaining safe and efficient plant operation. Even though these activities are categorized as R&R, they require investment and customers are often required to evaluate the profitability for obtaining approval.

Conventional safety instrumented system (SIS) is typically installed separated from a distributed control system (DCS) to eliminate interference from the DCS and assure safety. However, users increasingly wish to integrate SIS with DCS while maintaining the safety of safety controllers.

Yokogawa's ProSafe-RS safety instrumented system is used for many applicationsas a system conforming to the safety integrity level (SIL) 3 defined in the IEC61508 international functional safety standard.To deal with temperature inputs, systems were conventionally configured using signal conditioners.

Report functions in process control are often positioned as part of the logger functions. However, plant operation data in a batch process should be not only logged regularly but also acquired and managed for each batch execution. The report function for logging plant operations in a batch process mainly comprises a function to print out plant operation data collected for each batch execution, and there are various approaches available to implement this function.

Drastic changes in the economy of manufacturing industries, has led to increasing demand for plant operations to reduce personnel, improve efficiency, and increase the operation rate of facilities. On the other hand, for plants to operate safely, improvements in reliability and operational safety cannot be neglected.

The CENTUM CS 3000, a reliable distributed production control system, has been introduced worldwide with the objective of operating plants efficiently 24 hours a day, every day. The CS 3000 handles abnormal conditions in a plant appropriately and minimizes the chance of them developing into faults.

In recent years, expectations for control systems using wireless communications have been increasing in the process control market. This is because these systems do not require power and communication wiring for field instruments, enabling reduced initial and maintenance costs, and easy installation.

In this day and age, just simply buying a personal computer, taking it home and turning it on will enable you to be taken to the world of Internet. In such an era, communication connection capability and prospects is increasing in importance. DCSs are no exception for concern.

To date, Yokogawa has focused on DCS (Distributed Control System) which control the entire power generation plant, including boilers, in the electric power industry. In contrast, turbomachinery control has been handled by turbine manufacturers, but as the electric power market has been active internationally, especially in China and India, in recent years, Yokogawa has been developing turbomachinery control systems to to further develop the electric power industry.

For a transfer system in a plant, such as a transfer between tanks in a brewery, the transfer of pellets in a pneumatic transport system, or the transfer of oil at an offsite location, it is necessary to monitor the open/close status of valves or the on/off status of motors or blowers in reference to the transfer pattern (a combination of the transfer source(s) and destination(s), route, etc.).

Due to emerging competitors from the rapidly growing countries such as India and China and the global economic downturn triggered by the Lehman shock, many companies in the process industries are struggling to survive the severe global competition.

The operation and monitoring functions of a plant control system are important means of understanding the condition of the plant and how it operates. Traditionally, user needs for the system focused on such features as increased operability and durability. As a result, these functions were developed for a dedicated machine in the form of dedicated human-machine interface software.

The innovation of wireless technology increases the use of wireless communication in the industry. The introduction of wireless communication to plants, however, requires strict features such as robustness, real-time responsiveness, and low power consumption. This has restricted the use of wireless communication to limited applications such as data logging and device status monitoring that does not require strict real-time responsiveness and data arrival reliability in communication.

By Bruce Jensen, General Manager, Technical Solutions Support Center, VigilantPlant Solutions and Services, Yokogawa Corporation of America, and Joshua Kyaw Zwa, Executive Engineer, System Marketing Department, Marketing Operation, Yokogawa Engineering Asia Pte. Ltd.

Yokogawa's web-based DCS Anywhere has simplified commissioning at the Nanhai petrochemicals complex.With a total investment of 4.2 billion US dollars, the Nanhai petrochemicals complex at Daya Bay in Huizhou, China, has attracted a lot of attention because of its sheer scale.

For the past 35 years, developments of a distributed control system (DCS) have been evolving to raise productivity and enhance plant operation. As field instruments advance, there is a need to exchange large amount of process data and parameters among various diagnostic devices for stability of plant operation.

The 2008 Frost & Sullivan Asia Pacific Company of the Year Award for Distributed Control System (DCS) market is presented to Yokogawa. Yokogawa is the market leader with a dominant market share in the Asia Pacific market.

An exception level of engineering expertise tailored for the local market is one of the primary reasons why Yokogawa has managed to capture and keep the process automation top spot in the Land of Smiles, says Somkid Teraboonchaikul, managing director, Yokogawa Thailand.

As a world's leading supplier of instruments and control systems for industrial process automation, Yokogawa has committed itself to the development of advanced solutions and products in three focused areas measurement technologies, industrial automation and control, and information technologies.

Yokogawa has taken a vital step in their plan to make the world's plants 'silent and boring', and therefore, well-managed, with the release of their new integrated production control system CENTUM VP last month.

Process automation in oil refineries is undergoing major changes, driven by customers frustrated by what they consider to be slow and incremental advances from the main automation original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in the industry. ExxonMobil has become a de facto industry representative and is driving vendors like Yokogawa and others to reevaluate how large-scale automation projects are implemented.

Honeywell and Yokogawa have both been producing Distributed Control System (DCS) platforms for decades, and both are very active in this area. In 1975, Honeywell introduced its TDC2000 platform and Yokogawa brought out CENTUM. These two competing systems emerged from a similar place, oil refining and petrochemical industries, so they started out with similar basic concepts and use cases in mind.

Oil producers looking past today's difficult world markets understand development of new sources will bring a growing list of challenges. An ever-increasing amount of oil and natural gas is being produced by techniques once considered unconventional: tar and extraction, fracking, and deep water offshore drilling. As the costs of these extraction methods have gone down, the range of economically recoverable deposits has increased. When crude oil markets return to more normal levels, these difficult fields, including deep water offshore oil and gas, will become increasingly important.

Many lubricant blending businesses find themselves in a challenging situation: there are opportunities to increase their overall business volume and profits by improving production flexibility, expanding their product slate and optimizing high-margin blends. At the same time, they find themselves constrained by current manufacturing limitations. However, launching a capital project for a significant manufacturing expansion may not be possible, and it may not be necessary.

Whether they are brownfield migration or greenfield, major automation and control system projects present a challenge to owner operators. Learn how others prepare and execute successful automation and control systemprojects.

This Webinar will present a detailed look at a software demonstration of how to configure Yokogawa's Consolidated Alarm Management Software (CAMS) for HIS (Human Interface Station). How users can implement CAMS to meet some of the recommendations from EEMUA 191, ISA 18.2 and other published guidelines for alarm management will also be presented.

Discovered more than a decade ago, the Jack and St. Malo fields are expected to deliver more than 500 million barrels of oil. The Jack St. Malo floating production unit is the fourth deepwater facility Chevron operates and is the largest Chevron has in the Gulf of Mexico. Hear what it takes to deploy the technology and deliver first oil from this very challenging megaproject

The legacy model of automation project execution is linear and rigid, defined by milestones that depend on the completion of previous phases. Little parallel work is typically possible, and late changes in data or re-work cannot be easily accommodated. The Agile Project Execution model allows field signals to be configured by software at any phase of the project. These universal IO channels can even be software-configured as soon as they are wired without requiring a completed system, adding significant flexibility to the project schedule and, most importantly, reducing the risk in your plan and investment. This webinar will explain how you can take advantage of Agile Project Execution through Yokogawa's Network IO technology and FieldMate Validator.

rock crusher - eastman rock crusher

rock crusher - eastman rock crusher

Granite is not easy to crush to sand, main equipment has PE-7501060 jaw crusher (coarse crusher), HP300 cone crusher (fine crusher), bin, 490110 vibrating feeder, B1000x22 conveyor belt, B1000x30m conveyor belt, B800x31 conveyor belt, 4YK2460 vibrating screen, etc. contact us!

In this case, we recommend the use of a PCZ1308 heavy hammer crusher with a feed size of 930x650mm, the feed particle size is less than 600mm, the motor power is 4P 132Kw, and the processing capacity of the equipment is 100-180t/h.

Eastman is a typical direct selling enterprise with green and standardized production plants. All the delivery of the equipment will be completed within the delivery period signed by the contract to ensure the smooth commissioning of the equipment.

Rock crushers have a wide range of suitable material to choose from, whether its soft or hard, or even very hard, rock crushers can reduce those large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel, or even rock dust.Here are some typical materials that break or compress by industry crushers, such as Granite, quartz stone, river pebble, limestone, calcite, concrete, dolomite, iron ore, silicon ore, basalt and other mines, rocks and slag.

Understanding the stages of crushing process and the types of crushers that best fit each stage can simplifies your equipment selection. Each type of crusher is different and used to achieve a certain end result.

Similarly, a certain output is expected at the end of each crushing stage for the next phase of the process. Aggregate producers who pair the correct crusher to the correct stage will be the most efficient and, in turn, the most profitable.

A jaw crusher is a compression type of crusher. Material is reduced by squeezing the feed material between a moving piece of steel and a stationary piece. The discharge size is controlled by the setting or the space between those two pieces of steel. The tighter the setting, the smaller the output size and the lower the throughput capacity.

As a compression crusher, jaw crushers generally produce the coarsest material because they break the rock by the natural inherent lines of weakness. Jaw crushers are an excellent primary crusher when used to prepare rock for subsequent processing stages.

Although the chamber is round in shape, the moving piece of steel is not meant to rotate. Instead, a wedge is driven around to create compression on one side of the chamber and discharge opening on the opposite side. Cone crushers are used in secondary and tertiary roles as an alternative to impact crushers when shape is an important requirement, but the proportion of fines produced needs to be minimized.

An impact crusher uses mass and velocity to break down feed material. First, the feed material is reduced as it enters the crusher with the rotating blow bars or hammers in the rotor. The secondary breakage occurs as the material is accelerated into the stationary aprons or breaker plates.

Impact crushers tend to be used where shape is a critical requirement and the feed material is not very abrasive. The crushing action of an impact crusher breaks a rock along natural cleavage planes, giving rise to better product quality in terms of shape.

Most aggregate producers are well acquainted with the selection of crushing equipment and know it is possible to select a piece of equipment based solely on spec sheets and gradation calculations. Still, theoretical conclusions must always be weighed against practical experience regarding the material at hand and of the operational, maintenance and economical aspects of different solutions.

The duty of the primary crusher is, above all, to make it possible to transport material on a conveyor belt. In most aggregate crushing plants, primary crushing is carried out in a jaw crusher, although a gyratory primary crusher may be used. If material is easily crushed and not excessively abrasive, an impact breaker could also be the best choice.

The most important characteristics of a primary crusher are the capacity and the ability to accept raw material without blockages. A large primary crusher is more expensive to purchase than a smaller machine. For this reason, investment cost calculations for primary crushers are weighed against the costs of blasting raw material to a smaller size.

A pit-portable primary crusher can be an economically sound solution in cases where the producer is crushing at the quarry face. In modern plants, it is often advantageous to use a moveable primary crusher so it can follow the movement of the face where raw material is extracted.

The purpose of intermediate crushing is to produce various coarser fractions or to prepare material for final crushing. If the intermediate crusher is used to make railway ballast, product quality is important.

In other cases, there are normally no quality requirements, although the product must be suitable for fine crushing. In most cases, the objective is to obtain the greatest possible reduction at the lowest possible cost.

In most cases, the fine crushing and cubicization functions are combined in a single crushing stage. The selection of a crusher for tertiary crushing calls for both practical experience and theoretical know-how. This is where producers should be sure to call in an experienced applications specialist to make sure a system is properly engineered.

rock crushers

rock crushers

The size requirement of the primary rock crusher is a function of grizzly openings, ore chute configuration, required throughput, ore moisture, and other factors. Usually, primary crushers are sized by the ability to accept the largest expected ore fragment. Jaw crushers are usually preferred as primary crushers in small installations due to the inherent mechanical simplicity and ease of operation of these machines. Additionally, jaw crushers wearing parts are relatively uncomplicated castings and tend to cost less per unit weight of metal than more complicated gyratory crusher castings. The primary crusher must be designed so that adequate surge capacity is present beneath the crusher. An ore stockpile after primary crushing is desirable but is not always possible to include in a compact design.

Many times the single heaviest equipment item in the entire plant is the primary crusher mainframe. The ability to transport the crusher main frame sometimes limits crusher size, particularly in remote locations having limited accessibility.

In a smaller installation, the crushing plant should be designed with the minimum number of required equipment items. Usually, a crushing plant that can process 1000s of metric tons per operating day will consist of a single primary crusher, a single screen, a single secondary cone crusher, and associated conveyor belts. The discharge from both primary and secondary crushers is directed to the screen. Screen oversize serves as feed to the secondary crusher while screen undersize is the finished product. For throughputs of 500 to 1,000 metric tons per operating day (usually 2 shifts), a closed circuit tertiary cone crusher is usually added to the crushing circuit outlined above. This approach, with the addition of a duplicate screen associated with the tertiary cone crusher, has proven to be effective even on ores having relatively high moisture contents. Provided screen decks are correctly selected, the moist fine material in the incoming ore tends to be removed in the screening stages and therefore does not enter into subsequent crushing units.

All crusher cavities and major ore transfer points should be equipped with a jib-type crane or hydraulic rock tongs to facilitate the removal of chokes. In addition, secondary crushers must be protected from tramp iron by suspended magnets or magnetic head pulleys. The location of these magnets should be such that recycling of magnetic material back into the system is not possible.

Crushing plants for the tonnages indicated may be considered to be standardized. It is not prudent to spend money researching crusher abrasion indices or determining operating kilowatt consumptions for the required particle size reduction in a proposed small crushing plant. Crushing installations usually are operated to produce the required mill tonnage at a specified size distribution under conditions of varying ore hardness by the variation of the number of operating hours per day. It is normal practice to generously size a small crushing plant so that the daily design crushing tonnage can be produced in one, or at most two, operating shifts per working day.

layoffs and plant closings: know your rights | nolo

layoffs and plant closings: know your rights | nolo

If you've lost your job in a layoff, you are no doubt concerned about your finances, benefits, and finding new work. There is help available to laid-off workers from the government, in the form of unemployment compensation. But your former employer has legal obligations as well. This article explains your legal rights in a layoff, including what your former employer is required to do for you.

For most laid-off workers, money is the biggest concern. You are entitled to receive your final paycheck within time limits set by state law. Some states give employees who have been laid off or fired a right to receive their paychecks quickly, sometimes on the day they lose their jobs or a day or two later. Other states allow employers to wait until the next regularly scheduled payday to cut a final check. To check your state's law on final paychecks, see Nolo's article Chart: Final Paychecks for Departing Employees.

In a number of states, employers must include a departing employee's accrued vacation time (but not sick time) in the employee's final paycheck. Some states, such as California, give all employees this legal right; other states only require employers to pay out unused vacation time if their policies or practices provide for it. To find out how your state handles this issue, contact your state labor department. (You can find a list of links at www.dol.gov, the official website of the federal Department of Labor.)

If you have been receiving health insurance coverage through your employer, you might have a legal right to continue those benefits for at least 18 months. A federal law called Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) gives employees (and their dependents) the right to continue their health insurance coverage for a period of time after losing their jobs. However, employees are responsible for paying the full cost of the premium, at the group rate negotiated by their former employer. COBRA applies to employers with 20 or more employees, but some states have similar laws that might apply to smaller employers. (For more information see our article on your rights when you leave your job.)

The federal Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act requires larger employers to give employees notice 60 days before an impending plant closing or mass layoff that will result in job losses for a specified number or percentage of employees. If an employer fails to give the required notice, the employees can collect wages and benefits for every day that notice is late, up to 60 days.

The law also covers staged plant closings or layoffs, which are defined the same as above but occur in stages over a period of 90 days. This rule is intended to prevent employers from getting around the law's requirements by conducting a series of smaller layoffs.

For purposes of exceptions to the WARN Act's 60-day notice requirement, federal regulations (at 20 C.F.R. 639.9) give some examples that might qualify as unforeseeable business circumstances, including:

These examples would probably apply to mass layoffs that happened at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and/or right after emergency orders directed nonessential businesses to close. But as the economic fallout from the pandemic became more predictable, businesses are less likely to qualify for this exception. A class-action lawsuit against the parent company of Enterprise Rent-A-Car claimed that it violated the WARN Act by failing to give any advance notice before a mass layoff in late April 2020more than a month after the company had furloughed employees due to business losses from the pandemic. The U.S. District Court judge refused the employer's request to dismiss the suit based on the exceptions in the WARN Act. Finding that the natural-disaster exception didn't apply, the judge also pointed out that even if the exception for unforeseen business circumstances applied, the employer needed to show that it had provided as much notice as practicable. (Benson v. Enterprise Leasing Company of Florida, LLC, 6:20-cv-00892 (M.D. Fla., Jan. 4, 2021).)

More than half of the states also have laws that require employers to give notice of a layoff. Some of these laws apply to smaller employers (or smaller layoffs) than the federal WARN Act. And some require employers to do more than provide notice. For example, Connecticut employers that permanently shut down or relocate their facility out of state must pay to continue their former employees' health insurance for 120 days. In Maine, employers that discontinue business operations or relocate at least 100 miles away must pay one week of severance for each year of employment to employees who have been with the company for at least three years. To learn about your state's rules, contact your state labor department.

In all states, employees who are laid off are eligible for unemployment benefits, as long as they meet other eligibility requirements. To learn more, see our state articles on collecting unemployment benefits.

For additional information on employee rights, get Your Rights in the Workplace, by Barbara Repa (Nolo), or visit Nolo's Lawyer Directory to view personal profiles of employment law attorneys in your geographic area.

Copyright 2021 MH Sub I, LLC dba Nolo Self-help services may not be permitted in all states. The information provided on this site is not legal advice, does not constitute a lawyer referral service, and no attorney-client or confidential relationship is or will be formed by use of the site. The attorney listings on this site are paid attorney advertising. In some states, the information on this website may be considered a lawyer referral service. Please reference the Terms of Use and the Supplemental Terms for specific information related to your state. Your use of this website constitutes acceptance of the Terms of Use, Supplemental Terms, Privacy Policy and Cookie Policy. Do Not Sell My Personal Information

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