gold mining industry is booming in burkina faso

gold mining industry is booming in burkina faso

Burkina Faso is one of the fastest rising gold producing countries in the world. It has been the fourth largest gold producer in Africa since 2012. Over the past eight years, about six new mines have been commission and exploration for gold is still ongoing in several other locations.

The exploration works done in the late 1990s shows that the country has great geological potential for gold mining given the fact that most of the greenstone belts that are host to major gold deposits in both Cote dIvoire and Ghana end up in Burkina Faso.

Like other major gold producers in West Africa such as Mali, Cote dIvoire and Ghana, gold in Burkina Faso is mainly mined from alluvial deposits and Proterozoic rocks. These are the same settings as the Precambrian gold belts in Canada and other parts of the world.

Given the fact that modern mineral exploration in Burkina Faso only started about 15 years ago, the country has amazing potential for gold mining. This is particularly because not very many locations have been explored for gold. There are literally thousands of square miles that have had little or no exploration work done by skilled geologists.

Gold mining plays an important role in the Economy of Burkina Faso with several major international companies taking part in the exploration and mining activities. Some of the major companies exploring and mining for gold in Burkina Faso includes Riverstone Resources Inc., Channel Resources Ltd., High River Gold Mines Ltd., Etruscan Resources, Societe Semafo, Orezone Gold Corporation., and Goldbelt Resources Ltd. Of Canada, Golden Rim Resources Goldrush Resources, Orbis Gold Limited and Gryphon Minerals Ltd. of Australia, and Randgold Resources Ltd, Gryphon Minerals Ltd, ad Cluff Gold plc of the United Kingdom.

The presence of all this major gold mining multinational companies is a testimony to the potential the country has as a gold producer. While there are many other countries in northern Africa that hold good potential for future mines, Burkina Faso is of particular interest to major industry.

As the fourth largest gold producer in Africa, Burkina Faso has six major gold mines although there have been gold discoveries in several other places in the recent times that are likely to prompt future development in the near future. The major gold mines in the country include:

This gold mine is located 150 kilometers northwest of Ouagadougou, Burkina Fasos capital city. It is a joint venture by the Cluff Gold plc, IMARB Indstria Metalrgica of Brazil, and the Government of Burkina Faso. The mine is estimated to contain about 6.5 million metric tons of gold, with a grade of 1.6 grams per ton gold, and a further 2.7 metric tons of 1.2 g/t gold grade. The mine is managed by Banlaw Africa Ltd. Low grade ores like this are only profitable on a large scale operation.

This mine is located about 180 km to the southeast of the countrys capital, Ouagadougou. The mine is owned by Burkina Mining Company which is a joint venture between the government of Burkina Faso (10%) and the Etruscan Resources (90%).

The mines was opened in 2008 and produced about 537,621 oz of gold in 2014. The gold at the mine is estimated to be about 17.0 million tons of 1.5 g/t gold grade and another 2.8 million tons of 1.6 g/t gold.

This is another important gold mine in Burkina Faso. The mine is located approximately 200 km to then of Ouagadougou. The mine was opened in 2007 and has the capacity of producing about 4,400 kg of gold per year.

The gold resources in this mine have been estimated to be about 12.6 million tons ore of 2.77g/t gold grade. The mine is operated by High River company which is a joint venture between Socit des Mines de Taparko and the government of Burkina Faso.

This is another important gold mine in the country. The mine is owned by both the government of Burkina Faso (10%) and IAMGOLD (90%). The Essakane Mine is located along the boundary of Sano and Oudalan provinces about330 km northeast of Ouagadougou. The mine was opened in 2010 and a lot of expansion works were completed in 2013.

The Inata Gold Mine is another important mine owned jointly by Avocet and the Government of Burkina Faso. The mine was opened in 2009 with mining expected to run up to 2027. The mineral resource in the mine is estimated to be about 4.2 million ounces of gold at an average grade of 1.92 grams per ton.

Burkina Faso is poised to become a major player in the global gold mining industry over the coming years. The vast amount of unexplored lands, new mining operations that are just starting to come into production, and large amount of untapped resources are certain to contribute to the countrys economy.

burkina faso: mining, minerals and fuel resources

burkina faso: mining, minerals and fuel resources

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country that is located in the north of Ghana in Western Africa. The total area of the country is 274,200 km2, and it has a population of 17,275,115 as of July 2012. The countrys climate is tropical.

Since gaining independence from France in 1960, Burkina Faso had to deal with several military coups, which has resulted in political instability and lack of proper governance. A growing population is another problem faced by this country.

The majority of Burkina Fasos population is engaged in agricultural activities, and the economy of the country is dependent on the revenues from gold and cotton exports. The GDP of Burkina Faso was $22.32 billion in 2011.

The natural resources of Burkina Faso are limited and include gold, manganese, limestone, and marble. Phosphates, pumice, and salt are also available in small quantities. The mining sector of the country is currently undergoing a big change as nearly 60 international companies are conducting various mining activities in Burkina Faso.

Burkina Fasos mining sector is likely to play a key role in the countrys economy in the near future with the gold mining industry all set to expand. This year, the countrys mining sector will be able to generate an increased revenue of about $2 billion from the $1.4 billion revenue in 2011.

In 2010, gold production increased by nearly 83% to 24,104 kg compared to 13,181 kg in 2009. Burkina Faso is currently the fourth-largest gold producer in Africa, and the third most explored region in the African continent. Recent reports speculate that there may still be several more gold reserves in the northern regions, which is yet to be explored.

Volta Resources Inc. owned the prospecting license for Gaoua copper-gold project comprising the Gongondy, the Bouserra, the Dienemera, and the Mt. Biri prospects. The initial estimation of reserves at Gaoua amounted to about 82.6 million Mt of ore.

The Essakane Mine owned by a subsidiary of IAMGOLD produced 4,230 kg while the Inata open pit gold mine owned by Avocet produced 4,284 kg in 2010. The government of Burkina Faso owned 10% interest in each of these mines. Avocet planned to increase its production to 5,100 kg/year.

In the same year, the output from the Kalsaka Mine owned by Kalsaka Mining S.A. increased to 2,302 kg in comparison to 1,693 kg in 2009 as the capacity of the plant was increased from 1.2 to 1.6 Mt/yr.

The government of Burkina Faso encourages privatization and has revised the investment code to attract foreign investment in 2004. In 2010, the corporate income tax rate was reduced from 30% to 25% and tax on dividends from 12.5% to 7.5%. Similarly, by the end of this year, the old mining code will be revised to equally favor both the state and the mining companies. All this has made the environment conducive for global companies to invest and operate in the country.

However, environmental activists are claiming that gold mining, especially in Burkina Faso's northern Sgunga region, is damaging not only the environment but also the social structure. Vegetation is being cleared to make room for mining activities and left barren. The government will have to come up with a solution for this issue so as to safeguard its people from the hazards of rampant mining activities.

Disclaimer: The author of this article does not imply any investment recommendation and some content is speculative in nature. The Author is not affiliated in any way with any companies mentioned and all statistical information is publically available.

Gary graduated from the University of Manchester with a first-class honours degree in Geochemistry and a Masters in Earth Sciences. After working in the Australian mining industry, Gary decided to hang up his geology boots and turn his hand to writing. When he isn't developing topical and informative content, Gary can usually be found playing his beloved guitar, or watching Aston Villa FC snatch defeat from the jaws of victory.

growth in burkina faso gold mining fuels human trafficking

growth in burkina faso gold mining fuels human trafficking

SECACO, Burkina Faso (AP) For months, human traffickers beat and drugged Blessing, hauling the 27-year-old from one gold mine encampment to the next, where each night she was forced to sleep with dozens of men for less than $2 a person.

In December 2019, while the madam was away, Blessing finally got the courage to escape. With the help of local residents, she and six other women left the encampment and walked to safety, ultimately ending up in a United Nations transit center for migrants in the capital city of Ouagadougou.

As part of a months-long investigation into sex trafficking and the gold mining industry, The Associated Press met with nearly 20 Nigerian women who said they had been brought to Burkina Faso under false pretenses, then forced into prostitution. Some of the women, who like Blessing spoke on condition of anonymity out of fear for their safety, said they knew hundreds of others with similar stories. To protect their safety, AP is identifying the women by the names they used for sex work.

The AP verified the womens stories through interviews with aid workers, lawyers, police, local anti-trafficking activists, health workers, a trafficker, and members of the Nigerian community in several towns throughout Burkina Faso.

People with knowledge of the trafficking say most of the women come from Nigerias Edo state, where promises of jobs in shops or salons in Burkina Faso sounded like a good way to support their families. Once here, they were sent to work off debts in squalid conditions at or near small-scale gold mines.

As a result, the country not only struggles with trafficking within its borders but has also been identified as a transfer point for trafficking women into other countries, according to reports from the US State Department.

One man arrested and detained by local authorities for trying to traffic three women across the Burkina Faso border into neighboring Mali told the AP he didnt consider it human trafficking because he said the women knew theyd be working as prostitutes.

I feel somehow bad because its not a good job for them to do. They say its just a voluntary decision, said the 48-year-old car parts salesman from Nigeria, who spoke on condition of anonymity because he feared retaliation.

He told the AP that he had bought the women for $270 each in Benin and was planning to sell them for more than twice that to a Nigerian madam in Mali. Hed done the same with two other women back in 2019.

Burkina Faso is likely to be downgraded in this years Trafficking in Persons Report, an annual report issued by the U.S. State Department, according to two people familiar with the discussions who were not authorized to speak on the record. Generally, countries are downgraded if they havent made significant steps to curb trafficking. Downgraded countries could also risk US economic and diplomatic penalties.

Burkina Fasos gold mining industry is relatively new. The first of its 15 industrial mines, all but one of which are gold, started production in 2007, a few years after the government changed the mining law to attract commercial investors.

Today, Burkina Faso is the fastest-growing gold producer in Africa, and currently the fifth largest on the continent after South Africa, Ghana, Tanzania, and Mali. Gold is the nations most important export, according to a February report by the German-based research group GLOCON. The industry employs about 1.5 million people and was worth about $2 billion in 2019.

More than 70% of the industrial gold mined is sent to Switzerland, according to 2019 data from the United Nations Comtrade Database, and the vast majority of it is processed by Metalor Technologies, a Swiss-based refinery of precious metal and one of the largest in the world.

In Burkina, as in all other countries we do work with, our suppliers have followed a thorough due diligence and compliance process to make sure that the way they operate do respect human rights and environmental standards, the company said in a statement, adding that it follows guidelines set by groups such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, an international organization composed of 37 member countries established to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

Gold from Burkina Faso is also likely used to make products sold by companies in a number of industries, including the technology sector, according to conflict mineral reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

In the filings, companies say they perform due diligence to make sure that the gold used in their products is not being mined or processed by forced labor or exploited workers. But many companies admit that they are unable to verify with absolute certainty the source and chain of custody of gold used in their products.

The SEC reports are designed to cover human rights abuses and trafficking that are directly tied to the supply chains, not the trafficking of women for sex work that occurs near operations that mine the gold.

These kinds of exploitation (can) take place outside of the mining areas, so stakeholders dont see it as their responsibility. However, the product is being produced in an ecosystem of human rights violations/sex trafficking, said Livia Wagner, senior expert at the Geneva-based Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, in a message via WhatsApp.

The gold from the countrys approximately 800 small-scale mines is hard to track. Much of it, particularly from the east, is smuggled across Burkina Fasos borders with Togo, Benin, Niger, and Ghana, according to the Institute for Security Studies, based in South Africa. Industry experts said this gold likely ends up in Dubai. The government of Burkina Faso estimates the illicit market produces more than $400 million worth of gold a year.

Salofou Trahore, general director for Burkina Fasos regulatory body for small-scale mines, said he was unaware that women were being exploited at the sites. The government is in the process of regulating small-scale mines more strictly, he said. Trahore added that this would provide better oversight of the mines, as well as tracking environmental and human rights abuses.

In one now-vibrant mining community, the southwestern town of Hounde, the opening of an industrial gold mine four years ago led to an increase in brothels from one to six, according to Jean-Paul Ramde, whose organization, Responsibility Hope Life Solidarity Plus, gives women HIV/AIDS tests and condoms.

Where there are gold mines, there are many evils that develop around it, including prostitution, said Oumarou Dicko, the head of the governments Department for Family and Children in the region that serves Hounde.

whats local labor in burkina fasos mining sector?

whats local labor in burkina fasos mining sector?

In recent years, the question of integrating local linkages into a globalized mining economy has become a particular topic of concern among policy makers and scholars working on mining topics and policies in African countries. This is not surprising since mining projects and economies have the reputation of emerging as enclaves, and in so doing, as being disconnected from national and local development projects. James Fergusons work has maybe most prominently stipulated how these socially thin mineral enclaves have become the dominant spatial format of 21st century mining capitalism on the African continent.

Burkina Fasos industrial mining sector only evolved during the last decade with an industrial gold production increasing tenfold, from five tons in 2008 to more than 50 tons in 2018. Today, several features of Fergusons mineral enclave characterize the booming national mining economy. This not only concerns the spatially enclosed character of sites of mineral production, enacted through security clearance systems and strict mobility control via fences, walls or drones. It also applies to the import of food, material, infrastructures and staff necessary for the technically highly specific processes of mineral extraction, and the everyday mine life. Yet, the picture is more complex. Burkina Fasos industrial mining sector evolved in parallel with what has been described by anthropologists Catherine Dolan and Dinah Rajak as an ethical turn in corporate capitalism. Furthermore, the reform process of the national mining legislation in Burkina Fasoin line with those in the sub-regionimplied important measures to increase the mining economys imprint nationally and locally.

While local content promotion aims to break with an enclave legacy in mining capitalism, the agendas behind this new trend are diverse. The question of what local and what content means, is ultimately subject to multi-scalar negotiation processes. Inhabitants of mining areas naturally consider themselves as most impacted by large-scale mining activities and therefore as most entitled to access to compensation and alternative income strategies. Yet, the availability of jobs in mining is limited since no operating mine site in Burkina Faso employs more than 2,000 people directly. In an age of local content, seeking the limited number of jobs at mine sites often goes hand in hand with proving and affirming localness. Burkina Fasos government, on the other hand, introduced some local content requirements within its reformed mining legislation of 2015. This is not only in line with the mining sector policies of important donors such as the World Bank, but also serves as a vehicle for the government to (re-)gain national control over the mining sector. According to its representatives, preferential access to direct and indirect jobs attached to the mining economy should be granted to Burkinab nationals. From a company perspectiveapart from cost-reducing side-effects local content represents the most strategic contribution a company can make to securing its social license to operate (as articulated by Gbegi and Adebisi). Corporate local content requirements often translate into the establishment of job and training facilities for project affected people (PAP), targeting those directly affected by the loss of housing or livelihoods due to large-scale mining projects.

Beyond such debates about its meaning, and questions of its local and national appropriation, the actual success such globally trending concepts have in promoting inclusive labor markets remains at least controversial. The local content promotion programs of two studied mine sites in southwestern Burkina Faso are de facto not completely able to break with mining projects as enclaves of labor, production and consumption. Local suppliers in particular are often not able to meet the standards and norms of the global mining industry for their products produced locally. The South-African based supplying company All Terrain Services (ATS), for instance, delivers all package quality service systems from camp construction and management to catering services for employees in the most remote regions of Africa. Operating at the highest international levels of quality, taste and hygiene, ATS owns and operates the necessary infrastructure to transport dry goods, cleaning materials and frozen food. In Burkina Faso, this results in a quasi-monopoly the company has on these supply chains and tasks in and around industrial gold mining projects.

Direct employment at mine sites, on the other hand, often implies a restricted access for residents of the locality where operations take place. A constant concern and argument of the industry spanning the national headquarters to sites of extraction is that residents of mining-impacted communities would lack the needed capacities and skills to participate in the global working assignments and supply chains of the sector. As a response, mining companies establish different scalar categories of workforce, (expatriate, national, local, and local-local) that areintentionally or notusually connected to different job categories (skilled, semi-skilled, and unskilled). The different job categories ranging from skilled expatriate to unskilled local differ significantly in nature, quality, hiring practices and most importantly, wages. While skilled expatriate workers are for instance hired through Globe 24-7, a professional Human resource consulting in the mining industry, unskilled labor is usually recruited though local intermediaries in charge of assuring the localness of a candidate.

Together with the outsourcing practices of multinational mining companies, these different job categories tend to reproduce occupational hierarchies in a globalized sector with very specific working assignments. While local content has certainly led to more mobility between mineral concessions and the outer world, it remains open whether the mining labor market of the future succeeds in promoting the internal mobility of workers and avoids further labor market segmentation.

Diana Ayeh is a postdoctoral researcher at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research in Leipzig. From 2016 to 2019 she was part of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 1199 Processes of Spatialization under the Global Condition project at Leipzig University.

growth in burkina faso gold mining fuels human trafficking - thegrio

growth in burkina faso gold mining fuels human trafficking - thegrio

For months, human traffickers beat and drugged Blessing, hauling the 27-year-old from one gold mine encampment to the next, where each night she was forced to sleep with dozens of men for less than $2 a person.

In December 2019, while the madam was away, Blessing finally got the courage to escape. With the help of local residents, she and six other women left the encampment and walked to safety, ultimately ending up in a United Nations transit center for migrants in the capital city of Ouagadougou.

As part of a months-long investigation into sex trafficking and the gold mining industry, The Associated Press met with nearly 20 Nigerian women who said they had been brought to Burkina Faso under false pretenses, then forced into prostitution. Some of the women, who like Blessing spoke on condition of anonymity out of fear for their safety, said they knew hundreds of others with similar stories. To protect their safety, AP is identifying the women by the names they used for sex work.

The AP verified the womens stories through interviews with aid workers, lawyers, police, local anti-trafficking activists, health workers, a trafficker, and members of the Nigerian community in several towns throughout Burkina Faso.

People with knowledge of the trafficking say most of the women come from Nigerias Edo state, where promises of jobs in shops or salons in Burkina Faso sounded like a good way to support their families. Once here, they were sent to work off debts in squalid conditions at or near small-scale gold mines.

As a result, the country not only struggles with trafficking within its borders but has also been identified as a transfer point for trafficking women into other countries, according to reports from the US State Department.

One man arrested and detained by local authorities for trying to traffic three women across the Burkina Faso border into neighboring Mali told the AP he didnt consider it human trafficking because he said the women knew theyd be working as prostitutes.

I feel somehow bad because its not a good job for them to do. They say its just a voluntary decision, said the 48-year-old car parts salesman from Nigeria, who spoke on condition of anonymity because he feared retaliation.

He told the AP that he had bought the women for $270 each in Benin and was planning to sell them for more than twice that to a Nigerian madam in Mali. Hed done the same with two other women back in 2019.

Burkina Faso is likely to be downgraded in this years Trafficking in Persons Report, an annual report issued by the U.S. State Department, according to two people familiar with the discussions who were not authorized to speak on the record. Generally, countries are downgraded if they havent made significant steps to curb trafficking. Downgraded countries could also risk US economic and diplomatic penalties.

Burkina Fasos gold mining industry is relatively new. The first of its 15 industrial mines, all but one of which is for gold, started production in 2007, a few years after the government changed the mining law to attract commercial investors.

Today, Burkina Faso is the fastest-growing gold producer in Africa, and currently the fifth largest on the continent after South Africa, Ghana, Tanzania, and Mali. Gold is the nations most important export, according to a February report by the German-based research group GLOCON. The industry employs about 1.5 million people and was worth about $2 billion in 2019.

More than 70% of the industrial gold mined is sent to Switzerland, according to 2019 data from the United Nations Comtrade Database, and the vast majority of it is processed by Metalor Technologies, a Swiss-based refinery of precious metal and one of the largest in the world.

In Burkina, as in all other countries we do work with, our suppliers have followed a thorough due diligence and compliance process to make sure that the way they operate do respect human rights and environmental standards, the company said in a statement, adding that it follows guidelines set by groups such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, an international organization composed of 37 member countries established to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

Gold from Burkina Faso is also likely used to make products sold by companies in a number of industries, including the technology sector, according to conflict mineral reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

In the filings, companies say they perform due diligence to make sure that the gold used in their products is not being mined or processed by forced labor or exploited workers. But many companies admit that they are unable to verify with absolute certainty the source and chain of custody of gold used in their products.

The SEC reports are designed to cover human rights abuses and trafficking that are directly tied to the supply chains, not the trafficking of women for sex work that occurs near operations that mine the gold.

These kinds of exploitation (can) take place outside of the mining areas, so stakeholders dont see it as their responsibility. However, the product is being produced in an ecosystem of human rights violations/sex trafficking, said Livia Wagner, senior expert at the Geneva-based Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, in a message via WhatsApp.

The gold from the countrys approximately 800 small-scale mines is hard to track. Much of it, particularly from the east, is smuggled across Burkina Fasos borders with Togo, Benin, Niger, and Ghana, according to the Institute for Security Studies, based in South Africa. Industry experts said this gold likely ends up in Dubai. The government of Burkina Faso estimates the illicit market produces more than $400 million worth of gold a year.

Salofou Trahore, general director for Burkina Fasos regulatory body for small-scale mines, said he was unaware that women were being exploited at the sites. The government is in the process of regulating small-scale mines more strictly, he said. Trahore added that this would provide better oversight of the mines, as well as tracking environmental and human rights abuses.

In one now-vibrant mining community, the southwestern town of Hounde, the opening of an industrial gold mine four years ago led to an increase in brothels from one to six, according to Jean-Paul Ramde, whose organization, Responsibility Hope Life Solidarity Plus, gives women HIV/AIDS tests and condoms.

Where there are gold mines, there are many evils that develop around it, including prostitution, said Oumarou Dicko, the head of the governments Department for Family and Children in the region that serves Hounde.

Prostitution exists in a legal gray area in Burkina Faso its not illegal, but soliciting it is. Police say its hard to prove if someone has been trafficked into sex work because women fear retaliation from criminal networks.

The limited available figures show an increase in reported trafficking cases in recent years. The U.N. International Organization for Migration helped over 35 people trafficked last year in Burkina Faso, compared with 12 for all of 2018, said Claire Laroche, the organizations protection officer.

In Secaco, a makeshift mining town tucked behind uneven dirt roads deep in the brush, trafficked women live and work in tiny, ragged tents with plastic sheeting. Here they have sex on thin mattresses on the dirt floor with 30 men a night, trying to earn their freedom.

Joy, a divorced mother of four, said she arrived early in 2020 because she couldnt make enough money in Nigeria to support her children. The 31-year-old was told shed work in a shop. Upon arrival, she was given a condom and taken to a mining site for prostitution, she said.

Nigerian women are usually taken to the western city of Bobo-Dioulasso and sold for upward of $700 to different Nigerian madams, according to interviews with several women, a trafficker, and local authorities.

The madams confiscate the womens passports, phones, and money, then force them into sex work in brothels in makeshift mining towns adjacent to the small-scale mines or in larger towns near the mines. Few of the women speak the local language or know the area.

Boukary Ouedraogo, the police commissioner in Bobo-Dioulasso, said that on many occasions when a trafficker or madam was arrested, community leaders have tried to negotiate for their release, which points to complicity within the Nigerian community, he said.

When the (Nigerian) representatives in Bobo-Dioulasso come, what they want is that we release the person, he said. If someones in breach of the law and you ask us to release him, it means that you defend him, he said.

Some of the women were recruited by the madams themselves, approached randomly on a bus or in the market in Nigeria, and asked if they wanted to earn a better living. Others were referred by friends or acquaintances, usually young boys paid to recruit women.

Once recruited, the women travel for approximately three days with the traffickers. The typical route is through Cotonou, a large port city in Benin, and then north, sometimes passing through Togo, into Burkina Faso.

They travel on public buses with the traffickers or in private cars. They may tell border police they are the traffickers wives. Underage girls are given fake identification cards made in Benin, according to the women, one who showed an AP reporter the forgery.

When you try to dig deeper, they change the subject and dont want to talk about it, said Stephanie Benao-Ouedraogo, a social worker for Association Tie, a local organization focused on child protection.

Human trafficking experts said abuses will continue until the mining industry including buyers atop the supply chain, such as jewelers and electronics makers take responsibility for where the gold originates.

Theres a lot of focus on conflict minerals, but people have to be aware that gold is also being produced in a context of exploitation, said Wagner. People are being bought and sold, thats basically putting a price tag on a person.

In January, a new European Union law came into effect aimed at stemming the import of conflict minerals and metals. The law, the Unions first, requires that gold imports be sourced responsibly, including due diligence on human rights abuses and forced labor.

Burkina Faso is one of several countries mentioned in the legislation as being high-risk, and therefore requiring extra oversight. The new law says gold mining has been a source of conflict in the region since the late 2000s, usually between local communities, artisanal miners, the state and private security forces.

burkina faso and its growing mining sector - the times of africa

burkina faso and its growing mining sector - the times of africa

Burkina Faso can now be considered at the highest level by mining companies because it is the second mining country in Africa, after Morocco and 29th in the world. Indeed, in Burkina Faso, the growing mining sector, has recorded significant results over the past year, despite the decline in the world price of gold, industrial production of mines crossed 36,283 tonnes of gold metal in 2014 to 36,350 tonnes in 2015.

First generator of revenue of the country, with a contribution of 168, 410 billion FCFA in 2015, or 12% of tax revenues, the mining sector in Burkina Faso is dominated by exploitation of gold whichrepresents 60% of the countrys mining. Since 2009, Gold is the first export commodity of Burkina Faso. Its expansion arouses the interest of several factors (public authorities, researchers, local people and foreign investors). There are various forms of exploitation of ore from gold planning to exploitation on small and large scale. Despite the increased investment and the use of up-to-date technology, worldwide exploration statistics show that the discoveries of more than one (01) million ounces (atleast 32 tones) of gold per year are be BURKINA FASO AND ITS GROWING MINING SECTOR coming increasingly rare worldwide. Yet, the recent development in the exploration of Burkina underground activities showed that at least one (01) deposit in this category is found in Pays des Hommes intgres every year since 2005. This performance led to a renewed interest in Burkina Faso, evidenced by the proliferation of international mining companies and service providers in mining.

The authorities of Burkina Faso have made mining a major focus of the countrys development policy; evidenced by the large number of permits granted to mining companies. Recently, the Council of Ministers, in April 2016, have agreed to grant KIAKA SA, the permit of industrial exploitation of the gold mine located in the town of Gogo, the Zoundweogo Province, South Central Region. The mineral reserves in this locality are estimated to 85,845 tonnes of crude gold and cover an area of 54,02 km for an operating life of 14 years. The exploitation of the deposit will create 1,000 temporary jobs, 540 permanent jobs and generate revenue for the benefit of the State budget.

Over a week before, on 11 April 2016, the Chief Executive of the company Endeavour Mining has been received in audience by the President of Burkina Faso. The main Head of the Endeavour Mining has stated that his company is planning to build a gold mine in Houndin the Western part of the country. This will be the biggest mine in Burkina Faso with an investment of 200 billion FCFA and create 4,000 to 5,000 direct and indirect jobs, reported by Endeavour Mining. The first in got of gold mine in Hound is expected by end of 2017. Several other mining companies are already present in Burkina Faso. Some of them are, SOMITA S. A (Taparko Mine), SEMAFO, IAMGOLD, Bissa Gold, Youga Gold, True Gold Inc, Pan African Tambao, Burkina Manganese S.A, Blackthorn Resources & Glencore International, etc. Most of these mining companies are Canadian.In addition to gold, Burkina Faso has large manganese reserves in Tambao in the Sahel region. Tambao deposit consists of manganese oxide ore estimated at 20 million tons. The manganese content is from 52% to 53%. The mine operating permit was grante din 2014 to Pan African Tambao, the Burkina be subsidiary of Pan African Minerals group. The granting of mining rights on the Tambao manganese deposit, is part of a big project of infrastructure development for the Northern part of the country. The Government has opted to do the Tambao mining project, an integrated project comprising three essential components:

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the biggest industries in burkina faso - worldatlas

the biggest industries in burkina faso - worldatlas

Burkina Faso is a landlocked nation in Africa. It has an area of about 105,900 square miles and shares borders with Mali, Benin, Niger, Ghana, Ivory Coast, and Togo. As of July 2018, the United Nations estimated that the population of the country was around 19.8 million people. The capital city, which is also the largest city, is Ouagadougou. From an economic perspective, Burkina Faso had a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of $12.6 billion in 2017, which was a growth of about 5.9% from that of 2016. Despite the increase, a large section of the population (about 47%) still lives below the poverty line.

The most important industry in Burkina Faso is agriculture. Data shows that at least 80% of the population in the country depends on subsistence agriculture. However, there is a section of the population that works in the services and industry sectors, which also play a vital role in the economy. Unfortunately, most of the industries are owned by the government, which is ineffective. Consequently, they are largely unprofitable. These three sectors generate revenue mainly through exports, which had a value of around $3.14 billion as of 2017. In the same year, imports accounted for a slightly higher figure of $3.305 billion.

The major export partners of the country are Benin and Togo with the two nations taking in around 25.9% and 12% of exports from Burkina Faso respectively. Most of the imports into Burkina Faso come from Cte d'Ivoire (18.9%) and Pakistan (18.1%).

Currently, Burkina Faso is not a self-sufficient country when it comes to the production of its own food, despite having a decent level of potential in that sector. Data from 2017 shows that agriculture contributed a share of around 31% to Burkina Fasos GDP. That figure is similar to the one from 2004, which shows that there has been some stagnation in the sector. Some common crops include cotton, sorghum, corn, millet, rice, sesame, groundnuts, and cottonseed. Other crops include sugarcane, cassava, sweet potatoes, cowpeas, and tobacco.

There have been some government attempts to modernize the sector, which is an activity that has had some success. A good example of a success story is cotton production, which accounted for at least 50% of the exports back in 2004. In that year, about 85% of the total cotton produced (about 210,000 tons) was exported. Another cash crop that has had some success is sugarcane, whose production stood at a significant 450,000 tons in the same year.

Despite the potential that agriculture has, the sector is constantly affected by rainfall fluctuations. The situation is made worse by the fact that the Sahara Desert is gradually encroaching onto the Mossi Plateau in the northern side of the country. Consequently, more people are forced to migrate toward the southern side of the country, which creates more competition for limited water resources.

There are a few industries in Burkina Faso although the largest is arguably mining, which plays a major role in the economy. Some of the minerals produced include cement, gold, marble, phosphate rock, salt, pumice, volcanic rock, dolomite, zinc, and others. In 2012 alone, the country was the fourth largest producer of gold in the African continent. The Kalsaka gold project, which is a few kilometers from the capital city, had an estimated 6.5 million metric tons reserve. Such reserves and others motivate exploring companies such as Cluff Gold plc, Goldrush Resources, and Orbis Gold Limited. However, most of the gold is produced by slaves including child slaves.

In 2012, Burkina Faso had six gold mines although the gold is not as high grade as that found in South Africa. Interestingly, the gold deposits keep on increasing with plenty of new reserves being discovered frequently. For this reason, the Ministry of Finance has come out before stating that gold is the nations top earner through exports. In 2011 alone, gold earned the country about $247 million. Between 2007 and 2011, gold exports brought in a massive $747 million, which was about 64.7% of all the exports in that time and 8% of the nations GDP.

Another significant mineral is zinc with the country having a number of mines. For example, the Perkoa zinc deposit to the west of the capital had the potential of 130,000 tons per year when a feasibility study was done in 2005. Just like gold mining above, the main companies involved are foreign ones.

The services sector is dominated by the banking sector although it is extremely concentrated. At least 90% of the countrys financial system is controlled by banks. There are 11 banks and 5 other financial institutions. Overall, however, banks play an important role in the economy as they contribute about 30% of Burkina Fasos GDP. The banks have sufficient operating capital although they remain at the mercy of fluctuating cotton prices.

burkina faso : industry knowledge wins over politics for top bumigeb job - 02/06/2021 - africa intelligence

burkina faso : industry knowledge wins over politics for top bumigeb job - 02/06/2021 - africa intelligence

Energy and mines minister Bachir Ismal Oudraogo has placed his supporters in most of the departments responsible for mining but the head of the key mining geology bureau has still to be appointed. Junior mines minister Aim Zongo has his own ideas about the best person for the job. [...]

After supporting for months his controversial mining minister Oumarou Idani, the Burkinabe president Roch Marc Christian Kabor has decided in his second term to appoint to the post one of his more high-profile party figures together with a technical expert from the sector to advise him. [...]

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