what is underground mining? (with pictures)

what is underground mining? (with pictures)

Underground mining is a technique used to access ores and valuable minerals in the ground by digging into the ground to extract them. This is in contrast with techniques like open pit mining, in which the surface layers of ground are scooped away to access deposits, or mountaintop removal, in which the top of a mountain is simply shaved off to access the ore inside. When people think of mining, they often visualize underground mining, and many people think of coal mines in particular, although numerous products can be mined underground, with some of the deepest mines in the world being used to access deposits of gold.

Companies opt to use underground mining when deposits of ore are so buried that surface mining is not an option. This requires a lot of logistics to be safe, even with the highly mechanized nature of modern underground mining. Especially with soft ores, much of the work is done by machine, not people, but it's still important to avoid subsidence above the mine, collapses in the mine, explosions, and an assortment of other health and safety risks.

The first step in underground mining is development mining, in which shafts are dug into the site to make the ore accessible. During this phase, along with shafts, things like electricity are installed, along with lifts and shoring to support the walls of the mine so that it will not collapse. Once the mine is developed, active production mining can begin, with the ore being extracted by hand, by machine, or with a mixture of the two.

In shaft mining, a shaft is dug straight down into the Earth to access buried deposits. People get in and out of the mine through lifts in the shaft, and additional shafts may be dug to create emergency exits and deal with ventilation needs. In slope mining, a sloping shaft is dug so that people access the mine by moving down an incline. Motorized equipment is usually used so that people can get into and out of the mine quickly.

One major need with underground mining is ventilation. Ventilation is necessary to remove dust, byproducts of combustion, and byproducts of explosions, along with gases which may be trapped in pockets inside the Earth. Proper support to prevent collapses is also rather important, as are redundant safety systems including alarms for workers, evacuation shafts, emergency lighting, and so forth.

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a InfoBloom researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a InfoBloom researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Awesome! But I would also like to know what minerals are mined using underground mining- that info would be useful since I couldn't find it on any other site. (Please ignore comment if you have included that and it just me who hasn't seen it).

Interesting, but have you considered the subatomic biosphere patterns of the newest phase of Uraninite development? This development is called situ leaching, and is far more advanced than this seemingly primitive matter of underground mining. Uranium is key to future energy fueling. Thank you

top 10 us-based miners

top 10 us-based miners

Newmont Goldcorp(NYSE: NEM) is a leading gold and copper producer with operations in the U.S., Australia, Ghana, Peru and Suriname. Earlier this year, Barrick struck a joint venture with Newmont Goldcorp, called Nevada Gold Mines, which will have three tier-one gold mines: Barricks Cortez; the combination of Barricks Goldstrike and Newmonts Carlin; and Barricks Turquoise Ridge, with Newmonts Twin Creeks. The joint-venture operations making up Nevada Gold Mines owned 61.5% by Barrick and 38.5% by Newmont Goldcorp produced more than 4 million oz. gold in 2018.

In November 2018, Newmont declared commercial production at the Subika underground project in Ghana, which represented Newmonts third profitable expansion last year. The companys consolidated gold production in 2018 totalled 5.48 million ounces. The attributable gold production outlook for 2019 is 5.2 million oz. gold at all-in sustaining costs of $935 per oz. gold.

Southern Copper(NYSE: SCCO) is one of the largest integrated copper producers in the world, with a copper reserve totalling 70.6 million tonnes. The company was incorporated in Delaware in 1952, and is listed on the New York and Lima Stock Exchanges. The company operates in Mexico and Peru, and has exploration projects in Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru.

Southern Copper produced 883,689 tonnes copper, 70,778 tonnes zinc and 17.3 million oz. silver in 2018, compared to 876,979 tonnes copper, 68,665 tonnes zinc and 15.9 million oz. silver in 2017. For 2019, the company expects to produce 986,700 tonnes copper, 96,400 tonnes zinc and 21.4 million oz. silver.

In February 2018, the company won the public bidding process for the Michiquillay project in Cajamarca, Peru, with mineral resources of 1.15 billion tonnes and a 0.63% copper grade. The Michiquillay project is expected to produce 225,000 tonnes copper a year, along with by-products molybdenum, gold and silver, for an initial mine life exceeding 25 years. Michiquillay will start production in 2025 to become one of the largest copper mines in Peru.

Phoenix-headquarteredFreeport-McMoRan(NYSE: FTX) operates seven open-pit copper mines in North America (Morenci, Bagdad, Safford, Sierrita and Miami in Arizona, and Chino and Tyrone in New Mexico) and two copper mines in South America (Cerro Verde in Peru, and El Abra in Chile).

In 2018, Freeport produced 3.8 billion lb. copper at an average realized price of $2.91 per lb., and 2.4 million oz. gold at $1,254 per ounce. The company has estimated consolidated recoverable proven and probable mineral reserves of 119.6 billion lb. copper, 30.8 million oz. gold, 3.78 billion lb. molybdenum and 393.1 million oz. silver.

In May 2019, Freeport announced the sale of its cobalt refinery in Kokkola, Finland and related cobalt cathode business to Umicore for $150 million. Production at the Lone Star copper-leach project in Arizona, which Freeport started developing in 2018, should begin by the end of 2020. In December 2018, the Indonesian government took a 51.2% stake in Freeports Grasberg mine in Papua province, Indonesia, in a $3.85 billion deal.

FMC(NYSE: FMC), a chemical company headquartered in Philadelphia, Pa., serves the global agricultural, consumer and industrial markets. The company has two business segments: FMC Agricultural Solutions and FMC Lithium. The former offers crop-protection chemicals to enhance crop yield and control pests in non-agricultural markets, while the lithium segment makes lithium for use in products relating to energy storage, specialty polymers and chemical synthesis applications.

In June 2019, FMC announced plans to invest more than $50 million over the next three years in capital-improvement projects, including the reconfiguration of a greenhouse and research facility at the companys global research and development headquarters in Newark, Delaware.

Mosaic(NYSE: MOS) is the worlds leading producer and marketer of concentrated phosphate and potash. The Fortune 500 company, headquartered in Plymouth, Minn., has been publicly traded since 2004. Mosaics principal phosphate-production facilities are in Florida and Louisiana, while its potash-production facilities are in New Mexico, Saskatchewan and Canada.

In 2018, Mosaic sold 8.8 million tonnes potash and 8.4 million tonnes phosphate. This years potash sales are expected to range from 9 million to 9.4 million tonnes, and 8.6 million to 9 million tonnes for phosphates.

In the second quarter of 2019, Mosaic reported a net loss of $233 million, including a $284-million, non-cash, after-tax charge for the permanent closure of its Plant City phosphate facility in Hillsborough County, Fla., in June 2019.

Albemarle(NYSE: ALB) is a global specialty chemicals company in lithium, bromine and refining catalysts, serving markets that include energy storage, petroleum refining, consumer electronics, construction, automotive, lubricants, pharmaceuticals, crop protection and custom chemistry services.

In December 2018, Albemarle entered a definitive agreement to acquire a 50% interest in Mineral Resources Ltd.s Wodgina project in the Pilbara region of Western Australia for $1.2 billion. The joint venture will produce spodumene concentrate and battery-grade lithium hydroxide.

In July 2019, Albemarle raised its stake in the Wodgina hard rock lithium project to 60%, and formed a 60/40 joint venture with Mineral Resources to operate the mine and battery-grade lithium hydroxide production facilities.

Royal Gold(NASDAQ: RGLD) acquires and manages precious metals stream and royalty interests, with a focus on gold. The Denver, Colo.-based company owns interests in 186 properties on five continents, including 41 producing mines and 15 development-stage projects. Three-quarters of Royal Golds fiscal 2018 revenue came from its principal producing properties, which include Mount Milligan in Canada, Pueblo Viejo in the Dominican Republic, Andacollo in Chile, Wassa and Prestea in Ghana, Penasquito in Mexico, and Cortez in the United States.

In February 2019, Royal Gold acquired a silver stream on the Khoemacau copper project in Botswana, which has a 21-year initial mine life. Khoemacau is fully funded, and production and stream deliveries are expected in the first half of 2021.

Alcoa(NYSE: AA) is a global industry leader in bauxite, alumina and aluminum products. Alcoa is among the worlds largest bauxite producers, with seven bauxite mines, including the worlds second-largest: Huntly, in Australia. It is also the worlds leading producer of alumina, and operates six refineries in Australia, Brazil and Spain. Its three-refinery operation in Western Australia is the worlds biggest single source of alumina.

In 2018, the company produced 45.8 million tonnes bauxite, 12.9 million tonnes alumina and 2.3 million tonnes primary aluminum in 2018. This year, the company expects to ship between 47 million and 48 million dry tonnes bauxite, between 13.6 million and 13.7 million tonnes alumina, and between 2.8 million and 2.9 million tonnes aluminum.

Headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio,Cleveland-Cliffs (NYSE: CLF) is the largest and oldest independent iron ore mining company in the United States. Its mines and pellet plants in Michigan and Minnesota are major suppliers of iron ore pellets to the North American steel industry.

In June 2019, Cleveland-Cliffs completed a $100 million expansion of Northshore Mining, a company that mines iron ore near Babbitt, Minn., and moves the ore by rail to a processing plant on the north shore of Lake Superior in Silver Bay.

By 2020, Cleveland-Cliffs could become the sole producer of hot-briquetted iron in the Great Lakes region, with the development of its first production plant in Toledo, Ohio, which started construction in April 2018. The Toledo plant will produce 1.9 million tonnes per year of customized, high-quality, hot-briquetted iron.

Peabody Energy(NYSE: BTU) is the largest private-sector coal company in the world. Its primary business lies in mining, selling and distributing coal for use in electricity generation and steelmaking. The company, headquartered in St. Louis, Mo., has majority interests in 22 of the 23 coal-mining operations in the U.S. and Australia, and a 50% equity interest in Middlemount Coal Pty Ltd., which owns the Middlemount mine in Queensland, Australia.

In June, Peabody and Arch Coal entered an agreement to combine their Powder River basin and Colorado assets into a joint venture, which the companies estimate will unlock synergies of $120 million a year in the first 10 years. Peabody will be the operator and own 65% of the joint venture, and Arch will own the other 33.5%.

In December 2018, Peabody acquired the Shoal Creek seaborne metallurgical coal mine in Alabama from private coal producer Drummond Co. Inc. for $387 million. Shoal Creek is expected to ship 2.5 million tonnes of high-quality, hard-coking coal to Asian and Atlantic steel customers in 2019. The company announced on Aug. 9, 2019 that it would close the Somerville mining complex in Indiana, U.S., in October. The mine, which opened in 2000 and supplied 2 million tonnes coal in 2018, has been facing a tough economic climate.

mining law 2021 | laws and regulations | zambia | iclg

mining law 2021 | laws and regulations | zambia | iclg

ICLG - Mining Laws and Regulations - Zambia covers common issues in mining laws and regulations including the acquisition of rights, ownership requirements and restrictions, processing, transfer and encumbrance, environmental aspects, native title and land rights in 15 jurisdictions.

The primary law governing the mining sector in Zambia is the Mines and Minerals Development Act No. 11 of 2015 of the Laws of Zambia (MMDA) as read together with the Mines and Minerals Development (Amendment) Act No. 14 of 2016. The MMDA became effective on 1st July, 2015 although the date of assent is 14th August, 2015. It repealed and replaced the Mines and Minerals Development Act No. 7 of 2008. The MMDA deals with mining rights, licences, large-scale mining in Zambia, gemstone mining, health and safety, environmental protection, and geological services on analysis, royalties and charges. Other pieces of legislation, other than the Mines and Minerals Development Act, include: the Mines Acquisition (Special Provisions) Act, Chapter 218, Volume 13 of the Laws of Zambia; and the Mines Acquisition (Special Provisions) (No. 2) Act, Chapter 219, Volume 13 of the Laws of Zambia.

The mining industry is administered by the Ministry of Mines and Minerals Development, previously called Ministry of Mines, Energy and Water Development; specifically by the office of the Director of Mines. The MMDA gives primary power to the Director of Mines, Director of Mines Safety, Director of Mining Cadastre and Director of Geological Survey, while the Minister enjoys an appellate and supervisory role over the respective Directors actions.

Other than the Mines and Minerals Development Act, the Zambian mining industry is also affected by the provisions of: the Mines and Minerals (Trading in Reserved Minerals) Regulations Statutory Instrument No. 110 of 1995; the Mines and Minerals (Application for Mining Rights) Regulations Statutory Instrument No. 123 of 1996; the Mines and Minerals (Application for Mining Rights) (Amendment) Regulations No. 29 of 1997; the Mines and Minerals (Environmental Protection Fund) Regulations Statutory Instrument No. 102 of 1998; the Mines and Minerals (Royalty) (Remission) Order Statutory Instrument No. 18 of 2000; the Mines and Minerals (Environmental) (Exemption) (Amendment) Order Statutory Instrument No. 31 of 2000; the Mines and Minerals Development (General) Regulations Statutory Instrument No. 84 of 2008; the Mines and Minerals Development (Prospecting, Mining and Milling of Uranium Ores and other Radioactive Minerals Ores) Regulations Statutory Instrument No. 85 of 2008; the Mines and Minerals Development (Mining Rights and Non-Mining Rights) Order Statutory Instrument No. 27 of 2009; the Mines and Minerals Development (Remission of Mineral Royalties) (Luanshya Copper Mines Plc) Regulations Statutory Instrument No. 66 of 2009; the Mines and Minerals Development (Mining Rights and Non-Mining Rights) Order Statutory Instrument No. 26 of 2010; the Mines and Minerals Development (General) (Amendment) Regulations Statutory Instrument No. 34 of 2012; the Mines and Minerals Development (General) (Amendment) Regulations Statutory Instrument No. 17 of 2013; and the Mines and Minerals Development (General) Regulations Statutory Instrument No. 7 of 2016.

The industry is further affected by: Income Tax; the Value Added Tax Act; the Environmental Management Act No. 12 of 2011; the Zambia Development Agency Act of 2006; the Pneumoconiosis Act Chapter 217, Volume 13 of the Laws of Zambia; the Medical Examination of Young Persons (underground work) Act Chapter 216, Volume 13 of the Laws of Zambia; the Workers Compensation Act No. 10 of 1999; the National Pension Scheme (Amendment) Act No. 7 of 2015; the Industrial and Labour Relations Act Chapter 269, Volume 15 of the Laws of Zambia; the Ionising Radiation Protection Act No. 16 of 2005; the National Health Services Act No. 17 of 2005; the Factories Act Chapter 441, Volume 24 of the Laws of Zambia; the Fire Arms Act Chapter 110, Volume 8 of the Laws of Zambia; the Explosives Act Chapter 115, Volume 9 of the Laws of Zambia; the Employment Act Chapter 268, Volume 15 of the Laws of Zambia as read with Employment Act No. 15 of 2015; the Apprenticeship Act Chapter 275, Volume 15 of the Laws of Zambia; the Citizenship Empowerment Act 2006 as read with the Citizen Empowerment (Amendment) Act No. 44 of 2010; the Zambia Revenue Authority Act; the Zambia Wildlife Act of 2015; the Lands Act; the Land and Deeds Act; and the Arbitration Act. In the event of a dispute, the courts also apply the English principles of common law and equity.

English common law and doctrines of equity are applicable in this jurisdiction. When it gained independence in 1964, Zambia inherited the English legal system, and certain pieces of English legislation are still applicable to Zambia through the English Law (Extent of Application) Act, Chapter 11, Volume 2 of the Laws of Zambia. The statutes that were in force in England on 17th August, 1911, as well as the Northern Rhodesia Order in Council, 1911 and the British Acts (Extension) Act, Chapter 10, Volume 2 of the Laws of Zambia, which are statutes passed after 17th August, 1911, are contained in the schedule. In applying common law to mining, Zambian courts have replicated decisions from Commonwealth and foreign countries with similar socio-economic conditions. For example, Zambia has looked more frequently to Commonwealth countries like England and Australia which have had an equally active mining industry.

There have been no political developments per se. However, one recent development is that the minority shareholder in one of the major mines has petitioned against the Lusaka High Court for winding-up the minority shareholder being a fully-owned state enterprise. There has been a general international perception that the winding-up is camouflage for expropriation.

In order to conduct reconnaissance, a person must apply to the Director of Mining Cadastre. Section 12 of the MMDA prohibits any person from undertaking any reconnaissance activity without a mining right, a mineral processing licence or a gold panning certificate. Section 18(2) of the MMDA provides that a holder of a mining right or a mineral processing licence shall, within 180 days of the grant of the licence, survey and demarcate the area covered by the licence in the prescribed manner and register a pegging certificate at the Mining Cadastre Office.

In order to acquire prospecting rights, the applicant has to apply for an exploration licence to the Director of the Mining Cadastre in the prescribed form upon payment of the prescribed fee. The Mining Licence Committee in the Ministry of Mines, which includes all the directors mentioned in question 1.2 above, grants an exploration licence to the applicant, within 60 days of the receipt of an application, in the prescribed form, if the application complies with the provisions of the MMDA. An exploration licence confers on the holder exclusive rights to carry on exploration in the exploration area for the minerals specified in the licence, and to do all such other acts and things as are necessary for, or incidental to, the carrying on of those operations.

A person wishing to conduct mining and dispose of minerals is required to first acquire a mining right or a mining licence granted under the MMDA. In order to acquire mining rights, the applicant has to apply for a mining right. The applicant is required to address the application to the Mining Cadastre Office. The Director of Mining Cadastre may, before issuing a mining right or mining licence, require that the land over which the mining right or mining licence is to be issued be properly surveyed in accordance with the provisions of the MMDA.

The legal regime regulating natural oil and gas is different. The exploration and production of natural oil and gas is regulated by a separate piece of legislation known as the Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act No. 10 of 2008, which repealed and replaced the Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act No. 13 of 1985.

A prospecting permit, small-scale mining licence, small-scale gemstone licence and an artisans mining right cannot be granted to a person who is not a citizen of Zambia or a company which is not a citizen-owned company. According to the MMDA, a citizen-owned company refers to a company where at least 50.1% of its equity is owned by Zambian citizens, and in which the Zambian citizens have significant control of the management of the company.

The MMDA prohibits the transfer or assignment of any mining right without the approval of the Minister of Mines through the office of the Director. In addition, the MMDA requires that any change in the controlling interest in the holder of a mining licence be notified to the Minister not less than 30 days before the date of the effective transfer.

Section 67 of MMDA further stipulates that a holder of a mining right or mineral processing licence shall not, after the date of the grant of the right or licence, without the prior written approval of the Minister: register the transfer of any share or shares in the company to any person, or that persons nominee, if the effect of doing so would give that person control of the company; or enter into an agreement with any person, if the effect of doing so would be to give that person control of the company.

Section 29 of the MMDA provides restrictive requirements; however, these restrictions only apply to artisanal mining, small-scale mining, the mineral trading permit under Section 45(1) and the gold-panning certificate under Section 42(1). These cannot be granted to a person who is not a citizen of Zambia or a company which is not a citizen-owned company. Artisanal mining shall only be undertaken by a citizen or a co-operative wholly composed of citizens. Small-scale mining shall only be undertaken by a citizen-owned, citizen-influenced or citizen-empowered company. An applicant for artisanal mining or small-scale mining shall not be granted a mining licence in respect of radioactive minerals. A mining right over an area between a minimum of two cadastre units and a maximum of 120 cadastre units in extent shall only be granted to the following companies:

Free carry rights or options to acquire do not exist. However, mines that have been previously owned by the Government but sold to international mining houses feature what is referred to as a golden share. This is in respect of the minority shares the state continues to hold in these mines. Under the provisions of Section 27 of the Zambia Development Agency Act No. 11 of 2006, the Minister of Finance may retain a golden share in a state-owned enterprise.

A licence is required for any person who wishes to undertake the processing of any minerals under Section 38. In addition, under Section 13(2), a person may apply for a mineral trading permit, a mineral import permit, a mineral export permit and a gold-panning certificate.

Approval is required from the Director of Mines under the provisions of Section 47 for the export or import of minerals upon payment of statutory fees. Additional approval is required for the export of radioactive minerals. A mineral export permit requires a mineral analysis and evaluation certificate issued by the Director of the Geological Survey, a verification report from the Commissioner General of the Zambia Revenue Authority for the payment of mineral royalties, security clearance by the police, production returns and a mineral right or mineral processing certificate for the source of the mineral, or the mineral product.

The MMDA provides for restrictions on the ability to transfer reconnaissance, exploration and mining rights. The transfer of these rights requires the prior consent of the Minister of Mines and the production of a tax clearance certificate. Upon satisfaction of the criteria provided in Section 66, the Minister is obliged to grant such consent unless the transferee is disqualified from holding a mining right or a non-mining right under the general provisions of the MMDA.

The MMDA does not make specific provision for this; however, rights may be assigned to a financial institution subject to approval by the Minister, under the provisions of Section 66 of the MMDA, who has to approve any assignment or encumbrance of any mining or mineral processing licence.

The holder of a right to conduct reconnaissance, exploration or mining does not automatically own the right to use the surface of land. However, the holder may have the following rights to use the surface of land:

The holder of a reconnaissance, exploration or mining right has an obligation towards the landowner or the lawful occupier, subject to the mining right, to pay fair and reasonable compensation for any disturbance of the rights of the occupier, including any damage done to the surface of the land by the operations.

Where the holder requires exclusive or other use of the whole or any portion of the prospecting or mining area, he has an obligation to acquire a lease to use the same as agreed between such holder and the landowner or lawful occupier. This is referred to as an access agreement. Section 57 of the MMDA, however, provides for exceptions to the above statement. Any dispute with respect to compensation between the surface rights holder and holder of a mining right with the consent of the parties, may be resolved by the Director of Mining Cadastre, or the Director may require the parties to submit to arbitration in accordance with the provisions of the Arbitration Act.

The Lands (Compulsory Acquisition) Act allows the President of the Republic of Zambia to compulsorily acquire any real property (land), interest and personal property for the public benefit. Appropriation under the Constitution is subject to the granting of fair and reasonable compensation. There is also a provision for an Investment Protection Agreement.

The Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) Act No. 2 of 2016 has made special provision with regard to protection of international investment. In addition, Zambia has, through the provisions of the Investments Disputes Convention Act Chapter 42, Volume 4 of the Laws of Zambia, domesticated into national law the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of other States. Zambia has also ratified the Southern African Development Community Protocol on Finance and Investment (SADC Protocol), the Treaty Establishing the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA Treaty) and the COMESA Common Investment Area (CCIA) Agreement. Zambia has bilateral investment treaties with the United Kingdom (2009), Mauritius (2015), the Netherlands (2003), the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (2001), China (1996), France (2002), Germany (1996), Egypt (2000), Cuba (2000), and Switzerland (1994).

Under Section 69, the Director of Mines may consider the nature of mining operations if it is in the best interests of the Republic that the holders of artisanal or small-scale mining operations covering a neighbouring area will be improved by the coordination of the mining operations. This is only with respect to artisanal and small-scale mining operations.

A mine can only be closed upon the issue of a certificate of abandonment by the mining rights holder. The certificate will state the conditions to be satisfied for the mine to be closed. However, it is important to note that any liability incurred before the date on which the abandonment was effected in respect of the land, and any legal proceedings that might have been commenced or continued in respect of any liability against the holder of a mining licence for the certificate, may be commenced or continued against that applicant.

The mining rights holder is expected to give notice of the discovery of any minerals of possible commercial value, keep a full and accurate record of the prospecting operations and preserve records for the protection of the environment. The removal of any minerals without written permission is prohibited.

Yes, to the extent that permission is required from appropriate authorities; for example, if the land is a traditional burial site, is a village with land held under customary tenure, is a national heritage site, is located within 90 metres of Government buildings or areas regulated by the Aviation Act, or is a National Park or Game Protected Area by the Zambia Wildlife Authority, Railway Administration, etc.

The 1969 Mines and Mineral Act gave way for the Government to introduce the Mining Regulations 1971 and the Mining Regulations 1973. Further, these two regulations have been amalgamated to transform the Guide into the Mining Regulations booklet currently being used in the copper mining industry.

The other Acts referred to also include: the Medical Examination of Young Persons (Underground Work) Act, Chapter 216 of the Laws of Zambia; the Pneumoconiosis Act, Chapter 217 of the Laws of Zambia; the Occupational Health and Safety Act No. 36 of 2010; the Workers Compensation Act No. 10 of 1999; and either environment-related or general medicine.

The Chief Inspector of Mines, under the Mines Safety Department (MSD), ensures that the regulations are being followed. Note that any deviations from the regulations call for penalties such as fines or closure of mines.

The outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has negatively affected the mining industry in Zambia. The Minister of Health issued a law affecting the operations of companies. The Public Health Act (Laws, Volume 17, Cap. 295), Public Health (Infected Areas) (Coronavirus Disease 2019) Regulations Statutory Instrument No. 22 of 2020, provided for punitive measures on non-compliance with the Regulations. The mining sector is Chinas topmost interest for investing in Zambia and travel restrictions, shutdowns and port closures have resulted in decreasing demand for minerals.

The impact of COVID-19 on employment resulted in the Minister of Labour and Social Security issuing the Employment Code (Exemption) Regulation of 2020, one of whose effects was the suspension of the following obligations:

There is a system of appeals against administrative decisions in terms of the relevant mining legislation. An aggrieved person may appeal to the Minister of Mines against the decision of the Director of Mining Cadastre, Director of Mines Safety, Director of Mines, Director of Geological Survey or the Mining Licence Committee under the MMDA. If said person is not satisfied with the decision made by the Minister, he can appeal to the Mining Appeals Tribunal. A person aggrieved with the decision of the Mining Appeals Tribunal can appeal to the High Court.

The Zambian Constitution has an impact upon the rights to conduct reconnaissance, exploration and mining. Article 16 of the Bill of Rights of the Constitution provides for the protection of property from being deprived without just cause. Property includes prospecting rights or mining rights. In addition, the recent amendments to the Constitution in Article 10 (3) have made special provision reconfirming the protection of investment in Zambia, to promote foreign investment and to protect and guarantee such investments through agreement with investors and other countries, and any compulsory acquirement of an investment may only be done under customary international law and is subject to Article 16(1) of the Constitution (Bill of Rights) of 1996 as amended.

There is a provision for treaties and for bilateral agreements to be signed and Zambia has entered into a number of multilateral and bilateral treaties. Zambia, as stated earlier in question 8.3 on expropriation, has entered into a number of bilateral and multilateral treaties which include: the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of other States; the SADC Protocol; the COMESA Treaty; and the investment agreement for the COMESA Common Investment Area (CCIA) Agreement.

Zambia has bilateral investment treaties with the United Kingdom (2009), Mauritius (2015), the Netherlands (2003), the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (2001), China (1996), France (2002), Germany (1996), Egypt (2000), Cuba (2000), and Switzerland (1994).

Under the Income Tax Act, the corporate income tax rate applicable to companies carrying out mining operations will be 30%. Variable profits tax of up to 15% no longer applies; however, there is a limitation on the deduction of losses to 50% of taxable income.

Mineral royalties for holders of mining rights are payable at the rate of 5% on base metals (except copper) and energy and industrial minerals, and 6% for gemstones and precious metals. Where the mineral is copper, the mineral royalty rate will be: 4% when the price of copper is less than US$4,500 per tonne; 5% where the price of copper is more than US$4,500 but less than US$6,000 per tonne; and 6% where the price of copper is more than US$6,000 per tonne.

The Mines and Minerals Development Act contains a provision entitling the holder of a right to abandon it either totally or partially, subject to the licence or permit, upon application to the Director of Mining Cadastre for a certificate of abandonment, not later than 90 days before the date on which the holder wishes the abandonment to have effect.

Yes, an exploration licence is valid for a period of four years. It may be renewed for two further periods not exceeding three years each but the maximum period from the initial grant of the licence shall not exceed 10 years. A holder of an exploration licence shall relinquish 50% of the exploration at each renewal. However, an exploration licence for small-scale exploration and gemstones, other than diamonds, is not renewable.

Under the MMDA, the State has vested powers in the Mining Licensing Committee which consists of the Director of Mines, Director of the Geological Survey, Director of Mines Safety, Director of Mining Cadastre and other representatives to cancel an exploration or mining right on the basis of failure to comply with conditions relating to mining rights or non-mining rights.

mining express

mining express

The terms and conditions in this document apply to all MINING EXPRESS MINING PARTNERS and to anyone over the age of 18 who may become a MINING PARTNER by accepting these terms and conditions, agreeing to have read and understood the terms and conditions and that the MINING EXPRESS MINING PARTNER is subject to the following terms and conditions between you and MINING EXPRESS:Modifications

MINING EXPRESS may modify these terms and conditions at any time. All changes to these terms and conditions will take effect immediately upon implementation. Your acceptance of the revised terms and conditions will happen at the time of your login to the Back Office, which will be considered as your acceptance of any changes. If you do not agree to these terms and conditions, do not become a MINING EXPRESS MINING PARTNER.You now have the opportunity to join MINING EXPRESS as a MINING PARTNER. Membership is free at MINING EXPRESS. By signing up as a MINING PARTNER, you are permitted, but not obligated, to inform others how to acquire MINING EXPRESS from time to time so that they also become of MINING EXPRESS MINING PARTNERS.PLEASE NOTE THAT WE MAY ONLY INFORM OTHERS ABOUT MINING EXPRESS ACTIONS WHEN OPENING THE ONLINE OFFER TO NEW MINING EXPRESS MININGS PARTNERS!To become a MINING PARTNER, you must be at least 18 years of age and have reached the age of majority in your country of residence. When you sign up to become a MINING PARTNER you need to provide information about the MINING PARTNER who appointed you to become one. Please note that it is not possible to change the reference MINING PARTNER later, so please be careful that you submit the correct link when you apply to become a MINING PARTNER.To become a MINING PARTNER you must provide accurate, complete, and up-to-date registration information, including an exact name and e-mail address. Members may not (i) select or use the e-mail address of another person; (ii) use the name subject to the rights of another person without the authorization of that person; (iii) use a false or misleading name, mailing address or e-mail address to activate or use a MINING PARTNER's account.By signing up as an MINING EXPRESS MINING PARTNER, you as a MINING PARTNER are opting to receive other special offer e-mails from MINING EXPRESS trading partners with whom we cooperate from time to time. If you do not wish to receive these emails, you can cancel your status as a MINING PARTNER at any time.Your association and status as a MINING PARTNER is personal and you may not sell it or transfer your membership or status as a MINING PARTNER without MINING EXPRESS's prior written consent. Please also note that you can NOT change sponsors when you sign up as a MINING PARTNER.MINING EXPRESS reserves the right to track the activities of the MINING PARTNERS by both the IP address and the individual activity of the browser.MINING EXPRESS may reject the registration or activation of the MINING PARTNER, without giving any reason for rejection.These terms and conditions are in progress from the day you become a MINING PARTNER and will continue until terminated by you or MINING EXPRESS, as set forth in these terms and conditions, but under the 'Termination' heading.MINING EXPRESS does not control how the MINING PARTNER acts under these terms and conditions. The MINING PARTNER must always strictly follow the regulations with those terms and conditions and all other policies governing MINING EXPRESS's relationships with MINING PARTNERS.MINING EXPRESS makes no representations or promises about the amount of sales or bonuses based on MINING EXPRESS gains that the MINING PARTNER will be able to obtain. In addition, MINING EXPRESS does not guarantee any statements or promises that the MINING PARTNER will earn or profit from the mining of any cryptocurrency that the MINING PARTNER may, by their own decision, decide to purchase from MINING EXPRESS.You agree to take steps to familiarize yourself with national and state marketing bans through e-mail, fax, and telephone numbers and to avoid undue business solicitations.You agree to avoid misleading or improper statements about MINING EXPRESS's offers.You agree that any payment is for any, such as, but not limited to, MINING EXPRESS MINING PLANS. Please refer to the 'Available Plans to MINING PARTNERS' section for billing facilities approved by MINING EXPRESS.Rejection to become a MINING PARTNERMINING EXPRESS may reject your request to become a MINING PARTNER without giving any reason for rejection.Restricted countries

The following countries are restricted and you can not become a MINING PARTNER if you are a citizen of any of the following countries: Iraq, Iran, Cuba, USA, Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo, Cte d'Ivoire Lebanon, Libya, Moldova, Myanmar, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Ukraine, Syria and Yemen.Back Office access

As a reseller in MINING EXPRESS, you can log in to your back office at https://backoffice.miningexpress.com/, ('Back-Office'). In the Back Office you will find information about MINING EXPRESS and the opportunities that MINING EXPRESS offers from time to time to all MINING PARTNERS. From your back office you can also purchase the MINING PLANS that MINING EXPRESS offers from time to time.E-mail: Electronic Notification

When you are approved as a MINING PARTNER of MINING EXPRESS, you expressly agree to receive any notices, agreements, disclosures, reports, documents and communication regarding new products, services or other MINING EXPRESS registrations or correspondence. You agree to receive such notifications electronically by e-mail.Introduce and route MINING PARTNERS

As a MINING PARTNER you may introduce and appoint new members and retailers to MINING EXPRESS. PLEASE NOTE THAT MINING EXPRESS DOESN'T AWARD ANY BONUSES, COMMISSION OR REMUNERATION TO NEW MINING EXPRESS MINING PARTNERS. The only way you, as a MINING PARTNER, can be rewarded is if you or any of the MINING PARTNERS you mentioned directly or indirectly to MINING EXPRESS purchase any MINING EXPRESS MINING PLAN.Property rights on websites

All content featured on the website https://miningexpress.com, hereinafter referred to as 'website', including the MINING EXPRESS brand, any variation of the MINING EXPRESS brand, videos, graphics, drawings, texts, photos, applications, software and other files are the property of MINING EXPRESS., hereinafter referred to as ('Proprietary Property') and belong to MINING EXPRESS.You may not modify, copy, distribute, frame, republish, display, publish, transmit, download or sell any Proprietary Property in any form or by any means, in whole or in part, without the prior written consent of MINING EXPRESS. You may not upload or republish Proprietary Property on any Internet site, Intranet, or Extranet, or incorporate the information into any other database or compilation. Any use of the Proprietary Property without MINING EXPRESS's prior written consent is strictly prohibited and will terminate your rights as a MINING PARTNER and any unpaid and future bonuses under these terms and conditions will be forfeited and legal proceedings may be taken against you. Such unauthorized use may also violate applicable laws, including copyright and trademark laws, as well as applicable communications regulations and statutes. Unless explicitly stated in this document, nothing in these terms and conditions shall be construed as conferring any license to intellectual property rights, whether by implication or otherwise.Trademarks

The names MINING EXPRESS used in graphics, logos, designs, page headers, button icons, scripts, and service names are trademarks of MINING EXPRESS, hereinafter referred to as the 'Trademarks'. All rights are reserved. All such trademarks may not be copied or used in any manner without the prior written consent of MINING EXPRESS. You hereby agree that you are familiar with the MINING EXPRESS Property and are not permitted to register any Proprietary Property, including names, slogans, trademarks, logos, designs, domain names, images or copyrighted material substantially similar to those of MINING EXPRESS. All trademarks are owned by MINING EXPRESS.Advertising

You are prohibited, without prior written consent from MINING EXPRESS, from advertising in any manner or form that includes the name MINING EXPRESS or any variation thereof. This includes but is not limited to advertising, promotions of any kind or any advertising links on social forums, such as blogs, social forums or other marketing outlets designed to promote a MINING EXPRESS MINING PARTNER.However, you are permitted to use marketing material that can be found on your Back-Office, including your referral link as a MINING PARTNER to promote the possibility of becoming a MINING EXPRESS MINING PARTNER for any of the MINING PLANS offered periodically by MINING EXPRESS. The MINING PARTNERS, in places that are directed to their acquaintances, friends and contacts, the so-called hot market.Anti-spam policy

MINING EXPRESS prohibits the marketing practice commonly referred to as 'Spam'. All messages originating from you as a MINING PARTNER must comply with all applicable laws in your jurisdiction as well as the general regulations regarding spam. In the event of any validated 'Spam' report by you, MINING EXPRESS may, in its sole discretion and without notice, terminate or suspend your MINING PARTNER account and, in the event of termination, you will lose future unpaid bonuses and mined cryptocurrency. MINING EXPRESS defines 'Spam' as: E-mails addressed to a recipient with whom the originator does not have an existing business or personal relationship or is not sent on request or with the express consent of the recipient; Messages posted to forums and message boards outside the subject (not related to the topic of the discussion), messages sent to discussion groups or forums that are not related to the topic and messages posted in excessive volume; Requests posted in forums, in murals, private messages or chat rooms, or in groups or individuals via Chat or Instant Messaging systems. MINING EXPRESS will evaluate each incident of abuse and, at its sole discretion and with or without notice, will suspend your account and/or terminate the account with the loss of any unpaid and future bonuses. Please note that you agree and accept that Mining Express will not be liable for any damages incurred in connection with the emails you send as a retailer. The retailer shall be responsible for its own communications and for its compliance with these terms and conditions.Request, winnings and Disclaimers

MINING EXPRESS is not responsible for any errors or omissions contained in any content posted on the site, nor responsible for any loss incurred as a result of using the content of the webpage in any way. MINING EXPRESS has not requested or given you any personalized financial advice. MINING EXPRESS employees will respond to your general customer service questions. Either way, they will not give you specific financial advice as they are not licensed under the securities laws to deal with your particular financial situation. The communication of our employees only has effect in providing technical support. Information provided on the site should not determine financial decisions. Further, MINING EXPRESS does not warrant that you will make any money from any MINING PLAN purchased from MINING EXPRESS and the result of the mining is a result beyond the control of MINING EXPRESS. You will obtain the result in accordance with these terms and conditions.Before deciding whether to apply to become a MINING PARTNER of MINING EXPRESS and then, at your own discretion, deciding if you wish to purchase any MINING EXPRESS MINING PLAN, find competent and professional help and read all available information or public company information regarding MINING EXPRESS. If the information you find contains forecasts, expectations, beliefs, plans, assumptions or future revenue potential, this may not be a statement of historical fact and may be 'forward-looking statements'. 'Forward-looking statements' are based on expectations, estimates and projections at the time the statements are made, involving a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ substantially from those currently forecasted. Most 'forward-looking statements' include the following words: 'expects,' 'will,' 'predicts,' 'estimates,' 'believes,' or 'may.'Privacy Policy

Privacy Policy for MINING EXPRESS. Privacy is important to us. To better protect your privacy, we provide this notice explaining our online information practices and the choices you can make about how your information is collected and used. You agree to these policies by using the website in a manner that does not provide any personal information you do not wish to share.

State and political law; Rights, please understand that you may have additional rights from state laws based on where you live. Such State-based rights may increase, strengthen or otherwise in any way complement any right to privacy you have inherently or under federal law. Our policy is to fully comply with the privacy policies of all jurisdictions in which we operate. Thus, you are free to use our contact information to contact us at any time to claim any state rights.Children's Privacy

Protecting the privacy of the very young is especially important. For this reason, our website will never collect or keep information of those we actually know that are under the age of 18, and no part of our website is structured to appeal to anyone under the age of 18. No children under the age of 18 are allowed to use the website and access MINING EXPRESS products and services.Refund and cooling period

If you choose to purchase any MINING EXPRESS MINING PLAN, you will have a 14-day cooling-off period, also called a grace period, which means you may regret your purchase from MINING EXPRESS and request a refund as you did not use the plan you bought. In the case of a refund request, a cancellation fee will be charged on the value of your contract. YOU ARE AWARE AND AGREE THAT THE REFLECTION PERIOD IS CLOSED WHEN YOU REGISTER IN YOUR BACKOFFICE, PERFORM ANY ACTIVITY THAT USES THE CREDIT ON ANY CURRENT ACCOUNT OR ANY MOVEMENT IN YOUR VIRTUAL CURRENCY PORTFOLIO, WHETHER CREDIT OR DEBIT, SO BEING CONSIDERED AS THAT YOU HAVE USED THE MINING PLAN IN ITS ENTIRETY AND YOU MAY NOT RECEIVE REFUND OF MINING EXPRESS AFTER THAT POINT.Terms

The agreement is valid from the day MINING EXPRESS accepts you to become a MINING EXPRESS MINING PARTNER until either party terminates in accordance with what is stated in the 'Termination' section.Know your customer

Due to the protection of MINING EXPRESS, MINING EXPRESS can, at any time, at its own discretion, ask you to provide a copy of your passport and a copy of a utility bill that is not older than 90 days and shows your address. This request is called 'KYC Request'. You are aware and agree that you will be required to provide accepted KYC documents before you can exchange any points and other cash bonuses for a third party who is licensed to handle such information and make any cash payments.If a KYC request is required, you will not be able to exchange points or other bonuses until you have provided acceptable documents.If you breach these terms and conditions or if you act in a way that MINING EXPRESS deems inappropriate or if you misuse any information given to you before it is disclosed to the public or in any way misrepresent MINING EXPRESS, defame, disclose gossip, do statements or if you say or write things that could damage the reputation of MINING EXPRESS as a company or any employees, consultants, outsourcers or individuals associated with MINING EXPRESS, you are aware that MINING EXPRESS may suspend and/or terminate your status as a MINING PARTNER and also reserves the right to take legal action against you for any damages you may have caused MINING EXPRESS.Suspending you as a MINING PARTNER

If you violate these terms and conditions or if MINING EXPRESS suspects that you violated these terms and conditions, MINING EXPRESS may suspend you as a MINING PARTNER, which means that MINING EXPRESS will temporarily disable your access to Back Office and will temporarily disable your access to all content, news and possibility to have any benefit from any offer you may have purchased until MINING EXPRESS makes a final decision to rescind or resume your status as a MINING PARTNER. Termination of your MINING PARTNER status will have consequences that can be found in the 'Terminating your MINING PARTNER status' section. Resuming your MINING PARTNER's status will restore your access to Back Office services and all information you had right to see prior to the suspension.If you are suspended, MINING EXPRESS also reserves the right to freeze your bonuses and points until the investigation is finalized.Please note that if you are suspended as a MINING PARTNER, you will not be allowed to nominate new members to MINING EXPRESS. During the suspension period, you will NOT be permitted or entitled to any bonus, cryptocurrency mining, nor will you be compensated for any loss of any kind, including, but not limited to, loss of bonus or encrypted credit in mining.Termination of your status as a retailer

You may, at any time, terminate your MINING PARTNER status by sending an email to [email protected] EXPRESS may, at any time, make a decision to terminate your status as a MINING PARTNER, without giving any reason for termination. The termination will be effective immediately. MINING EXPRESS reserves the right to terminate your status as a MINING PARTNER in order to comply with applicable laws, to protect your property or property of third parties and to ensure the safety of MINING EXPRESS and others. Also, MINING EXPRESS may terminate your status if MINING EXPRESS suspects under reason that a registrant has or is likely to engage in any activity that violates these terms and conditions for MINING PARTNERS.After the termination happens, it will be displayed on the homepage of the MINING PARTNER's back-office. MINING EXPRESS will also send you an automatic e-mail with the termination notification to the e-mail address you have registered with MINING EXPRESS.In the event of termination, neither the hardware on which any mining was performed will be delivered to the MINING PARTNER, nor will any unused mining capacity will be reimbursed and, in the case of any prepayment made, the prepayment will be refunded.Legal actions

In the event of any breach of these terms and conditions, MINING EXPRESS, without prejudice to any other legal and equitable rights and remedies, reserves the right to take any actions it deems appropriate, including but not limited to issuing warning letters, suspend or terminate you as a MINING PARTNER and seek litigation or other legal action.In addition, MINING EXPRESS has zero tolerance for non-professional behavior which may in any way shape or otherwise directly or indirectly impair MINING EXPRESS or the companies with which MINING EXPRESS cooperates from time to time.Legal actions will be taken against these MINING PARTNERS for any loss of revenue or any other financial damage or loss caused to MINING EXPRESS or the companies which MINING EXPRESS cooperates from time to time. Any MINING PARTNER who has taken the name of MINING EXPRESS - directly or indirectly - or in any way misrepresents MINING EXPRESS or the companies with which MINING EXPRESS cooperates from time to time will also be subject to legal action by MINING EXPRESS and/or companies that MINING EXPRESS from time to time the time cooperates.MINING EXPRESS will be the sole determinant of suspected abuse, fraud, violation of its rules, unprofessional behavior or misrepresentation of MINING EXPRESS. Any decision made by MINING EXPRESS regarding the cancellation of potential bonuses and the suspension or termination of MINING PARTNER status will be final and binding.Bonus loss and crypto-coin mining

If the MINING PARTNER loses its status due to a breach of these terms and contract or if the MINING PARTNER fails to provide acceptable documents pursuant to a KYC Request within 2 weeks of the KYC Request being sent, see under the heading 'Know Your Customer', all rights to current and future bonuses, including rewards and bonuses that are in the points account, are forfeited and the MINING PARTNER can not claim any rights to lost bonuses, points or rewards.Bonus retention and cryptocoin mining result

If the MINING PARTNER receives any bonuses, commission or mining results from encrypted mining currency due to system failures, hacker attacks or otherwise, you agree and accept that MINING EXPRESS will retain all future mining results from encrypted coins, bonuses, commission or other rewards until the financial damage is restored.

You acknowledge and agree that, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, you will not hold harmless employees, consultants, third parties or individuals associated with MINING EXPRESS responsible for any damages or injuries caused or related to your use or inability to use crypto-coins or the website MINING EXPRESS and back-office under any cause or action of any kind in any jurisdiction, including but no limited to actions of breach of warranty, breach of contract or unlawful act (including negligence). You also agree that no third party or individual associated with MINING EXPRESS shall be responsible for any indirect, incidental, special or consequential damages, including profit losses, goodwill or data, in any way arising from the use or impossibility of using crypto-coins.You specifically acknowledge that third parties and individuals associated with MINING EXPRESS are not accountable. You also agree not to attempt to hold any third parties or individuals associated with MINING EXPRESS responsible for the conduct of any third party, including CryptoMed Mining, and that the risk of mining and use of Cryptotomes is entirely yours.MINING EXPRESS reserves the right to assume the exclusive defense of any claim for which MINING EXPRESS is entitled to indemnification under this section. In this case, you must provide MINING EXPRESS with the cooperation requested by MINING EXPRESS.Legal and tax compliance

You are subject to all laws of the state, province and/or country in which you reside and from which you access the MINING EXPRESS website and you are solely responsible for complying with such laws. The partner is not an employee of MINING EXPRESS or any associated company and can not claim to be so. The MINING PARTNER is responsible for all taxes and fees based on all bonuses, points, encrypted coins drawn and encrypted coins received from the MINING EXPRESS bonus system. In the event MINING EXPRESS is responsible for any tax or fee based on your bonuses, points, promotion codes, encrypted coins withdrawn and other payments to you as a MINING PARTNER, you agree to indemnify and hold MINING EXPRESS harmless for that and accept that MINING EXPRESS can claim responsibility and retain already generated and future bonuses, points, mined coins already mined and future, Promotional Codes and other remunerations to cover any payment of taxes or fees to the partner.If any government entity determines that the MINING PARTNER is subject to a wage withholding, the MINING PARTNER agrees to form a corporation (or perform such role) or take reasonable steps to establish that the MINING PARTNER is not an employee of MINING EXPRESS. MINING EXPRESS shall have the right to terminate this agreement immediately upon written notice. If the MINING PARTNER forms a corporation, then, upon MINING EXPRESS's request, the MINING PARTNER shall provide documentation that a corporation has been formed and is in regular standing. If the MINING PARTNER forms a corporation, all commissions under these MINING EXPRESS terms and conditions shall be paid to the MINING PARTNER corporation, otherwise payments shall be made due to the commercial or commercial name of the MINING PARTNER.If any government or authority requires MINING EXPRESS to pay taxes, fees, social security, VAT on its purchased MINING PLAN or insurance contribution on behalf of the MINING PARTNER or in relation to the product and/or services that the partner has acquired from MINING EXPRESS, you agree that MINING EXPRESS retains such taxes and fees from your already received and future bonuses, promotion codes and mined crypto currencies. If MINING EXPRESS suspects that you violated the law, for instance, by using a stolen credit card or otherwise defraud or attempt to cheat, MINING EXPRESS may immediately suspend your MINING PARTNER status, block all your bonuses and take other legal action against you without notice. You agree that MINING EXPRESS can not be held liable if the laws applicable to you restrict or prohibit its participation.

MINING EXPRESS reserves the right to monitor the location from which you access the MINING EXPRESS websites and to block access from any jurisdiction in which participation is illegal or restricted.General notice

As a MINING PARTNER you accept and warrant that you understand the use and intricacies of cryptographic tokens, such as BTC (Bitcoin) and other blockchain-based software systems. Further, you acknowledge and warrant that you have legal permission to generate and mine Cryptomeds, direct or indirectly through third parties such as MINING EXPRESS, within your jurisdiction. You also agree and warrant that you waive your right to participate in a collective action or wide-ranging arbitration or judicial proceeding against MINING EXPRESS or any affiliated entity, individuals, employees, consultants, third-party suppliers or other persons or entities or connected with MINING EXPRESS. You also accept and warrant that you take sole responsibility for any restrictions and risks associated with the generation of minted coins, as explained in the risk section below. In addition, you accept and warrant that you are not exchanging encrypted coins for the purpose of speculative business, or for any unlawful purpose within your jurisdiction. You accept and warrant that you understand that there is no guarantee whatsoever about encrypted coins, express or implied extraction of ore, to the extent permitted by law, and that crypto-coins are drawn 'as is.'Risks

Before signing up to become a MINING PARTNER of MINING EXPRESS, carefully consider the exemplary and non-exhaustive list of risks below and, as necessary, consult a lawyer, accountant and/or tax professionals before agreeing to become a MINING PARTNER and purchase of any MINING PLAN from MINING EXPRESS.Risk of failure to generate coins belonging to blockchain and/or cryptocurrency

Mining software is based on a proven platform: there is a risk that, as an open source project, any Net contributor may experience weaknesses or bugs in the software, causing the loss of coins in one or more or even all accounts which Mining Express holds.Risk of unexpected attack vectors

The field of digital encryption and encryption is very new, and for this reason there is a risk of unforeseen attacks, both in terms of the underlying cryptographic protocol that supports the functioning of the currency generated, as well as the interest in accessing the portfolios in which the coins are stored. Both vectors pose a risk that can lead to the loss of the crypto-coins used in one or more or even all of the accounts that Mining Express holds, although the Mining Express always uses all its technological capability to prevent this from happening.Regulatory risks

Blockchain technology, crypto-coin mining, and crypto-coins themselves enable new forms of interaction between individuals and/or businesses, some of which have yet to be imagined and implemented. Like the emergence of crypto-coins such as Bitcoin, it is very likely that specific regulations will be defined in different jurisdictions aiming at blockchain technology and mining. These regulations may or may not be favorable to partners and some may even prohibit any relationship between an individual or company and MINING EXPRESS.Disclaimer of Warranties

You expressly agree that you are mining encrypted coins at your own risk and that the mined encrypted coins are generated 'as is' without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to implied warranties of title, implied warranties or merchantability for a particular purpose (except to the extent prohibited by applicable law with any warranty period legally required for the shorter period of thirty days after first use or the minimum period required). Without limiting the foregoing, no third party or individuals associated with the generation warrant that the process for the purchase of encryption currency will be uninterrupted or error free.Availability, Virus, Disclaimer

Due to the nature of the Internet and computer systems, MINING EXPRESS can not be held responsible for the continued availability of the website. Although MINING EXPRESS makes every effort to keep the websites accessible and free of viruses, MINING EXPRESS can not guarantee that it is free of viruses. You must, for your own protection, take the necessary steps to ensure proper security measures and use an antivirus before downloading any information, software or documentation. The MINING EXPRESS website may be unavailable from time to time for maintenance or other reasons. Mining Express assumes no responsibility for any error, omission, interruption, exclusion, defect, delay in operation or transmission, failure of the communications line, theft, destruction, unauthorized access or alteration of communications or user content. MINING EXPRESS is not responsible for any technical problems or other problems of any telephone network or service, computer systems, servers or suppliers of any of the aforementioned equipment, software or computer, due to technical problems or traffic congestion on the Internet or on the MINING EXPRESS website, including injury or damage to the User or any other person's computer, cell phone or other hardware or software related to or resulting from the use or download of materials relating to the websites.All information and services included or made available on the websites are provided 'as is' and 'as available' for your personal, non-commercial use. Neither MINING EXPRESS, nor any of its employees, agents, content providers, service providers or licensors make any kind of guarantee regarding the site and/or content contained therein, the products or services available on the site or through the website, the results that can be obtained using the websites.MINING EXPRESS disclaims all warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, implied warranties of merchantability or non-infringement. MINING EXPRESS expressly disclaims all warranties that the content of the website is accurate, reliable and correct; that the website will be available at any time or place, will be uninterrupted, timely, secure or error-free; that any defects or errors will be corrected; or that the content is free of viruses or other harmful components. Your use of the MINING EXPRESS website is solely at your own risk. You download or obtain content, material or software data (including any mobile user) from or through the MINING EXPRESS website or service at your sole discretion and risk and you will be solely responsible for its use and any damages to your cellular phone or computer loss of data or other damages of any kind that may result. As some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion of certain warranties, these exclusions may not apply to you. To the extent that we can not waive implied warranties as a matter of applicable law, the scope and duration of such warranty shall be the minimum required under applicable law.Applicable law

Notwithstanding any law or law to the contrary, any claim or cause of action arising out of or relating to these terms and conditions shall be filed within six (6) months after such claim or cause of action has arisen or is forever prohibited.Several

No delay or omission by either party in the exercise of any right under these terms and conditions shall operate as a waiver of this or any other right. A waiver or consent given by the other party at any time shall be effective only in that case and shall not be construed as a barrier or waiver of any right at any other time.Titles in these terms and conditions are entered as a matter of convenience or for reference only and in no way define, limit, extend or describe the scope of the terms and conditions or the intent of any provision of the terms and conditions. It is the intent of the parties that neither the terms and conditions nor any covenant in the terms and conditions shall be construed against any of the parties in accordance with the rule of common law of construction against the drafter. It is the intention of the parties that this rule does not apply to the terms and conditions. The parties waive all rights to court judgment in any action or proceeding instituted in connection with terms and conditions. If any provision of the terms and conditions is held to be invalid or unenforceable by any court of competent jurisdiction or as a result of future legislative action, such provision shall be applied up to the maximum permissible limit so as to give effect to the intentions of the parties, and all other provisions of the terms and conditions shall remain in full force and effect. In the event of a dispute arising out of or relating to terms and conditions, the prevailing party shall be entitled to a reward of attorneys fees and costs.The terms and conditions document is personal to you and can not be assigned or sub-attributed. This includes but is not limited to selling, transferring, pledging or granting power of attorney for any rights or obligations under these terms and conditions.In the event that any provision of these terms and conditions is invalid, unlawful or unenforceable, the validity, legality, and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall in no way be affected or impaired. Nothing in these terms and conditions provides the MINING PARTNER with the right, license, authorization or approval to make binding agreements with any person or entity on behalf of MINING EXPRESS. In addition, the MINING PARTNER is not authorized to receive or collect money from anyone on behalf of MINING EXPRESS. All payments must be made directly to MINING EXPRESS to be valid payments.

These terms and conditions, the MINING EXPRESS Privacy Policy, as well as all other terms, obligations and rules published on the websites are incorporated by this reference.Offers available to MINING PARTNERS

If you decide that you can become a MINING PARTNER of MINING EXPRESS, this will give you the possibility to inform others about the MINING PLANS that MINING EXPRESS offers from time to time to all persons and companies that become MINING PARTNERs partners of MINING EXPRESS. The MINING PARTNER may also nominate and introduce new MINING PARTNERS to MINING EXPRESS. If you appoint a new MINING PARTNER, you will not be entitled to any compensation, bonuses or any other kind of reward, as MINING EXPRESS does not pay or reward you for recruiting, introducing or referring new MINING PARTNERS to MINING EXPRESS. However, if any of the MINING PARTNERS you directed or indirectly referred to MINING EXPRESS also buys any of the MINING EXPRESS MINING PLANS, you will be entitled to be rewarded for this because of the bonus and rewards plan applicable. Please see the heading 'Bonus system and rewards for MINING PLANS sold'.There is no fee to become a MINING PARTNER.Purchase one or several MINING PLANSAs a MINING PARTNER, you have the possibility of acquiring the right to obtain mining crypto-coins.You can see the cost of each MINING PLAN (the 'Plans') and you can also see how much hash power each Plan will give you in mining capacity. In addition, you can see how many points you will be rewarded under the bonus system and rewards for the purchase of MINING PLANS sold that are purchased by any MINING PARTNER that you have directed or indirectly introduced or referred to MINING EXPRESS. Please note that it is not certain that the points can NOT be converted into real money if you do not fulfill what is required due to the bonus and rewards system, see below under 'Bonus system and rewards for MINING PLANS sold'.Available MINING PLAN units

The MINING PLAN units cost from $100 to $20,000 and will give you the right to receive the cryptocurrency that is extracted with the capacity that you acquired according to the schedule below. You can choose both the plan that meets your financial budget and the risk that the cryptocurrency mining presents, which has been explained several times under these terms and conditions. If you can not afford to lose all the money for your chosen plan, MINING EXPRESS recommends that you DO NOT buy any plans from MINING EXPRESS.The plans that are available from time to time can be found here https://miningexpress.comThe Plan you choose will give you the right to a certain mining capability that will give you a certain hash rate, also known as the mining power of the minted cryptocurrency MINING EXPRESS. The hash rate from which you will benefit is equal to 50% of the hash power you have purchased in your plan. You will continue to receive the mined cryptocurrencies daily on a pro-rata basis that correlates with the hash rate capability you purchased pertaining to the plan you chose. MINING EXPRESS may switch to another profitable cryptocurrency and it will convert its hash rate that correlates to the same hash rate that you have acquired if MINING EXPRESS has the ability to do so. You will then receive the other cryptocurrency mined in a specific portfolio of the respective cryptocurrency. The exchange will be made at no cost to you.The payment of the mining result is normally done daily and you are entitled to receive the mining result during those days, but if for any reasons it is not possible to pay you, the result will be accumulated and paid as soon as possible.The plans described above may sometimes be out of stock, in which case you will see that you will not be able to purchase new MINING PLANS.The MINING PLAN contract will be temporarily frozen when: the received cryptocurrency reaches the 200% ratio in relation to the value of the MINING PLAN purchased, then the contract will no longer receive any cryptocurrency gain or points generated by the move of the direct and indirect indication references and other bonus gains and existing premiums, until the contract is renewed through the purchase of a MINING PLAN equal to or greater than the previous one; or permanently when the contract reaches 2000 days from its beginning, or (still permanently) in the eventual obsolescence of the systems that mine cryptocurrency.

At any time, a MINING PARTNER can make an UPGRADE of the Plan to achieve more depth levels of earnings from its Mining Network. The upgrade refers solely to increasing the depth levels of the MINER NETWORK's earnings, and does not accumulate the crypto-coin gains from the previous plan nor does it return the previous amount. This option is only intended for key positions of leaders working with the MINING NETWORK and who wish to increase their residual earnings in a privileged position and in full activity.MINING EXPRESS can at any time mine a new crypto currency and stop mining an existing one at its discretion and without prior notice.Bonus system and rewards for MINING PLANS sold.Commissions, bonuses and awards offered by MINING EXPRESS to MINING PARTNERS are directly related to the Plan sold and the respective conditioning rules widely disclosed in the exposed material in the BackOffice of MINING PARTNER and support materials available therein.In order for the MINING PARTNER of MINING EXPRESS to receive any bonuses, except for Direct Bonus, it is necessary that the plan be equivalent to or greater than the Standard Plan and qualified with at least two indicated directly plans to the Mining Network, one in each side, whose plan also must be equivalent to or greater than the Standard Plan.Beginner Plan does not pay or receive any commission, bonuses or awards, except Daily Mining equivalent to the plan's hash.

All commissions from contracts between MINING EXPRESS and partner companies in areas such as cryptocurrency mining, cinematic special effects rendering, cryptocurrency and others, will be passed along to Mining Partners as long as profit from those activities are effective. Therefore, these commissions are transitional and temporary. MINING EXPRESS does not pay commission for nonexistent profit

5 causes of equipment failure and how to avoid them | fiix

5 causes of equipment failure and how to avoid them | fiix

Equipment failure happens. The impact of it can run the gamut from easily fixed with minimal losses to catastrophic, depending on factors like repair costs, total downtime, health and safety implications, and impact on production and delivery of services.

Equipment operators are one such group. They typically receive in-depth training on appropriate operating procedures, basic troubleshooting, and best practices for safe equipment use relevant to the machines theyll be working with. However, the day might come when an operator ends up working on a machine they havent been adequately trained for. Sometimes this situation arises as a result of short staffing or unexpected absences. Other times emergencies come up that require quick remediation with available staff who might not necessarily have the level of expertise that your most experienced operators have.

One solution to these problems is to ensure that you have enough trained operators to allow for some flexibility and a contingency plan for staff shortage emergencies. If possible, all of your operators should have some training on every piece of equipmenteven assets they dont typically work with.

Most importantly, never allow an operator to use equipment they are not qualified to run. Not only will this help to reduce operational errors, but in some industries, its imperative for regulatory compliance. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) sets regulations for operator training requirements for certain types of equipment and for general occupational safety. Its up to you, however, to know the regulations applicable to your industry and ensure that you have adequate compliance procedures in place.

Most equipment requires regular maintenance for optimal performance, but too often, preventive maintenance is the first task to go when youre short-staffed and overwhelmed. Its easy to brush off regular maintenance when things seem to be running just fine, and many companies work under the assumption that experienced workers will identify impending trouble before equipment fails entirely.

That said, many of the subtle signs of slowing performance or the early stages of failure arent easily detectable and often go unnoticed. In other cases, companies simply lack efficient planning methods for ensuring that ongoing maintenance is performed. Tracking equipment and machinery with asset tags can help to keep maintenance schedules on track and equipment operating at maximum operational efficiency.

Preventive maintenance is one ongoing function that should never be allowed to fall by the wayside. Taking care of your equipment with regular tune-ups will extend the usable life of your equipment, ultimately giving you more for every dollar. Additionally, preventive maintenance can identify small problems with inexpensive solutions before they become major, costly breakdowns. When you use effective inventory control strategies to ensure that you have the right spare parts in supply for the most common maintenance tasks and malfunctions, downtime for routine maintenance and repairs is minimal. In fact, the U.S. Department of Energy estimates that preventive maintenance results in:

Surely this is a mistake, youre thinking. You just told me that NOT doing preventive maintenance will cause things to break. Its true theres a bit of a Goldilocks situation going on when it comes to preventive maintenance. Not enough can be problematic for the reasons we outlined above, but too much is also a major cause for concern.

Weve written about this in-depth before, so check out this blog if you want to get deeper into the concept of post-maintenance breakdowns. But here are the Coles Notes: Every time you get into a machine to maintain it, you open up that piece of equipment to a whole set of risks, and over time those risks can compound and lead to failure.

Think of it in terms of surgery a triple bypass is a life-saving operation. But you dont want to undergo open heart surgery on a regular basis simply because a few years have passed, or your heart has beat a few million times. But so often, thats exactly how we approach preventive maintenance. Its done on a predefined schedule (generally time- or usage-based) without taking the actual operating condition of the asset into consideration.

So how do you find the right balance of preventive maintenance? The cure here is simple in concept but a bit more complex in execution: condition-based maintenance. This is maintenance thats done based on the operating condition of a piece of equipment, instead of just a set it and forget it schedule. It takes a lot of things into account, from manufacturer information equipment history to real-time data like vibration analysis.

Continuous monitoring relies on sensor data to establish a baseline for what good equipment condition looks like in order to detect subtle changes, which can be used to predict breakdowns and failures. This allows more time for contingency planning and scheduling downtime to minimize production interruptions. This type of monitoring and the data thats collected in the process can help companies identify the causes of increased stress on machinery and adjust workloads and schedules to lessen the load on equipment showing early indicators of impending failure.

The catch here is that this is actually really hard to do if youre managing maintenance with pen and paper or Excel. If this is where you want your maintenance operations to go, it might be time to consider moving to a digital maintenance solution.

Everyone has been there major pressure from the top means theres not a second to spare if you have any hope of hitting your production goals. In these circumstances, it can be so tempting (and so easy) for an operator or maintenance worker to notice somethings not working at 100%, slap a band-aid solution on it and say, Ill figure this out when things calm down. The problem is that realistically, things never calm down to the extent where youll have time to revisit that work. Which means that band-aid solution becomes a semi-permanent solution until it stops working and becomes and full-fledged failure.

A really good example of this is Boeing. Youre probably familiar with the two deadly crashes involving the companys 737 Max aircraft, which raised questions about whether Boeings rush to get the plane through production led the company to take safety risks that ultimately resulted in the crashes.

But the quieter story concerns a different plane model the 787 Dreamliner. Several whistleblowers have come forward to raise the alarm about the Dreamliners, which were manufactured in 2009 at a then-new plant near Charleston, South Carolina. From the beginning, sloppy production was an issue which was consistently swept under the rug in favour of aggressive production schedules.

If you want the full story, check out the full New York Times article here (or the related podcast from the Daily if youre more of an audio person). But long story short, the issues at Boeing are a really good example of competitive pressure at the highest levels of a business having a ripple effect all the way down the chain of command, right to the factory floor. Bad culture at the top creates a get it done quickly mentality that can result in devastating oversights, band-aid solutions, and mistakes.

So what if bad culture is at the root of your equipment failure? What can you do? Weve covered the topic of how to start establishing a culture thats focused on reliability, so go ahead and check out one (or all!) of these pieces to give yourself a firm foundation in reliability.

Equipment can be unpredictable, and failure happens. People make mistakes, parts get old, and sometimes preventive maintenance is just the one thing too many in an already busy day. But by ensuring adequate operator training, running preventive or condition-based maintenance at the right time, and working towards a better overall culture, youll have a much better shot at keeping your equipment running in tip-top shape.

heavy-equipment-fatalities

heavy-equipment-fatalities

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