Since mid-1999, Kirunas haulage level at a depth of 775m has been replaced by the next level down at 1,045m and expansion is being carried out to increase the depth further, which will support production until 2030. The deepening requires relocation of the town and rail infrastructure.
In 2019, Kiruna produced 14.7Mt of iron ore products. The production in 2018 and 2017 was 15Mt and 14.8Mt, respectively. The mine produced 50,000t of ore feed material a day in June 2020. Mining at the site was briefly halted in 2019 after an earthquake of magnitude 4.1, the countrys biggest-ever, occurred in May that year.
The ore bed was then covered by further volcanic deposits (quartz porphyry) and sedimentary rocks before being tilted to its current dip of 50-60. The ore contains a very pure magnetite-apatite mix, containing more than 60% iron and an average of 0.9% phosphorus. Black ore contains less apatite than grey ore.
As of December 2019, the mine was estimated to contain 208Mt of proved reserves and 408Mt of probable reserves. The reserves decreased from the 2018 estimate of 624Mt of proven reserves and 62Mt of probable reserves due to the application of the Pan European Reserves and Resources Reporting Committee (PERC) reporting standard.
The mine is divided into eight production areas, each containing its own group of ore passes and ventilation systems. Mining the ventilation shafts for the current production level was carried out by SIAB using Indau 500 raise borers while Skanska Raise Drilling developed a total of 32 ore passes between the 775 and 1,045m levels using Tamrock and Robbins raise borers.
Ore is mined using sublevel caving, with sublevels spaced at 28.5m vertically. With a burden of 3.0m-3.5m per ring, this yields around 8,500t for each blast. LKAB subsidiary Kimit AB supplies the explosives and prepares the holes for blasting.
Seven 500t-capacity shuttle trains, controlled from the 775m level, collect ore from ten groups of ore passes and deliver it to one of four crushing stations. -100mm ore is then skip hoisted in two stages to the 775m level and then to surface.
After blasting, load-haul-dump machines (some of which are fully automated) carry the run-of-mine ore to the nearest ore pass, from which it is loaded automatically on to one of the trains operating on the 1,045m level.
After primary crushing, sampling using a Morgrdshammer automatic sampler to obtain the apatite and magnetite contents, and hoisting to surface, the ore is processed in Kirunas complex of a sorting plant, two concentrators and two pellet plants to give pellet and sinter fines products.
Ore is transported via remote-controlled shuttle trains to the crushing plant. The ore is then skip-hoisted approximately 1.4km vertically in two stages to the processing plant. Mining is carried out in ten production areas in stages between the current 1,045m level and the new 1,365m level.
The new level (KUJ1365) is the seventh since underground mining started. It is being developed in five stages. The first stage involved the construction of three groups of shafts. The first sections of the new main level were commissioned in May 2013. The remaining four stages will add more production areas, groups of shafts, trains, crushers and skip hoists for the new level.
The company also invested $925m in a third pelletising plant at Kiruna that was commissioned on 17 June 2008. The project also included a concentrator and ancillary equipment. The worlds largest grate-kiln pelletising plant, KK4 has an initial capacity of 5Mt/y of pellets, with the potential to increase its capacity to 6Mt/y.
With the contribution of the pelletising plants, the production capacity of LKAB increased by nearly 10Mtpa. Due to market slow down, one of the pelletising plants in Kiruna was closed in December 2009.
LKABs aim is to make Kiruna a one-product operation, with the focus exclusively on pellet production. As a result, it also invested in new flotation equipment for the Svappavaara concentrator that was inaugurated in May 2008.
The flotation enables it to produce pellet feed from some higher-phosphorus Kiruna ores. The project provides around 1Mtpa of additional output through efficiency savings. The company has been working on driving a 1,400m-long exploration drift northwards from the 1,365m level towards Luossavaara and the Per Geijer ores to the east of Luossavaara since November 2018. Several drill holes are planned to be drilled in 2020. LKAB expects to make decisions regarding a potential expansion involving a completely new production system in the mid-2020s.
Midroc Electro was contracted to provide fully automatic process control and train transportation systems for the new mining level. As a subcontractor to Mirdroc Electric, Bombardier Transportation is providing its fully automated driverless INTERFLO 150 train control technology to support the operations of the new level.
911MPE hassmall gold mining equipment for sale andmore specifically mineral processing equipment. Our equipment is best used in small scale extractive metallurgyoperations operated by small miners or hobbyist prospectors and mining fanatics. 911MPE offers gold mining equipment as well as processing equipment applicable to most any base metals: copper, lead, zinc, nickel, tin, tungsten and more. For the relatively small size of equipment offered, sample preparation and metallurgical laboratories can economically buy good alternatives to the usually unaffordable equipment for sale in the classic market place.
911MPE has for target market what mining professionals consider the pilot-plant scale mining operation or artisanal mining operations with a focus around under 500TPD. Metals you can extract include: gold, silver or other of the precious group as well as the classic base metals; copper, lead, zinc, nickel, molybdenum. Much of our ultra-small scale equipment allows you to process from just a few kilo (pounds) per day and work on your passion for a small budget.
You can buy from us mineral processing equipment starting from crushing, grinding, classification, dredging, gravity separation, flotation, pumps, water treatment and smelting. A line of ovens, furnaces and laboratory equipment is also available.
Making a complete list of gold mining equipment starts with defining the type of gold mining you are doing and the budget you have at your disposal. The type of mining relates to hard rock,eluvial, or placer; alluvial deposits. The capital budget you have to invest in buying your equipment with dictate the scale at which you want to mine and influence the long-term operating costs of your mining operation.
Since most of the information online provides lists of gold mining equipment for amateur level mining with equipment like: gold pans, metal detectors, mini sluice box, blue bowl, geologist rock pick, soil scoop, hand screens/classifiers. The items listed just now fall closer to gold prospecting tools and equipment than actual mining.
I will present here what I consider are major equipment lists for 3 types of mining operations. Remember now, a metallurgist is writing. This will not be flawless and since my speciality is process equipment, that is mostly what will be discussed.
Some amateur level gold prospecting equipment such as metal detectors are often classified as mining equipment by small miners/prospectors operating as a hobby. These items include but are not limited to:
The gold mining equipment includes: jaw crusher, hammer crusher, roller crusher, impact crusher, vertical crusher, cone crusher, ball mill, vibrating screen, spiral separator, flotation machine, mining agitation tank, ore feeder, concentrator, mine hoist, mining conveyor belt, pre-watering into a ball plate, spiral chute, beneficiation shaker, washing machine and other equipment.
After the first stage crushing process, the ore material enters the double-layer vibrating screen, the crushed upper layer material with middle layer material enters the second crushing stage, the outlet material from the first crushing stage and the second crushing stage into the screening procedure. The screened material is ground by the first stage ball mill, a closed circuit grinding system is composed of the ball mill and the classifier. The staged overflow is classified by the cyclone and then enters the second-stage ball mill for re-grinding, and then forms a closed-circuit grinding with the cyclone. The gold-plating equipment cyclone overflow firstly performs preferential flotation, and the foam products are subjected to secondary selection and a three-time selection to become concentrate products. After the preferential flotation, the tailings undergo a rough selection, a selection, and two The selection process of three selections, three selections, and one sweeping, one selected tailings and one sweeping foam product enter the cyclone for re-classification, re-selection, secondary selection and one fine The selection constitutes a closed-circuit selection, and the three selections and the second selection constitute a closed-circuit selection.
Gravity beneficiation is an ore dressing method which according to mineral density and plays an important role in contemporary mineral processing methods. The gravity separation equipment includes spiral chutes, shaker tables, jigs and short cone cyclones.
1. Mercury amalgamation-gravity separation This process involves gravity separation and then mercury amalgamation or mercury amalgamation before gravity separation. The former method is mostly used for the placer gold which with low gold content, or the surface contaminated ore. The latter is mostly used for the quartz vein gold-bearing sulfide ore. 2. Gravity separation (amalgamation)-cyanide process This gold processing method is suited for the quartz vein type gold-bearing oxidized ore which with uneven disseminated grain size and high oxidation degree, the gold-bearing ore basically free of copper, arsenic, antimony, etc. 3. Flotation process This processing method is suitable for the quartz vein gold-bearing ore, gold-bearing altered rock type ore and sulfides ore which with fine gold particle and good floatability, widely applied in the medium-large good mining plant. 4. Gravity separation (amalgamation)-flotation process This procedure is applicable to the uneven disseminated grain size and low sulfur quartz veins containing gold ore. Since the monomer-dissociated gold is recovered in a timely and early manner in the grinding circuit, the total recovery of gold can be increased. This process is a widely used process in China's gold plant, in which the recovery rate of gold can reach 30-60%. 5. Cyanidation (full mud cyanidation) process Applicable to gold with a higher emerald grain size, a deeper iron ore-bearing pyrite quartz vein type ore, or a gold-altered diorite-type ore. The ore is required to contain no elements harmful to cyanidation such as copper, arsenic or antimony. 6. Flotation-Cyanide Process This process is suitable for the treatment of gold-bearing iron ore quartz vein ore with gold and sulfide symbiosis. It is also suitable for gold-bearing granite fracture zone altered rock type ore, especially for high sulfur ore. To apply. This process is also one of the common processes in China's gold mines. 7. Flotation-baking-cyanide combined process This procedure is applicable to gold-bearing quartz vein type ores containing elements such as arsenic and antimony. The roasting process is a preparation for cyanidation in order to remove elements that are harmful to cyanidation.
Mining Equipment Manufacturers, Our Main Products: Gold Trommel, Gold Wash Plant, Dense Media Separation System, CIP, CIL, Ball Mill, Trommel Scrubber, Shaker Table, Jig Concentrator, Spiral Separator, Slurry Pump, Trommel Screen.
Xinhai devotes to providing Turn-key Solutions for Mineral Processing Plant (EPC+M+O), namely design and research - complete equipment manufacturing and procurement - commissioning and delivery - mine management - mine operation. The essence of EPC+M+O Service is to ensure sound work in every link. The model is suitable for most of the mines in the world.
Focusing on the research and development and innovation of mineral processing equipment, Xinhai has won more than 100 national patents, strives for perfection, strives to complete the combination of equipment and technology, improve productivity, reduce energy consumption, extend equipment stable operation time, and provide cost-effective services.
With Class B design qualifications in the metallurgical industry, rich in ore mining, beneficiation, smelting technology and experience, completed more than 2,000 mine design and research, not only can provide customers with a reasonable process, but also can provide customized equipment configuration.
The precious metal minerals are mainly gold and silver mines. Xinhai Mining has more than 20 years of experience in beneficiation for gold and silver mines, especially gold ore beneficiation technology. Gold craft and placer gold selection craft etc.
With Class B design qualification, it can provide accurate tests for more than 70 kinds of minerals and design a reasonable beneficiation process. In addition, it can also provide customized complete set of mineral processing equipment and auxiliary parts.
Xinhai can provide the all-round and one-stop mineral processing plant service for clients, solving all the mine construction, operation, management problems, devoting to provide modern, high-efficiency.
Through mineral processing experiment, the mineral processing flow is customized. Multiple tests are carried out in every link, and make sure the final processing flow to guarantee the successful mineral processing plant construction.
According to tailing processing technology, Xinhai has tailings reprocessing technology and tailings dry stacking. Tailings dry stacking is the self-launched tailings dewatering technology, which is the effective technology in green mine construction.
More than 2,000 mine design and research, equipment supply projects, more than 500 mining industry chain services (EPC+M+O) projects in more than 90 countries and regions around the world, we are always committed to providing you with one-stop, customized Chemical mine solution!
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The rock gold in the mountain is separated from the quartz vein caused by water erosion. Most of this kind of gold is fine as the sand, so it is called alluvial gold. but what are the alluvial gold mining processes? And what is alluvial gold equipment commonly used in the alluvial gold washing plant?
Due to the free state of gold in sand gold deposits, and the specific gravity difference between gold and sand is very obvious, the gravity separation method is an ideal and efficient method to extract gold from the sand.
The principle of the alluvial gold mining process is to recover gold and all kinds of associated heavy minerals from raw ore as much as possible by the gravity dressing method. The lower limit of the particle size of gold recovery by gravity separation method is generally 0.01mm. In the practice, the alluvial gold mining process generally includes breaking, screening and gravity separation.
Many gold ore deposits contain cementing mud masses, some of which have a particle size greater than 100mm, sometimes even cement on gravel or pebbles. If not broken in time in the alluvial gold washing plant, the mud will be discharged along with the waste rock during the screening process, resulting in the loss of gold.
The screening operation can remove 20-40% of the waste rock (gravel, pebble), which is an indispensable operation in the alluvial gold washing plant. The determination of screening parameters must be based on the size composition of gold in the original ore. According to the ore washability, the alluvial gold washing plant generally can use plane vibrating screen, cylinder screen, scrubbers with the screen, hydraulic washing equipment.
Due to the different size composition of the gold in the alluvial gold deposit, the effective particle size limits of the materials treated by various gravity separators are also different. In general, the alluvial gold equipment mostly adopts jig as the roughing equipment and the shake table as the concentrating equipment for the jig coarse concentrate. Some low-grade alluvial gold washing plant adopts the chute as roughing equipment, the jig as scavenging equipment and the shaker table as the concentrating equipment. Therefore, the reasonable alluvial gold mining process is mostly the joint operation of several kinds of gravity separators.
The jigging process is to mix the mineral particles with different specific gravity and stratify them according to the specific gravity in the variable speed medium flow with vertical movement. The minerals with small specific gravity are in the upper layer, while the minerals with large specific gravity are in the lower layer. The layered materials are discharged separately by means of machinery and water flow.
The jig used for gold recovery is suitable for separation of coarse mineral particles (any raw mineral materials except for superfine material mineral), the range of beneficiation size is from 50 mm to 0.074 mm. The lower limit of beneficiation size is 0.04 mm for the alluvial gold mining process if the proportion difference is equal to or larger than 1.25, and the ore achieves the monomer dissociation.
The shake table is a kind of gravity separator in the inclined medium flow. It uses the combined action of the specific gravity difference of sorted minerals, alternating movement of bed surface, and transverse oblique water flow and riffle (or notch groove) to allow loose layering of ores on the bed surface and fan-shaped zoning. Then different products can be produced.
The shaking table used for the alluvial gold mining process is suitable for processing the minerals with fine particles. According to the different particle sizes, the ore can be divided into a coarse sand bed, fine sand bed and slurry bed. The coarse sand bed is suitable for the material particle size between 2.0 mm to 0.5 mm, the fine sand bed is suitable for processing material particle size between 0.5 mm to 0.074 mm, the slurry bed is suitable for processing the material particle size between 0.074 mm to 0.037 mm.
The chute used in the alluvial gold washing plant is a kind of gravity separator relying on the inclined water flow. The material particles settle on the different zone of chute under the joint force of water flow, mineral gravity, frictions between mineral grain and chute bottom. The particles with a small proportion are taken away by the water flow, and the particles with a large proportion are left.
The chute is suitable for the treatment of the alluvial gold with low mud content. The particle size range is 0.6 mm-0.03mm. Gravity separation by chute used in the alluvial gold mining process is featured with simple structure, large processing capacity and low comprehensive cost.
In the production, the selection of alluvial gold mining process and alluvial gold equipment need to be determined according to the specific ore properties and characteristics. Not all the alluvial gold washing plants adopt the same alluvial gold mining process and alluvial gold equipment can obtain the ideal separation effect. It is suggested that the mineral processing test shall be carried out first, so as to develop reasonable alluvial gold mining process and tailor-made alluvial gold equipment.
The Mineral Processing Flowsheets shown on the following pages are based on actual data obtained from successful operating plants. Metallurgical data are shown in these flowsheets which incorporate Crushers, Grinding Mills, Flotation Machines, Unit Flotation Cells, and Selective Mineral Jigs as well as other standard milling equipment.
The Flotation Machine, the Selective Mineral Jig and the Unit Flotation Cell have revolutionized flowsheet design and have made it possible for both small and large plants to increase recoveries and economical return.The Unit Flotation Cell and the Selective Mineral Jig have been perfected to meet the most important principle in ore dressing.
To recover this free mineral, either the Unit Flotation Cell or Jig or both can be installed in the grinding circuit without auxiliary equipment such as pumps or elevators, and for successful operation do not usually require more water than necessary for classifier dilution.
Many of the flowsheets given here have been made possible because of the fact that a coarse pulp (particles as coarse as 1/4)can be circulated in the Sub-A Flotation Machine without sanding or choke-ups and with high metallurgical efficiency.
Sub-A Flotation Machines have the gravity flow principle and flexibility that has made possible the development and application of many of these flowsheets. In fact, the elimination of pumps in handling concentrates for cleaning and recleaning has simplified flowsheets and reduced operating expenses to the operators advantage and profit. It should be pointed out that it is not only the cost of pump wearing parts but the time lost in shut-down for pump repair that is important in profitable mill operation.
Ore Testing takes the guesswork out of answering the question of can this ore be milled profitably. It also gives conclusive answers to the subordinate- questions of what type of flowsheet will give the greatest net return on this operation, and can increased value and/or increased mill capacity be obtained by the addition or substitution of equipment in the mill?
In other words, ore testing is the key to the basic question of the economic possibility of a mining operation. It gives the answer to this question at a minimum of expense without making a costly investment in equipment to learn it the hard way.
The results obtained through ore testing and the intelligent interpretation of the results very often lead to a simple method of treatment giving good profits, where some other treatment might mean less profit or an actual deficit. Our Labgives a good illustration of what proper selection of treatment methods based on ore testing can result in. Test results give you facts.
The 911MPEProcess Equipment Ore Testing Laboratory is continually being confronted with and solving such problems. Very often situations arise where the most common methods of treatment may not be successful but little known and ingenious methods may be applied. The flowsheet showed the results obtained from testing a complex lead-zinc-copper-iron ore containing values in gold. Exceptionally high grade and recovery were obtained in this instance. Utilizing a patented process special reagents made profitable production of lead/copper and zinc-iron concentrates and subsequent separation of these concentrates into four (4) separate products.
Although flotation has made profitable the bene-ficiation of many low grade ores both metallic and non-metallic, it is not always true that flotation will give the greatest economic retiirn. For instance, in many cases, cyanidation of gold ores either direct or as part of a composite method of treatment may be the answer to the question of, what treatment will give the greatest dollar value return on the mill investment ?
An ore sample was received at the 911MPEEquipment Laboratory of a character which would ordinarily respond to the counter-current decantation method of cyanidation for extracting gold. Samples of the Same ore gave results concurring with test work by others but this method was not recommended due to settling difficulties encountered.
Work was not stopped here, however. Eventually, a successful method for treating this ore was found by sacrificing a small loss in slime. The final flowsheet evolved with recoveries indicated which made profitable installation of a reasonable cost plant, overcoming the difficulty arising from the physical characteristics of the ore.
Change of reagents in a flotation circuit may give higher recovery, a better grade of concentrates or both. A Sub-A Unit Flotation Cell installed in the grinding circuit may permit an increase in tonnage milled, a decreased loss in slimes and a better overall recovery.
AMineral Jigs installed in the grinding circuit in cyanide mills have proved very successful in increasing recovery. It is always advisable to recover your mineral values as soon and as coarse as possible.
Typical flowsheets are shown for both metallics and non-metallics as well as industrial products, wastes, etc. De-inking of waste paper by flotation, for example, is coming into prominence with Flotation Cells as it is now possible to recover for the paper industry a useful and usable product on a much more attractive basis than in the past.
Your flowsheet should be designed without bottlenecks or weak links which present problems that can seriously effect operating efficiency. The old saying of one hours delay means no profit today is more true today than ever before due to higher operating costs. This adage emphasizes the importance of having your flowsheet designed efficiently and tailored for your specific operation, and the need for selecting standard reliable equipment designed to give you continuous service.
New and used gold mining equipment, including shaker tables, washplants, mills, crushers, motors, dredges, drills, concentrators, drywashers, flotation cells, pumps, jigs, furnaces, ore bins, conveyors, detectors, screens, sluices, highbankers, trommels, gold pans, augers, hoppers, cranes, amalgamators, and more
BRAND NEW HARD ROCK MINING equipment available for immediate order, from Mt. Baker Mining and Metals. We are a USA manufacturer located in Bellingham, WA. Call us today at (360)595-4445 for more information.
3x6 Ball Mill (1TPH), complete with drive, 20hp motor, balls, frame -- $37,000 1 Ton/hr Turn-key Ore Processor, ready-to-run -- $99,500 6x10 Jaw Crusher (1-3TPH), 7.5hp 3-phase -- $8,600 10x16 Jaw Crusher (5-20TPH), 20hp 3-phase -- $16,700 Mini Mobile Gold Processor 1 Ton/hr, Honda 22hp gas -- $16,000 16x12 Hammer Mill (1TPH), 15hp, 3-phase -- $12,325 24x16 Hammer Mill (2TPH), 30hp, 3-phase -- $22,900 4x8 Shaker Table (1TPH), single phase -- $14,900
2x4 w/ 1/2 ton extra balls. In barely used condition Used briefly for gold mine research & design at the shop only, never seen production work at the mine Portable, trailer-mounted. Comes with: 15x30 long stacking conveyor 6x10 Hopper & stand frame mounted Stationary single-deck grizzly screen Lots of pictures. All the info about everything from specs to production to what uses from an expert engineer, call for details, inspection, close up pictures, shipping etc.
B-70 and B-701 Mc Englevan (MIFCO) metal melting pot furnaces with high pressure blowers. -- $9,500, each Exhaust and pouring system for B-70 MIFCO furnace consists of a 5X9 hood and 20-foot-tall chimney with 1hp fan, trolly with cantilever crucible extractor, crucible tongs and pouring table. -- $10,000 Bullion molds for silver, 50 to 500 ounce plus conical mold to separate metal and slag. -- $5,000 Chemical fume hood on stand, 4-foot-wide, with 3/16 thick safety glass front sash and exhaust fan. Excellent conditionno rust, Alberine stone working surface. We have 2. -- $2,500 each Chemical Scrubber for hood, 1,000 CFM with 50-gallon sump, circulating pump and exhaust fan. -- $2,000 Thum cell electrolytic silver refining system: 500+ ounce per day with power supply and cables. Shown in October 2018 ICMJ. Comes with electrolyte silver dissolver, crystal cleaning station, silver crystal drying oven. We have enough spare parts to make 3 cells. -- $25,000 each Olympus binocular stereo microscope Model SF-20, 30X magnification with fluorescent ring light. -- $195. OMYNO binocular boom microscope on 11-inch pole, 10-65x magnification with wide field eyepieces. Excellent for looking at large specimens. -- $395 Fiber optic illuminator for microscope -- $125 Micro sample splitter with pans, excellent for splitting gold placer. 2 each in stock. -- $95 each Laboratory Scale, Mettler AE160, capacity 75 grams, accuracy, 1/10 mg, reads 4 places to right of decimal. Professionally calibrated in May 2021. -- $1,500 Chain-o-matic Ainsworth double pan balance with set of weights. -- $1,200 12x12x12 lab drying oven. -- $500 Sweco, 4- foot diameter 3-deck sieve with 6 spare sieve. -- s$9,500 Lightnin mixers, air operated with 4 shafts and 3diameter props. -- $1,000 each
EQUIPMENT IN GOOD WORKING condition: Knelson MD30 Concentrator$18,000. 24 ga Gardner Denver mucker$6,000. (2) 24 ga 1-1/2 ton rocker dump and 1 end dump mine cars$2,000 ea. Stutenroth impact mill w/50 HP motor$6,000. GD 63 Jackleg drill$1,500. (970)560-0685 or send email.
25mm OD core drill comes with backpack, Shaw gas-powered engine drill, coupling, diamond drill bit, loose materials bit, core cutter, 2 compression tanks, core breaker, knockout rod, barrel adapter, T-handle, aluminum gas can and 20 feet of drill steel. Excellent condition. Asking $2,800, includes delivery in the USA. UNION GULF RESOURCES, CORP. Send email or call (619)609-0234.
FOR SALE15 TON GIBSON ROD MILL, w/roll. Mint. Jaw, conveyor, feeder, classifier (2) table. Send $8. 14 pages, pictures, W.W. Gibson instructions. OREGON MINE SERVICE, PO Box 205, Sumpter, OR 97877. $15,000 Firm.
ORO INDUSTRIES TROMMEL and Centrifuge. Trommel is 24 diameter by 20 long, 10HP electric drive with Browning gearbox. 25 - 30 YPH. Centrifuge is 20 diameter with 3HP electric motor with 15 YPH production rate. Call (307)922-4754, MATT.
DENVER 5x4 SRL PUMP, 25 HP; Galigher 2 rubber-lined sump pump; 48 Sweco screen; Denver #12 drives/ 48 Dorr Oliver thickener mechanism; (2) 100 amp SS shut off boxes. MILLER EQUIPMENT, Tel: (865)475-7977, or send email.
Powered by JCB200 Excavator with 400 Link Belt Undercarriage. 100YPH Gold Watch Project washplant. 5 cylinder Duetz water pump. 24x8 container included with extra parts & supplies. Setup to work on land or ocean. Located in Nome, AK. Ready to work. Pictures available. $139,000 $79,000. Call ARNE BELSBY, send email or call(509)979-8265.
WANTED: WET DRUM MAGNETIC SEPARATORS in operating condition with feed tanksCASH BUYER FOR SALE: Deister 999 triple table in 40 trailer with sand screw & controls, very good condition for sale. LARRY (602)377-3774 Call or send email.
FOR SALE: 4x3 Denver SRL pump, 7.5 HP; 5x4 Denver SRL pump, 25 HP; 2 Galigher rubber-lined pump 5HP; 48 Sweco SD screen, Denver #12 drives, 48 Dorr Oliver thickener mechanism; (2) 100 amp SS shut off boxes. MILLER EQUIPMENT, Tel: (865)475-7977or send email.
EQUIP. SETUP FOR REMOTE MINE-MOUTH, NO POWER, OPS. Complete Assembly consisting of: M35A2 multi-fuel Army truck w/ mounted 10x16 rebuilt Austin-Western crusher (driven by new 50 HP Kohler gas motor). Crusher discharges to new vibratory overs/unders classifier. Unders supplies used Kamflex elevator discharging to new Stutenroth 2 tph impact mill w/ new 18 hp clutched Honda gas motor. Mill discharges to new vibratory variable speed classifier. All equip. has approx. 12 hrs. use. $34,000 OBO. If not sold by 10/31/21, equipment will be parted out & sold separately. (208)521-3649, leave a message or send email.
COMPLETE PLACER PLANT OPERATION in Arizona. Buy Any or All. Very Low Hours: Rock Systems feeder/hopper/grizzly/conveyer$30,000. Goldlands 50 YPH trommel$35,000. 6 Pump$5,000. Yukon Sluice$3,000. Goldlands sizing separator$9,000. MSI Water Clarification Unit$175,000. MSI Exit Conveyor $7,000. U-Tech Finishing Table$1,900. 4 Honda Pumps$4,000 ea. Power Panel$10,000. 75KW Generator$22,000. Cargo Trailer with tools etc.$8,000. Goldlands Spiral Separator$2,500. Much more: tools, generators, water tank, diesel tank, welding etc. Send email.
NOME 10-inch suction dredge Dola Mae 50-foot catamaran, (2) new 115 HP Yamaha 4-stroke engs. 5.9 Cummins diesel, 6X8 Berkeley water pump, new 6212 Garmin GPS. 16-wheel trailer. Sleeping quarters. $155K Send email or call WES (928)710-8404.
Placer gold mining mainly refers to mined from the land surface or river or underground. Has various types of gold raw material: alluvial gold/placer gold/sand gold/river gold/ gold tailing, etc. The placer gold mining equipment includes feeding, washing, sieving, rough separation, final concentrationand refining. Because the gold density is much bigger than other minerals, so mainly use gravity separation.
Gold Mining Plant is mainly mined from land surface or river or underground. Has various types of gold raw material: alluvial gold/placer gold/sand gold/river gold/ gold tailing, etc. The main process includes feeding, washing, sieving, rough separation, final concentration, and refining. Because the gold density is much bigger than other minerals, so mainly use gravity separation. We strive to bring all these gold mining equipment to you. Whether youre planning for gold, wanting to use locks or senior bankers in a stream, or using a dry cleaner in a dry area, or moving a drum of material, or gold panning machine to save your muscles, or panning a detector, youll find a lot of choices and information.
Feeding: have various kinds of feeding way, depends on the plant and material conditions . have choices of vibration feeder, hopper, belt feeder, or wheel loader and excavator feed directly. Usually will make some grizzly bar on feeding machine or hopper to remove big waste stones. Washing: this process is to wash clean the clay and mud in raw material, the most popular users are gold trommel scrubber washer and gold washing trommel screen. Gold trommel scrubber is for washing raw material that with much sticky clay, trommel screen is for wash raw material that with no sticky clay.
Sieving: after washing, need to sieve out some bigger waste material, the under-screen slurry will go to the next machine. This process can use a trommel screen or vibration screen or high-frequency vibration screen.
Handheld Mineral Analyzer is a lightweight handheld analyzer using XRF technology featuring software that is simple to navigate and offering real-time results on its touch screen PDA. When the user gets back to the office those results can easily be transferred to a desktop computer for long-term storage, analysis and report generation.
Handheld Mineral Analyzer is our top of the line mineral analyzer and spectrometer for field use. Analyzes elements Mg to U down to 1 ppm with 0.05% accuracy. The DXRF-7000 X-ray Fluorescence Mineral Analyzer besides being a spectrometer, it is also small, light and operable with one hand. XRF analyzers are extensively accepted now for accurate, rapid and non-destructive mineral analysis. The Handheld XRF works on wavelength dispersive spectroscopic principles that are similar to electron microprobes used in RoHS analyzers and Alloy Analyzers. XRF Mineral Analyzers are now being widely used in the elemental analysis of minerals, slag refinement and archeology. Samples that can be tested include ores, slag, rocks, soil and slurry in solid, liquid or powder form.
The accurate definition of mining boundary: The built-in GPS function helps to receive signals from satellite anytime at anywhere, and can record the measurements of altitude and longitude during anytime of testing period, which determine the geographic location information of sampling points, and save as test reports automatically. It can draw the ore distribution pictures by obtained coordinate analytical data, screen large area range rapidly and grasp the lode mine accurately, then define the mining boundary, in order to find rich mining area to improve the production efficiency. A built in Bluetooth function, which can recognize the key mining areas on site when the instrument collocates with a Bluetooth printer.
Discover the mines full-value: HD camera function, observes the detected vein and point position more intuitive, manages and controls the process of mining exploitation better, detects the grade of ore at any time. During ore dressing, the quick and accurate analysis of raw ore, concentrate and tailings, provides the value judgment basis for the determination of ore grade, mineral trade, processing and recycling.
Environmental monitoring: To monitor and detect the heavy metals in the soil around the mines, to evaluate mine repair environments, in order to maximize the monitoring of the surrounding environment of good mines.
In this chapter we build on what was done in the previous two chapters. After learning that rocks contain minerals, we now explore how the minerals may be extracted so that they may be utilised. Mining plays an important role in the wealth of a country. Learners will therefore learn about the mining industry in South Africa and the impact that mining may have on a country and the globe.
The mining industry is an important industry in South Africa. It involves a number of industries working together. Exploration is followed by excavation, which is followed by crushing and milling to reduce the size of the rocks. This is followed by extraction (removing the valuable minerals from the ore) and finally refining. Each of these processes are discussed in this chapter. The idea is not that learners should know all the terms off by heart, but rather that they grasp the bigger picture. A number of different processes are needed with each one dependent on the efficiency of the step before. The flow diagram exercise towards the end of the chapter is meant to consolidate the chapter content and help learners realise the continuous nature of many industrial processes.
A research project is also included in this chapter. Let the learners choose one industry and research the different aspects of mining covered in this chapter for their chosen industry. The following mining industries can be researched: gold, iron, copper, diamond, phosphate, coal, manganese, chromium or platinum group metals (PGMs). Learners could also choose their own.
The projects need to be handed out in the beginning of the term/chapter. Learners can then present their projects at the end of the chapter, by doing a poster or an oral, or both. For the orals, we suggest you work with the language department so that learners can be assessed there as well. If posters are done, then we suggest you put these up for display for the whole school to see. Learners can stand at their posters during breaks where learners from other grades have the opportunity to come and have a look at their work and ask questions about it.
The project has a two-way purpose, firstly for learners to continue learning about doing research, finding information and presenting the information to others, and secondly, for learners to explore careers in this industry. Part of what they should include in their research is a section on careers in mining.
In the previous two chapters you have learnt about the spheres of the Earth especially the lithosphere. The lithosphere consists of rocks, which contain minerals. Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. A mineral could be a pure element, but more often minerals are made up of many different elements combined. Minerals are useful chemical compounds for making new materials that we can use in our daily lives. In this chapter we are going to look at how to get the minerals out of the rocks and in a form that we can use. This is what the mining industry is all about.
You already know that minerals in rocks cannot be used. Many processes are used to make minerals available for our use. We need to locate the minerals. We must determine whether these concentrations are economically viable to mine. Rocks with large concentrations of minerals, are called ores. Mining depends on finding good quality ore, preferably within a small area.
The next step is to get the rocks which contain the mineral out of the ground. Once the ore is on the surface, the process of getting the mineral you want out of the rock can start. Once the mineral is separated from the rest of the rock, the mineral needs to be cleaned so that it can be used.
This project should be handed out in the beginning of the chapter so that learners have time to work on it. Information for the project is provided in the sections in the chapter, but learners also need to find information on their own. Guiding questions are provided to help learners.
One of the most important steps in mining is to find the minerals. Most minerals are found everywhere in the lithosphere, but in very, very low concentrations, too low to make mining profitable. For mining to be profitable, high quality ore needs to be found in a small area. Mining exploration is the term we use for finding out where the valuable minerals are.
Today technology helps mining geologists and surveyors to find high quality ore without having to do any digging. When the geologists and surveyors are quite sure where the right minerals are, only then do they dig test shafts to confirm what their surveying techniques have suggested.
In all these methods we use the properties of the minerals and our knowledge of the lithosphere to locate them underground, without going underground ourselves. For example, iron is magnetic so instruments measuring the changes in the magnetic field can give us clues as to where pockets of iron could be.
Exploration methods are used to find, and assess the quality of mineral deposits, prior to mining. Generally a number of explorative techniques are used, and the results are then compared to see if a location seems suitable for mining.
Remote sensing is the term used to gain information from a distance. For example, by using radar, sonar and satellite images, we can obtain images of the Earth's surface. These images help us to locate possible mining sites, as well as study existing mining sites for possible expansion.
Rare earth elements are a set of 17 elements on the Periodic Table, including the fifteen lanthanides and scandium and yttrium. Despite their names, they are found in relatively plentiful amounts in the Earth's crust.
Geophysical methods make use of geology and the physical properties of the minerals to detect them underground. For example, diamonds are formed deep in the Earth at very high temperatures, in kimberlite pipes of igneous rock. The kimberlite pipe is a carrot shape. The first kimberlite pipe to be detected was in Kimberley in South Africa. The pipe was mined, eventually creating the Big Hole.
Geochemical methods combine the knowledge of the chemistry of the minerals with the geology of an area to help identify which compounds are present in the ore and how much of it is present. For example, when an ore body is identified, samples are taken to analyse the mineral content of the ore.
When colonialists arrived, they realised the potential mineral wealth of South Africa as gold, and later diamonds, were discovered. They ruthlessly took land from the local people wherever minerals were found, completely ignoring their right to ownership and access.
De Beers purchased the mining rights and closed all access to diamond mining areas. Anyone entering the area would be prosecuted and the sale of so-called 'illegal' diamonds was heavily punished. Other large mining companies have tried to claim the right to the minerals that they mine.
Once the ore body has been identified, the process of getting the ore out of the ground begins. There are two main methods of mining - surface mining and underground mining. In some locations a combination of these methods is used.
Surface mining is exactly what the word says - digging rocks out from the surface, forming a hole or pit. In South Africa, this method is used to mine for iron, copper, chromium, manganese, phosphate and coal.
Let's look at coal as an example. For surface mining, the minerals need to be close to the surface of the Earth. Most of the coal found in South Africa is shallow enough for surface mining. Usually the rocks are present in layers. To expose the coal layer, the layers above it need to be removed. The vegetation and soil, called the topsoil, is removed and kept aside so that it can be re-deposited in the area after mining. If there is a layer of rock above the coal face, called the overburden, this is also removed before the coal can be excavated. Once all the coal has been removed, the overburden and topsoil are replaced to help in restoring the natural vegetation of the area. This is called rehabilitation.
There is a growing emphasis on the need to rehabilitate old mine sites that are no longer in use. If it is too difficult to restore the site to what it was before, then a new type of land use might be decided for that area.
When you mine you are digging into solid rock. The rock needs to be broken up into smaller pieces before it can be removed. Holes are drilled in the rock and explosives, like dynamite, are placed inside the holes to blast the rock into pieces. The pieces are still very large and extremely heavy. The rocks are loaded onto very large haul trucks and removed. Sometimes the rocks (ore) are crushed at the mining site to make them easier to transport.
Mining trucks are enormous. They are up to 6 meters tall, that's higher than most houses. These trucks can carry 300 tons of material and their engines have an output 10-20 times more powerful than a car engine.
Often the minerals are not found close to the surface of the Earth, but deeper down. In these cases underground mining, also called shaft mining, is used. Examples of underground mining in South Africa are mining for diamonds, gold and sometimes the platinum group metals (PGM).
The PGMs are six transition metals usually found together in ore. They are ruthenium (Ru), rhodium (Rh), palladium (Pd), osmium (Os), iridium (Ir) and platinum (Pt). South Africa has the highest known reserves of PGMs in the world.
Sometimes the ore is very deep, which is often the case with diamonds or gold ore. In these cases mine shafts go vertically down and side tunnels make it possible for the miners and equipment to reach the ore. A structure called the headgear is constructed above the shaft and controls the lift system into the vertical shaft. Using the lift, it can take miners up to an hour to reach the bottom of the shaft.
The TauTona Mine in Carletonville, Gauteng is the world's deepest mine. It is 3,9 km deep and has 800 km of tunnels. Working this deep underground is very dangerous. It is very hot, up to 55C. To be able to work there, the air is constantly cooled to about 28 C using air-conditioning vents.
South Africa is a world leader in the gold mining industry. We have been doing gold mining for more than a century and our mines are the deepest in the world. Until 2010 we were the leading producer of gold in the world. Gold is a lustrous, precious metal which has a very high conductivity.
Yes it is, the mines are very deep, of the deepest in the world. Mining deep underground is difficult and dangerous because of the heat and lack of oxygen. Rocks can also collapse because of the pressure.
One of the methods used in underground mining is called room and pillar, and is often used for mining coal. Part of the mine is open to the surface and part of it is underground. The coal face is dug out, but pillars of coal are left behind to keep the tunnels open and support the roof. Machines called continuous miners are used to remove the coal. The coal is loaded onto conveyor belts and taken up to the surface for further crushing.
This section looks at methods to get very large rocks crushed and ground until it is as fine as powder. The first concept that needs to come across here is that minerals are inside rocks and by crushing rocks, the minerals are exposed at the surface of the rock fragment. Only then can chemicals be used to extract the mineral. An analogy with a choc chip biscuit is used to demonstrate this principle. The second concept is that a lot of energy is needed to break rocks. This is a very energy-intensive step in the mining industry, and one of the reasons why mining is so expensive.
This lesson can be introduced by demonstrating the principle explained above to the class. Use choc chip biscuits and crush them with your fingers. This is to get the minerals (choc chips) out. The next step is to separate the choc chips from the crumbs - also a step in the mining process.
Mineral crystals are spread throughout rocks, just like chocolate chips are spread throughout a choc chip biscuit. Sometimes we can see the chocolate chips from the outside, but most of the time the chips are not visible because they are inside the biscuit.
The only way to find out how many choc chips there are is to crush the biscuit. In the same way we can sometimes see mineral crystals from the outside of the rock, but mostly we don't know what minerals there are and and what concentrations are inside the rock. The only way to find out is to break the rock into smaller and smaller pieces.
Once we have crumbled the choc chip biscuit, the chocolate pieces can be separated from the crumbs. In the same way in the mining process the valuable minerals can be separated from the unwanted rock. The unwanted rock is called waste rock.
Let's look at an example. You have learnt in the previous chapter that copper minerals are found in rocks. In South Africa, the Bushveld Igneous Complex is an area which stretches across the North West and Limpopo Provinces. Igneous rock with high mineral content is found here. Here they mine for PGMs, chromium, iron, tin, titanium, vanadium and other minerals using open pit and underground mining. The rocks from the mines are transported by conveyor belts to crushers. Jaw crushers and cone crushers break the huge rocks into smaller rocks.
You can demonstrate this to your class by placing some pieces of broken up biscuit into a plastic container with some marbles or ball bearings. Place the lid on the container and then shake it so that the marbles help to crush and break up the biscuit pieces even further.
This process of reducing the size of the rocks requires a lot of energy. Just image how hard it is to break a rock. How much more energy do you think is needed to crush a rock until it is like sand? This is one of the steps in the mining process that is very expensive because energy is needed to drive the process.
Most minerals are found as compounds in rocks. Only a few minerals are found in their pure form, in other words not bound to any other element. Examples of minerals found in their pure form are gold and diamonds (diamonds consist of the element carbon).
Some rocks are used as is, and do not need to be crushed into powder, or involved in minerals extraction. For example phosphate rock itself can be used as a fertiliser, or it can be used to make phosphoric acid. Sand, or the mineral silicon dioxide (SiO2) is used in the building industry. Coal found in sedimentary rock, is crushed into the appropriate size and used as fuel for electricity generation or the iron-making process.
Before the minerals can be used, they need to be separated from the waste rock. A number of different separation techniques are used. These techniques are based on the properties of the minerals. Different minerals are often found together, for example copper and zinc, gold and silver or the PGMs. A combination of techniques are used to separate the minerals from the waste and then the minerals from each other.
Sorting by hand is not a very effective method to separate out the minerals you want. It can only be used in exceptional situation or by individuals, for example many people mine for alluvial diamonds by hand in rivers in Angola. It is a cheap and easy process to do individually, but it is not feasible on an industrial scale.
Iron is a metal with magnetic properties. Iron ore can be separated from waste rock by using magnetic separation techniques. Conveyor belts carry the ore past strong electromagnets which remove the magnetic pieces (containing the iron) from the non-magnetic waste. How do you think this works? Study the following diagram
The magnetic iron ore will fall into the container on the right as it is attracted to the magnetic roller and travels around the bend of the magnet for a longer period, whereas the non-magnetic waste drops straight down due to gravity, as the magnet turns, and falls into the first container on the left.
One of the first methods for mining gold was that of panning, a technique where ore is mixed with water and forms a suspension. When it is shaken, the dense particles of gold sink to the bottom and could be removed.
Let the learners work in groups of three. The value of the activity is the process of doing it, and not so much the end product. Learners will want to separate every single bead in the process and this is not possible, nor does it happen in the mining industry. Valuable materials do end up as waste.
When choosing beads to separate, ensure that there are a variety of shapes, round and flat, small and large. Most plastic beads will float on water, but metallic ones will sink. The piece of carpet is provided to make the tray rough, but still smooth enough for round beads to roll off, and flat beads to stick. Choose the smallest flattest beads to represent the valuable materials.They will remain on the carpet in the tray more easily.
To separate by density, learners can drop the beads into water - some beads will float and others will sink. To separate by size, learners can use the mesh and let the smaller beads fall through into the cup, with the larger ones staying behind.
As an extension, include some beads which are identical in shape and size, but different colours. At this point, learners will want to hand sort them. Tell learners that hand sorting, although effective and is used by individuals, it is a very time-consuming process and therefore almost never done in the mining industry. Ask learners if they have any other ideas. This is where chemical properties come in. For example, tell learners that one colour bead reacts with an acid and the other does not. Get learners to discuss how they would then separate the beads knowing this. A real world example is that silver reacts with chlorine, but gold does not.
As you have seen in the activity, separating a mixture can be done using different properties, depending on the different properties of the beads. There could be a number of different ways to separate the beads depending on which type of bead you want to select (considered to be the most valuable ones).
Size separation is used frequently in mining to classify ore. For example, when iron ore is exported, it needs to be a certain size to be acceptable to the world market. Coal that is used in power stations also needs to be a certain size so that it can be used to generate electricity effectively.
Flotation makes use of density separation, but in a special way. Chemicals are added to change the surface properties of the valuable minerals so that air bubbles can attach to them. The minerals are mixed with water to make a slurry, almost like a watery mud. Air bubbles are blown through the slurry and the minerals attach to the bubbles. The air bubbles are much less dense than the solution and rise to the top where the minerals can be scraped off easily.
The focus of this activity is to illustrate the principle of flotation and for learners to practice explaining their observations. They will have to apply what they know about density to be able to explain what they see. This activity can also be modified by letting the learners predict what they think will happen before they add the peanuts and raisins to the tap water; and again before they add it to the soda water. The outcome might not be what they expected and the value of the activity is for them to try to explain what they see.
The activity can be done as a classroom demonstration, but it is more effective if done by the learners in pairs. The one learner can use the tap water, and the other the soda water. A suggestions is to buy packets of peanuts and raisins separately, otherwise oil from the peanuts can coat the raisins, causing some of the raisins to rise. The raisins can also be rinsed in acidulated water because they are often dressed with oil before sale for visual enhancement.
Learners should observe that the peanuts and raisins sink to the bottom in the tap water and remain there since they are more dense than water. However, in the soda water, the peanuts and raisins initially sink to the bottom, but then the peanuts start to rise. Small bubbles from the soda water attach to the peanuts' oily surface and cause them to rise to the surface.
The methods mentioned so far are all physical separation methods. Sometimes they are sufficient to separate minerals for use, like coal or iron ore. But more often the element that we are looking for is found as a chemical compound, and so will have to be separated by further chemical reactions. For example, copper in Cu2S or aluminium in Al2O3. What is the name for the force that is holding atoms together in a compound?
Once the compound is removed from the ore, the element we want needs to be separated from the other atoms by chemical means. This process forms part of refining the mineral, as you will see in the next section.
There are many different methods used to concentrate and refine minerals. The choice of methods depends on the composition of the ore. Most of the methods however, make use of chemistry to extract the metal from the compound or remove impurities from the final product. We will discuss the extraction of iron from iron ore as an example.
Iron atoms are found in the compounds FeO, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 and in rocks like haematite and magnetite. South Africa is the seventh largest producer of iron ore in the world. Iron has been mined in South Africa for thousands of years. South African archaeological sites in Kwa-Zulu Natal and Limpopo provide evidence for this. Evidence of early mining activities was found in archaeological sites dating mining and smelting of iron back to the Iron Age around 770 AD.
The first iron mining techniques used charcoal which was mixed with iron ore in a bloomery. When heating the mixture and blowing air (oxygen) in through bellows, the iron ore is converted to the metal, iron. The chemical reaction between iron oxide and carbon is used here to produce iron metal. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction is:
This extraction method is still used today. The bloomery is replaced with a blast furnace, but the chemistry is still the same. Iron ore, a type of coal called coke (which contains 85% carbon) and lime are added to the top of the blast furnace. Hot air provides the oxygen for the reaction. The temperature of a blast furnace can be up to 1200C. The reaction takes place inside the furnace and molten iron is removed from the bottom. Lime (calcium carbonate or CaCO3) is added to react with the unwanted materials, such as sand (silicon dioxide or SiO2). This produces a waste product called slag. The slag is removed from the bottom and used for building roads. Iron is used to make steel. Hot gases, mainly carbon dioxide, escape at the top of the furnace.
For safety reasons, this experiment should rather be demonstrated. Ensure that you wear safety glasses when performing this experiment. It is quite easy to do, but takes a long time to actually react. The blow pipe needs to redirect the flame into the hollow in the block. Blow through the top of the blue part of the flame. Use a straw to extend the blow pipe so that you can stand a bit further away from the flame. Ensure that a steady stream of heat gets right into the middle of the mixture so that it glows red hot for a while. The video link in the Visit box also shows how the experiment is performed (and the mistakes made). The product can clearly be seen in the video.
In this experiment carbon was used to remove the oxygen from the lead(II) oxide. The carbon and oxygen form carbon dioxide, and the lead is left behind as a metal. This is the same process that is used in iron extraction in the blast furnace, that we discussed above. Coke, which is mainly carbon, removes the oxygens from the iron(III) oxide to form carbon dioxide and leaves behind the iron metal.
The iron that is formed in the blast furnace often contains too much carbon - about 4% where it should contain not more than 2%. Too much carbon makes the iron brittle. To improve the quality of the iron, it needs to be refined by lowering the amount of carbon. This is done by melting the metal and reacting the carbon with pure oxygen to form carbon dioxide gas. In this way the carbon is burned off and the quality of the iron improves. The iron can now be used in the steel-making process. Carbon reacts with oxygen according to the following chemical equation:
Most minerals go through chemical extraction and refining processes to purify them for use in making materials and other chemical products. These are then distributed to where they are needed, for example, coal is distributed to coal power stations and slag is distributed to construction groups for building roads. The mining industry supplies the manufacturing industry and the chemical industry with its raw materials, for example iron is distributed to steel manufacturing industries.
Long before diamonds were discovered in the Kimberley area and the Gold Rush in Pilgrim's Rest and Witwatersrand areas in the late 1800s, minerals have been mined in South Africa. At Mapungubwe in the Limpopo Province evidence of gold and iron mining and smelting was found which dates back to the early 11th century AD. However, it was the large scale mining activities that accelerated the development of the country.
South Africa has a wealth of minerals. We are the world's largest producers of chromium, manganese, platinum, vanadium and andalusite; and the second largest producer of ilmenite, palladium, rutile and zirconium. We are the third largest coal exporter, fifth largest diamond producer and seventh largest iron ore producer. Up to 2010 we were the world's largest gold producer, but our gold production has declined steadily over a number of years. We are currently fifth on the list of gold producers.
The Bushveld Igneous Complex has the world's largest primary source of platinum group metals, indicated on the map in light blue. It is one of the most important mining areas in South Africa due to its abundance of minerals.
Learners need to develop their own symbols for each mineral that is mined, and also colour code the map. The map is blank and so they must find out where each town is located and add it to the map. Let them also fill in the name of the city/town/area in which they live. If there are mining activities in your area which is not indicated on this table, let the learners add it to the list. The list provided is not exhaustive, but it is still fairly long. If you want to make the activity simpler, learners can also chose a certain number of minerals to represent.
There are two types of diamond mining, alluvial (which is found on the coast or in inland rivers which have washed through kimberlite pipes) and kimberlite (which is found inland). What is the link between these two types of diamond mining?
This activity is meant to consolidate the knowledge from this chapter. Each industry will have its own unique flow diagram. The idea is for the learners to realise that it is a continuous system where the one process feeds into the next one to produce a useful end product. This activity links up with the research project and should give learners a good guide for doing and presenting their research projects.
Coal mining: Finding coal seams through exploration in Mpumalanga, Free State and KwaZulu Natal mining for coal using open pit mining removing the coal by blasting and drilling loading onto haul trucks and removing from mine crushing the coal sorting into different sizes distribution to power stations electricity generation
Mining has played a major role in the history of South Africa. It accelerated technological development and created infrastructure in remote areas in South Africa. Many small towns in South Africa started because of mining activity in the area. It also created a demand for roads and railways to be built. Most importantly it created job opportunities for thousands of people. Even today many households are dependent on the mining activities for jobs and an income. Mining is an important part of our economic wealth. We export minerals and ore to many other countries in the world.
Mining activities also have a negative impact on the environment. In many cases the landscape is changed. This applies particularly to surface mines (open pit mines), where large amounts of soil and rock must be removed in order to access the minerals. The shape of the landscape can be changed when large amounts of rocks are dug up from the Earth and stacked on the surface. These are called mine dumps. Open pit mines also create very large unsightly and dangerous holes (pits) in the ground that change the shape of the land.
Air and water pollution can take place if care is not taken in the design and operation of a mine. Dust from open pit mines, as well as harmful gases such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, could be released from mining processes and contribute to air pollution. Mining activities produce carbon dioxide. Trucks and other vehicles give off exhaust gases.
If the mining process is not monitored properly, acid and other chemicals from chemical processing can run into nearby water systems such as rivers. This is poisonous to animals and plants, as well as to humans who may rely on that water for drinking.
An example are pollutants (dangerous chemicals), called tailings, left over from gold mining which pose a threat to the environment and the health of nearby communities. Dangerous waste chemicals can leak into the groundwater and contaminate water supplies if the tailings are not contained properly.
There are no specific answers for this activity. It is an open discussion. We suggest that you discuss the impact of mining in South Africa through this activity. The idea is that learners should come up with all the issues and think about the impact of what we as humans do. The answer to solving the issues is not necessarily to close down all mining activity.
Use the following concept map to summarise what you have learnt in this chapter about mining of mineral resources. What are the three types of mining that we discussed in this chapter? Fill these into the concept map. Remember that you can add in your own notes to these concept maps, for example, you could write more about the environmental impacts of mining.
Phalaborwa is home to one of the largest open pit mines in the world. The original carbonate outcrop was a large hill known as Loolekop. Archaeological findings at Loolekop revealed small scale mining and smelting activities carried out by people who lived there long ago. An early underground mine shaft of 20 meters deep and only 38 centimeters wide were also found. The shafts contained charcoal fragments dating the activities to 1000 - 1200 years ago.
In 1934 the first modern mining started with the extraction of apatite for use as a fertiliser. In 1946 a well known South African geologist Dr. Hans Merensky started investigating Loolekop and found economically viable deposits of apatite in the foskorite rock. In the early 1950s a very large low grade copper sulfide ore body was discovered.
In 1964 the Phalaborwa Mine, an open pit copper mine, commenced its operations. Today the pit is 2 km wide. Loolekop, the large hill, has been completely mined away over the years. A total of 50 different minerals are extracted from the mine. The northern part of the mine is rich in phosphates and the central area, where Loolekop was situated, is rich in copper. Copper with the co-products of silver, gold, phosphate, iron ore, vermiculite, zirconia and uranium are extracted from the rocks.
The open pit facility closed down its operation in 2002 and has now been converted to an underground mine. This extended the lifetime of the mine for another 20 years. The mine employs around 2500 people.
2000 million years ago this area was an active volcano. Today the cone of the volcano is gone and only the pipe remains. The pipe is 19 km2 in area and has an unknown depth, containing minerals like copper, phosphates, zirconium, vermiculite, mica and gold.
This mine was a leader in the field of surface mining technology with the first in-pit primary crushing facility. This meant that ore was crushed by jaw crushers before taken out of the mine. They also used the first trolley-assist system for haul trucks coming out of the pit. Today the mine has secondary crushing facilities, concentrators and a refinery on site.
In 1982 a series of cavities with well-crystallised minerals were discovered, for example calcite crystals up to 15 cm on edge, silky mesolite crystals of up to 2cm long and octahedral magnetite crystals of 1-2 cm on the edge.
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There are 17 rare earth elements, namely lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, ymium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, lutetium, scandium and yttrium. Rare earth elements have optical, electromagnetic and other physical characteristics. When rare earth elements are added into other materials, the quality and performance of products can be greatly improved, and the effect of "the Midas touch turns to gold" is known as the "vitamin" of modern industry. A common metaphor is that if oil is the blood of industry, rare earths are its vitamins. Rare earth minerals can be widely used in atomic energy, glass, petroleum, textile, boot leather, dyeing, petrochemical, optics, laser, hydrogen storage, display panel, magnetic materials and other industries. Nowadays the global demand for rare earth resources is huge for military, science, technology and people's livelihood.
The mineral composition of rare earth ores is complex and contains many minerals and gangue minerals, so it is not easy to separate rare earth ores. The appropriate beneficiation process can be selected based on the different physical and chemical properties of their minerals and associated gangue. Prominer also has a close relation with state-owned laboratories and industrial companies that have rich experience in rare earth beneficiation and concentration so we can provide professional services on rare earth beneficiation technology studies and concentration plant EPC services. The common rare earth beneficiation technology is as below
Gravity separation of rare earth minerals is carried out by using the density difference between rare earth minerals and gangue minerals. For example, coastal placer mineral containing rare earth often adopt gravity separation and rare earth vein ore always use gravity separation for pre-concentration.
The flotation of rare earth ores is one of the main methods for the separation of rare earth ores. It uses the difference of physical and chemical properties between the surface of rare earth minerals and associated minerals to separate them from associated gangue and other minerals to obtain effective rare earth concentrates. For example, in Baotou Bayan Obo ore, because the density and magnetism of fluorocarbon holmium ore and monazite are basically the same, flotation process is adopted, or after gravity separation in seashore placer, rare earth concentrate is often obtained from heavy sand by flotation.
Rare earth mineral magnetic separation aims at some rare earth minerals with weak magnetism or rare earth minerals accompanied with magnetite. The magnetic separator with different magnetic field intensity is used to separate rare earth minerals according to the different specific magnetization coefficients of rare earth minerals with associated gangue and other minerals. For example, weak magnetic separation is used to separate ilmenite from monazite in seashore placer, or high magnetic separation is used to separate monazite from zircon, quartz and other minerals. In flotation of rare earth ores, in order to simplify flotation process and save flotation reagents, high intensity magnetic separation technology is sometimes used to pre-enrich rare earth ores.
Rare earth ore electroseparation is mainly due to the fact that rare earth ore belongs to non-good conductor. Therefore, it can be separated from good conductive minerals by using its different conductivity from associated minerals. Generally, electrostatic separation is mostly used in the heavy sand concentrating operation after gravity separation of seashore placer.
Chemical beneficiation of rare earth ores is mostly used in rare earth deposits which are adhering to kaolin or clay in ionic form. The chemical beneficiation method of leaching first and then precipitating is adopted because of the solubility of rare earth ions in sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate solution. Or for soluble acid or fluorocarbonate rare earth ores which are prone to phase change at high temperature, flotation can be carried out first, enrichment can be carried out, and then purification by chemical mineral processing.
Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.Get in Touch with Mechanic