Mineral processing, art of treating crude ores and mineral products in order to separate the valuable minerals from the waste rock, or gangue. It is the first process that most ores undergo after mining in order to provide a more concentrated material for the procedures of extractive metallurgy. The primary operations are comminution and concentration, but there are other important operations in a modern mineral processing plant, including sampling and analysis and dewatering. All these operations are discussed in this article.
Routine sampling and analysis of the raw material being processed are undertaken in order to acquire information necessary for the economic appraisal of ores and concentrates. In addition, modern plants have fully automatic control systems that conduct in-stream analysis of the material as it is being processed and make adjustments at any stage in order to produce the richest possible concentrate at the lowest possible operating cost.
Sampling is the removal from a given lot of material a portion that is representative of the whole yet of convenient size for analysis. It is done either by hand or by machine. Hand sampling is usually expensive, slow, and inaccurate, so that it is generally applied only where the material is not suitable for machine sampling (slimy ore, for example) or where machinery is either not available or too expensive to install.
Many different sampling devices are available, including shovels, pipe samplers, and automatic machine samplers. For these sampling machines to provide an accurate representation of the whole lot, the quantity of a single sample, the total number of samples, and the kind of samples taken are of decisive importance. A number of mathematical sampling models have been devised in order to arrive at the appropriate criteria for sampling.
After one or more samples are taken from an amount of ore passing through a material stream such as a conveyor belt, the samples are reduced to quantities suitable for further analysis. Analytical methods include chemical, mineralogical, and particle size.
Even before the 16th century, comprehensive schemes of assaying (measuring the value of) ores were known, using procedures that do not differ materially from those employed in modern times. Although conventional methods of chemical analysis are used today to detect and estimate quantities of elements in ores and minerals, they are slow and not sufficiently accurate, particularly at low concentrations, to be entirely suitable for process control. As a consequence, to achieve greater efficiency, sophisticated analytical instrumentation is being used to an increasing extent.
In emission spectroscopy, an electric discharge is established between a pair of electrodes, one of which is made of the material being analyzed. The electric discharge vaporizes a portion of the sample and excites the elements in the sample to emit characteristic spectra. Detection and measurement of the wavelengths and intensities of the emission spectra reveal the identities and concentrations of the elements in the sample.
In X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, a sample bombarded with X rays gives off fluorescent X-radiation of wavelengths characteristic of its elements. The amount of emitted X-radiation is related to the concentration of individual elements in the sample. The sensitivity and precision of this method are poor for elements of low atomic number (i.e., few protons in the nucleus, such as boron and beryllium), but for slags, ores, sinters, and pellets where the majority of the elements are in the higher atomic number range, as in the case of gold and lead, the method has been generally suitable.
A successful separation of a valuable mineral from its ore can be determined by heavy-liquid testing, in which a single-sized fraction of a ground ore is suspended in a liquid of high specific gravity. Particles of less density than the liquid remain afloat, while denser particles sink. Several different fractions of particles with the same density (and, hence, similar composition) can be produced, and the valuable mineral components can then be determined by chemical analysis or by microscopic analysis of polished sections.
Coarsely ground minerals can be classified according to size by running them through special sieves or screens, for which various national and international standards have been accepted. One old standard (now obsolete) was the Tyler Series, in which wire screens were identified by mesh size, as measured in wires or openings per inch. Modern standards now classify sieves according to the size of the aperture, as measured in millimetres or micrometres (10-6 metre).
In order to separate the valuable components of an ore from the waste rock, the minerals must be liberated from their interlocked state physically by comminution. As a rule, comminution begins by crushing the ore to below a certain size and finishes by grinding it into powder, the ultimate fineness of which depends on the fineness of dissemination of the desired mineral.
In primitive times, crushers were small, hand-operated pestles and mortars, and grinding was done by millstones turned by men, horses, or waterpower. Today, these processes are carried out in mechanized crushers and mills. Whereas crushing is done mostly under dry conditions, grinding mills can be operated both dry and wet, with wet grinding being predominant.
Some ores occur in nature as mixtures of discrete mineral particles, such as gold in gravel beds and streams and diamonds in mines. These mixtures require little or no crushing, since the valuables are recoverable using other techniques (breaking up placer material in log washers, for instance). Most ores, however, are made up of hard, tough rock masses that must be crushed before the valuable minerals can be released.
In order to produce a crushed material suitable for use as mill feed (100 percent of the pieces must be less than 10 to 14 millimetres, or 0.4 to 0.6 inch, in diameter), crushing is done in stages. In the primary stage, the devices used are mostly jaw crushers with openings as wide as two metres. These crush the ore to less than 150 millimetres, which is a suitable size to serve as feed for the secondary crushing stage. In this stage, the ore is crushed in cone crushers to less than 10 to 15 millimetres. This material is the feed for the grinding mill.
In this process stage, the crushed material can be further disintegrated in a cylinder mill, which is a cylindrical container built to varying length-to-diameter ratios, mounted with the axis substantially horizontal, and partially filled with grinding bodies (e.g., flint stones, iron or steel balls) that are caused to tumble, under the influence of gravity, by revolving the container.
A special development is the autogenous or semiautogenous mill. Autogenous mills operate without grinding bodies; instead, the coarser part of the ore simply grinds itself and the smaller fractions. To semiautogenous mills (which have become widespread), 5 to 10 percent grinding bodies (usually metal spheres) are added.
Yet another development, combining the processes of crushing and grinding, is the roll crusher. This consists essentially of two cylinders that are mounted on horizontal shafts and driven in opposite directions. The cylinders are pressed together under high pressure, so that comminution takes place in the material bed between them.
For progressive aggregate producers and operators who know the value of maximizing 'in spec' production, ELRUS Aggregate Systems develops and delivers the most reliable crushing, screening and conveying solutions in the marketplace a complete package of equipment, parts, mechanical services and technical support available wherever and whenever you need them.
The SomatXR data acquisition system enables extremely reliable and precise operation in harsh environments and is protected from humidity, dust, shock, and vibration. The modular DAQ system can be used in a variety of applications such as mobile vehicle testing, stationary measurements, and structural health monitoring. The modules are suitable for operation in a wide temperature range and can be easily and flexibly combined, in centralized or distributed configurations.SomatXR and the catman data acquisition software enable you to interactively perform testing and measuring tasks, and always have a complete overview and be in control. It is, however, also possible to select the autonomous black-box recording mode to ensure effective and reliable long-term tests.
The modular architecture of the SomatXR DAQ allows you to implement your own measurement system with a data recorder and catman DAQ software or with a connected PC and catman data acquisition software. In addition, SomatXR modules can be integrated into test bench applications or ECU optimization software in various ways and flexibly combined with QuantumX modules.
The jaw crusher is one of the most admired and most sought after equipment from the house of Propel Industries. For the benefit of newcomers in the industry, here is an explainer of the various components of the Jaw crusher.
The pitman usually denotes a connecting rod, but in a jaw crusher it does not connect two things. Here, it refers to the moving jaw in a jaw crusher. It achieves the reciprocating movement through the eccentric motion of the flywheel shaft. This creates enormous force in each stroke. The pitman is fitted with two replaceable high strength steel alloy toggle plate.
The inward facing side of the jaw crusher pitman is covered with a jaw plate made of manganese which is an extremely hard metal. The jaw plates are usually symmetrical from top to bottom and can be used on either side. This comes handy as the wear occurs at the bottom (closed side) of the jaw and flipping them over provides another equal period of use before they can be replaced.
The fixed jaw face is opposite to the pitman face and is statically mounted. It is also covered with a manganese jaw plate. Manganese liners (Jaw plate) protects the frame from wear. These include the main jaw plates covering the frame opposite the moving jaw and the cheek plates which line the sides of the crusher body within the crushing chamber.
The pitman is put in motion by the oscillation of an eccentricity on a shaft that goes through the pitman's entire length. This force is also put on the shaft itself so they are constructed with large dimensions and with hardened steel. The main shaft that rotates has a large flywheel mounted on each end. Its eccentric shape initiates the movement of the moving jaw in and out. The eccentric shaft is made of Alloy Steel Fitted with anti-friction bearings and is in the pitman and dust proof housing.
The rotational energy is fed into the eccentric shaft of the jaw crusher by means of a sheave pulley which usually has multiple V-belt grooves. In addition to turning the pitman, eccentric shaft usually has substantial mass to help maintain rotational inertia as the jaw crushes the material.
There are typically four bearings on the eccentric shaft: two on each side of the jaw frame supporting the shaft and two at each end of the pitman. These bearings are typically roller in style and usually have labyrinth seals and some are lubricated with an oil bath system.
The bottom of the pitman is supported by a curved piece of metal called the toggle plate. It allows the bottom of the pitman to move up and down with the motion of the eccentric shaft, apart from serving as a safety mechanism for the entire jaw. The piece of non-crushable material such as a steel loader tooth (sometimes called "tramp iron") enters the jaw crushing chamber and being larger than the closed side setting it can't be crushed nor can it pass through the jaw. In this case, the toggle plate will bend or break thus preventing further damage.
Without the spring & retraction screw rod, the bottom of the pitman would just flop around as it isn't connected to the toggle plate and is just resting against it in the toggle seat. The retraction screw rod system ensures the pitman is firmly fixed to the toggle plate. It is designed to fail before any damage occurs to the crusher body, pitman or shaft. The toggle seats are fixed points where the toggle plate contacts the pitman and the toggle beam.
Varying material output size (discharge) is achieved by adjusting the opening at the bottom of the jaw, commonly referred to as the "closed side setting". This can be done by inserting shim plates, wedge movement and hydraulic system.
These are the Jaw Crusher Components and components that produce the breaking action and provide the energy needed to crush the ore. Lets look at the chain of events along a broken cycle and see how they fit together. The first part of the crusher is the drive motor. This will drive the reducer sheave connected to the eccentric shaft. At the other end of the shaft is a flywheel.
The purpose of the flywheel is to generate energy in the form of motion. Once the motor has a flywheel, the momentum of the wheel will cause it to pass through the crushing cycle. The electric motor will then only need to provide the energy needed to propel the flywheel.
This is where the energy comes from, and the crushing action itself is produced by the eccentric shaft, and the axis is called pitman. This is simply an axis that is part of its length offset from the rest of the axis. As the shaft rotates, the portion will travel in a greater arc. By connecting the bearing system, known as the connecting rod bearing and the cap, the main vertical movement can be generated.
There is an arm extending from the toggle plate at the toggle plate. The bracket is at an angle to the arm and the rotating jaw. When pitman rotates, the arm is pulled up. This causes the bracket to reach the horizontal position. The movement of the toggle plate forces the oscillating jaw to move outwardly toward the fixed jaw, thereby breaking the ore.
According to the manufacture of the jaw crusher, the switching plate can provide another very important function. In some designs, the toggle plate consists of two steel plates joined together by so-called SHEAR BOLTS bolts. These are bolts of known shear strength. If the crusher can not break things into the crushing chamber accidentally, when the jaw is not easy to break objects, these bolts will be cut. This will prevent damage to the rest of the crusher.
Unlike gyratory crushers, the primary lubricant used on jaw crushers is grease rather than oil. In the use of grease, there are several different ways to supply them to the necessary lubrication points. It can be manually operated with an oil gun. Or a fat can or metering pump may be used. Whatever it is, the bearings will be a key crusher part of the operator circuit inspection.
Qiming Casting is one of the largest manganese steel, chromium steel, and alloy steel foundry in China. Products include crusher wear parts, Crusher spare parts, mill liners, shredder wear parts, apron feeder pans, and electric rope shovel parts.
Comminutionis the process by which minedoreis reduced in size to make for easier processing. The strict definition is the action of taking a material, specifically mineral ore, and reducing it to minute fragments or particles. This is typically achieved in several stages of a detailed and professionalminingoperation.
Some of the earliest versions ofcrusherswere large stones used by humans to repeatedly hammer rocks placed upon an anvil (a hard stationary surface); the products made from this hammering action were transported by pack animals or humans in sacks. Historically, mining tasks were incredibly labour intensive, and the produced mined products were correspondingly expensive. The only tools available to breakdown ore were adrill bit,sledgehammer, or apickaxe(and the will power of a few tireless workers). The majority of ore sizing and crushing operations were completed by hand until halfway through the 19thcentury. At this time,water powered trip hammersstarted assisting miners; it was roughly the beginning of theindustrial revolution.
During the industrial revolution, commercial mining started seeing the use ofexplosivessuch asgunpowderat the heart of many mining operations; this mining method is known as blasting and it led to ever larger quantities ofrockandmineralsbeing liberated.Steam shovelswere the next tool to revolutionise the mining industry. Over time,larger machinesand moreadvanced mining techniquesstarted making it possible to liberate significantly larger pieces of ore.
The demand for mined minerals and other mined by-products has not reduced over the past 150 years. To ensure supply could meet demand, many differentcrushingandconveyingmachines were invented. Without simultaneous advances within the fields of comminution and conveying, it would not have been possible to mine and convey materials safely and efficiently (even modern conveyors cannot convey single blocks of material weighing many tonnes).
Almost all quarry and mining operations today make use of crushers to reduce the size of larger materials; loose (smaller) sized materials do not typically require a crushing stage. When mining harder rock,jaw crushers,cone crushers, and/orgyratory crushersare usually employed.
Acrusheris a machine designed to reduce the size of large rocks tosmaller rocks,gravel,sand,orrock dust; this is essential for efficient transport of the product via conveyors etc. Crushing is the first of many stages that lead to separation of themineral(s)from thewaste(gangue) material. Waste material can be discarded or recycled allowing the mineral rich product to be further processed at the main plant.
Various types ofcrusherandmineral separatormay be employed depending upon thethroughput,hardness, andpropertiesof the mineral being processed. In all cases, the crushing stage is essentially achieved by transferring a mechanically amplified force (viamechanical advantage)to a material, to breakdown the bonds which hold the material together.
Crushingis achieved by passing the feed between two solid surfaces, then by applying sufficient force to bring the surfaces together so that the molecules of the material being crushed areseparatedfrom (fracture), or,change alignmentin relation to (deform), each other.
Crushers are commonly classified by the degree to which they fragment the starting material, withprimaryandsecondarycrushers handlingcoarse materials, andtertiaryandquaternary crushersreducing particles tofinergradations. Each crusher is designed to work with a certain maximum size of raw material, and often delivers its output to ascreening machine(screener) which sorts and directs the product for further processing. In many cases, initial crushing stages are followed by further milling stages (if the materials need to be further reduced); see ourball millarticle for further details.
Typically, the initial crushing stage is completed using eithergyratory crushersorjaw crushers. It is often the case that there will be only one crusher installed, and this will be referred to as the primary crusher.
The Blake crusher was first patented byEli Whitney Blakein1858and it is the most common type of jaw crusher employed today. The Blake type jaw crusher has afixed feedarea and avariable dischargearea. Blake type crushers come invarious sizesand are commonly used forprimaryandsecondarycrushing roles.
Jaw crushers aresizedbased upon the dimensions of the top feed inlet (gape) or the dimensions of the jaws. For example, a 32 x 54 sized jaw crusher will measure 32 inches from the movable to stationary jaw (when measured at the top i.e. the opening), and each jaw will have a 54-inch width. If a jaw crusher is rated by jaw plate size, a suitable rating maybe 600 x 400, which indicates a 600 mm by 400 mm jaw plate dimension. Sizes may be given inimperial(inches etc.) ormetric(millimetre etc.).
Material is fed into the top feed opening (gape) and gradually moves downwards towards the lower discharge outlet. As the materials passes towards the outlet, it is crushed between the stationary and moving jaws. Thev-shaped areabetween the two jaws is referred to as the crushing chamber. Because the space between the two jaws becomes narrower towards the discharge outlet, the material size is progressively reduced.
Thegapbetween the jaws at the discharge outlet dictates the material output size. A typical jaw crusher will have a crushing ratio of between6:1to8:1i.e. the feed material size is reduced by a factor of 6 or 8.
The series of jaw crushers produced by Rayco are widely used in mining and aggregate crushing industries. They are specially developed for crushing the hardest ores and rocks, and are mainly used as primary crushers.
When working, the motor drives the belt and pulley to move the movable jaw up and down through the eccentric shaft. When the movable jaw rises, the angle between the toggle plate and the movable jaw becomes larger, thereby pushing the movable jaw plate closer to the fixed jaw plate, and the material passes through the two jaws. The squeezing and rolling between the plates realize multiple crushing.
When the movable jaw descends, the angle between the toggle plate and the movable jaw becomes smaller. The movable jaw plate leaves the fixed jaw plate under the action of the pull rod and the spring, and the crushed material passes through the discharge port in the lower jaw cavity freely under the action of gravity Unload.
When crushing high hardness and strong corrosive materials, C6X can accomplish the task very well. Its equipment structure, manufacturing technology and material selection determine the high strength of its body. Not only can it be used for coarse crushing of the hardest rocks and ore, but also can be continuously produced in the most demanding production environment on the ground and underground to ensure the maximum production efficiency of customers.
A sectional view of the single-toggle type of jaw crusher is shown below.In one respect, the working principle and application of this machine are similar to all types of rock crushers, the movable jaw has its maximum movement at the top of the crushing chamber, and minimum movement at the discharge point. The motion is, however, a more complex one than the Dodge motion, being the resultant of the circular motion of the eccentric shaft at the top of the swing jaw. combined with the rocking action of the inclined toggle plate at the bottom of this jaw. The motion at the receiving opening is elliptical; at the discharge opening, it is a thin crescent, whose chord is inclined upwardly toward the stationary jaw. Thus, at all points in the crushing chamber, the motion has both, vertical and horizontal, components.
It will be noted that the motion is a rocking one. When the swing jaw is rising, it is opening, at the top, during the first half of the stroke, and closing during the second half, whereas the bottom of the jaw is closing during the entire up-stroke. A reversal of this motion occurs during the downstroke of the eccentric.
The horizontal component of motion (throw) at the discharge point of the single-toggle jaw crusher is greater than the throw of the Dodge crusher at that point; in fact, it is about three-fourths that of Blake machines of similar short-side receiving-opening dimensions. The combination of favorable crushing angle, and nonchoking jaw plates, used in this machine, promotes a much freer action through the choke zone than that in the Dodge crusher. Capacities compare very favorably with comparable sizes of the Blake machine with non-choking plates, and permissible discharge settings are finer. A table of ratings is given.
The single-toggle type jaw crusher has been developed extensively. Because of its simplicity, lightweight, moderate cost, and good capacity, it has found quite a wide field of application in portable crushing rigs. It also fits into the small, single-stage mining operation much better than the slower Dodge type. Some years since this type was developed with very wide openings for reduction crushing applications, but it was not able to seriously challenge the gyratory in this field, especially when the high-speed modern versions of the latter type were introduced.
Due to the pronounced vertical components of motion in the single-toggle machine, it is obvious that a wiping action takes place during the closing strokes; either, the swing jaw must slip on the material, or the material must slip along the stationary jaw. It is inevitable that such action should result in accelerated wear of the jaw plates; consequently, the single-toggle crusher is not an economical machine for reducing highly abrasive, or very hard, tough rock. Moreover, the large motion at the receiving opening greatly accentuates shocks incidental to handling the latter class of material, and the full impact of these shocks must be absorbed by the bearings in the top of the swing jaw.
The single-toggle machine, like the Dodge type, is capable of making a high ratio-of-reduction, a faculty which enables it to perform a single-stage reduction of hand-loaded, mine run ore to a suitable ball mill, or rod mill, feed.
Within the limits of its capacity, and size of receiving openings, it is admirably suited for such operations. Small gravel plant operations are also suited to this type of crusher, although it should not be used where the gravel deposit contains extremely hard boulders. The crusher is easy to adjust, and, in common with most machines of the jaw type, is a simple crusher to maintain.
As rock particles are compressed between the inclined faces of the mantle and concaves there is a tendency for them to slip upward. Slippage occurs in all crushers, even in ideal conditions. Only the particles weight and the friction between it and the crusher surfaces counteract this tendency. In particular, very hard rock tends to slip upward rather than break. Choke feeding this kind of material can overload the motor, leaving no option but to regulate the feed. Smaller particles, which weigh less, and harder particles, which are more resistant to breakage, will tend to slip more. Anything that reduces friction, such as spray water or feed moisture, will promote slippage.
Leading is a technique for measuring the gap between fixed and moveable jaws. The procedure is performed while the crusher is running empty. A lead plug is lowered on a lanyard to the choke point, then removed and measured to find out how much thickness remains after the crusher has compressed it. This measures the closed side setting. The open side setting is equal to this measurement plus the throw of the mantle. The minimum safe closed side setting depends on:
Blake (Double Toggle) Originally the standard jaw crusher used for primary and secondary crushing of hard, tough abrasive rocks. Also for sticky feeds. Relatively coarse slabby product, with minimum fines.
Overhead Pivot (Double Toggle) Similar applications to Blake. Overhead pivot; reduces rubbing on crusher faces, reduces choking, allows higher speeds and therefore higher capacities. Energy efficiency higher because jaw and charge not lifted during cycle.
Overhead Eccentric (Single Toggle) Originally restricted to sampler sizes by structural limitations. Now in the same size of Blake which it has tended to supersede, because overhead eccentric encourages feed and discharge, allowing higher speeds and capacity, but with higher wear and more attrition breakage and slightly lower energy efficiency. In addition as compared to an equivalent double toggle, they are cheaper and take up less floor space.
Since the jaw crusher was pioneered by Eli Whitney Blake in the 2nd quarter of the 1800s, many have twisted the Patent and come up with other types of jaw crushers in hopes of crushing rocks and stones more effectively. Those other types of jaw crusher inventors having given birth to 3 groups:
Heavy-duty crushing applications of hard-to-break, high Work Index rocks do prefer double-toggle jaw crushers as they are heavier in fabrication. A double-toggle jaw crusher outweighs the single-toggle by a factor of 2X and well as costs more in capital for the same duty. To perform its trade-off evaluation, the engineering and design firm will analyze technical factors such as:
1. Proper selection of the jaws. 2. Proper feed gradation. 3. Controlled feed rate. 4. Sufficient feeder capacity and width. 5. Adequate crusher discharge area. 6. Discharge conveyor sized to convey maximum crusher capacity.
Although the image below is of a single-toggle, it illustrates the shims used to make minor setting changes are made to the crusher by adding or removing them in the small space between the crushers mainframe and the rea toggle block.
The jaw crusher discharge opening is the distance from the valley between corrugations on one jaw to the top of the mating corrugation on the other jaw. The crusher discharge opening governs the size of finished material produced by the crusher.
Crusher must be adjusted when empty and stopped. Never close crusher discharge opening to less than minimum opening. Closing crusher opening to less than recommended will reduce the capacity of crusher and cause premature failure of shaft and bearing assembly.
To compensate for wear on toggle plate, toggle seat, pitman toggle seat, and jaws additional shims must be inserted to maintain the same crusher opening. The setting adjustment system is designed to compensate for jaw plate wear and to change the CSS (closed side setting) of the jaw crusher. The setting adjustment system is built into the back frame end.
Here also the toggle is kept in place by a compression spring. Large CSS adjustments are made to the jaw crusher by modifying the length of the toggle. Again, shims allow for minor gap adjustments as they are inserted between the mainframe and the toggle block.
is done considering the maximum rock-lump or large stone expected to be crushed and also includes the TPH tonnage rate needing to be crushed. In sizing, we not that jaw crushers will only have around 75% availability and extra sizing should permit this downtime.
As a rule, the maximum stone-lump dimension need not exceed 80% of the jaw crushers gape. For intense, a 59 x 79 machine should not see rocks larger than 80 x 59/100 = 47 or 1.2 meters across. Miners being miners, it is a certainty during day-to-day operation, the crusher will see oversized ore but is should be fine and pass-thru if no bridging takes place.
It will be seen that the pitman (226) is suspended from an eccentric on the flywheel shaft and consequently moves up and down as the latter revolves, forcing the toggle plates outwards at each revolution. The seating (234) of the rear toggle plate (239) is fixed to the crusher frame; the bottom of the swing jaw (214) is therefore pushed forward each time the pitman rises, a tension rod (245) fitted with a spring (247) being used to bring it back as the pitman falls. Thus at each revolution of the flywheel the movable jaw crushes any lump of ore once against the stationary jaw (212) allowing it to fall as it swings back on the return half-stroke until eventually the pieces have been broken small enough to drop out. It follows that the size to which the ore is crushed.
The jaw crusher is not so efficient a machine as the gyratory crusher described in the next paragraph, the chief reason for this being that its crushing action is confined to the forward stroke of the jaw only, whereas the gyratory crusher does useful work during the whole of its revolution. In addition, the jaw crusher cannot be choke-fed, as can the other machine, with the result that it is difficult to keep it working at its full capacity that is, at maximum efficiency.
Tables 5 and 6 give particulars of different sizes of jaw crushers. The capacity figures are based on ore weighing 100 lb. per cubic foot; for a heavier ore, the figures should be increased in direct proportion to its weight in pounds per cubic foot.
The JAW crusher and the GYRATORY crusher have similarities that put them into the same class of crusher. They both have the same crushing speed, 100 to 200 R.P.M. They both break the ore by compression force. And lastly, they both are able to crush the same size of ore.
In spite of their similarities, each crusher design has its own limitations and advantages that differ from the other one. A Gyratory crusher can be fed from two sides and is able to handle ore that tends to slab. Its design allows a higher-speed motor with a higher reduction ratio between the motor and the crushing surface. This means a dollar saving in energy costs.
A Jaw crusher on the other hand requires an Ely wheel to store energy. The box frame construction of this type of crusher also allows it to handle tougher ore. This design restricts the feeding of the crusher to one side only.
The ore enters from the top and the swing jaw squeezes it against the stationary jaw until it breaks. The broken ore then falls through the crusher to be taken away by a conveyor that is under the crusher.Although the jaws do the work, the real heart of this crusher is the TOGGLE PLATES, the PITMAN, and the PLY WHEEL.
These jaw crushers are ideal forsmall properties and they are of the high capacity forced feed design.On this first Forced Feed Jaw Crusher, the mainframe and bumper are cast of special alloy iron and the initial cost is low. The frame is ribbed both vertically and horizontally to give maximum strength with minimum weight. The bumper is ruggedly constructed to withstand tremendous shock loads. Steel bumper can be furnished if desired. The side bearings are bronze; the bumper bearings are of the antifriction type.
This bearing arrangement adds both strength and ease of movement. The jaw plates and cheek plates are reversible and are of the best-grade manganese steel. The jaw opening is controlled by the position of an adjustable wedge block. The crusher is usually driven by a V-to-V belt drive, but it can be arranged for either V-to-flat or fiat belt drive. The 8x10 size utilizes a split frame and maybe packed for muleback transportation. Cast steel frames can be furnished to obtain maximum durability.
This second type of forced feed rock crusher is similar in design to the Type H listed above except for having a frame and bumper made of cast steel. This steel construction makes the unit lighter per unit of size and adds considerable strength. The bearings are all of the special design; they are bronze and will stand continuous service without any danger of failure. The jaw and cheek plates are manganese steel; and are completely reversible, thus adding to their wearing life. The jaw opening is controlled by the position of an adjustable wedge block. The crushers are usually driven by V-to-V but can be arranged for V-to-flat and belt drive. The 5x6 size and the 8x10 size can be made with sectionalized frame for muleback transportation. This crusher is ideal for strenuous conditions. Consider a multi jaw crusher.
Some jaw crushers are on-floor, some aboveground, and others underground. This in many countries, and crushing many kinds of ore. The Traylor Bulldog Jaw crusher has enjoyed world wide esteem as a hard-working, profit-producing, full-proof, and trouble-free breaker since the day of its introduction, nearly twenty years ago. To be modern and get the most out of your crushing dollars, youll need the Building breaker. Wed value the privilege of telling you why by letter, through our bulletins, or in person. Write us now today -for a Blake crusher with curved jaw plates that crush finer and step up production.
When a machine has such a reputation for excellence that buyers have confidence in its ability to justify its purchase, IT MUST BE GOOD! Take the Type G Traylor Jaw Crusher, for instance. The engineers and operators of many great mining companies know from satisfying experience that this machine delivers a full measure of service and yields extra profits. So they specify it in full confidence and the purchase is made without the usual reluctance to lay out good money for a new machine.
The success of the Type G Traylor Jaw Crusheris due to several characteristics. It is (1) STRONG almost to superfluity, being built of steel throughout; it is (2) FOOL-PROOF, being provided with our patented Safety Device which prevents breakage due to tramp iron or other causes of jamming; it is (3) ECONOMICAL to operate and maintain, being fitted with our well-known patented Bulldog Pitman and Toggle System, which saves power and wear by minimizing frictionpower that is employed to deliver increased production; it is (4) CONVENIENT to transport and erect in crowded or not easily accessible locations because it is sectionalized to meet highly restrictive conditions.
Whenever mining men need a crusher that is thoroughly reliable and big producer (which is of all time) they almost invariably think first of a Traylor Type G Jaw Crusher. By experience, they know that this machine has built into it the four essentials to satisfaction and profit- strength, foolproofness, economy, and convenience.
Maximum STRENGTH lies in the liberal design and the steel of which crushers parts are made-cast steel frame, Swing Jaw, Pitman Cap and Toggles, steel Shafts and Pitman rods and manganese steel Jaw Plates and Cheek Plates. FOOLPROOFNESS is provided by our patented and time-tested safety Device which prevents breakage due to packing or tramp iron. ECONOMY is assured by our well-known Bulldog Pitman and Toggle System, which saves power and wear by minimizing friction, the power that is used to deliver greater productivity. CONVENIENCE in transportation and erection in crowded or not easily accessible locations is planned for in advance by sectionalisation to meet any restrictive conditions.
Many of the worlds greatest mining companies have standardized upon the Traylor Type G Jaw Crusher. Most of them have reordered, some of them several times. What this crusher is doing for them in the way of earning extra dollars through increased production and lowered costs, it will do for you! Investigate it closely. The more closely you do, the better youll like it.
The jaw crusher equipment is mostly used for crushing the materials that are made use of in structure, road building and construction and also various other building and construction websites. If you imagine the globe without these jaw crusher equipments, after that it will be of challenging one where you require to do the material squashing jobs manually. When these jaw crushers are not developed at that time the streets were only soil courses which are discovered in the woodland location today. Your homes at that time were likewise unlike the houses these days, the structures were not made of blocks yet they are made of making use of small pieces of rocks that are acquired by these crusher wear machines. Without this crusher equipment it would certainly not be possible to generate the building brick products and also these devices are extensively used in several application
In general, we make use of lot of things made up of metal in which the steel ores can not be used straight where they have to be refined and the refinery device comes into the play. The refinery makers will certainly require the crushers for crushing out the alloy steel foundry ores. The raw of the metal is found in the nature which is basically in the kind of the big sheets where it is very hard to transfer these large sheets to the refining website so by using the jaw crushers these sheets are broken down into tiny items. Without these jaw crushers constructing from the metal items will certainly be of difficult task and likewise the steels constructed out from the crushers have longer period of life time. Using of the jaw crusher will generally squash the steel right into smaller sized items where it helps in raising the lifetime of your steel product.
Everybody intends to get the most of the machinery devices as well as the jaw crusher drivers are discovered be of no exception. This is due to the fact that there are numerous aspects that affect the efficiency of the jaw crusher equipment. The following are some factors which you need to consider to enhance the lifetime of the jaw crusher maker components.
Continual linking in the feeding location of the jaw crushers is an usual problem which should be prevented for proper performance of the equipment and to raise life span of the machinery parts. Connecting ways stones blocking the circulation of the flow from moving or entering down the squashing chamber. It is usually create because of squashing of hefty and also huge sized rock going across against each various other as well as these rocks block the crushers feed.
Use the correct jaw pass away account to the jaw crusher machine-- There are several types of rocks are out in the earth where they vary in abrasiveness, flakiness, crushability etc. Choosing the best mix of the fixed and also movable jaw pass away profile to your jaw maker will ensure that you can increase the life expectancy of your manganese steel parts and also you can enhance the production. Having the proper jaw pass away profile will certainly help you to save greater than 20% of the manufacturing as well as likewise it will secure the components of the jaw crusher maker to have longer life time.
Display the condition of jaws-- Besides being one of the most fundamental part for the performance of the equipment the jaw crusher jaws are one of the most vital part which is accountable for the swing jaw and also front frame protection. So, this thing causes loss in the manufacturing because of the boosted crushing angle, reduction of the CSS, loss of tooth profile and so on. This why it is suggested to have a normal monitoring of the problems of the jaw for enhancing the life span of the time jaw crusher equipment. Check out our qimingcasting site for effective information on Alloy Steel Foundry now.
When you are carrying out the above 3 points then you can enhance the life time of your jaw crusher equipment parts which consequently sustains in the increase of efficiency as well as efficiency of the jaw crusher device. In which you have to also do the regular maintenance of your jaw machine and replace the harmed extra get rid of brand-new one as well as along with this you need to likewise do normal lubricating substance to the device parts for far better feature of equipment.
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Mobile crushers provide added flexibility for operators. From early single unit trailers to industry advancing track-mounted behemoths, Metso Outotec has been providing mobile crushing and screening plants for decades.
The tailor-made consumable spares packages include commonly replaced parts such as filters, V-belts and rollers. Our product specialists can provide parts kits based on serial numbers to fit your specific machine. This leads to safer maintenance, reduced costs and less downtime.
The premium parts offering for 3rd party crushers is called the Contender Series. These parts are not OEM parts but designed using our know-how and decades of experience in crushing. Many of these parts are improved versions of the originals with better safety, easier maintenance and longer life.
Do you know what parts you need for your next maintenance to ensure high crusher uptime? All the parts for your 250, 1,000 and 2,000 hour preventive maintenance come in convenient, cost-efficient parts kits. Additionally, Metso Outotec offers fastening parts kits, which consistently provide the proper strength to keep wear parts working properly.
Free up your resources by relying on Metso Outotec. We can ensure you have the right personnel in place to do the job, safely and efficiently. No matter how big or small, from relining to component replacement, you can count on us. We also offer a range of wear parts lifting tools to ensure an efficient and safe liner change-out for your crusher.
In this present scenario, with the subsequent rise in the ever increasing demand of production from mines, the role of mineral processing plant has grown leaps and bounds with time. So, the need of the hour is to have sophisticated and handy equipments which can be operated with ease and can help in enhancing the productivity from mines. In this regard, Crusher is one of the primary and essential equipment which is employed for comminuting the mineral in processing plants. Hence, any kind of failure of its components will accordingly hinder the performance of the plant. Therefore, to minimize sudden failures, proper brainstorming needs to be done to improve performance and operational reliability of jaw crushers and its components. Though traditional maintenance practices exist in mineral processing plants, a methodical approach to analyse the failure rates of components is imperative for improving operational reliability of equipment by implementing effective maintenance strategies. This paper considers the methods for analysing failures of jaw crusher and its critical components in a mineral processing plant using statistical tools namely life data analysis (LDA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The shape and scale parameters using LDA method have been also examined. Further by implementing ANOVA, parameters such as the shape, scale and time are evaluated to examine the failure rates of crusher and its components. The data for these three parameters have been generated through Monte-Carlo Simulation method. A 23 factorial design is used for the failure rate analysis.
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Sinha, R.S., Mukhopadhyay, A.K. Failure analysis of jaw crusher and its components using ANOVA. J Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 38, 665678 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-015-0393-6
Jaw Crushers are used to reduce the sizeof many different types of materials in many applications. The Jaw Crusher was first introduced by Eli Whitney Blake in 1858 as a double-toggle Jaw Crusher. Introduced in 1906, McLanahans Universal Jaw Crusher was one of the first modern era overhead eccentric Jaw Crushers. On the overhead eccentric style Jaw Crusher, the moving swing jaw is suspended on the eccentric shaft with heavy-duty double roll spherical roller bearings.
The swing jaw undergoes two types of motion: one is a swing motion toward the opposite chamber side (called a stationary jaw die due to theaction of a toggle plate), and the second is a vertical movement due to the rotation of the eccentric. These combined motions compress and push the material through the crushing chamber at a predetermined size.
More than 110 years of engineering and customer service experience keep customers running to McLanahan tomeet their production goals. McLanahan Jaw Crushers are proudly made in the USA and have imperial designs. With our grass roots design coupled with listening to customer needs for product enhancement over the years, McLanahan offers traditional hydraulic-shim adjustment Jaw Crushers as well asH-Series Jaw Crushers that featurehydraulic discharge setting adjustment, adjust-on-the-fly chamber clearing in the event the site loses power (once power is restored) and hydraulic relief for overload events with auto-reset.
Whether the traditional hydraulic-shim adjustment or the H-Series Jaw Crushers, both machines have an aggressive nip angle that providesconsistent crushing throughout the entire crushing chamber, which leads to increased production and less downtime on maintenance.
A Jaw Crusher uses compressive force for breaking material. This mechanical pressure is achieved by the crusher'stwo jaws dies, one of which is stationary and the other is movable. These two vertical manganese jaw dies create a V-shaped cavity called the crushing chamber, where the top of the crushing chamber is larger than the bottom. Jaw Crushers are sized by the top opening of the crushing chamber. For example, a 32 x 54 Jaw Crusher measures 32" from jaw die to jaw dieat the top opening or gape opening and54 across the width of the two jaw dies.
The narrower bottom opening of the crushing chamber is used to size the discharge material. A toggle plate and tension rods hold the pitman tight near the bottom of the moving swing jaw. The toggle plate is designed to perform like a fuse and protect the crusher in the event that an uncrushable materialenters the crushing chamber. As a rule, Jaw Crushers have a 6:1 or 8:1 ratio for crushing material. Still using the 32 x 54 Jaw Crusher example, the top size of thefeed entering the crushing chamber has to follow the F80 rule that 80% of the top size feed material is smaller than the gape opening. Using the F80 rule with the 32 x 54 Jaw Crusher, the32 gape opening equals a26 top sized feed, and with the 6:1 ratio of reduction, the discharge setting would be around 4.
Since the crushing of the material is not performed in one stroke of the eccentric shaft, massive weighted flywheels are attached to the eccentric shaft andpowered by a motor. The flywheels transfer the inertia required to crush thematerial until it passes the discharge opening.
While Jaw Crushers are mostly used as the first stage of material reduction in systems that may use several crushers to complete the circuit, the Jaw Crusher has also been used as a second-stage crushing unit. Depending on the application requirements, Jaw Crushers can be used in stationary, wheeled portable and track-mounted locations. The Jaw Crusher is well suited for a variety of applications, including rock quarries, sand and gravel, mining, construction and demolitionrecycling, construction aggregates, road and railway construction, metallurgy, water conservancy and chemical industry.
F100 is the maximum gape opening on a Jaw Crusher. F80 is the feed size to the Jaw Crusher, calculated by taking 80 times the gape opening divided by 100. P80 is the percent passing the closed side setting in tph.
A best practice, if possible, is to blend the material arriving from the source. This will ensure a constant and well-graded feed to the crushing chamber. In turn, this will produce a steady rate of tph andpromote inter-particle crushing that helps break any flat or elongated material. It also aids in equal work hardening the manganese jaw dies and prolonging the life of the jaw dies.
Usually a Jaw Crusher is in an open circuit, but it can be used in a close circuit if the return load is not greater than 20% of the total feed and the raw feed is free of fines smaller than the closed side setting.
Efficiency can be defined by the ratio of the work done by a machine to the energy supplied to it. To apply what this means to your crusher, in your reduction process you are producing exactly the sizes your market is demanding. In the past, quarries produced a range of single-size aggregate products up to 40 mm in size. However, the trend for highly specified aggregate has meant that products have become increasingly finer. Currently, many quarries do not produce significant quantities of aggregate coarser than 20 mm; it is not unusual for material coarser than 10 mm to be stockpiled for further crushing.
CMS Cepcor aftermarket jaw crusher replacement parts and wear parts are used by crusher operators worldwide and are often specified by many of the worlds most prestigious mining, quarrying, demolition and recycling operators together with several of the major original equipment manufacturers.
The CMS Cepcor product range of mechanical spare parts for jaw crushers is unrivaled. CMS Cepcor stock precision-machined UK manufactured eccentric shafts, labyrinths, spacers and end covers for most popular jaw crushers.
CMS Cepcor also stock toggle assembly components for single and double toggle crushers, including toggle beams, groove blocks, wedge blocks, toggle seats, toggle grooves, toggle pins, and pitmans together with all the ancillary components.
CMS Cepcor has heavily invested in new technology in order to set the standard for aftermarket quality assurance, reverse engineering and metallurgy resulting in the continual and rapid growth of our product range, especially for those parts normally only associated with the OEMs.
CMS Cepcor has successfully supplied replacement jawstocks, flywheels, mainframes and pitmans for jaw crushers amongst other major components, where the original equipment manufacturer has deemed these components obsolete.
The jaw crushers we offer for sale include Superior, Type B Blake, Fine-Reduction, and Dodge sizes, 4 by 6 to 84 by 66 inches. A reciprocating machine, the crushes material in a straight line between jaws without grinding or rubbing surfaces.
As you compare this jaw crusher feature for feature with other makes youll see how this modern crusher lowers principal costspower consumption; lubrication; jaw plate, toggle plate, and bearing wear youll understand why we say the crusher promises you a new low cost per ton of material crushed!
Firstthose who have rock or ore tougher and more abrasive than most material. Secondthe operators whove had difficulty with other designs of crushers. And finallythe operators who naturally buy the bestexpecting their added investment to be written off in comparatively short time through lower operating and maintenance costs!
Compare the dimensions with those of conventional jaw crushers. It measures up to 20% longer; has up to 35% deeper crushing chamber! And while you naturally expect to pay more for this bigger,deluxe crusher, it follows that you get more too! For example:
You get a crushing chamber with a full-width receiving opening increased capacity! You get an acute crushing chamber that minimizes slippage very important with hard, tough materials. You cut down crushing power required through longer pitman and front toggle. You reduce packing, get closer setting through the longer jaw, non-choking plates. You lower maintenance cost, get longer jaw plate, toggle, and bearing life through lower structural stresses, simplified design.
Frames of these crushers are built for maximum rigidity designed to prevent distortion during operation. Side members are heavy steel plate, reinforced by steel ribbing. End members are cast steel, of box section design, to provide maximum strength.
The side frames are deep-welded and then stress-relieved in thehuge annealing furnaces to eliminate possible failure adjacent to welds. The result is a uniformly strong frame that will remain true during the long service life of the crusher.
A jaw crusher frames are of sectionalized construction to facilitate handling. This design minimizes heavy lifts makes the crusher suitable for installations where parts must be passed down a shaft or through a tunnel. End members are attached between side members with vertical tongue and groove joints and held together with fitted bolts. Long-bearing surfaces prevent angular distortion.
Important differences in design show up visually when a cross-section of the crushing chamber of a conventional crusher is superimposed over that of the crusher. Now you can see the advantages of the 1 /3 deeper chamber using non-choking jaw plates. Its more acute crushing angle is carried to the very top of the chamberpermits nipping the largest material that can enter the receiving opening!
Lower plates on the swing and stationary jaws are suspended from projections on jaws. These plates also support the upper plates. This exclusive feature permits the free expansion of manganese steel jaw plates greatly minimizes the possibility of buckling or warping prevents costly shutdowns!
SWING AND STATIONARY JAWS on the jaw crusher are annealed cast steel box section construction designed for maximum rigidity. The jaw swings on a sturdy shaft that is clamped to the crusher frame. This shaft also serves as a reinforcing tie across the top of the frame. The entire design facilitates lubrication and replacement of shaft bearings.
Jaw plates are constructed of manganese steel and have corrugated crushing surfaces which reduce the power required for fracturing material. The jaw plates are built into two pieces to jaw. Those on the swing jaw are interchangeable. Plates on the stationary jaw are the non-choking type, not interchangeable. Lower plates on both jaws are suspended from jaw projections and support upper plates. The main advantage of this construction (see above) is to permit the free flow of manganese steel. All four plates are held in place by large through-bolts equipped with springs to prevent bolt breakage.
Heres still another feature youll find on the jaw crusher! Renewable wearing plates between the cast manganese steel jaw plates and swing and stationary jaws provide a firm backing for the jaw plates. If, for any reason, looseness develops in the jaw plates, these wearing plates, not the jaws, take the wear! By protecting expensive jaw castings, these wearing plates increase crusher life simplify maintenance minimize causes for shutdowns.
The heavy, two-piece corrugated manganese steel jaw plate is designed to fracture the toughest kinds of rock or ore with a minimum of power. The unobstructed clearances above, between, and below the plate sections permit free flow of manganese steel.
This construction eliminates the need for extra holding pieces, greatly minimizes the shearing of bolts. The amply designed shaft not only supports the swing jaw but reinforces the frame, serving as a tie between sides.
Notice the extra length of this jaw as compared to conventional types. Designed up to one-third longer, it exerts greater pressures in the upper portion of the crushing chamber, distributes crushing action more evenly. The result is a gradual reduction of ore to the choking point, and increased capacity!
Another, southern iron ore mining company, chose this 48 by 42-inch crusher to replace a conventional design that had failed. They explained, In our process, weve got to have a ruggedly designed crusher capable of continuous operation!
CRUSHERSin sizes from 36 by 25 to 60 by 48 inchesare giving these and other operators more for their money more capacity; more crusher life; more satisfaction! It can pay you too, to know more about this great crusher! Why not call in your use today!
All sizes of crushers feature a three-piece toggle plate construction. Worn ends may be replaced no need to discard the entire toggle. Bronze toggle ends fit into replaceable hardened steel toggle seats in swing jaw. Properly lubricated, this assembly materially reduces maintenance.
Toggle plates for these jaw crushers are of three-piece construction, consisting of an iron center section (2) to which are bolted two replaceable bronze ends (1 and 3). Toggle seats are carefully machined and equipped with protecting shields that deflect dust and dirt.
A toggle block, arranged for both vertical and horizontal adjustment, is provided at the rear of the frame. By inserting shims above the toggle block, the crushing stroke can be adjusted. Insertion of shims behind the toggle block adjusts the size of the discharge opening. Parallel alignment is assured and unnecessary strain in the crushing machine is avoided.
The pitman in any jaw crusher is essentially a tension member. However, because it also has a vertical reciprocating movement, it is desirable to keep its weight as low as possible, consistent with maintaining the required strength.
In the crusher this is accomplished by designing the pitman as a skeleton member, first to provide the necessary strength for tension and with stiffness against overturning thrust provided for by deep integral webs.
The pitman is designed with only four large-cap bolts, and the pitman cap is ribbed for proper distribution of the load to these bolts. The pitman is swung on the eccentric shaft which is supported by removable, water-cooled bearings on the frame.
The pitman is a two-piece annealed cast steel construction, with a cap designed for water cooling. Bearing surfaces on both pitman and cap are babbitted and are joined together by four large forged steel bolts. The elimination of excess bolts inherently found in conventional design results in a more uniform distribution of load.
The pitman (eccentric) shaft is heat-treated, forged steel constructionof ample diameter so that stress, even under the shock of suddenly clogged jaws, is low. The shaft is carried in removable, water-cooled, babbitted bearings designed to permit quick removal or replacement without having to strip the crusher.
Heres a typical toggle plate for jaw crushers. It is constructed in three pieceswith the center section of iron, two ends of bronze, designed for quick bolting to the center section. This unique construction materially reduces replacement and maintenance costs makes it unnecessary to discard toggles when ends alone are worn!
A critical point in the operation of large jaw crushers is the arrangement of the swing jaw and its supporting shaft. While in most crushers the jaw is pressed on the shaft and the latter swings in frame, in the jaw crusher the opposite principle is usedshaft is clamped in frame and jaw swings on the shaft!
Another point has been lubrication. In operation, the actual movement of the swing jaw is relatively small. The result is difficulty in proper lubrication of bearing surfaces. The crusher uses a special means of lubrication and in addition is designed with the new replaceable, graphite-impregnated Scor-proof bushings which greatly reduce wear on the expensive shaftssince these bushings, and not the shaft, now take the wear!
Very careful attention is required in the lubrication of heavy mechanical units like the jaw crusher. A thorough study made of existing types of lubrication systems resulted in the selection of a pair of systems that assure positive delivery of lubricant to point of maximum pressure.
The 48 by 42-inch jaw crusher and smaller sizes are force-fed by an automatic high-pressure lubricator to the swing jaw, pitman, and main bearings as illustrated in Figure 1. A motor-driven pump forces the lubricant through pressure buildup cylinders and out to distributors which dispense a precise amount to each of the points on the bearings. No oil return is provided.
The 60 by 48-inch jaw crusher and larger sizes are lubricated by a closed circuit oiling system to the pitman and main bearings, as illustrated by the solid lines in Figure 2, and by high-pressure lubrication fittings connected to the swing jaw bearings, as illustrated by the dotted lines in Figure 2. A motor-driven gear pump forces the oil through pressure-type filters and a condenser-type cooler to a distribution manifold mounted on the crusher. The oil flows through the bearings, lubricating and cooling, and back to the reservoir for recirculation. The swing jaw bearings require servicing by portable grease equipment.
The capacity of the jaw crusher is greater than that of conventional jaw crushers. One reason is its uniform-wear crushing chamber with full-width receiving opening. Another reasonits a more acute crushing angle.
Slippage is reduced packing and choking are prevented by a more even distribution of crushing action throughout the entire length of the crushing chamber. The result is a gradual reduction of material to the choking point increased capacity!
Capacities given below are approximate and are based on standard speeds, jaw motions, and jaw plates, with a feed of quarry or mine run material weighing 100 lb per cu ft crushed. Most stone and low-grade ores are considered weighing 100 lb per cu ft crushed.
The table is based on continuous feeding. Reserve for normal interruption of feeding should be provided. A heavy-duty apron feeder is recommended for most installations, particularly where large cars or trucks are used in the quarry or mine.
When feed to crushers is scalped over grizzlies or screens the number of rejections, or material that will have to be crushed should be determined in establishing the tonnage to be handled by the crusher. The number of fines received from mine or quarry will vary widely depending on each application and should be taken into consideration in determining the overall capacity.
Whatever equipment you operate, you can be certain of careful, considerate handling of orders for repair or replacement parts. In most cases parts are shipped directly from stockyoure assured of fast delivery. The view at left shows a small portion of crushing, cement, and mining equipment parts normally carries.
Repair parts temporarily depleted or not carried in stock will be furnished in time to meet requirements whenever possible. Anticipation of future needs, placing orders in advance, will greatly aid in avoiding unforeseen delays. Genuine parts are exact duplicates or improvements of original components of your machinery, not makeshift substitutes.
Sinco Mining Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd. is the leading wearing spare parts manufacturers in China. We produce wear-resistant, high temperature-resistant, corrosion-resistant metal casting with the annual production capacity of over 15,000 tons. Ourcastingfoundry located in Xinyu City, Jiangxi Province, 3hous by high speed train from Shanghai or Canton. With workshop 43,000 square meter and 200 skilled workers, we have 2 production linesResin sand casting production liner and lost foam casting production line.All products are designed and manufactured as per ISO9001:2008 quality system standard. Our products are mainly used inmining, metal recycling, cement machinery and other industries.
We produce wear-resistant, high temperature-resistant, corrosion-resistant metal casting with the annual production capacity of over 15,000 tons. Our products are mainly used in mining, metal recycling, cement machinery and other industries.
Doyou want to turn construction waste into treasure? Doyou want to crushlimestone, river pebble, granite, basalt, and quartz stone into small particle?Do you want to get economic benefits from these stones?Then it is high timethat youchoose a jaw crusher! As a matter of fact, it is widely used to crush ore and large pieces of material in mining smelting, building material, road, railway, water conservancy and chemical industry. Brcauseit has so many applications, it is also called universal crusher.
The jaw crusher plant, which is researched and designed by Aimix Group, has combined with domestic and foreign advanced technology. Our crushers adopt deep crushing cavity, so the feeding rate and crushing efficiency can be greatly improved. It is also energy-saving. Compared with other crusher,it can save more than 50% energy. Jaw crushing plant has advanced technology, long service life, reliable working condition, easy maintenance and other advantages.
As a leader of mining machinery, this kind of crusher can process almost all the rocks and minerals, such as: basalt, pebble, iron ore, limestone, granite, quartz stone, shale, gravel, river pebble, bluestone, gypsum, construction waste, building aggregates, etc. In other words, it can turns all types of stones into useful materials.
Firstly, You should consider the size of raw materials and the required size of the finished materials. If the materials have big size, you can choose the ordinary crusher machine(PE series). Because itis the primary crushing equipment and suitable for crushing large stone materials. On the contrary, you should choose Aimixs secondary jaw crusher or other kind of fine crusher machines in order to crush smaller materials.
Secondly, you should consider the machines performance. Aimix, a reliable crusher supplier, adopts advanced technology to manufacture all kinds of crushers. Accordingly, our crushers have simple structure, easy maintenance, stable performance and low operation cost. So you can choose our crusher machines without hesitation.
Lastly, jaw crusher price is a very crucial factor. In addition, we can recommend suitable machines to different customers according to their budgets and requirements. We ensure that all customers will get best crusher with the most reasonable price.
On the basis of actual situation, the most popular types are PE series, PEX series and HD Germany series. Each type contains several models. For example, PE series mainly contains 18 models. The smallest model is PE 150*250, and the biggest machine is PE 1600*2100. PEX series mainly consists of 5 models. Besides, HD series is a kind of German version crusher. Aimix mainly manufactures and exports 4 models of HD crusher- HD80, HD98, HD110, HD125.
The main specifications of this kind of crusher machinesare PE series crushers, PEX series crushers and HD series crushers. PE crushers are mainly used in primary crushing stage. However, PEX crushers mainly work in secondary or third crushing stage.
PEcrusheris the most common kind of crusher machine.It consists ofPE150*250, PE250*450, PE1200*1500, and so on. In orderto satisfy different demands, thecrusher havea large range of inputsize and outputsize. You can adjust the size according to the requirements of theraw material and thefinished product. The inputsizes are from 125mm to 1020mm. Moreover, each type of inputsize can be adjusted from 10mm to 300mm.For example, the large input size of PE150*250is 125mm, and you can adjust the input size from 10mm to 40mm based on 125mm. The things you need to do are putting the materials into the crushers and adjusting the size you want.
PEX series mainly consists of five models: PEX 150*750, PEX 250*750, PEX 250*1000, PEX 250*1200, and PEX 300*1300. Besides, HD Germany crushers are also a main type of concrete jaw crusher for sale. And there are four types of HD crushers. They are mainly used to crusher hard materials. Compared to other crushers, it has larger production and higher quality finished products.
There are several main parts of jaw crusher: frame, jaw plate and side guard plate, and transmission part. The frame is a four-walled rigid frame, and it is used to hold the eccentric shaft and stand the reactive force of crushed material. So, the frame needs sufficient strength and rigidity. It is usually made of cast steel. The frame of mini jaw crusher for sale can be made of high quality cast iron instead of cast steel. The frame ofthe crushrneeds to be cast in sections and bolted firmly into a whole, and the casting process is complicated. The frame of self-made small jaw crushmachinecan be welded with thick steel plate, but the stiffness is poor.
Both the fixed jaw plate and the mobile jaw plate are composed of jaw beds and jaw plates. The jaw plates are fixed on the jaw bed with bolts and wedge screws. Jaw bed of fixed jaw plate is the front wall of the frame. Jaw bed of mobile crusher jaw plate must have sufficient strength and stiffness to stand the broken reactive force, and thus most mobile jaw plates are made of cast steel or cast iron pieces.
The eccentric shaft is the main shaft of the crusher, which is made of high carbon steel. The eccentric parts must be precision-machined and heat-treated. One end of the eccentric shaft is a pulley, and the other end is a flywheel.
When the rock crushing machine works, motor drives belt and pulley, and the eccentric shaft drives the mobile jaw plate. When the mobile jaw plate rises, the angle between elbow plate and mobile jaw plate becomes larger. So the mobile jaw plate will be close to the fixed jaw plate. At the same time, materials can be crushed. When the mobile jaw plate down, the angle between elbow plate and the movable jaw becomes small. And under the effect of rod and spring, the mobile jaw plate will be far from the fixed jaw plate. Meanwhile, broken material will be discharged.
Crushing chamber (working chamber) is composed of a fixed jaw plate and a mobile jaw plate. The mobile jaw plate is periodically reciprocated against the fixed jaw plate, sometimes separated, and sometimes closed. When they are separated, the material enters the crushing chamber and the finished product is discharged from the lower part. When they are closed, the material between the two jaw plates is crushed by crushing, bending and splitting.
2. This kind of crushercan not only crush small size materials, but also crush large pieces of limestone. And the largest broken particle size is 1000 * 1200mm. In current mining industry, limestone is in short supply and many ordinary crushers can not crush large size limestone. And itcan crush large limestone into small particles, so you can get more crushed limestone by using ourcrusher.
However, different jaw crusher manufacturers have different prices. So we suggest that you buy crusher machinefrom professional manufacturers. Aimix Group, a professional crusher exporter, can produce all kinds of crushers, such as hydraulic crusher, no grinding crusher, impactor crusher, direct drive crusher, double chamber crusher, cone crusher machine, and track mounted jaw crusher. Aimixs equipments not only have high quality, but also have cheap price. Our equipments are directly sold by factory, so you can get more discounts from our factory!
All kinds ofcrusherscan be customized according to the actual needs of users. If you want to buy, please send us an email and we will provide you high quality equipment and professional service. Please feel free to give your inquiry in the form below. We will reply in 24 hours.Get in Touch with Mechanic