iron ore mining | techniques | metal extraction

iron ore mining | techniques | metal extraction

Iron ores are rocks and mineral deposits from which clanging iron can be reasonably extracted. The ores are generally prosperous in iron oxides and fluctuate in color ranging from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to even rusty red. The iron by its own is usually found in the structure of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), goethite, limonite or siderite. Hematite is also identified as "natural ore". The nomenclature dates back to the early years of drawing out, when certain hematite ores comprised 66% iron and could be fed reliably into iron edifice blast furnaces. Iron ore is the unrefined substance utilized to formulate pig iron, which is one of the most important untreated materials to compose steel. 98% of the hauled out iron ore is used to produce steel.

Uncontaminated iron ore is almost nameless on the exterior of the Earth apart from the combination of Fe-Ni alloys from meteorites and very atypical forms of unfathomable mantle xenoliths. For that reason, all sources of iron ore are utilized by human diligence take benefit of iron oxide minerals, the chief form which is used in industry is known as hematite.

However, in a number of situations, more substandard iron ore sources have been utilized by manufacturing societies when right of entry to high-grade hematite ore was not obtainable. This has incorporated operation of taconite in the United States, predominantly during World War II, and goethite or bog ore utilized in the times of the American Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. Magnetite is often utilized for the reason that it is magnetic and hence effortlessly progressive from the gangue minerals.

Iron ore mining techniques differ by the type of ore that is being hauled out. There are 4 types of iron ore deposits that is being worked on at present, Based on the mineralogy and geology of the ore deposits.

Deposits of iron ore such as haematite containing iron oxide are found in sedimentary rocks from which the oxygen is removed from the iron oxide in a blast furnace to give iron as a result since iron ores consists of the element iron combined with other elements, mostly oxygen. Haematite and magnetite are the most commonly found iron ore minerals.

The smelting process allows the iron ore to be heated with carbon. The carbon combines with the oxygen and carries it away, leaving behind iron. Blast furnaces are so hot which is why they melt the iron, and drain it off to be poured into moulds to form bars, called ingots.

Iron ore mining can be broadly divided into two categories namely 1) manual mining which is employed in small mines and 2) mechanized mining is suitable for large iron ore mines. Manual mining method is normally limited to float ores and small mines. Mining of reef ore is also being done manually on a small scale. The float ore area is dug up manually with picks, crow bars, and spades, and then the material is manually screened and then stacked up. The waste is thrown back into the pits. The blasted broken ore is manually screened, stacked for the purpose of loading in dumpers for dispatch.

Mechanized mining is executed by the extraction of iron ore from surface deposits. The mining areas require all the operations to be mechanized and mining is exceptionally done through systematic formation of benches by drilling and blasting. The physical processes are followed which then remove impurities and the processed ore is stockpiled and blended to meet product quality requirements and then made available to the customers.

Extracting iron from its ore requires a series of steps to be followed and is considered as the penultimate process in metallurgy. The steps need the ore to be concentrated first, followed by the extraction of the metal from the concentrated ore after which the metal is purified.

How is iron extracted from its ore? Iron is concentrated by the process of calcinations. Once it is concentrated, the water and other volatile impurities such as sulfur and carbonates are removed. This concentrated ore is then mixed with limestone (CaCO3) and Coke and fed into the blast furnace from the top. It is in the blast furnace that extraction of iron occurs. The extraction of iron from its ore is a very long and forlorn process that separates the useful components from the waste materials such as slag. What happens in the Blast Furnace? A blast furnace is a gigantic, steel stack lined with refractory brick where the concentrated iron ore, coke, and limestone are dumped from the top, and a blast of hot air is blown into the bottom. The purpose of the Blast Furnace is to reduce the concentrated ore to its liquid metal state. The iron ore, coke and limestone are crushed into small round pieces and mixed and put on a hopper which controls the input. The most common ores of iron are hematite Fe2O3, and magnetite, Fe3O4. These ores can extract iron by heating them with the carbon present in the coke. Heating coal in the absence of air produces coke. Coke is cheap and acts as the heat source and is also the reducing agent for the reaction. Hot air is blown into the bottom of the furnace and heated using the hot waste gases from the top at a temperature of about 2200K. It is important to not waste any heat energy since it is valuable. The coke which is essentially impure carbon burns in the blast of hot air to form carbon dioxide and provides the majority of heat, thus producing a strong exothermic reaction, which is the main source of heat in the furnace. C + O2 ----------------> CO2 Due to high temperatures at the bottom of the furnace, carbon dioxide reacts with carbon to produce carbon monoxide. C + CO ----------------> 2CO This carbon monoxide is the main reducing agent in the furnace. Fe2O3 + 3CO -----------------> 2Fe + 3CO2 In the hotter parts of the furnace, the carbon acts as a reducing agent and thus reduces iron oxide to iron. At these temperatures the product of the reaction is carbon monoxide along with iron. Fe2O3 + 3C -----------------> 2Fe + 3CO The hot temperature of the furnace melts the iron which runs down to the bottom where it can be tapped off. Iron ore isn't pure iron oxide as it also contains some variety of rocky material. Such substances cannot melt at the temperature of the furnace and in due course would end up congesting it. As a solution, the limestone is added to the blast furnace to convert this into slag which shall melt and run to the bottom. The heat of the furnace causes the decomposition of the limestone for producing calcium oxide. CaCO3 ------------> CaO + CO2 Since this requires absorbing heat from the furnace, it is an endothermic reaction that takes place. Therefore it becomes essential to not add too much limestone as it can cause the furnace to cool rapidly. Calcium oxide obtained on decomposition reacts with acidic oxides such as silicon dioxide present in the rock. Being a basic oxide it reacts with silicon dioxide to produce calcium silicate. CaO + SiO2 -------------> CaSiO3 The calcium silicate produced melts and flows down the furnace to form a layer on top of the molten iron from where it can be tapped off every now and then as slag. This slag can be used in road making and as "slag cement" - a final ground slag which can be used in cement, often mixed with Portland cement. The molten iron from the bottom of the furnace can be used as cast iron. Cast iron is flowy in nature when it is in molten state and doesn't contract much when it solidifies and is the major reason why it is useful in making castings. Nevertheless, it is actually impure as it contains about 4% of carbon. The presence of carbon makes it very hard, but also very fragile. When hit hard, it tends to shatter rather than bend or deplete. This cast iron is used for things like manhole covers, cast iron pipes, valves and pump bodies in the water industry, guttering and drainpipes, cylinder blocks in car engines, Aga-type cookers, and very expensive and very heavy cookware. Larger amount of molten iron from the Blast Furnace is used to make varieties of steel. Steel isnt just one substance, but a family of alloys of iron with carbon and several other metals. TOP IRON PRODUCING COUNTRIES: IRON PRODUCTION IN THE WORLD : Studies reveal that Australia and China are known to contribute as the world's largest iron ore mine producers, producing 1.5 billion metric tons and 660 million metric tons, respectively, in the year 2014. In the recent years, Brazil has bagged the second position in major production of iron. Following are other countries like China, India and Russia among the five topmost countries known for contributing towards iron production. Rank Country Usable iron ore production (thousand tonnes) World 2,280,000 1 Australia 880,000 2 Brazil 440,000 3 China 340,000 4 India 190,000 5 Russia 100,000

The most common ores of iron are hematite Fe2O3, and magnetite, Fe3O4. These ores can extract iron by heating them with the carbon present in the coke. Heating coal in the absence of air produces coke. Coke is cheap and acts as the heat source and is also the reducing agent for the reaction. Hot air is blown into the bottom of the furnace and heated using the hot waste gases from the top at a temperature of about 2200K. It is important to not waste any heat energy since it is valuable. The coke which is essentially impure carbon burns in the blast of hot air to form carbon dioxide and provides the majority of heat, thus producing a strong exothermic reaction, which is the main source of heat in the furnace.

In the hotter parts of the furnace, the carbon acts as a reducing agent and thus reduces iron oxide to iron. At these temperatures the product of the reaction is carbon monoxide along with iron.

The hot temperature of the furnace melts the iron which runs down to the bottom where it can be tapped off. Iron ore isn't pure iron oxide as it also contains some variety of rocky material. Such substances cannot melt at the temperature of the furnace and in due course would end up congesting it. As a solution, the limestone is added to the blast furnace to convert this into slag which shall melt and run to the bottom. The heat of the furnace causes the decomposition of the limestone for producing calcium oxide.

Since this requires absorbing heat from the furnace, it is an endothermic reaction that takes place. Therefore it becomes essential to not add too much limestone as it can cause the furnace to cool rapidly. Calcium oxide obtained on decomposition reacts with acidic oxides such as silicon dioxide present in the rock. Being a basic oxide it reacts with silicon dioxide to produce calcium silicate.

The calcium silicate produced melts and flows down the furnace to form a layer on top of the molten iron from where it can be tapped off every now and then as slag. This slag can be used in road making and as "slag cement" - a final ground slag which can be used in cement, often mixed with Portland cement.

The molten iron from the bottom of the furnace can be used as cast iron. Cast iron is flowy in nature when it is in molten state and doesn't contract much when it solidifies and is the major reason why it is useful in making castings. Nevertheless, it is actually impure as it contains about 4% of carbon. The presence of carbon makes it very hard, but also very fragile. When hit hard, it tends to shatter rather than bend or deplete.

This cast iron is used for things like manhole covers, cast iron pipes, valves and pump bodies in the water industry, guttering and drainpipes, cylinder blocks in car engines, Aga-type cookers, and very expensive and very heavy cookware. Larger amount of molten iron from the Blast Furnace is used to make varieties of steel. Steel isnt just one substance, but a family of alloys of iron with carbon and several other metals.

Studies reveal that Australia and China are known to contribute as the world's largest iron ore mine producers, producing 1.5 billion metric tons and 660 million metric tons, respectively, in the year 2014. In the recent years, Brazil has bagged the second position in major production of iron. Following are other countries like China, India and Russia among the five topmost countries known for contributing towards iron production.

Looking at what the nature has to offer, it conveys a lot of information when it comes to things that it holds in it, within it and on it. With need for minerals and its wide spread application getting widened each day, the stint of its very existence is getting blink and its depreciation in its source which is its over usage is on the high.

literally means extraction .Our Mother Earth has lots of resources deep within her and mining is the method of extracting all these valuable resources from the earth through different means.There are different methods to extract these resources which are found in different forms beneath the earth's surface.

The metal mining was one of the traditions that have been passed on meritoriously over the past years so that we meet our day-to-day needs of the desired material usage starting from the equipments that are ornamental as well as purposeful coordination of information's.

Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral and is one of the two types of pure jade. The other is known as nephrite jade. Jadeite is the rarer of the two jades, and as a result, it is considered to be more precious and valuable. Due to its striking and emerald green color it is also known as "imperial jadeite".

Surface mining is basically employed when deposits of commercially viable minerals or rock are found closer to the surface; that is, where overstrain (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively very less or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for heavy handling or tunneling.

Underground mining is carried out when the rocks, minerals, or precious stones are located at a distance far beneath the ground to be extracted with surface mining. To facilitate the minerals to be taken out of the mine, the miners construct underground rooms to work in.

Gold is a chemical component with the symbol Au that springs up from the Latin derivative aurum that means shining dawn and with the atomic number 79. It is a very sought-after valuable metal which, for many centuries, has been utilized as wealth. The metal resembles as nuggets or grain like structures in rocks, subversive "veins" and in alluvial deposits. It is one of the currency metals.

Platinum, is a heavy, malleable,ductile, highly inactive, silverish-white transition metal. Platinum is a member of group 10 elements of the periodic table.It is one among the scarce elements found in Earth's crust and has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is also achemical element.

Diamonds and supplementary valuable and semi-precious gemstones are excavated from the earth level via 4 main types on mining. These diamond withdrawal methods vary depending on how the minerals are situated within the earth, the steadiness of the material neighboring the preferred mineral, and the nonessential damage done to the surrounding environment.

robotics in iron ore mining to improve efficiency and produc

robotics in iron ore mining to improve efficiency and produc

(MENAFN - EIN Presswire) Iron Ore Market - By Type Of Ore (Agglomerated Iron Ores, Nonagglomerated Iron Ores And Concentrates), By End-Users (Construction, Manufacturing, Others), And By Region, Opportunities And Strategies - Global Forecast To 2030 The Business Research Company's Iron Ore Market Report - Opportunities And Strategies - Global Forecast To 2030 LONDON, GREATER LONDON, UK, September 8, 2020 / EINPresswire.com / -- The use of robots in the iron ore industry is improving the efficiency and productivity of iron ore mines, and also reduces operational costs. Robotics is significantly increasing mining capabilities by rolling out autonomous trucks and drills, thus reducing the need for human workforce. Robots are used in some critical mining activities such as drilling, blasting explosives in the mines, and guiding and driving off-highway haul trucks operating in mines. RioTinto has deployed driverless trucks and robotic rock drilling rigs to haul the ore 24 hours a day and reported a 15% reduction in operating costs. For instance, in four of Rio Tinto's iron-ore mines, in Australia, the company has been using 73 driverless trucks to carry iron ore 24 hours a day. Employees track the operation of the vehicles from 750 miles away, at the centralized control center in Perth. The global iron ore market size reached a value of nearly $136,145.5 million in 2019, and is expected to decline to $131,964.9 million in 2020 at a rate of 19.8%. The decline is mainly due to lockdown and social distancing norms imposed by various countries and economic slowdown across countries owing to the COVID-19 outbreak and the measures to contain it. The iron ore market size is expected to slightly grow from $130,892.0 million in 2021 to $132,496.9 million in 2023 at a CAGR of 0.6%, and decline to $129,444 million in 2030. Going forward, according to iron ore market outlook, emerging markets growth, government policies, increasing construction activities, increase in production capacities, improved logistics infrastructure and increasing automobiles manufacturing are expected to drive the market. Major factors that could hinder the growth of the iron ore market in the future include skills shortages, environmental impacts of iron ore mining, reduction in free trade, rising interest rates, the coronavirus pandemic, fluctuating prices, uncertain demand for iron ore, and overcapacity of steel which is underutilized. The iron ore market consists of sales of iron ores and concentrates by entities (organizations, sole traders and partnerships) that mine iron ore. The industry includes establishments that develop mine sites, mine and beneficiate iron ore, and produce sinter iron ore, except iron ore produced in iron and steel mills. It also includes producing other iron ore agglomerates and other beneficiation operations such as crushing, grinding, and washing, drying, sintering, concentrating, calcining, and leaching. The iron ore market is segmented by type of ore into agglomerated iron ore and non-agglomerated iron ore and concentrates. The iron ore market can also be segmented by end-users into construction, manufacturing, and others.Here Is A List Of Similar Reports By The Business Research Company:Iron And Steel Mills And Ferroalloy Global Market Report 2020-30: COVID 19 Impact And Recovery ( [To enable links contact MENAFN] ) Forged And Stamped Goods Market - By Type (Iron And Steel Forging, Nonferrous Forging, Custom Roll Forming, Powder Metallurgy Part Manufacturing, Metal Crown, Closure, Others) Trends And Market Size, By Region, Opportunities And Strategies Global Forecast To 2022 ( [To enable links contact MENAFN] ) Iron Ore Mining Global Market Report 2020 ( [To enable links contact MENAFN] ) Steel Product Global Market Report 2020-30: Covid 19 Impact And Recovery ( [To enable links contact MENAFN] ) Metal Ore Mining Global Market Report 2020-30: Covid 19 Impact And Recovery ( [To enable links contact MENAFN] ) Interested to know more about The Business Research Company? The Business Research Company is a market intelligence firm that excels in company, market, and consumer research. Located globally it has specialist consultants in a wide range of industries including manufacturing, healthcare, financial services, chemicals, and technology.Oliver Guirdham The Business Research Company +44 20 7193 0708 email us here Visit us on social media: Facebook Twitter LinkedIn

Iron Ore Market - By Type Of Ore (Agglomerated Iron Ores, Nonagglomerated Iron Ores And Concentrates), By End-Users (Construction, Manufacturing, Others), And By Region, Opportunities And Strategies - Global Forecast To 2030

LONDON, GREATER LONDON, UK, September 8, 2020 / EINPresswire.com / -- The use of robots in the iron ore industry is improving the efficiency and productivity of iron ore mines, and also reduces operational costs. Robotics is significantly increasing mining capabilities by rolling out autonomous trucks and drills, thus reducing the need for human workforce. Robots are used in some critical mining activities such as drilling, blasting explosives in the mines, and guiding and driving off-highway haul trucks operating in mines. RioTinto has deployed driverless trucks and robotic rock drilling rigs to haul the ore 24 hours a day and reported a 15% reduction in operating costs. For instance, in four of Rio Tinto's iron-ore mines, in Australia, the company has been using 73 driverless trucks to carry iron ore 24 hours a day. Employees track the operation of the vehicles from 750 miles away, at the centralized control center in Perth.

The global iron ore market size reached a value of nearly $136,145.5 million in 2019, and is expected to decline to $131,964.9 million in 2020 at a rate of 19.8%. The decline is mainly due to lockdown and social distancing norms imposed by various countries and economic slowdown across countries owing to the COVID-19 outbreak and the measures to contain it. The iron ore market size is expected to slightly grow from $130,892.0 million in 2021 to $132,496.9 million in 2023 at a CAGR of 0.6%, and decline to $129,444 million in 2030.

Going forward, according to iron ore market outlook, emerging markets growth, government policies, increasing construction activities, increase in production capacities, improved logistics infrastructure and increasing automobiles manufacturing are expected to drive the market. Major factors that could hinder the growth of the iron ore market in the future include skills shortages, environmental impacts of iron ore mining, reduction in free trade, rising interest rates, the coronavirus pandemic, fluctuating prices, uncertain demand for iron ore, and overcapacity of steel which is underutilized.

The iron ore market consists of sales of iron ores and concentrates by entities (organizations, sole traders and partnerships) that mine iron ore. The industry includes establishments that develop mine sites, mine and beneficiate iron ore, and produce sinter iron ore, except iron ore produced in iron and steel mills. It also includes producing other iron ore agglomerates and other beneficiation operations such as crushing, grinding, and washing, drying, sintering, concentrating, calcining, and leaching.

The iron ore market is segmented by type of ore into agglomerated iron ore and non-agglomerated iron ore and concentrates. The iron ore market can also be segmented by end-users into construction, manufacturing, and others.Here Is A List Of Similar Reports By The Business Research Company:Iron And Steel Mills And Ferroalloy Global Market Report 2020-30: COVID 19 Impact And Recovery ( [To enable links contact MENAFN] )

Forged And Stamped Goods Market - By Type (Iron And Steel Forging, Nonferrous Forging, Custom Roll Forming, Powder Metallurgy Part Manufacturing, Metal Crown, Closure, Others) Trends And Market Size, By Region, Opportunities And Strategies Global Forecast To 2022 ( [To enable links contact MENAFN] )

Interested to know more about The Business Research Company? The Business Research Company is a market intelligence firm that excels in company, market, and consumer research. Located globally it has specialist consultants in a wide range of industries including manufacturing, healthcare, financial services, chemicals, and technology.

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top five iron ore producing companies in 2020 by mining output

top five iron ore producing companies in 2020 by mining output

The metallic ores, which can vary in colour from dark grey and bright yellow, to purples and reds, comprise around 5% of the Earths crust and are commonly found in four main types of deposit, the most frequently mined being hematite.

This was slightly lower than in 2019, largely due to disruption caused by the coronavirus pandemic but analysts have forecast a rebound over the coming years as mining operations resume and demand, driven by Chinas huge steelmaking industry, makes a resurgence.

Australia possesses the worlds largest-known iron ore reserves with around 50 billion tonnes available to be unearthed, and many of the most productive iron ore miners have based their operations in this country.

Brazilian miner Vale was the worlds top producer of iron ore in 2020, with an output totalling just over 300 million tonnes a small decline from 2019 when it produced 302 million tonnes of the metallic ore.

Jakob Stausholm is currently chief executive officer, having replaced former boss Jean-Sbastien Jacques who resigned in 2020 after Rios controversial destruction of an aboriginal heritage site in Pilbara during 2020.

Like Rio Tinto, BHPs iron ore assets are focused in the resource-rich Pilbara region of Western Australia, including five mines, four processing hubs and two port facilities, known collectively as Western Australia Iron Ore (WAIO).

Australias Fortescue Metals Group (FMG) ranks fourth among the worlds largest iron ore producing companies, with output of just over 204 million tonnes in its financial year ended 30 June 2020 a slight decrease compared to the previous 12 months.

However, it is also in the process of broadening its horizons with exploration ventures in other parts of Australia as well as in Ecuador, Argentina, Colombia, Peru, Portugal and Kazakhstan for minerals including copper, gold and lithium.

The London-headquartered mining business has two major operations focused on iron ore production a majority ownership of the Kumba project in South Africa as well as the Minas-Rio operation in Brazil.

eco-efficient and cost-effective process design for magnetite iron ore - metso outotec

eco-efficient and cost-effective process design for magnetite iron ore - metso outotec

It is very well known that energy production also implies emission of CO2, as shown in Figure 1 (www.ceecthefuture.org). The information indicates that almost 50% of the total CO2 emissions are generated by the comminution processes (crushing and grinding operations). For this reason, it is crucial to innovate through new technologies right from the conceptual phase to determine the best process route or circuit configuration.

Moreover, some countries are already imposing taxes on the emissions of greenhouse gases which is certain to have a negative effect on the process operating costs. Figure 1 shows the amount of CO2 emissions in each of the unit operations relating to mining operations and mineral processing.

The majority of steel production is supported by iron ore sourced from high-grade hematite deposits, although a significant fraction comes from magnetite deposits. Compared to direct shipping hematite ores mined from the upper regolith, magnetite deposits require significant beneficiation, which typically involves grinding to a particle size where magnetite is liberated from its silicate matrix. Many banded iron formation deposits are very fine grained, often requiring a final concentrate grind size P80 of 25-35 m (see liberation curve of magnetite in Figure 2). The amount of energy required to produce a magnetite product suitable for sale as pellet plant feed from these deposits is an order of magnitude higher than an equivalent direct shipping lump (< 32 mm > 6 mm) and fines (< 6 mm) hematite project.

The cost associated with high-capacity processing of a hard, fine-grained, silica-rich magnetite ore is presented in this paper, with the emphasis on comminution circuit options. The objective is to evaluate several options involving different grinding technologies with respect to energy consumption, operating cost and capital cost. Therefore, a typical conceptual or scoping level assessment methodology used by engineering companies was applied.

Historically, the lowest operating cost for fine-grained ores was achieved by multi-stage, fully autogenous grinding (Koivistoinen et al, 1989) with integrated magnetic separation steps between the stages. The major benefit of fully autogenous grinding is the elimination of steel grinding media costs and the need to discriminate between steel and magnetite in coarse magnetic separation ahead of pebble crushing. The separation step between grinding stages progressively reduces the amount of material to be ground and, in many cases, reduces the abrasive properties of the concentrate.

Some of the best known magnetite companies using autogenous milling are the subsidiaries of Cleveland-Cliffs Inc. in North America. The original autogenous milling circuit, consisting of an AG mill followed by cobber magnetic separation of pebbles, pebble milling of the magnetic concentrate, a finisher magnetic separation stage and silica flotation, was installed at Empire Mines in 1963 (Weiss, 1985). There have been three expansions since and, in the 1990s, Empire Mines had a total of 24 individual concentration lines and a total plant capacity of 8 Mtpa of pellets. The target grind size of the circuit varies between the 90-95 percent minus 500 mesh (32 m) depending on the ore and operating conditions (Rajala et al., 2007). For this specific case, Figure 2 shows the liberation curve for the magnetite ore.

Significant reductions in the costs associated with grinding were achieved over the first 80-90 years of the last century by increasing the size and improving the design of the crushers and mills; however, there was no major breakthrough in improving the energy efficiency of the comminution process.

Only in the last 20 years were the more energy-efficient technologies successfully implemented at an industrial scale, including high-pressure grinding rolls (HPGR) for fine crushing (Dunne, 2006) and stirred milling for fine grinding (Gao et al., 2003). The application of more efficient grinding technologies has provided opportunities to further reduce the operating costs associated with grinding. At Empire Mines, an HPGR was installed for processing crushed pebbles, and its introduction resulted in a primary AG mill throughput increase of the order of 20 percent (Dowling et al., 2001). The application of Vertimill fine grinding technology at Hibbing Taconite Company enabled processing of lower grade ores and increased the concentrate production (Pforr, 2001).

A sharp increase in the application of HPGR and stirred mill technologies is recorded in the last decade, driven by the benefits of increased energy efficiency and supported by improvements in equipment reliability. The potential for the reduction of energy consumption of the order of 30-45 percent was suggested to be possible (Valery and Jankovic, 2002), although significantly lower reductions, 9-13 percent, were reported after detailed engineering studies for two large copper projects (Seidel et al. 2006). This clearly indicates that benefits from new energy-efficient technologies are case specific and the intention of this paper is to show the potential for the magnetite ore processing.

A study into the options for a 10 Mtpa ore processing plant for a hard, fine-grained, silica-rich magnetite ore was carried out, with the emphasis on comminution circuit options. The concentrator was assumed to be located within 100 km of a port suitable for facilitating equipment delivery. It was assumed that there were no restrictions on spatial layout and that the process facility would be built on ground of a sound geotechnical character. Any subsequent differences in tailings disposal, water recovery and their associated operating requirements and costs were not considered.

The fine-grained nature of this hypothetical ore results in a relatively late release liberation curve. This fundamental property of a magnetite ore is generally one of the major drivers of flowsheet design and, therefore, flowsheet option generation.

COS coarse ore stockpile; SC secondary crush; HPGR high-pressure grinding roll; AGC autogenous mill in closed circuit with cyclones and pebble crusher; RMS rougher magnetic separation; CMS cleaner magnetic separation; CMS2 - second cleaner magnetic separation; PM pebble mill; PC primary crusher; SM stirred mill; and TSF tailings storage facility.

Option 1 resembles the well-known fully autogenous LKAB and Cleveland Cliffs style, low operating cost operations. The absence of steel grinding media is the major basis for the low operating cost. Pebble mill control and pebble transport and handling requirements add complexity to the design and operation.

Primary crushing AG milling in closed circuit with hydrocyclones and pebble crushing rougher magnetic separation ball milling cleaner magnetic separation tertiary milling using stirred mills second cleaner magnetic separation.

Option 2 has an additional grinding and magnetic separation stage compared to Option 1 and is considered to be simple for design and operation. The final milling stage is carried out using energy-efficient stirred mills. Steel grinding media usage significantly increases the operating cost.

Primary crushing closed circuit secondary crushing closed circuit HPGR rougher magnetic separation ball milling first cleaner magnetic separation tertiary milling using stirred mills second cleaner magnetic separation.

In Option 3, secondary crushing and HPGR effectively replace AG milling with pebble crushing. The application of HPGR, stirred milling and an additional magnetic separation stage reduces the power requirements compared to Options 1 and 2.

Primary crushing secondary crushing screening Open HPGR coarse pebble milling rougher magnetic separation fine pebble milling first cleaner magnetic separation tertiary milling using autogenous stirred mills second cleaner magnetic separation.

Option 4 is an attempt to design a circuit with the lowest operating cost through increased grinding energy efficiency using three stages of magnetic separation, traditional autogenous milling, HPGR and stirred milling technology. In this conceptual flowsheet, steel grinding media is eliminated. Circuit complexity is partially reduced by open secondary crushing, HPGR grinding and stirred milling operation, although recovery, storage and control of three separate-sized media streams are introduced.

With the exception of the primary crushing module, which is consistent between options, estimates were developed for the total power drawn in the comminution, classification and magnetic separation areas of each circuit. Energy consumed by material transport machinery related to pumping between areas was not considered at this level of the study. A summary of the comparison of unit circuit energy for each option is shown in Figure 3.

A significant energy reduction is predicted for Options 3 and 4, which include HPGR and stirred milling. Some 33 percent of additional energy separates the most energy-efficient option (Option 4) from the least efficient, the two-stage AGC Pebble circuit (Option 1). Note that part of the energy reduction is also due to the fact that the process uses unit operations that are better suited to each stage of grinding, i.e. stirred mills are much for efficient for fine grinding than tumbling mills. It can also be attributed to the fact that Options 3 and 4 have an additional separation step at a coarse grind, which reduces the amount of material for fine grinding.

According to Seidel et al. (2006), the basic comminution energy requirement for the Boddington HPGR circuit option was 14 percent lower than the SAG option; however, the overall energy requirement, including conveying, screening etc, was reduced to 9 percent. The Boddington copper gold ore is of similar rock competency to that selected for this study and thus provides a good contrast between comminution processes designed to liberate minerals for flotation, in which the whole ore is ground to fine size, and the comminution process with the staged rejection of silicates. In the latter case, the energy consumption difference between flowsheet options can be significantly higher.

A fairly detailed approach was taken in terms of the development of operating costs for each option. Consumption rates for power, wear and other consumables were considered for each process flowsheet. Maintenance and materials, as well as labor, were also considered. The scope covered included the process from the COS reclaim feeders to either the final magnetic separator concentrate discharge or the magnetic separator tailings discharge. As such, no concentrate or tailings handling, filtration or storage costs were considered. For simplicity, some minor operating costs, such as metallurgical testwork and analysis, which is considered common to all options, have been omitted.

Unit costs for power, grinding media, wear consumables and labor were referenced from average values within the GRD Minproc database for similar-sized and located projects. A factoring approach from the direct capital cost was used to develop cost estimates for maintenance materials. Key assumptions are listed in Table 2. All costs are estimated in Australian dollars and are presented as 1st quarter 2009 costs.

A carbon tax is expected to be introduced in the near future and would add a significant cost to all operations. For this exercise, a simplified estimate of the effect of a carbon tax is considered. It was assumed that the carbon tax would be applied to total circuit energy and steel consumption relating to media and comminution equipment wear liners. The following criteria were applied for the carbon tax estimate: CO2 emission, 5 t per 1 t of steel media (Price et al, 2002), CO2 emission, 1.0 kg per kWh of electricity, CO2 tax, $23 per t of CO2 (Australian Government, 2008).

The most significant operating cost (OPEX) variables between options are those relating to power, media and liner consumption. The two options including AG mill circuits have between 27 and 32 percent higher power consumption costs relative to Option 4, which utilizes the more energy-efficient autogenous grinding technologies.

Grinding media and wear lining costs range between 0.41 $/t and 1.82 $/t. Option 3 has much higher media and wear lining costs because two ball mills of 8.8 MW installed power each are required to grind 8 Mtpa of RMS concentrate from P80 2.3 mm to P80 75 m. The overall OPEX for Option 3 is the highest due to the high costs of media and liner wear.

Table 3 shows a summary of calculations related to the carbon emission and carbon tax effect on OPEX. It can be observed that the introduction of carbon tax at 23 $/t would increase OPEX to the order of 9-11 percent. The majority of carbon emission is from electrical energy consumption, while the indirect contribution from steel consumption is dominated by grinding media and is of the order of 5-16 percent for the options that utilize ball milling (Option 2 and 3).

The CAPEX estimate is developed based on the premise that the process is located inland in West Australia. All costs are estimated in Australian dollars and are presented as 1st quarter 2009 costs. They are estimated to have an accuracy of 35%, which is commensurate with the accuracy requirements for a high-level options study of this nature. The details of the cost estimate can be found in McNab et all, 2009. The total capital cost was as follows:

The total estimated CAPEX for each circuit is within 14 percent, which infers that none of the options is a standout from a capital cost perspective at the accuracy level for this study. In comparison, the Boddington copper gold project CAPEX (Seidel et al. 2006) for the HPGR circuit option was 7 percent higher than the SAG option. Therefore, it appears that there may not be any significant CAPEX penalty for the adoption of more energy-efficient grinding technologies when considering magnetite ore processing.

High-level, pre-tax, net present value (NPV) determinations were calculated for Options 1 to 3 relative to the base case, Option 4 by applying a 10-percent discount rate over 12 years of operation. Option 4 was used as the base case since it returned the lowest capital and operating cost, and therefore NPV. Options 1 and 3 have a similar NPV outcome ranging between negative $94-95 M relative to Option 4. Option 2 shows the least favorable outcome with a $118 M NPV deficit relative to Option 4. This option has the combined disadvantages of both high capital and operating costs. The conclusion drawn from this financial evaluation is that highly energy-efficient autogenous processing routes can offer significant financial advantages for competent magnetite ores requiring fine grinding.

The traditional AG mill and pebble mill-style comminution circuit or those requiring significant steel grinding media to operate have been found to be less effective from a purely economic perspective. Circuit options utilizing multi-stage magnetic separation and with energy-efficient autogenous comminution equipment, although more complex, are more likely to add project value. For the ore type evaluated, the application of HPGR and stirred mill technology is indicated to reduce energy consumption by up to 25 percent compared with conventional flowsheets with wet tumbling mills.

There are many other flowsheet selection drivers that can become relevant, however, the operating cost associated with power draw and grinding media will always remain critical, even more so with the expected introduction of a carbon tax. A synergy of HPGR, pebble and stirred milling can result in a very effective circuit from a capital and operating point of view. It can be expected that highly energy-efficient autogenous processing routes would be further developed and increasingly applied in practice.

iron ore | bruker

iron ore | bruker

The iron ore industry is dedicated to safety and environmental protection while maintaining profitability. Iron ore mining is highly competitive with a continuous focus on delivering value throughefficiency. Explore Brukers full range of analytical solutions to support iron ore from exploration to remediation and from the mine face throughbeneficiation.

Iron ore exploration relies on preliminary grade assignment and preliminary assessment of penalty elements. Most exploration is near-mine brownfield exploration or reassessment of historic resources to identify high-grade drilling targets. Brukers field portable solutions provide more information to exploration teams, quicker. This enables the targeting of exploration activities with more data. For example:

The CTX or S2 PUMA are ED-XRF that can be deployed in the field or in field-adjacent laboratories. The S6 Jaguar is a benchtop WD-XRF providing the highest quality elements results from XRF in a compact package.Learn more about geochemistry with XRF.

Robust grade control is critical for realizing efficiencies in mining operation and processing for iron ore. The efficient and accurate measurement of elemental and mineral constituents of ore is required for blending and sorting workflows. Innovative placement of grade control operations may realize the benefits of predictive models ofupgradability. Mineral textural information from automated mineralogy is critical for optimizing thecommutation circuit of an iron mine. Brukers experts have helped mine planners, geologists,geometallurgists,and engineers realize real process and quality control improvements.

Elements other than iron (Fe) dilute the grade of ore and are penalized at the smelter. For example, phosphorous (P) or sulfur (S) in iron ore can cause brittleness in high concentrations. Silica (Si) and aluminum (Al) can change the molten properties of iron and impede the smelting process. X-ray fluorescence(XRF) is an effective tool in determining penalty elements in all phases of iron ore mining,from the pit to the smelter. Preparing samples as fused beads eliminates the mineralogical effects of samples and enables a more accurate comparison of samples.

Systems integrationof scientific instrumentation into online and inline processes for iron ore requires acomponentspartner that understand both the operating environment and analytical challenges of the segment. Bruker is that partner. Bruker is a trusted partner providing x-ray and optical components for automated sample processing and analysis, conveyer belt analysis, custom instrumentation, and unique solutions. Bruker has partnered with companies of all sizes, from startups to the worlds largest systems integrators, to make visionary workflows and unique analysis become a reality. Contact Brukers development experts to discuss your project today.

Monitoring for heavy metals in mine effluent and discharged waters has become a core competency for iron ore mines globally. Water passing through waste and tailings piles will accumulatecopper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium,and zinc. Total reflection X-rayfluorescence(TXRF) is an emerging tool for the identification and quantification of trace elements and heavy metals for mining operations and remediation. This innovative technology can provide accurate quantification in the PPB range for many elements with simple sample preparation, no dilution,and no consumable gasses.

two iron ore customers to boost throughput & productivity with flsmidth large reclaimer solutions - international mining

two iron ore customers to boost throughput & productivity with flsmidth large reclaimer solutions - international mining

Two iron ore miners, one in West Africa and the other in Canada, are looking to increase their plant efficiency with high capacity bulk material handling solutions from FLSmidth. Execution of the projects is well underway with the large stockyard machines scheduled to arrive at both customer sites in 2022. FLSmidth will deliver a bucket-wheel reclaimer, including the yard conveyor system, with handing capacity of more than 6,000 t/h and one combined stacker-reclaimer with up to 10,000 t/h. For the stacker-reclaimer a special scissor-type tripper car, allowing for two different by-pass options for material transfer, is part of the delivery.

The two orders extend FLSmidth large installed base of mobile balanced machines, supporting our position as a leading provider in this area of mining industry. The solutions will deliver multiple efficiency benefits to the customers, through energy efficient drives for smooth machine control on both machines, high throughput and an optimised maintainability. The transfer chutes are designed as retractable modules for simple and quick maintenance. Whole drive assemblies, including the motor, can be changed as single units to increase the uptime of the machines.

The Canadian order also included BulkExpert, a specialised automation system designed to optimise stacking and reclaiming operations and allow for unmanned operations. It consists of a highly accurate positioning and laser scanning application that creates a model of the stockpiles combined with a unique software solution for intelligent machine control. The BulkExpert delivers optimised throughput, reduced time for operations and cuts employee risk when it comes to health and safety.

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