antique mining equipment

antique mining equipment

The early mining of iron ore in Minnesota was carried on with the most primitive kind of tools. The pioneers used only such equipment as could be packed from Duluth through one hundred miles of forest to the first mines on the Vermilion Range and the operations were carried on with picks, shovels, hand drills and wheelbarrows, the ore being hoisted in buckets with a horse winch and carted in horse drawn wagons to the stockpile. This was about the extent of the mechanical Antique Mining Equipment of the Minnesota iron mines in the early eighties.

As soon as a railroad was pushed through from Two Harbors to the Vermilion Range the equipment began to be improved upon; wood burning steam boilers were installed and small steam puffers displaced the horse-winches, wheelbarrows were abandoned and small cars were introduced. Hauling the hoisted ore in wagons was discontinued and trestles were built so that the ore could be stockpiled more cheaply through the use of cars and high piles. These same stockpiles were loaded by hand into the 10 and 15 ton capacity railroad ore cars.

Within a few years a marked change took placethe hand drill gave place to the air drill, such as No. 3 Rands, Ingersolls, Sargents and some Sullivans. Tramming was done by mules, the ore hoisted in self-dumping skips, hoisting engines were introduced and it seemed as though mining as a business in Minnesota had come to stay. At this stage someone conceived the idea of making the stockpile floor about three feet above the top of the ore cars to facilitate the hand loading of stockpile ore for transportation. This was done through the use of wheelbarrows at first and later by using 1-ton cars running on tracks laid on the stockpile floor.

At the beginning of the nineties we find that another marked change has taken place. Air drills were improved, shops were erected and mine equipment was manufactured on the property. The ore skips gave way to the car cage with its landing gates and, at that time, wonderful safety dogs. The car cage was made necessary because the first ore crushers (of the jaw type) had been installed and the car that was loaded with ore from the underground chutes was trammed to the shaft, run into the cage, hoisted to the surface, then run off and it finally dumped its load into the crushers, where the chunks were reduced to the proper size and the ore then run out onto the stockpile.

At this stage we see the use of stockpile trestles that had considerable grade from the crushers to the pile. The car was first attached to one end of the cable with a counter-weight running on a very steep incline attached to the other end of the cable. The idea was that the loaded car would pull the counter-weight to the top of the incline and when the car was dumped the counter-weight would pull it back. This was improved upon by later double tracking the trestle and two cars were fastened, one to each end of the cable, and in this way the loaded car running out always pulled the empty car back to the crusher.

The next step was the introduction of the first crude electric arc lighting system installed at the Soudan mines, the installation of large hoisting engines, of the Corliss or drum type, and large air compressors. About this time the railroads brought out their 25 tons capacity ore cars.

At this time, in the early nineties, mining in a small way was started on the Mesabi Range. Shafts were sunk and underground method adopted, but as ore bodies were discovered having a very shallow overburden, it was soon decided to strip this overburden. This was started by using teams, scrapers and wagons, then teams and 1-ton side dump cars. But hand stripping was too slow and the next move was the introduction of the first steam shovel.

It is interesting to note that the first shovel used for loading stockpile ore at the Soudan mines was in danger of destruction by the miners, presumably because it displaced scores of men who made a practice of loading stockpile ore by hand and who thought they were being deprived of a livelihood.

The early types of steam shovels were far different from the machines in use today. The dipper was thrust out by a steam piston with the cylinder fastened about the middle of the underside of the boom. The swinging was done by two steam cylinders, one on each side of the shovel and the piston of each was fastened to one end of a rope that was wrapped around the circle. When one piston was forced out the other piston was forced into its cylinder and the boom was swung in one direction; reversed operations of the pistons Swung the boom in the other direction. These first shovels were all friction driven from one main engine and at first were fitted with upright boilers.

With the advent of steam shovels in stripping work came the introduction of small steam locomotives known locally as dinkies and weighing from 6 to 12 tons. The track consisted of 20 to 30-lb., rails, 24 to 36-in. gauge of track and the trains consisted of 1-yd. to 4 cu. yd. side dump cars.

With the introduction of the open pit method of mining there seemed to be no reason why the railroad cars could not be taken down into the pit and loaded. This method was adopted and has continued to date. The only change has been in the use of larger cars.

After the open pit mines were decided to be most advantageous in the point of economy on the Mesabi Range, the operators began improving their equipment by increasing its size and capacity. The 35-ton pioneer shovel was developed until it weighs 300 tons and is operated by either steam or electricity today. Its dipper has a capacity of 16 times that of the original; its capacity both in reach and loading is many times that of the shovels of the early days. The little 1 cu. yd. dump cars of wood construction have grown to a capacity of 30 cu. yds. The latest cars are constructed entirely of steel and are automatically operated by compressed air. The small 6-ton dinky steam locomotive has given way to a standard locomotive weighing 60 to 100 tons on the drivers, equipped with the latest air brake apparatus, using superheated steam and is electric lighted.

The small steam hoist, air compressors and pumps gave way to larger and more improved types and finally steam equipment is being replaced by electrically driven machines. The first ore may have been hoisted in a bucket by a horse winch, but today the ore is loaded from self-measuring pockets into self-dumping skips, and hoisted by high speed electric hoists with such safety appliances that an overwind is practically impossible.

The original hand tramming, underground, has given way to the mule, and the mule to the electric and gasoline locomotives. The air rock drills of the old Rand type have been replaced by the more efficient water piston type, and the end dumping main level car is no more, but in its place is found either the gable bottom or the more speedy rotary dump, in which a whole train can be dumped, at once.

Of late years the operators have been confronted by a very serious problem: namely, the growing scarcity of labor. The scarcity of labor is responsible for such devices as track shifters and tie tampers in the open pits, doing better and more, efficient work with fewer men, and which are valuable additions to the Range machinery family. To increase the efficiency of labor we ascribe the introduction of such devices as air augers and underground loading machines. Every effort, and much money, is being spent in an endeavor to find some sort of mechanical device that will speed up the mining in shaft mines, but recently nothing has been invented that really marks a definite step forward for greatly increased production, as did some of the early inventions.

Not only has machinery been invented to make mining easier and more profitable, but lately we have seen the erection of Ore Washing Plants for mechanical treatment of siliceous ores, and drying plants for driving off excess moisture. In the early days certain ores that were mixed with rock and considered poor, were seldom shipped; today we find such ores screened mechanically, sending the rock to the waste pile and the ore into railroad cars.

All through history of iron mining in Minnesota one great fact seems to stand out above everything else, and that is the wonderful progressiveness of the industry, the constant striving for better and more profitable methods and equipment. One needs but to think of the horse-winch and bucket laboriously hoisting- one ton of ore several times per hour in the wilderness forty years ago, and then look at the 300 ton shovels scooping up 16 tons of ore per lift almost every minute; at the throbbing locomotives, power plants, and the many busy and prosperous communities, and then realize that this wonderful progress was made possible mainly because the men engaged in the mining industry from the pioneers to the men of today have been vigilant and ever on the lookout for better and more rapid means of doing this work.

metal and iron ore mining | mcr safety

metal and iron ore mining | mcr safety

The Iron Age began around 1200 BC, ending the Bronze Age that preceded it and paving the way to mans mastery of metal. Individuals during this period began extracting iron ore to forge tools and weapons. The reason revolves around Iron being one of the most abundant metals found on earth.

Iron makes up 98% of earths core and 5% of earths crust. Iron today is the core component in steel, allowing us to build buildings, cars, ships, and weapons. In fact, we even eat Iron! Check out the nutrition facts of cereal to the right.

US iron mining is most prevalent in Minnesota and Michigan. The majority of the mining found for these operations is Surface Mining.This form of mining is when minerals are directly removed from the ground surface area. It is also commonly known as open cast mining, making up the majority of metal ore mining. More than 95% of all non-metallic minerals involved this type of mining.

Operate equipment to control chemical changes or reactions in the processing of industrial product. There are roughly around 930 of these workers found in Metal mining. You will find these workers detecting equipment leaks and drawing samples of products. Common Job titles for this position are Multiskill Operator, Production Operator, and Spray Dry Operator.

Perform tasks involving physical labor at construction sites. Mining examples include earth drillers, blasters and explosives workers, derrick operators, and mining machine operators. There are roughly around 12,000 of these workers found in Metal mining. You will find these workers using hand tools, repairing drilling equipment, and transporting materials. Common Job titles for this position are Mining Technician, Helper, Laborer, Post Framer, and Construction Worker.

Operate mining machines that rip coal, metal and nonmetal ores, rock, stone, or sand from the mine face and load it onto conveyors or into shuttle cars. There are roughly around 3,600 of these workers found in Metal mining. You will find these workers assisting in construction activities, checking the roof stability and cleaning equipment. Common Job titles for this position are Bore Mine Operator, Miner Operator, and Continuous Miners.

Install, maintain, and repair electrical wiring, equipment, and fixtures. Around 1,100 of this occupation in Metal mining. You will find these workers connecting wires to breakers and transformers, making dielectric and FR safety gear important. Common Job titles for this position are Industrial Electrician, Journeyman Electrician and Wireman, and Maintenance Electrician.

Place and detonate explosives to demolish structures or to loosen, remove, or displace earth, rock, or other materials. May perform specialized handling, storage, and accounting procedures. Includes seismograph shooters. There are around 1,000 of these working in Mining. You will find these workers placing explosive charges in holes and shoveling drill cuttings. Common Job titles for this position are Blaster, Explosive Technician, and Powderman.

Help craft workers by supplying equipment, cleaning areas, and repair drilling equipment. Extraction craft workers are earth drillers, blasters and explosives workers, derrick operators, and mining machine operators. There are around 8,400 of these workers. Common Job titles for this position are Blasting Helper, Miner Helper, and Driller Helper.

Operate or tend heating equipment other than basic metal, plastic, or food processing equipment. There are around 1,000 of these working in Mining. You will find these workers handling, moving objects and clearing equipment jams. Common Job titles for this position are Dry Kiln Operator, Dryer Feeder, and Overn Operator.

Repair overhaul mobile mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic equipment. Examples of this equipment includes cranes, bulldozers, graders, and conveyors. There are around 2,100 of these workers found in Quarries. You will find these working replacing worn parts and reassembling heaving equipment with tools. Common Job titles for this position are Heavy Equipment Technician, Field Mechanic, and Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanic.

Lubricates machines, changes parts, and performs machinery maintenance. Mining employs a little over 3,700 of these workers in Metal mining. You will find these workers cleaning machine and machine parts. Cleaning solvents, oil and metalworking fluids are a definite concern for these workers. Common Job titles for this position are Lubricator, Maintenance Man, and Oiler.

Worker activities include repairing, installing, and adjusting industrial machinery. There are around 2,400 of this occupation working in Metal mining. You will find these workers cutting and welding metal to repair broken metal parts. Job titles for this position are Fixer, Industrial and Master Mechanic.

Operate machines designed to cut, shape and form metal. There are roughly 1,100 employees found for this occupation. You will find this worker fabricating metal products, lifting heavy material and working with their hands. Common job titles for this position are sheet metal worker and welder. Be sure to check out our Metal Fabrication industry educational page.

Keep machines, mechanical equipment, or the structure of an establishment in repair. There are around 3,000 of this occupation found in Metal mining. You will find these workers pipe fitting, repairing equipment, and repairing buildings. Job titles for this position are Maintenance Worker, Maintenance Mechanic, and Facilities Manager.

Repair, or overhaul mobile equipment, such as cranes, bulldozers, graders, and conveyors, used in construction, logging, and surface mining. There are roughly around 2,100 of these workers found in Metal mining. You will find these workers replacing worn parts and reassembling equipment using hand tools. Common Job titles for this position are Heavy Equipment Technician, Field Mechanic, and Equipment Mechanic.

Operate continuous flow / vat-type equipment; filter presses; shaker screens; centrifuges; scrubbing towers; and batch stills. There are roughly around 930 of these workers found in Metal mining. You will find these workers pouring unrefined material into machines. Common Job titles for this position are Machine Tender and Plant Operator

Help operate welding, soldering or brazing machines that weld, braze, or heat treat metal products. The mining industry employs around 500 of these workers in Metal mining. You will find these workers adding material to work pieces, joining metalcomponents, and annealing finished work pieces. Common Job titles for this position are Fabricator, Mig Welder, Spot Welder, Fitter-Welder, and Braze Operators.

Use hand-welding, flame-cutting, hand soldering, and brazing equipment to weld/join metal components, fill holes, indentations, or seams of fabricated metal products. There are around 500 of these workers employed in Metal mining. You will find these workers welding components in flat, vertical or overhead positions. Common Job titles for this position are Maintenance Welder, Mig Welder, and Welder/Fabricator.

Numerous mining injuries occur from working around low roofs, confined spaces, shoveling, lifting, and climbing. We have highly abrasive gloves for this very reason.

Impact in confined spaces, impact from crush and other mining equipment, heavy tool handling, falling rocks, tire changing, using grinding equipment and loading materials can all be hard on the back of a workers hands.

Mining underground and tearing into the earth is just a little dirty at times. Mining coveralls for underground mines and raingear for outdoor surface mining are absolute necessities.

Dirt and dust are virtually in all mining environments. Drilling, blasting, and dust generated from hauling trucks are create a ton of dust. It is known as one of the top on-the-job health risks of mining.

Mine sites use a lot of heavy trucks, hydraulics, conveyors, bulldozers and equipment. Mechanics need excellent abrasive grip and many times require back-of-hand protection.

Breaking up rock, drilling, and mining the earth creates flying particles. Grinding residues are present too. Check out eyewear designed for this exact scenario.

Many workers drive equipment in mining operations. Many mining fatalities occur due to Haul-Truck accidents. Drivers should not even second-guess wearing premier leather driver gloves.

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MCR Safety manufactures and supplies Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Simply put, WE PROTECT PEOPLE! We are known world-wide for our extensive product line depth surrounding gloves, glasses, and garments spanning across numerous industries. We offer the total package of safety gear encompassing industrial gloves, safety glasses, protective garments, welding gear, industrial boots, Flame Resistant (FR) gear, face shields, and much more. From a glove standpoint alone, MCR Safety manufacturers and supplies over 1,000 different style gloves. Here are some of the many reasons MCR Safety is your go to source for PPE:

MCR Safety is recognized as a global manufacturer stretching across six countries, with both distribution and manufacturing facilities. Our core competency and specialty is manufacturing and supplying protective gloves, glasses, and garments. The information shown and provided on MCR Safetys website, its safety articles, industry resource pages, highlighted hazards and safety equipment should be used only as a general reference tool and guide. The end user is solely responsible for determining the suitability of any product selection for a particular application. MCR Safety makes no guarantee or warranty (expressed or implied) of our products performance or protection for particular applications.

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antonov's an-124 drafted in to fly mining equipment to brazil - simple flying

antonov's an-124 drafted in to fly mining equipment to brazil - simple flying

Ukrainian cargo carrier Antonov Airlines has successfully moved 370 tonnes of new mining equipment from Australia to Brazil on three flights. Global air charter specialist Chapman Freeborn chartered the An-124s used for the airlift on behalf of Vale S.A.

Vale S.A. is a Brazilian multinational mining corporation and one of the largest logistics operators in Brazil. Previously called Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (Sweet River Valley Company), it is the worlds largest nickel and iron ore producer.

Antonov Airlines specialist load engineers designed tailor-made frames to carry massive drill bits and automotive parts for Carajas iron ore mine. Due to the cargos weight and COVID-19 restrictions, the An-124s had to make several technical stops on the long journey from Australia. Rapid COVID-19 tests were given to all crew members during each 14-hour rest layover before the aircraft were cleared for the next leg of the trip.

The three An-124 flights took place on the 20th February, 26th February and 1st March departing from Melbourne, Australia, where the parts were manufactured to Belm in Brazil. Along the way, the planes stopped for fuel and rest in Honolulu, Cancun, Paramaribo, Orlando, Bangor, Reykjavk, Leipzig, Baku, New Delhi, Johor Bahru, and Darwin.

It was important for the Brazilian mining giant to have the parts delivered on time to keep non-stop operations running. When the aircraft eventually landed at Belm/Val-de-Cans International Airport (BEL), they were guided by Follow Me vehicles to a special unloading area. From there, the drill bits and automotive parts were loaded on trucks and delivered to the mine. Everything went like clockwork, with all parties happy with the operation.

This was a challenging project, which we had to complete to a tight deadline. Using three AN-124 aircraft to airlift these special project cargoes allowed us to perform the program of round-the-world flights successfully.

Manufactured between1982 and 2014, the An-124 was the largest cargo aircraft globally but is now second to the AN-225 Myria, the worlds largest commercial airplane. Flown by a crew consisting of two pilots, two flight engineers, a navigator, and a communications operator, the An-124 has room for 88 passengers on its upper deck and can carry bulky and oversized cargo. Two of Antonov Airlines An124s have been modified to carry 150,000kg (330,693lbs) and were used for the Brazil flights.

Journalist - Mark is an experienced travel journalist having published work in the industry for more than seven years. His enthusiasm for aviation news and wealth of experience lends itself to some excellent insight, with his work cited in Forbes amongst other publications. Based in Alicante, Spain.

major mines & projects | scully mine

major mines & projects | scully mine

The Scully Deposit mineralization style is a deposit typical of the Superior-Lake type of Iron Formations. The Scully Mine lies within the Labrador Trough in Western Labrador. The Sokoman Formation is an iron formation that consists of three iron bearing formations, named the Upper, Middle and Lower Iron Formations. The Sokoman Formation is more than 300 m thick near the Scully Mine and has been subjected to two episodes of folding and metamorphism during the Hudsonian and Greenville orogenies, resulting in a complex structural pattern in the Wabush Area. The younger Menihek and Shabagamo Formations and the older Denault, Attikamagen, and Wishart Formations all outcrop in the vicinity of the mine site. The mineral deposit that defines the Scully Mine consists of folded and faulted stratigraphic beds of iron-bearing units within the regional Sokoman Iron Formation.The ore minerals are hematite (specularite), magnetite, and martite. The waste minerals are quartz and hydrated iron oxides such as limonite and goethite. Manganese oxides also occur in bands or are disseminated throughout the iron-bearing units. The Scully Deposit can be divided into two distinct structural areas. Bounded to the east by the Wabush Lake lies a series of northwest- trending folds. This trend continues as far west as the west end of Knoll Lake, where the folds transition to an east-west trend. The interpretation by OLeary (1972) explains a series of simple folds in the east plunging gently to the southeast and cut by an almost vertical fault zone, 75 meters wide, which is believed to be barren of ore minerals. The area to the west is described as a succession of a synform, an antiform and a second synform to the south. The axes plunge east in the eastern part of the fold system, and west in the western part. The most prominent structural feature in the East Pit, geologically, and as far as mining considerations are concerned, is a reversed fault which runs approximately in a northwest direction through the orebody. This fault dips steeply to the east, with the basement rocks thrown up some 75 meters on the western side. The fault is marked by a series of clay seams, varying in color from pink to a light cream. In addition, the fault is characterized by elevated level of manganese, giving assays as high as 6 or 7 percent. The sooty black appearance of the ore against the lighter clay provides a striking contrast and the fault can be traced quite easily along strike as mining advances. A number of small parallel fault zones have been traced.

The operation consists of a conventional surface mining method using an owner mining approach with electric and diesel hydraulic shovels and mine trucks. Some major mine equipment required for the restart of the project, such as drills and hydraulic shovels, are present on site as this equipment was acquired early on in 2017. The study consists of resizing the open pit based on parameters outlined in this study and producing a life-of-mine (LOM) plan to fill the mill to capacity subject to constraints with a mining rate of 35 Mtpy. Drill and blast specifications are established to effectively single pass drill and blast a 12 m bench. For this bench height a 349 mm blast hole size is proposed with a 6.5 m burden by 7.5 m spacing with 1.5 m of subdrill in ore. The blast pattern in waste is identical with adjusted explosive column height. These drill parameters, combined with a high energy bulk emulsion with a density of 1.2 kg/m3 , result in a powder factor of 0.50 kg/t for ore and 0.45 kg/t for waste. Blast holes are initiated with electronic detonators and primed with 450 g boosters. The bulk emulsion product is a gas-sensitized pumped emulsion blend specifically designed for use in wet blasting applications. The majority of the loading in the pit will be done by two hydraulic shovels equipped with a 24 m3 bucket. The shovels are matched with a fleet of 211 metric tonnes payload mine trucks. The project already owns two 24 m3 hydraulic front shovels (one electric and one diesel) and one 17m3 diesel front shovel. The hydraulic shovels will be complemented by one production front-end wheel loader with a 12 m3 bucket. The truck fleet reaches a maximum of 16 units excluding equipment replacement. Mining of the Scully Mine is planned with seven pit sectors referred to as Boot Pit, West Pit Extension North, West Pit Extension South, West Pit, South Pit, East Pit West and East Pit East. Mining has taken place in all of these pit sectors except for Boot Pit which was in the Cliffs LOM plan where only initial efforts to strip overburden and prepare production benches had been undertaken. The pit area measures approximately 5.4 km in an east-west direction and is approximately 2.1 km northsouth in relation to the South Pit. The final pit contains 443.7 Mt of ore at an average grade of 34.83% Fe, 2.58% Mn and 5.43% SAT. This Mineral Reserve is sufficient for a 26 year mine life with possibilities for expansion at higher iron ore prices and the conversion of Inferred Mineral Resources to Measured and Indicated Mineral Resources. A total of 831.4 Mt is to be mined for an overall strip ratio of 0.87:1.

Crushing and Ore HandlingThe ore will be hauled by 240 short tonne mine trucks. The trucks will discharge into two 54 x 74 primary gyratory crushers each driven by a 335 kW (450 HP) motor, at a nominal feed rate of 2,150 tph. Each crusher has a capacity of 3861 tph so only one is required to operate. The ore will be crushed at minus 8 (203 mm) and will be transferred by two 60 belt conveyors to bins ahead of the grinding circuit. Two new hydraulic hammers (one for each crusher) will break down any oversize rocks in the crusher cavity. The capacity of the crushing circuit is limited at 3200 tph by the transfer conveyors. The crude ore storage bins have to be kept full at all time. There is an excess of 1000 tph compared to the mills throughput to build the storage in the event of feed interruption. GrindingFrom the 22 000 metric tonne capacity crude ore storage bin, the ore is fed by vibratory feeders onto the mill feed conveyors. Each feeds ........

reliable equipment for iron ore mines

reliable equipment for iron ore mines

Its all about volume. In the iron ore industry, you want the largest possible throughput of iron ore through your processing equipment. Thats why you need the most reliable and proven equipment that never lets you down, even though it handles large tonnages every day of the year.

Whether you need to sustain or increase your throughput, or you are looking to increase the grade, you want the most advanced beneficiation and processing equipment. For more than a century, we have helped advance the productivity of mineral processing operations, and we help you discover the optimal solution in every step from metallurgical testing to full plant design.

Just one hour of unplanned downtime can cost you millions of dollars in lost revenue. To avoid that, you need equipment designed to handle the heavy work combined with the latest technology that allows for remote monitoring and predictive and prescriptive maintenance.

For your bulk material handling, our hundreds of installations around the world has proven the reliability of our equipment. We provide you with a full flowsheet of equipment that has made us the global leader in high-efficiency process systems for iron ore and mineral beneficiation.

With control rooms often being hundreds and even thousands of miles away from the mines, the iron ore industry is leading the way for other commodities into the era of digitalization. And we are right next to you all the way in that journey.

To bring the advantages of digitalization to your mine, we are working with partners all across the world to fully utilise Internet of Things and bring all our equipment online. Among other benefits, this will let you monitor, control and benchmark operational performance remotely, as well as help you plan for maintenance well in advance of a breakdown.

FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.

latest advances in high capacity, fine screening for the iron ore industry canadian mining magazine

latest advances in high capacity, fine screening for the iron ore industry canadian mining magazine

DerrickCorporation of Buffalo New York, USA, a family-owned manufacturer of fine screening equipment and screen surface technology, has been producing innovative, reliable, high-performance screening equipment for more than 70 years.

Derrick first entered the market in 1951, fine screening limestone for a local U.S. Steel plant. By 1957, the benefits of efficient fine sizing with Derrick high frequency screens were being implemented to improve the classification efficiency of air-swept grinding mills in Canadas Labrador Iron Trough and on the U.S. Mesabi Iron Range. By the early 1960s, researchers knew that wet fine screening could be used to meet the iron ore industries increasing demand for lower silica concentrates, and improve grinding efficiencies in wet milling circuits. At this time, fine screening machine capacity and reliability were major concerns that Derrick set out to address. Derrick introduced layered, fine wire mesh Sandwich Screen surfaces in 1977 as an effective means to address near size blinding, a common screening problem.

Without near size blinding, Derrick realized a fundamental principle of wet screening; screen width, rather than screen area, is the most critical design consideration. Recognition of this concept led to the development of the first multiple feed point fine wet screening machines in 1977; the Derrick Multifeed screen. The Multifeed design demonstrated that feeding three screen panels in parallel allowed for 1.5- to two times more capacity compared to a single feed machine with same three panels in series.

Derricks greatest invention, Polyweb high open area and blinding resistant urethane screen surfaces were released in the 1990s. The long life of the urethane surface has made fine screening more practical than previously imagined. The Stack Sizer design was introduced in 2000 with five vibrating screen decks operating in parallel and dual-motor linear motion. The Stack Sizer has the capacity of three to four Multifeeds.

Expanding on this concept, the SuperStack design began in 2014 with a focus of improving flow characteristics and increasing the width and number of screen decks. Derricks patented Front-to-Back (FTB) Polweb screen surface tensioning system further increased screening capacity and reduced screen panel change times. The revolutionary FTB screen deck and surface design improves feed distribution, volumetric capacity, and oversize conveyance.

The SuperStack has two to three times the capacity of a Stack Sizer; with its eight decks operating in parallel, combined with a 27 per cent increase in effective screening width per deck, the SuperStack achieves significantly higher production capacity in a similar footprint to a five-deck Stack Sizer. The SuperStack has 11 meters of screening width compared the Stack Sizers five meters of screening width. All screen frames are coated with abrasion-resistant urethane for extended service.

More effective use of screen area and increased capacity results from the front-to-back screen tensioning system that tensions the panel in the direction of flow rather than side to side. In addition to increasing productivity, the tensioning system reduces screen panel changing time by 80 to 90 per cent, when compared to side-to-side tensioning. Derrick Polyweburethane screen panels with full range slotted openings are available for the SuperStack. An optional re-pulp spray system introduces free water into replaceable rubber wash troughs to help undersize material pass through screen openings.

Dual oversize launders (one per side) and a single undersize launder eliminate the need for a large hopper, minimizing height requirements. Each feeder has an easily removed front cover to facilitate maintenance and debris removal. Custom flow distribution systems are designed for each application using the proven Derrick Flo-Divider design.

Dual vibratory motors are positioned directly over the upper screen frame to deliver linear vibratory motion to all eight-screen decks. The motors have an internal oil lubrication system that eliminates the need for a separate lubrication system, while providing long-term maintenance-free operation and low sound production.

Leading iron ore producers are already implementing SuperStack screening technology in innovative applications. Vale S.A., one of the worlds largest iron ore is installing SuperStacks for fine iron recovery at the Carajs mining complex to transform their tailings into positive cash flow with a by making a high-value green ore product from what was previously considered waste. The new process lowers emissions in mining and steelmaking with high-quality iron ore recovered at a lower cost compared to other Carajs operations. Arcelor Mittal Nippon Steels Dubana plant is installing SuperStacks to increase production with improve grinding efficiency and pipeline protection. The SuperStacks will replace hydrocyclone classification to allow for more grinding capacity and reliable top size control for pipeline protection. Metallo invest is installing SuperStacks to produce high grade iron ore required for modern steel making processes. The SuperStacks will be used for ultrafine screen classification in stirred mill circuits.

Many traditional iron ore processing methods result in a substantial amount misplace material that lowers the value of iron ore products and/or the loss of recoverable fine iron ore into tailings storage. Recent developments in separation technology and demand for higher quality ore make coarse gangue rejection and the recovery of finer iron ore more cost-effective. Efficient, reliable, high-capacity screening machines can increase recovery of fine iron ore and produce high-grade iron ore products.

Derricks decades of experience in the iron ore industry combined with our industry leading fine sizing technology put us in a unique position to assist in flow sheet development. We have a team of experienced mineral processors, advanced multi-component simulation capabilities, and a full-scale laboratory ready to assist in a detailed review your process objectives.

Employed by Derrick Corporation for over 14 years, Jobe Wheeler is an experienced process engineer focused on providing simple and robust solutions for the iron ore industry. Jobe has helped implement fine screening applications in numerous large scale iron ore project across the world and holds a Mechanical Engineering with specialization in vibrations and fluid dynamics form University of Buffalo. Jobe previously worked for seven years at Motorola conducting process optimization and improving equipment reliability in a Six Sigma manufacturing environment.

Derrick Corporation is a family-owned and operated company with a global presence focused on pioneering fine-separation technology. Since 1951, Derrick has manufactured innovative technologiesserving the Mining and Industrial, Oil and Gas Drilling, and Civil Construction industries. Derrick offers its clients leading-edge solutions and around-the-clock, award-winning service to maximize separation efficiency. Derricks products are renowned for their rugged reliability in industries known for intensely challenging environments and ever-evolving demands.

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