commonly used processing processes of hematite - xinhai

commonly used processing processes of hematite - xinhai

Hematite is a weakly magnetic iron mineral with 70% pure iron content and good flotability. It is one of the main raw materials for iron making. There are many commonly used hematite processing processes, which mainly include gravity separation, flotation separation, magnetic separation, roasting-magnetic separation, and combined separation. Now, lets learn more about various hematite processing processes.

Gravity separation of hematite mainly includes two types: coarse-grained gravity separation and fine-grained gravity separation. They are suitable for separating coarse-grained (20mm-2mm) and medium-grained hematite ore.

The geological grade of the hematite deposit is high, but the ore body is thin. It has many interlayers, and waste rock is easy to mix in, leading to ore dilution. For this situation, only crushing without grinding is adopted. Coarse-grained hematite is separated by the gravity separation to discard coarse-grained tailings to restore the geological grade.

After being crushed, the fine-grained hematite is separated by grinding and then processed by gravity separation to obtain fine-grained high-grade concentrate. As the grade of hematite is generally not high, the gravity separation process has a low unit processing capacity, so gravity separation is usually used in a combined process to improve the concentrate grade.

Obverse flotation separation is to use anionic collectors to separate iron minerals from the raw ore, and can directly discard coarse-grained tailings without desliming. The commonly used collectors include fatty acid collectors, alkyl sulfates and petroleum sulfonates, etc.

Reverse flotation separation is to use anionic or cationic collectors to separate gangue minerals from the raw ore. The anionic collector uses fatty acids activated by calcium ions. By sodium hydroxide or mixing it with sodium carbonate, the pH can be adjusted to more than 11, and then it adds starch, sulfonated lignin, and dextrin to inhibit iron minerals.

Reverse flotation separation with cationic collectors is to adjust the slurry to pH=8-9 with the help of sodium carbonate, and add starch, dextrin, tannin, etc. to inhibit iron minerals, and adopt amine collectors during reverse flotation. As collectors, ether amine is the first choice, followed by fatty amine.

Magnetic separation of hematite mostly adopts weak - strong magnetic separation, which is suitable for the separation of magnet-hematite mixed ore. The common hematite weak magnetic-strong magnetic separation process is that after being concentrated, tailings with weak magnetic separation is subjected to strong magnetic roughing and scavenging. The coarse concentrate with strong magnetic enters the strong magnetic separator for concentration.

Some of the strong magnetic minerals in hematite ore can easily cause blockage of the strong magnetic separator. So if the weak magnetic-strong magnetic separation process is used, it is often necessary to increase the weak magnetic separation operation before the strong magnetic separation operation to remove or separate the strong magnetic minerals in the ore.

Roasting-magnetic separation of hematite is generally applicable to hematite with fine grain size, low content of useful elements and low content of harmful elements. The hematite processing process requires the ore to be magnetized and roasted to convert the hematite or martite into magnetite, and then separate them by the magnetic separator with a weak magnetic field.

Generally, in order to further improve the grade of iron concentrate, fine screening -regrinding - re-selection (concentrate grade can reach more than 65%) and re-grinding-reverse flotation (concentrate grade can reach 66%) and other methods to reprocess the iron ore concentrate derived from magnetic separation.

If the composition of hematite is complex and it is difficult to obtain a good separation index by using other processing processes, a combined processing process can be used. Commonly used hematite combined processing processes are as follows:

This method is to screen out most of the higher quality primary ore from the raw hematite ore by weak magnetic separation or gravity separation. The remaining ore with difficult separation is processed by reverse flotation. This process can greatly reduce the amount of ore by reverse flotation. Besides, advantages of this process are obvious. For example, it has good combination and adaptability, the equipment has a high raw ore processing capacity, the parameter adjustment of equipment is more flexible, the electricity consumption and water consumption are relatively low. It can effectively reduce the production cost of the entire processing process and obtain greater economic benefits.

This method is to first recover fine-particle iron minerals through strong magnetic separation, which plays the dual role of desliming and discarding tailings, and creates better conditions for flotation; and then use reverse flotation for separation. The reverse flotation process is simple to use reagents, which can significantly reduce the entry of organic substances such as flotation reagents into the slurry and reduce its adverse effects on the flotation process.

This method is to first obtain hematite concentrate with low impurity content through strong magnetic-reverse flotation, and then greatly improve the iron grade through ordinary roasting or production of pellet ore. Compared with other combined processes, the strong magnetic-reverse flotation-roasting combined process has lower production costs and facilitates good economic benefits.

The above are the commonly used hematite processing processes. According to different forms, hematite can be subdivided into several different ore types. In order to get the appropriate process for different hematite ore and realize the unification of economic and environmental benefits, its recommended to have the processing test first, and a reasonable processing process should be formulated according to the nature of the ore.

hematite ore, hematite mineral, hematite beneficiation process, hematite separation process - xinhai

hematite ore, hematite mineral, hematite beneficiation process, hematite separation process - xinhai

[Introduction]: The hematite processing line adopting stage grinding and stage separation for high separation efficiency. The combination of strong magnetic separation and reverse flotation process ensures the concentrate grade and environmental protection.

[Application]: Hematite separation process is suitable for complex structure hematite ore, such as hematite ore and impurities with uneven distribution of particle size, hematite ore with large content of fine particle, hematite ore with small amount of magnetite and the gangue minerals containing quartz or kaolin.

In the first grinding and classification stage, ball mill and hydrocyclone consists the closed circuit. It guarantees the classification efficiency and classification particle size. At the same time, it separates part of regular concentrates at advance. Part of low-grade tailings are discarded by high-gradient magnetic separator. It can reduce the middling regrinding amount and metal loss, also avoiding overgrinding.

The magnetic separation can separate regular coarse concentrates and tailings in time, which fits the principle of early recovery and early discarding as possible. It also reduces the flotation workload and costs.

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hematite processing by flotation

hematite processing by flotation

Direct shipping of high grade iron ore, because of depletion or partial depletion of reserves, or high costs of operation has forced operators to use some means of beneficiation to produce an acceptable product with the lower grade iron ore reserves.

Deposits of comparatively lower grade iron ore that remain relatively untouched or by-passed, are now most important because of increase in consumer demands. Deposits of comparatively low grade specular hematite amenable to beneficiation by flotation have produced concentrates superior in grade to direct shipping ores.

Low grade deposits containing specular hematite (Fe2 O3) as the major iron mineral as low as 25% Fe can be treated with Sub-A Flotation to produce concentrates that average better than 62% Fe with less than 9% SiO2 and with a high recovery.

The above flowsheet has been developed to produce a high grade product economically with maximum recovery. Due to the flexibility of Units and especially the Sub-A Flotation Machine, gravity flow can be utilized throughout the mill, thus keeping pumping requirements to a minimum.

Following initial test work for Ford Motors, a Pilot Plant was installed. A fatty acid reagent combination was developed to float the specular hematite in a concentrate assaying over 65% iron. This same procedure and reagents are now being employed in present day operations.

Three stage ore reduction is used with either a grizzly or vibrating screen between each crushing stage. Removing fines before putting the ore through a crusher increased the efficiency of the crusher as it is then only working on material that must be reduced. The fines form a bedding on the conveyor belt, thus increasing its life. Electromagnetic and magnetic head pulleys remove tramp iron from the ore, the former to remove iron near the surface and the magnetic pulley for tramp iron close to the belt.

Increased efficiency of grinding is obtained by using two stage grinding. The Rod Mill reduces the feed to approximately 10 mesh and is in open circuit with the Classifier which overflows at 48 mesh. A Ball Mill operates in closed circuit with the classifier.

A Sub-A Unit Cell will produce an extremely high grade concentrate when operated on the ball mill discharge. A Selective Mineral Jig may also be used on the classifier sands to produce a high grade concentrate. Concentrates removed in the grinding circuit are usually very low in phosphorus and silica.

Reagent costs are cut to a minimum, desliming the 48 mesh material at approximately 20 microns. This is accomplished with a heavy duty Hydroclassifier which also thickens the slurry to approximately 65 % solids for conditioning.

The thickened underflow from the hydroclassifier is metered with a Adjustable Stroke Diaphragm Pump to High Solids Open Type Conditioners. As true of many non-metallics, high solids conditioning is most important. After conditioning, the slurry is diluted to 35% solids for rougher flotation.

Reagents are stage added to the conditioners and unless a unit cell is used or a low phosphorus productis to be made, this is the only point of addition. The most common reagents are red oil high in oleic acid content, petroleum sulfonates, a frother and occasionally some mineral oil. Emulsions of the first two are sometimes helpful. Flotation is carried out in a neutral circuit unless the phosphorus, usually in the form of apatite, is to be depressed. Then cleaners are usually operated with acid pH and sodium fluoride,fuel oil and sulphuric acid are added to the cleaners.

Each flotation circuit consists of a four cell open flow roughing section followed by a two cell scavenger. The scavenger concentrate is returned by gravity to the third rougher cell and the rougher concentrate from the first rougher cell is sufficiently high grade ( + 58% Fe) to combine with the cleaner concentrate which flows by gravity to the recleaners. All cells are supercharged with low pressure air. Double overflow Spitzkasten cells with froth paddles are used to quickly remove the heavy froth as soon as it forms.Typical flotation results are shown in the table below:

The final concentrate flows by gravity to the Heavy Duty Spiral Rake Thickener and is metered to the Disc Filter with a Adjustable Stroke Diaphragm Pump. Due to fast settling characteristics, an agitating mechanism must be placed in the bottom of the filter tank to keep the solids from settling out. The filter is so installed that the tank may be drained by gravity to the thickener. The filtrate is returned to the thickener feed.

The flowsheet is designed for large tonnage operation and parallel circuits which are a necessity on all the low grade, low value iron ore deposits of this type. Flotation offers a very efficient low cost treatment method for beneficiation of these ores.

major mines & projects | sishen mine

major mines & projects | sishen mine

Sishen mine is host to a large haematite orebody (14km by 3.2km by 400m). Its lump ore is highly valued by steelmakers. Sishens lump to fine ratio is of the order of 60:40, while the global average is 30:70.At Sishen Iron Ore Mine, high-grade hematite ore is extracted from specific stratigraphic units belonging to the Palaeo-Proterozoic (~ 2400 million years (Ma)) Transvaal and (~ 2070 Ma) Olifantshoek Supergroups, respectively.The Superior-type banded iron-formations (BIFs) of the Transvaal Supergroup lithologies were deposited in two related basins, one in an extensive continental shelf environment and the other in an intra-continental sea, both situated on the Kaapvaal craton.The basin, preserved along the western margin of the Kaapvaal craton, is referred to as the Griqualand West basin and hosts the largest known resources of high-grade hematite ore on the Southern African continent.The mine is situated in the Postmasburg-Sishen sub-region, where iron ore and associated lithologies of the Transvaal (locally termed Griqualand West Sequence) and Olifantshoek Supergroups crop out intermittently along a 60 km arcuate belt. The iron ore outcrops define an important regional anticlinal structure known as the Maremane Dome.The Sishen Iron Ore Mine is located at the northern end of the Maremane anticline, with the Beeshoek Mine and new Kolomela Mine, at the southern end.

Description of Mining Method.Sishen Mine is a conventional open pit mining operation applying a pushback deployment strategy. The distinctive mining areas are North Mine (G80 and G50), Middle Mine, Dagbreek, Vliegveld, Far South and Lyleveld. Material is drilled, blasted, loaded by electric and diesel (rope and hydraulic) shovels and hauled by trucks to either the primary crusher, high-grade or low-grade stockpiles or waste dumps. Benches are 12.5 m high. The ore from the opencast pit is transported to the beneficiation plant where it is crushed, screened and beneficiated through dense media separation and Jig technology. Mine design.The practical final pit design is based on the optimal pit shell from the approved 2014 Whittle Optimisation. Through a Strategic redesign programme the pushbacks were optimised for practicality (width), ore exposure and flexibility (available face positions) considering the available pit space. Iron ore mining operations. Mining started in outcrop and shallow ore areas along the north to south strike of the ore body and is generally progressing in a westerly direction along the dip of the ore body, with the mine pit becoming increasingly deeper towards the west. Four types of hard iron ore, namely massive, laminated, conglomerated and brecciate iron ore are mined. Blast hole drilling is a continuous process and blasting is done once a day, typically in the early afternoons between 12h00 and 14h00, at each of the active mining areas within the mine pit. In 2007, Sishen Mine and Khumani Mine received DMR approval to mine the boundary pillar between the Sishen and Khumani mine pits. Once the boundary pillar has been mined, the Sishen and Khumani mine pits will be joined into one. Vliegveld West Satellite Pit (Sishen 543 Prospecting Right Area - 1021/2007 PR). The Vliegveld West satellite pit is situated south of the Dingleton town and is part of the current mining right area. It extends onto the Sishen 543 prospecting right area and has a reserve of 14.7 Mt with an average JIG beneficiated Fe grade of 65.8%. Vliegveld West is mined from 2020 onwards in the lifeof- operation schedule. The Doornvlei Satellite Pit (Gamagara 541 Prospecting Right Area - 319/2006 PR). Doornvlei is situated west of the Dingleton town and has an additional resource of 37.7 Mt with a high average DMS Beneficiated Fe grade of 66.3%. Doornvlei plays an important role to enhance the product grade in the life-of- operation schedule.Parsons Satellite Pit (Sishen 543 Prospecting Right Areas - 1021/2007 PR and Parsons 564 - 320/2006 PR).The Parsons Satellite pit is planned south of the current Sishen pit and has a speculative resource, categorised as a 15.4 Mt deposit, with an average in-situ Fe grade of 64%. The importance of the Parsons Satellite pit is that it can significantly contribute to the production schedule toward the end of the life- of-operation and may develop into a significant production area in the future. The geological confidence in the Parsons deposit needs to be improved by exploration and in-fill drilling.

An additional primary crusher (UPC) will be required for the processing of some of the material as the existing DMS and JIG plant crushers do not have capacity to process all of the additional ROM. A-grade and/or C-grade ore shall be crushed by the existing primary and secondary DMS crushers which have capacity of 26 Mtpa. The UPC will serve to crush additional feed material to the UHDMS and this could include both A-grade, B-grade & C-grade as well as lower grade material. The crushed material from these crushers shall then be delivered to the existing DMS tertiary crushers and the DMS stockpile (see Figure 4-2). The material from the DMS stockpile is fed into the Washing & Screening Plant.

Sishen Mine is an existing mining operation, operating under an existing mining right (NC 259 MR) and approved Environmental Management Programme (2002, as amended) for the mining and processing of iron ore. The main focus being the beneficiation of A-grade ore (haematite containing >58% iron) by means of Dense Media Separation (DMS). Since 2006, the inclusion of a JIG plant has allowed for B-grade material (haematite containing >48% iron) also to be processed. All other material originating from the run of mine (low grade material) has been placed on site as residue dumps or stockpiles due to the absence of a suitable beneficiation process available to process to the low-grade ore. Ultra-High Dense Media Separation (UHDMS) is a recently proven technology that will allow for the processing of future low-grade material (particularly C-grade material) originating from the ongoing mining operations as run of mine (ROM) as well as some of the low-grade material that has historically been dumped on site due to the lack of available technology. C-grade material refers to lower grade ore types containing between 40% and 48% iron. The C-grade material to be processed will be sourced from the ROM (is part of the hanging and footwall that are already included in the mining sequence) as well as surface stockpiles. Cgrade material arising from the ROM since January 2016 has also been stockpiled separately on some of the waste rock dump areas with the anticipation that it could be processed through the future UHDMS plant. The anticipated ROM of C-grade material is 7-26 Mtpa. DMS Upgrade.The existing DMS Processing Plant at Sishen is to be upgraded to allow for the incorporation of UHDMS which will allow for the co-processing of both high (A-grade) and low (C-grade) grade material. The JIG plant will continue to process the B-grade material and some of the A- grade material due to a revised feed strategy. The current DMS plant comprises the following sections:- Washing & Screening Plant;- A Coarse Drum Plant; - A Medium Drum Plant;- A Coarse Cyclone Plant;- A Fine Cyclone Plant; - An Up-Current Classifier (UCC) Plant.The DMS components at the existing DMS Processing Plant will be converted to UHDMS processes by the replacement of the drums currently used in the beneficiation process with cyclones; and also modifying the existing media density circuits as well as crushing circuits. The following changes are currently envisaged for the existing DMS Plant:- The existing Washing & Screening Plant at the DMS Plant will be modified. This will involve the modification of the screen panel sizes. - The material from the Washing & Screening plant shall be sent to the Quaternary Crushing Plant to crush the material as required by UHDMS technology. - A new oversize conveying system will be erected from the existing Washing & Screening Plant to the existing conveyor feeding the stockpiles ahead of the exiting Quaternary Crushing Plant. - No changes will be made to the Quaternary Crushing Plant. - The crushed material from the Quaternary Crushers shall be sent to the Quaternary Screening plant which will separate the material into three size fractions. The existing Quaternary Screening Plant will be modified to Screen Quaternary oversize material after Quaternary Crushing.- Upgrade of the existing Drum Plant by removing drums and replacing with cyclones. The Drum Plant will be converted to a coarse UHDMS Plant. - Development of a new conveyor from the Quaternary Screening Plant to the existing Drum Plant. - Upgrade of the existing Coarse and Fine Cyclone Plant involving upgrades to specific densification systems. - The existing Coarse Cyclone Plant will be converted to the Fine UHDMS Plant. - The existing Fine Cyclone Plant will be converted to the Superfine UHDMS Plant. - Development of a new conveyor from the Quaternary Screening Plant to the existing Fine Cyclone Plant. - The UCC Plants will be modified to treat grits, if required. - Feeders at the in-pit stockpile will be replaced next to the DMS Tertiary Crushers. - Modification of the product transfer, common lump product and plant discard conveyor. - Two new conveyors at the Discard Transfer Station and a new Discard Emergency Stockpile at the foot of the existing Discard Dump.

hematite beneficiation technology,processing of iron mineral,ore grinding machine | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

hematite beneficiation technology,processing of iron mineral,ore grinding machine | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

With the rapid economic development, the iron ore resources of the concentrator are decreasing year by year, and the degree of "lean, fine and heterogeneous" of selected ore is obviously increasing, the supply conditions are becoming more and more demanding, the difficulty of sorting is increasing, and the process flow adapts to changes in the nature of ore The performance has been severely tested, and the trend of rising iron grades in tailings is widespread.

The composition of lean hematite ore is relatively simple and belongs to Anshan-style iron-bearing quartzite. The iron minerals are mainly hematite, false hematite, goethite, magnetite, and a small amount of limonite, siderite, and iron. Dolomite etc. Gangue minerals are mainly quartz, tremolite, actinolite, chlorite and a small amount of clay minerals.

2.Most of the ore structures are belt-like structures, and the structure is relatively simple. The shape of the minerals is relatively complete, with inclusion structure and crystal structure, etc., which affect the separation of the ore content.

3.The particle size of the iron mineral intercalation is about 75m, and the particle size of the gangue mineral intercalation is greater than 100m. This may be the result of sufficient recrystallization in the later stage. The iron mineral content of -10m is low. These characteristics make the content of lean conjoined organisms formed in the ore grinding process low. In summary, the ore is easy to be selected.

Focusing on the production process, that is, the process flow of stage grinding, coarse subdivision, heavy separation strong magnetic anion reverse flotation, in-depth and detailed analysis of the characteristics of the test process and the process parameters that are conducive to improving production indicators. The laboratory continuous selection test results show that under the condition of 24.52% of the original ore grade, the grade of gravity concentrate concentrate is 67%, the flotation concentrate grade is 67.5%, the strong magnetic tailings grade is 11.42%, and the magnetic tailings grade is 7.04%. The flotation tailings grade is 14.43%. The process flow of "stage grinding, coarse subdivision and separation, gravity separationstrong magneticanion reverse flotation" is used to separate poor hematite ore with comprehensive concentrate grade, which has strong adaptability to changes in the nature of the original ore In particular, it has strong adaptability to the status quo of low grade of raw ore and frequent changes in the initial stage of production.

Prominer Shanghai will continue to optimize the beneficiation process, improve process adaptability and provide a basis for stabilizing quality and reducing tails, comprehensively investigate the process flow of lean hematite ore beneficiation, and focus on analyzing the flow of ore materials to determine several major iron minerals in the process Summarize the location and reason of metal loss.

Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.

magnetite ore mining solution - mineral processing

magnetite ore mining solution - mineral processing

Most of the iron minerals in a single magnetite are magnetite. Because the single magnetite is simple in composition, strong in magnetism, and easy to grind and sort, the weak magnetic separation method is often used for selection.

When the particle size of grinding is greater than 0.2mm, most iron ore magnetic separation plants often adopt a process of grinding and magnetic separation; When the grinding particle size is less than 0.2mm, the two-stage grinding-magnetic separation process is used; If qualified tailings are separated in the rough grinding stage, the magnetite magnetic separation plant should adopt the stage grinding-magnetic separation process; For dry and water-scarce areas, the magnetite ore dressing plant may consider using dry grinding-dry magnetic separation process; For the depleted magnetite-rich ore or magnetite-rich ore, the gangue can generally be removed by dry magnetic separation process, and then the lump-rich ore is obtained, and then the concentrate is obtained through the grinding-magnetic separation process.In order to obtain high-grade concentrate, magnetite concentrate can be treated by reverse flotation or high-frequency fine screen. In addition, in order to further improve the recovery rate, processes such as tailings gravity separation may also be considered to further recover magnetic minerals.

The gangue containing polymetallic magnetite often contains silicate or carbonate minerals, associated with cobalt pyrite, chalcopyrite and apatite, etc. Generally, the combined process of weak magnetic separation-flotation is used, that is, weak magnetic separation process recovers iron, and flotation process recovers sulfide or apatite.In general, the combined processes of weak magnetic separation-flotation process of polymetallic magnetite can be divided into weak magnetic separation-flotation and flotation-weak magnetic separation, the difference of which lies in the different direction of the continuum of magnetite and sulfide.For the weak magnetic separation-flotation process flow, the contiguous body mainly enters the iron concentrate; for the flotation-weak magnetic separation process flow, the conjoined body mainly enters the sulfide concentrate. Therefore, under the same grinding particle size, the first float and then magnetic process process can obtain iron concentrate with lower sulfide content and sulfide concentrate with higher recovery rate.

According to the types of iron-bearing minerals, common iron ore can be divided into magnetite, hematite, vanadium-titanium magnetite, limonite, siderite and mixed ore consisting of two or more of these iron bearing minerals. Among them, magnetite-hematite is a common mixed ore, and its beneficiation usually adopts a combined process flow composed of multiple beneficiation methods.

The single magnet-hematite is mostly fine-grained; the gangue mineral is mainly quartz, and some of it contains iron silicate. The proportion of magnets in the ore is gradually increases from the surface of the deposit to the deep part. The following two beneficiation methods are commonly used for selection:Weak magnetic separation, gravity separation/flotation/strong magnetic separationThe combined process of using weak magnetic separation to recover magnetite and then gravity separation, flotation or strong magnetic separation process to recover weak magnetic iron mineral.Production practice shows that for the weak magnetic separation-flotation process, the flotation method can be placed after the weak magnetic separation according to the nature of the ore and the actual conditions of the beneficiation plant, so as to ensure stable production indicators and save costs.

The iron minerals in polymetallic magnetite are mainly magnetite and hematite or siderite, medium and fine-grained; gangue minerals are mainly silicate and carbonate minerals or fluorite, etc., and the accompanying components include apatite , pyrite, chalcopyrite and rare earth minerals.The sorting of polymetallic magnetite is relatively complicated. Generally, the combined process consisting of weak magnetic separation and other mineral separation methods is used, that is, the weak magnetic separation method is used to recover the magnetite first, and then the gravity separation, flotation or strong magnetic separation method is used to recover weak magnetic iron minerals, and the associated components are final recovered by flotation.The above is the common magnetite beneficiation method. For magnetite beneficiation, it is recommended to tailor the process to suit your own through the beneficiation test, and rationally select the appropriate magnetite beneficiation method according to the final beneficiation test report.

hematite separation process,hematite separation line,hematite flotation-beijing hot mining tech co ltd

hematite separation process,hematite separation line,hematite flotation-beijing hot mining tech co ltd

The early hematite beneficiation is mainly gravity separation with machines of jigger, centrifugal separator, spiral chute, spiral washer, shaking table can be involved and later floatation separation has been used in the hematite iron ore upgrading with floatation separator and magnetic separator involved. However, these single separation methods can not help to get ideal beneficiation efficiency. In recently decades, combination of magnetic separation and gravity separation, magnetic separation and floatation separation, gravity separation and floatation separation has been adopted to get high grade hematite iron concentrate.

Hematite is main mineral form of iron oxide and main ore mineral of iron.Hematite coexists with magnetite which can be transformed to hematite by oxidation and remain form of hematite forming the illusion of hematite. Hematite separation process is suitable for complex structure hematite such as hematite and impurities with uneven distribution of particle size, ore with large content of fine particle, ore with small amount of magnetite and the gangue minerals containing quartz or kaolin.The beneficiation process includes stage grinding, coarse-fine particle separation, heavy - Magnetic - anionic reverse flotation process.

1.Hematite ore crushing: in this stage there are also three steps, the hematite ore may go through primary crushing, secondary crushing and fine crushing. Hematite primary crushing equipment includes gyratory crusher, jaw crusher, hammer crusher etc. Hematite secondary and fine crushing plants mainly include cone crusher, ball mill, vertical mill, ultrafine mill etc.

2.Main operation steps in the whole hematite beneficiation process include sorting, gravity separation, floatation, magnetic separation, electrostatic separation, chemical mineral processing etc. There are many plants involves in hematite beneficiation process, such as flotation equipment, magnetic separator, electrostatic separator etc.

Closed circuit grinding consisted of ball mill and cyclone is adopted in the first grinding. This ensures the separation efficiency, particle size and part of qualified concentrate, and it also abandons part of low grade tailings which reduce the grinding volume of medium ore and the loss of metal.

Strong magnetic process recycles fine iron minerals, which can play a dual role of de-sliming and tailings out creating good conditions for flotation. Reverse flotation process system is simple, which can significantly reduce the flotation reagents into pulp and decrease the adverse effect on the flotation process.

types of iron ore: hematite vs. magnetite | inn

types of iron ore: hematite vs. magnetite | inn

For investors interested in the iron ore space, its useful to know the facts about hematite and magnetite ores. Both of those types of iron ore are rocks and minerals from which iron can be extracted. Heres an overview of some basic information about hematite and magnetite ores, including what they are and where theyre found.

Hematite ore is a direct-shipping ore with naturally high iron content. Because of its high iron content, hematite ore must undergo only a simple crushing, screening and blending process before being shipped off for steel production.

For that reason, hematite ore is important for many mining companies. As Australias Magnetite Network explains, [d]irect shipping ores, when mined, typically have iron (Fe) content of between 56% Fe and 64% Fe By comparison, magnetite ore typically has a much lower iron content when mined of between 25% and 40% Fe and in this form is unsuitable for steel making.

Hematite ore is found throughout the world, but the most utilized deposits are in Brazil, Australia and Asia. Hematite ore has been the primary type of iron ore mined in Australia since the early 1960s.

Approximately 96 percent of the continents iron ore exports are high-grade hematite ore, and the majority of its reserves are located in the Hamersley province of Western Australia. The mountainous Hamersley Range is at the center of hematite ore exploration and development because it sits on a banded iron formation.

Brazil is another one of the worlds main sources of this type of iron ore. Its Carajas mine is the largest iron ore mine in existence, and is operated by Brazilian miner Vale (NYSE:VALE). Vale is the third-largest mining company in the world and the largest producer of iron ore pellets. Vales headquarters are in Rio de Janeiro, and its primary iron ore assets are in the Iron Quadrangle region of Minas Gerais.

The mineral magnetite actually has higher iron content than the mineral hematite. However, while hematite ore generally contains large concentrations of hematite, magnetite ore generally holds low concentrations of magnetite. As a result, this type of iron ore ore must be concentrated before it can be used to produce steel. Magnetite ores magnetic properties are helpful during this process.

While magnetite ore requires more treatment, end products made from magnetite ore are typically of higher quality than those made from hematite ore. Thats because magnetite ore has fewer impurities than hematite ore; in this way, the elevated cost of processing magnetite ore can be balanced out.

Magnetite ore is currently mined in Minnesota and Michigan in the US, as well as in taconite deposits in Eastern Canada. A major mining site in Michigan is the Marquette Range. The deposit was discovered in 1844, and ore was first mined there in 1848. Magnetite ore and hematite ore are among the four types of iron ore deposits found in this area.

In Minnesota, this type of iron ore is mined mainly in the Mesabi Range, one of the four ranges that make up the Iron Range of Minnesota. In Canada, Labrador is home to the majority of magnetite ore mining. In particular, mining companies focus on exploration and development in the iron-rich Labrador Trough.

Cleveland-Cliffs (NYSE:CLF) is a major player in the magnetite ore industry, with five iron ore mines that are focused on magnetite ore. For instance, the Empire mine, located in Michigans Marquette Range, has an annual capacity of 4.5 million tons. Additionally, its Hibbing taconite mine is in Minnesotas Mesabi Range and has an annual capacity of 8 million tons of magnetite ore.

Now that you know a bit more about the different types of iron ore, would you like to know what the worlds top iron ore producers are? Click here to read about the 10 largest iron-producing countries.

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In Canada, there are financial incentives to extract magnetite from mine tailings for export. Whitehorse Yukon has a rich magnetite deposit of this type with interest to see partner or buyer getting to the steel mills.

The two ores of iron are hematite and magnetite with the chemical formula Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 respectively. To determine which of the compounds has a higher percentage of iron per kilogram first the molar mass of the two compounds has to be determined. Iron has a molar mass of 55.845 g/mole and oxygen has a molar mass of 16 g/mole. The molar mass of Fe2O3 is 159.69 and that of Fe3O4 is 231.535. In hematite the percentage of iron by mass is `111.69/159.69 ~~ 69.9%` , similarly in magnetite the percentage of iron by mass is approximately 72.3% Magnetite has a higher percentage of iron per kilogram as compared to hematite.

The two ores of iron are hematite and magnetite with the chemical formula Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 respectively. To determine which of the compounds has a higher percentage of iron per kilogram first the molar mass of the two compounds has to be determined. Iron has a molar mass of 55.845 g/mole and oxygen has a molar mass of 16 g/mole. The molar mass of Fe2O3 is 159.69 and that of Fe3O4 is 231.535. In hematite the percentage of iron by mass is `111.69/159.69 ~~ 69.9%` , similarly in magnetite the percentage of iron by mass is approximately 72.3% Magnetite has a higher percentage of iron per kilogram as compared to hematite.

Iron ore pellets are made from both magnetite and hematite ores. Hematite ores are concentrated using a flotation process. Pellets include a mineral binder that represents about 2% by weight. Much of the ore in pellets made from magnetite is oxidized to hematite during the high-temperature induration process that sets the binder. Induration is necessary to instill the durability necessary to support a blast furnace burden, and to mitigate fines generation during shipping & handling. Direct shipping lumpy ore is now very scarce. Fine iron ore must be agglomerated before being fed to a blast furnace either by pelletizing or sintering, which is normally done at the steel mill. Fine iron ore cannot be fed to a blast furnace, or it will plug. The burden b=must be sufficiently porous to allow the wind to penetrate the birden. Sintering also provides a means to recycle steel mill wastes, including pellet chips, pit scrap and BOF dust.

Iron ore pellets are made from both magnetite and hematite ores. Hematite ores are concentrated using a flotation process. Pellets include a mineral binder that represents about 2% by weight. Much of the ore in pellets made from magnetite is oxidized to hematite during the high-temperature induration process that sets the binder. Induration is necessary to instill the durability necessary to support a blast furnace burden, and to mitigate fines generation during shipping & handling. Direct shipping lumpy ore is now very scarce. Fine iron ore must be agglomerated before being fed to a blast furnace either by pelletizing or sintering, which is normally done at the steel mill. Fine iron ore cannot be fed to a blast furnace, or it will plug. The burden b=must be sufficiently porous to allow the wind to penetrate the birden. Sintering also provides a means to recycle steel mill wastes, including pellet chips, pit scrap and BOF dust.

Atomic weights of Fe at 56 and oxygen at 16. In chemically pure minerals the percentage Fe in hematite Fe2O3 is 112/(112+48)=70%. Percentage Fe in magnetite Fe3O4 is 168/(168+64)=72.4%. In nature magnetite often contains impurities in the ore which makes the Fe content of mined ore lower than hematite. As stated the impurities in magnetite can be removed via processing often resulting in an Fe percentage higher than hematite.

Atomic weights of Fe at 56 and oxygen at 16. In chemically pure minerals the percentage Fe in hematite Fe2O3 is 112/(112+48)=70%. Percentage Fe in magnetite Fe3O4 is 168/(168+64)=72.4%. In nature magnetite often contains impurities in the ore which makes the Fe content of mined ore lower than hematite. As stated the impurities in magnetite can be removed via processing often resulting in an Fe percentage higher than hematite.

Hematite ore has the chemical formula Fe2O3 and has a very high iron content of 70 percent. With the chemical formula Fe3O4, magnetite ore has much lower iron content than hematite ore. No matter how I count it, Fe2/Fe2O3 comes as lower a mass fraction than Fe3/Fe3O4. So the statements above make little sense to me.

Hematite ore has the chemical formula Fe2O3 and has a very high iron content of 70 percent. With the chemical formula Fe3O4, magnetite ore has much lower iron content than hematite ore. No matter how I count it, Fe2/Fe2O3 comes as lower a mass fraction than Fe3/Fe3O4. So the statements above make little sense to me.

If I remember my chemistry, %Fe in (pure) magnetite is 70% and is actually higher than the %Fe in (pure) haematite which is 67.5%. So the opening line in the section on magnetite above is perhaps misleading since it is not the chemical composition which is the difference. The difference is the level of impurities in magnetite deposits which are removed by magnetic seperation and then pelletising is needed to agglomerate the fine magnetite material. This gives a pellet which is more expensive than high grade haematites but with a higher %Fe as the author then correctly states.

Hematite Fe2O3 2/3 =66%, Magnetite Fe3O4 3/4 = 73%max so Magnetite is higher content Fe and lessor contamination content. Fe2O3 can be turned into Fe3O4 with heat to drive out contamination and convert molecular structure. Natural Magnetite is much better for iron production. This artical has everything backwards. Back to basic chemistry

Hi there, thanks for commenting, and apologies for the error. You are, of course, correct magnetite does have a higher iron content than Hematite. However, I believe the original offer failed to make the distinction between hematite and hematite ores (the same goes for magnetite). Hematite can occur in high-grade ores, referred to as direct-shipping ores, which have higher iron content than naturally occurring magnetite ores. Still, as you note and as the article states, iron produced from magnetite makes for a higher quality end-product.

If I remember my chemistry, %Fe in (pure) magnetite is 70% and is actually higher than the %Fe in (pure) haematite which is 67.5%. So the opening line in the section on magnetite above is perhaps misleading since it is not the chemical composition which is the difference. The difference is the level of impurities in magnetite deposits which are removed by magnetic seperation and then pelletising is needed to agglomerate the fine magnetite material. This gives a pellet which is more expensive than high grade haematites but with a higher %Fe as the author then correctly states.

Hematite Fe2O3 2/3 =66%, Magnetite Fe3O4 3/4 = 73%max so Magnetite is higher content Fe and lessor contamination content. Fe2O3 can be turned into Fe3O4 with heat to drive out contamination and convert molecular structure. Natural Magnetite is much better for iron production. This artical has everything backwards. Back to basic chemistry

Hi there, thanks for commenting, and apologies for the error. You are, of course, correct magnetite does have a higher iron content than Hematite. However, I believe the original offer failed to make the distinction between hematite and hematite ores (the same goes for magnetite). Hematite can occur in high-grade ores, referred to as direct-shipping ores, which have higher iron content than naturally occurring magnetite ores. Still, as you note and as the article states, iron produced from magnetite makes for a higher quality end-product.

Thanks for both comments. Mr. Newell, regarding hematite vs. magnetite and their greenhouse gas emissions, I refer you to The Magnetite Network. Admittedly this is a group representing Western Australias magnetite producers. According to an independent report posted on the groups website, Mining and beneficiation of magnetite ore is considerably more energy intensive than conventional direct shipping hematite operations in the Pilbara. As a consequence, magnetite concentrate production is more CO2 emissions intensive than direct shipping ore (DSO ) production. (so you are correct there). But when entire life cycle emissions are considered (ground to steel), magnetite comes ahead of hematite, with a net savings of 108 kg CO2e per tonne of magnetite concentrate, as per the report. This is because emissions can be saved in overseas ironmaking operations- again, according to the report. If you find evidence to the contrary I would take a look at it. Best Regards, Andrew Topf, INN Senior Editor

Thanks for both comments. Mr. Newell, regarding hematite vs. magnetite and their greenhouse gas emissions, I refer you to The Magnetite Network. Admittedly this is a group representing Western Australias magnetite producers. According to an independent report posted on the groups website, Mining and beneficiation of magnetite ore is considerably more energy intensive than conventional direct shipping hematite operations in the Pilbara. As a consequence, magnetite concentrate production is more CO2 emissions intensive than direct shipping ore (DSO ) production. (so you are correct there). But when entire life cycle emissions are considered (ground to steel), magnetite comes ahead of hematite, with a net savings of 108 kg CO2e per tonne of magnetite concentrate, as per the report. This is because emissions can be saved in overseas ironmaking operations- again, according to the report. If you find evidence to the contrary I would take a look at it. Best Regards, Andrew Topf, INN Senior Editor

processing of banded hematite quartzite ore for recovery of iron values | springerlink

processing of banded hematite quartzite ore for recovery of iron values | springerlink

This study investigates upgrading of low-grade banded hematite quartzite iron ore (Fe ~31%). Conventional beneficiation was found to be futile. The susceptibility of iron phases to microwave exposure and their selective absorption assists in the liberation of iron values. Microwave exposure of coarse particles at 540W for 10min yielded a concentrate with Fe 56.30% and recovery of 50.68%. Conventional carbothermic reduction at 500C, 60min and 9% charcoal yielded a concentrate with Fe 57.6% and iron recovery of 68%. The presence of sufficiently bonded silica leads to an easy formation of a fayalite phase. The microwave reduction design yielded FeG of 57.6%, FeR of 47% and a yield of 24% at an optimal condition of 540W, 8min and 6% charcoal. It was found that a small fraction of microwave-irradiated ore-charcoal mixture melted rapidly, and pure ferrite balls were observed within 8min. An optical micrograph of a ferrite ball reveals the retained austenite and martensite phase.

Das B, Mishra BK, Prakash S, Das SK, Reddy PSR, Angadi SI (2010) Magnetic and flotation studies of banded hematite quartzite (BHQ) ore for the production of pellet grade concentrate. Int J Miner Metall Mater 17(6):675682

Omran M, Fabritius T, Elmahdy AM, Abdel-Khalek NA, El-Aref M, Elmanawi AEH (2014) Effect of microwave pre-treatment on the magnetic properties of iron ore and its implications on magnetic separation. Sep Purif Technol 136:223232

The authors would like to thank and acknowledge the funding agency of the Science Engineering Research Board for providing Early Career Research funds. The authors also wish to thank Ms. Kay Argyle for proofreading of the manuscript.

Rayapudi, V., Dhawan, N. Processing of Banded Hematite Quartzite Ore for Recovery of Iron Values. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration 37, 507517 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00117-4

combination methods of hematite-braunite ore processing | springerlink

combination methods of hematite-braunite ore processing | springerlink

The material composition and process properties of hematitebraunite ironmanganese ore from Yuzhny Khingan deposit of Russian Far East are studied. The source of manganese in the ore is mostly braunite. The mineralogy and petrography of the ore and products of its processing are characterized. Noble metal minerals are found in the ore; the gold contains platinum and silver admixtures. Producibility of manganese concentrates of 37.8546.46% Mn grade using the circuit of multi-stage magnetic separation in weak and strong magnetic fields and gravity concentration is experimentally proved.

O sostoyanii i ispolzovanii mineralno-syrevykh resursov Rossiiskoi Federatsii v 2013 godu (The State and Management of Natural Mineral Resources in the Russian Federation in 2013), Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, the Russian Federation, Moscow: Mineral-Info, 2014, pp. 137142.

Tigunov, L.P., Ozhogina, E.G., Litvintsev, E.G., Bronitskaya, E.S., Anufrieva, S.I., and Kalish, E.A., Modern Techniques for Manganese Ore Preparation and Hydrometallurgical Processing, Gornyi Zhurnal, 2007, no. 2, pp. 7884.

Bashlykova, T.V., Pakhomova, G.A., Lagov, B.S., Zhivaeva, A.B., Doroshenko, M.V., Makavetskas, A.R., and Shulga, T.O., Tehknologicheskie aspekty ratsionalnogo nedroispolzovaniya (Technological Aspects of Rational Natural Resource Management), Moscow: MISiS, 2005, pp. 241249.

Gurman, M.A. and Shcherbak, L.I., Exploratory Research on Precious Metal Mineralization in Iron-Manganese Ores, Proc. X Mineral Processing Congress in CIS, February 1719, 2015, vol. II, Moscow: MISiS, 2015, pp. 572573.

Moiseenko, N.V., Shchipachev, S.V., Sanilevich, N.S., and Makeeva, T.B., Pioneer Discovery of Noble Metals in Poperechny Locus, Khingan Manganese Ore Deposit, in Geologiya, mineralogiya i geokhimiya blagorodnykh metallov Vostoka Rossii: novye tekhnologii pererabotki blagorodnometallnogo syrya (Geology, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of Eastern Russia Noble Metal Materials: New Techniques for Noble Metal Material Processing), Blagoveshchensk: IGiP FEB RAS, 2005, pp. 7274.

Khanchuk, A.I., Berdnikov, N.V., Cherepanov, A.A., Konovalova, N.S., Avdeev, D.V., and Zazulina, V.E., Noble Metals in Black Shales, Sutyr Suite and Kimkan Pocket, Bureinsk Rock Massif. Tectonics and Deep Structure of Eastern Asia, Proc. VI Kosygin Lectures: All-Russian Conf., Khabarovsk, 2009, pp. 237240.

Zhirnov, A.M., Goroshko, M.V., and Moiseenko, N.V., The South-Khingan Gold-Iron Ore Giant in Proterozoic Graben of the Burean Craton (Russian Far East), Vestnik Severo-Vost. Nauchn. Tsentra, FEB RAS, 2012, no. 2, pp. 210.

Kryukov, V.G., Genetic Specifications of Maly Khingan Ancient Deposits, Proc. 3rd All-Russian Scientific Conf. Geology and Integrated Development of Eastern Asia Natural Resources, Blagoveshchensk: IGiP FEB RAS, 2014, pp. 111115.

Nevstruev, V.G., Berdnikov, N.V., Saksin, B.G., and Usikov, V.I., Noble Metal Mineralization in Carbonaceous Rocks in Poperechny Iron-Manganese Deposit, Maly Khingan, Russia, Tikhookeanskaya Geologiya, 2015, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 102111.

Grigorova, I., Studies and Possibilities of Low Grade Manganese Ore Beneficiation, Proc. 22nd World Mining Congress, Istanbul, Turkey, 2011, Vol. III, pp. 593598. https://doi.org/www.researchgate.net/publication.

Dilip, Makhija, Mukherjee, A.K., and Tamal, Kanti Ghosh, Preconcentration Feasibility of Gravity and Magnetic Techniques for Banded Hematite Jasper, Int. J. Min. Eng. and Min. Process., 2013, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 815. https://doi.org/article.sapub.org.

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