gold mining equipment for sale - jxsc machine

gold mining equipment for sale - jxsc machine

JXSC gold mining solutions design allows you to start recovering minerals with a base wash plant (scrubber / concentrator) unit. Various crushing, milling equipment can be ordered to make your solution more comprehensive. This can be implemented at a later stage, once you have begun to see an initial return on investment. This way, JXSC provides miners with a low capital starting point. The income that these base plants generate can then be used to fund their further expansion and enhance recovery.

gold refining systems - safe & simple - machines and equipment for gold and silver electrolytic, wohlwill and aqua regia refining, purification, processing, recovery

gold refining systems - safe & simple - machines and equipment for gold and silver electrolytic, wohlwill and aqua regia refining, purification, processing, recovery

Traditionally, the resources necessary to refine, recycle gold, safely and effectively, have been available only to large scale jewelers and precious metal miners, refiners--seldom to small or medium-scale refineries and jewelry businesses, and never to individuals interested in buying scrap gold to turn it into a precious keepsake. That's all changed, though, thanks to Gold Refining Systems, Inc., a company devoted to helping jewelers and refiners of all sizes to refine, recover gold safely, efficiently, and with ease.

Our gold refining systems offer you what you need to refine gold of any kind-- whether its scrap gold, fine gold jewelry, karat gold, gold from mining, prospecting or gold of any other type. The system even works for other precious metals, including silver, platinum, and palladium. But what sets Gold Refining Systems, Inc. apart is our innovative technology:

For the first time ever, gold processing can be done with a high level of confidence and safety, from a very small jewelry business to medium scale refinery. The process is simple and easy. By using our REFINEIT system, all the user has to do is melt the gold in an ingot, submerge the gold in the gold refining equipment we provide, then wait. The next day, pure, 24-karat gold will be waiting!

Gold Refining Systems not only makes the gold refining, reclaiming process easy, but also clean and safe. By using our Safe Gold Refining Technology products, the jeweler or refiner eliminates the production of toxic fumes. Nothing like Aqua Regia, Miller process, inquarting - parting process, with large quantities of toxic fumes produced, toxic gases, boiling acids.

The gold refining systems we offer are cutting edge, and, unlike anything else on the market, they offer an effective alternative to commonplace refining processes like Miller, Wohlwill, Aqua Regia, and inquarting-parting. Our electrolytic machines take what is typically multi-step process dangerous process and turn it into a single-step procedure that can be done quickly, easily, and without the presence of dangerous or irritating fumes. Smelt your low karat gold, place in to the system, wash refined 24K gold, use it.

gold mining equipment for sale

gold mining equipment for sale

Goldland'smanufactures an array ofquality, innovative gold mining andmineral extraction equipment, adding new precious metals separators and miningsystems into itsequipmentline since its commencement in 1977. Goldlandsconcentration and gold processing units include:

placer gold mining equipment

placer gold mining equipment

The IGR 10K Placer Gold Mining Plant is an A-La-Carte = Fully Customized Alluvial Mining Equipment. This means that the user can order components from a list of existing part numbers without paying for engineering designs. The user can select options at the time of purchase or add components in the field without obsoleting the components they may already have. A 100 TPH (2400 Tons per day) gold recovery system.

As alluvial and eluvial deposits vary greatly in feed size distribution and clay content, an alluvial/eluvial plant needs the capacity to process an extreme range of conditions. It is common in the equatorial regions of the world to feed a plant with a dredge and/or an excavator. This plant can handle the range of material and various feed options.

The IGR 10K A-La-Carte Placer Gold Mining plant will have the versatility to process a broad spectrum of conditions from clean gravel to laterite and saprolite clays. Alluvial Channel/Gravel conditions may involve 20% to 90% of the solids feed passing 2mm- and continuing to the concentrators. Clays may have 90% passing 2mm- and continuing to the concentrators. This plant will work in conditions of both gravel and clay. Plant throughput and efficiency will vary with the condition of the material.

The A-La-Carte structure of the plant will allow the client to purchase only the components they need. The modular design will allow the purchaser or operator to add or remove components without obsoleting that which they already have and without requiring engineering design.

An operator may choose to start with or without the scrubber. This decision will be made based on knowledge of the clay content and capital investment. As the user gains experience they may choose to add the scrubber or remove it from their system; this is A-La-Carte the client can add or subtract components at will without re-design. Additionally, the user may desire to add options such as DMS or Jigs for diamonds and/or cyclones for dewatering/de-sliming.

The plant can be fed by excavator/loader or land dredge. Our plant including the scrubber is ideal to be fed by a loader/excavator. When feeding by a land dredge the user may opt to leave the scrubber out of the system. The land dredge will do a decent job of dispersing the clay though not perfect. The land dredge also delivers slurry at maybe 15% solids by weight. This is considered very thin slurry for efficient scrubbing. Operators in some regions insist on scrubbing the dredge discharge. Field testing will provide the best information on your material.

Sepro/IGR always recommend sample testing. Met-Solv Labs offers a specific lab test for laterite and saprolite clays We will write a performance guarantee for our equipment based on lab testing. This analysis will determine the ideal plant for your regional material.

An operator will feed material onto the grizzly. A water monitor fluidizes/mobilizes the material allowing it to pass through the grizzly where it continues to either a scrubber or vibrating screen. It is the fluidizing action of the monitor that controls the feed rate of solids into the system. Clean gravels will mobilize easily with the monitor and provide the maximum flow rate of solids. Clay will require more water to mobilize the material allowing it to pass through the grizzly. A wider grizzly allows larger clay balls to pass. This keeps the solids to water ratio high which leads to maximum efficiency in the scrubber and maximum solids throughput of the plant.

This wash plant scrubber works best at 50% solids. A scrubber uses large rock as the grinding media. A scrubber will lift the solids to 1 oclock and drop the solids back to 7 oclock causing an energy intensive lifting and dropping action. It is the attrition of the rock on rock action that acts to disperse the clay. Clay processing is based on energy input and retention time inside of the scrubber. To scrub better, the operator can increase the retention time or literally add large rocks to the scrubber.

After the scrubber the material passes to a double deck vibrating screen. Typically the upper deck cuts at 12mm and the lower deck cuts at 2mm. These can be specified by the customer. The 2mm- passes to a slurry transfer pump and on to the concentrators. The 2 to 12 mm middling is recombined with 12mm oversize and pass to the oversize stacking conveyor.

A max of 90 tph of solids can be fed to each battery without harm to the system. A minimum of 6 tph of solids is recommended to each battery. The intent is to always use 6 concentrators regardless of the feed rate. The slurry water capacity of 700 gpm +/-10% is intended to remain constant regardless of the solids feed rated. No control system is required for the slurry water.

A Carousel Distributor is used to distribute the slurry from the head tank to the 6 active concentrators. The distributor also blocks the flow to the 7th concentrator allowing the operator to rinse the rich concentrate. An operator will manually rotate the distributor and operate the valves on each concentrator.

Tails are piped to a common tails launder and with an 8 flanged outlet. The launder is designed for gravity discharge. (Pumping the tails requires modification to the depth of the launder to avoid cavitation.)

All equipment is mounted on a single skid designed to fit in a 20 container. The skid includes a roof structure with corrugate roofing. The container will arrive with the majority of the assembly already complete. Some site assembly will be required. This includes erection of the portions too tall to fit in the container and installation of the roof panels.

The screen fractions can be processed separately if the customer desires. This would require an additional conveyor. Also, one may choose alternate screen apertures: a top deck at 30mm where the 2mm to 30mm fraction is passed to a DMS or jig for diamonds is an option. In this case only the 30mm+ would pass to the tails conveyor.

Gold concentrators are batch machines. This means you must occasionally divert the feed to rinse the rich concentrate. In a system with only 1 concentrator, you either by-pass to tails or to a tank/slurry pump that recirculates the slurry back to a head tank. A system having 2 concentrators would allow to you to always feed 1 out of the 2. This is inefficient. A system feeding 2 concentrators while rinsing a third, becomes financially viable when using the economical i350. A battery feeding 6 while rinsing the 7th is very efficient and cost effective. The iCON Rotary Distributor allows easy distribution of the slurry and sequential rinsing without complicated industrial valves and/or controls. The distributor is hand operated.

small portable gold process plant

small portable gold process plant

This arrangement and flowsheet of a Mini Portable Gold Processing Plant permits several mineral separations by flotation and provides for the possible recovery of other minerals by gravity concentration. The flowsheet is ideal for a pilot-plant in field testing of ores to determine the economic feasibility of an ore deposit prior to the installation of a larger plant or for processing ore during the development stages of a mining property.

The arrangement shown here features the economy type rubber-lined Grinding Mill. This mill is roller-mounted with V-belt drive around the mill shell, driven from motor-connected gear reducer. Material discharged from the grindingmill is sized through a spiral screen ahead of a Cyclone Classifier. The flotation cells handling initial feed are equipped with patented discharge cones for return and recovery of a heavy mineral fraction by a jig.Tailings from the flotation machines are fed to a #6 Concentrating Table to assure gravity recovery of any valuable mineral not amenable to flotation. Pan Filters are provided to de-water concentrates.

One of the most serious problems confronting the mining industry today is how to profitably begin the small scale milling of ores from mines where insufficient ore has been developed to warrant an expensive mill installation, but where a large plant might be needed later. The same question arises in connection with the economical working of numerous small but relatively high grade ore deposits.

Portable Mills, and in particular, Truck Mills, are a most practical solution to this problem. For a relatively small investment a complete and efficient mill can be brought to the mine and speedily put into operation. When the high grade deposit has been worked or the formerly promising operation no longer fulfills the operators expectations, the mill may be transported as a complete unit to another location.

In the Truck Mill the portability has been carried out to the highest degree. All of the units are carried on a truck or semi-trailer, which serves as the operating floor for most of the units. Power for the entire milling unit is usually supplied with either a Diesel or gasoline driven electric generating set, but a belt driven mill can be supplied.

one man gold wash plant

one man gold wash plant

The IGR 100 Modular Small Scale One Man Gold Wash Plant is a self-contained fine gold recovery equipment system. It uses classification and enhanced gravity to assure you are catching the finest gold and the big nuggets. In the standard configuration material flows as follows:

Capacity: 2 tons per hour passing the screen to the concentrator The feed to the screen will be greater depending on the size distribution of your material Electrical Requirement: 8kW 220Volt Generator, Single Phase Water Consumption: 50 mm external pump is suggested (not included)

All components in this Gold Processing Plant are matched in capacity and transportable in the field. Each item comes with a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD). These allow the use to easily adjust each item to their needs. The VFDs also allow operation from different types of power supplies used around the world. VFDs are rainproof and suitable for outdoor service. All components are designed to connect to a standard 220 Volt, 1 phase gasoline powered generator.

The large barb on the left hand side is the clean water connection. Connect this to a pump capable of supplying both the clean process water near 15 L/M and the slurry water near 77 L/m (to make 30% solids at 2 tph) at 15 psi.

Using the small diameter hose supplied () connect 2 valves to the matched size barbs on the screen. During operation the valves on the water distribution manifold will be used to regulate the water to the spray bars on the screen. Open the valves sufficiently for the spray to fan across the full width of the screen.

The important thing to note is that the iCON components all use 3phase 220 volts. The user only needs to supply 1phase 220 volts. The VFDs provided clean/regulate the power, control the frequency and convert 1 phase voltage to 3 phase.

Supply lines from the customers source (outlet or generator) to the distribution box (grey box mounted on the upper left of the stand) and from the distribution box to the VFDs require only 3 conductors: 2 lines and ground.

Using the supplied 3 conductor wire, cut 3 lengths to fit from the distribution box to each of the VFDs. These lengths will be approximately 1.5 to 3 feet. Use the remaining 3 conductor wire to connect the user supply to the distribution box.

Inside of the distribution box join the 4 green wires together using wire nuts or electrical tape. The green wires can be attached to the steel frame if desired. Join each of the other matching colors together using either wire nuts or electrical tape.

Join the 3 conductor supply wires inside of each VFD. Use caution to insure that no wires accidently touch another. The green wires attach to the ground prong just as the existing green wire is attached.

After confirming functionality without the electrical plugs, one can install them taking note of the instruction on the plastic packages. The most important thing is assure that the green/ground wires connect from the plug to the socket. The terminals are colored green to help assure this is done correctly. The arrangement of the other 3 wires is up to the user. It the equipment rotates in the wrong direction simply swap any 2 of 3 wires as described below.

On the pump, press the green start button and use the arrow to set the hertz to 10. As you look down on the pump, it must rotate clockwise. This means the slurry will be thrown in the direction of the pump outlet. If rotation is not correct, simply swap the connection for any 2 of the 3 wires from the VFD to the pump motor. The pump is limited to 70 hertz. Do not operate the pump for any longer than required to verify the rotation without water.

Test the Gold Processing concentrator be pressing the green button and using the arrow to rotate at 10 hertz. The direction of rotation is not important. The pump is limited to 50 hertz from the factory. Do not operate for longer than required to verify functionality without water supplied to the fluid coupling. The concentrator may squeak initially and may have the odor of warm rubber. This is not a concern as there is an o-ring that must be broken-in.

On the Gold Processing screen, press the green button on the VFD to start vibration. Use the arrows to increase the vibration to it maximum. Test a small amount of sand on the screen. If the wet material seems to bounce down hill, then change the rotation of the motor by swapping any 2 of the 3 wires from the VFD to the screen.

The screen is designed to classify the material in 2 size fractions. The sand finer than 2 mm will pass through the screen and will be pumped to the concentrator. Therefore, the outlet of the screen must feed into the pump. The vertical height can be arranged using the shipping pallets if desired.

The sluice attaches to the tails outlet of the concentrator. The sluice is not intended to catch fine gold. The sluice used the volume of water from the concentrator tails to carry the material over the riffles.

The screen must be located with the finger grizzly above the sluice. At material too large to pass through the screen reaches the grizzly, the material finer than 6mm will fall through the grizzly and to the sluice intended only as a nugget trap. Any material bigger than 6mm and therefore passing over the finger grizzly will be rejected by the system.

i150 has a Invertek VFD which is a single phase drive with 200-240/1/50-60Hz Single phase input and 230/3/60Hz 3 phase output. The motor is a 3 phase motor 208-230/3/60Hz which has to wire to the output of the VFD.

electro: gold refining systems - safe & simple - machines and equipment for gold and silver electrolytic, wohlwill and aqua regia refining, purification, processing, recovery

electro: gold refining systems - safe & simple - machines and equipment for gold and silver electrolytic, wohlwill and aqua regia refining, purification, processing, recovery

Whetheryou'rea jeweler, a gold refiner, miner or simply an amateur with an interest in making something out of gold, Gold Refining Systems Inc.'s REFINEIT is a product that can revolutionize your work. Our patented, electrolytic system makes the entire gold-refining process easy and simple; what has long been a lengthy, multi-step process, you can now complete with minimal effort in a single simple step.REFINEIT over lifetime will refine gold worth thousands times more then the cost of the system, making your expenses for gold refining equipment less then 0.1%.

Here's how the innovative REFINEIT system works. You meltyour gold whether its scrap or an old piece ofjewelry, make an ingot, submergeintothe system we provide, filled with dilute nitric acid. That's it! REFINEIT is a self-managing system that requires no further human involvement. Simply check back the next day andyou will find pure, refined gold. The system even works for silver and other precious metals!

Our patented REFINEIT system is unlike anything else on the market; for the way it condenses an involved process into one easy, effective step, it is utterly groundbreaking and incredibly cost-effective.

icon gravity gold falcon concentrators for sale

icon gravity gold falcon concentrators for sale

Falcon has been involved with gravity concentration for the last years, having designed two distinct ranges of equipment; a semi-continuous Falcon SB range for installation into grinding circuits and the recently released Falcon C range for pre-concentration and scavenging in a wide range of mineral industries.

Our biggest selling units are the SB21 and SB38 semi-continuous Falcons, the SB38 being of 38 inches in bowl diameter with a concentrating surface area of 16720cm. The reason why I have included the surface area (in section 4 of this booklet there is a complete list of the Falcon SB specifications with each individual units concentrating surface area) is that centrifugal gravity concentrators are similar to concentrating tables in that they can only treat a certain tonnage per given surface area. For this reason Falcon specifically designed deep bowls to ensure that a bigger tonnage could be treated using the same given bowl diameter.

A centrifugal device, like a Falcon, acts as a pump forcing the material up the sidewalls. The faster that the bowl is spun, the higher the G-forces and hence the greater the tonnage that can be treated by the unit. Falcon operates its equipment at G-forces of 200Gs.

Falcon has also designed their bowls to be extremely plant friendly in the sense that the bowl is not fabricated from any exotic materials, in other words most of the maintenance can be carried out onsite without having to import exotic materials from Canada. Below is an exploded schematic of the Falcon bowl on which I would like to focus your attention.

Falcon has spent a major amount of time adhering to our motto, designing simple and cost effective equipment that can be easily maintained onsite. The riffles are manufactured from 304 stainless steel and are independent of the bowl. This means that the riffles can be replaced at a fraction of the cost without having to purchase an entire new bowl. The bowl has also been designed to be a long wear life item in that it has a sacrificial rotor baffle that can easily be replaced, and increased rubber thickness in the areas where there is a change in direction of the pulp i.e. adjacent to the impeller. Falcon rarely replaces bowls and prides itself in this unique design which is definitely a cost advantage to you the client.

Falcon prides itself in the recovery of very fine gold particles (below 10 microns), this can only be achieved with the use of low water pressures to fluidize the concentrate riffles (50 80 kPa) and with high outward G-forces (200Gs). Other equipment encountered in the industry make use of high water pressures and lower G-forces resulting in the ejection of fine gold from the collected concentrate.

gold processing,extraction,smelting plant design, equipment for sale | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

gold processing,extraction,smelting plant design, equipment for sale | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

Prominer maintains a team of senior gold processing engineers with expertise and global experience. These gold professionals are specifically in gold processing through various beneficiation technologies, for gold ore of different characteristics, such as flotation, cyanide leaching, gravity separation, etc., to achieve the processing plant of optimal and cost-efficient process designs.

Based on abundant experiences on gold mining project, Prominer helps clients to get higher yield & recovery rate with lower running cost and pays more attention on environmental protection. Prominer supplies customized solution for different types of gold ore. General processing technologies for gold ore are summarized as below:

For alluvial gold, also called sand gold, gravel gold, placer gold or river gold, gravity separation is suitable. This type of gold contains mainly free gold blended with the sand. Under this circumstance, the technology is to wash away the mud and sieve out the big size stone first with the trommel screen, and then using centrifugal concentrator, shaking table as well as gold carpet to separate the free gold from the stone sands.

CIL is mainly for processing the oxide type gold ore if the recovery rate is not high or much gold is still left by using otation and/ or gravity circuits. Slurry, containing uncovered gold from primary circuits, is pumped directly to the thickener to adjust the slurry density. Then it is pumped to leaching plant and dissolved in aerated sodium cyanide solution. The solubilized gold is simultaneously adsorbed directly into coarse granules of activated carbon, and it is called Carbon-In-Leaching process (CIL).

Heap leaching is always the first choice to process low grade ore easy to leaching. Based on the leaching test, the gold ore will be crushed to the determined particle size and then sent to the dump area. If the content of clay and solid is high, to improve the leaching efficiency, the agglomeration shall be considered. By using the cement, lime and cyanide solution, the small particles would be stuck to big lumps. It makes the cyanide solution much easier penetrating and heap more stable. After sufficient leaching, the pregnant solution will be pumped to the carbon adsorption column for catching the free gold. The barren liquid will be pumped to the cyanide solution pond for recycle usage.

The loaded carbon is treated at high temperature to elute the adsorbed gold into the solution once again. The gold-rich eluate is fed into an electrowinning circuit where gold and other metals are plated onto cathodes of steel wool. The loaded steel wool is pretreated by calcination before mixing with uxes and melting. Finally, the melt is poured into a cascade of molds where gold is separated from the slag to gold bullion.

Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.

alluvial gold processing plant - gold wash plant supplier from china

alluvial gold processing plant - gold wash plant supplier from china

Hengcheng offers complete project solutions for Alluvial Gold Processing Plant. We are one of the leading project suppliers for Alluvial Gold Wash Plant Equipment and we work closely with our customers to fulfill their specific needs for customized package solution. Specialized in the fabrication of these machines for 15+ years and this enables us to be in a leading position in the field of Alluvial Gold Processing.

Alluvialis a term that refers to soil sediments and the various sand, silt, gravel, clay or other deposited matter left behind by flowing water. Alluvial gold refers to the type of gold dust found in that kind of soil. When the beds of rivers or streams are scooped and panned for gold dust, the product is referred to asalluvial gold. Best way to extract such alluvial/soil gold is using gravity separation method, which is most cost-effective choice for miners now.

At Hengcheng, we provide more than just gold washing equipment, but constantly strive to assist you in achieving overall business excellence. This is why when you partner with Hengcheng, you dont just get a diversified product offering, but form a relationship based on product refinement, a true understanding of gold process flow sheets and field service and maintenanceensuring that together we will create a solution that is suited specifically to your individual needs and that will optimize your process and lower your overall operating costs.

At Hengcheng, we provide more than just processing equipment, but constantly strive to assist you in achieving overall business excellence. This is why when you partner with Hengcheng, you dont just get a diversified product offering, but form a relationship based on product refinement.etc

mineral technologies | leaders in mineral processing worldwide

mineral technologies | leaders in mineral processing worldwide

Whether you need process improvements to lower operational costs, convert tails into revenue, or build a new plant, we are your go to partner for extracting maximum value from your mineral processing operations across the project lifecycle.

Last month Mineral Technologies welcomed Downers Non-executive Director Teresa Handicott and Group General Counsel and Company Secretary Robert Regan to our Australian head office on the Go...

Keen to share knowledge about mineral processing and potential careers in the industry, Regional Sales Manager for Australia and Europe Dale Henderson attended the recent Careers Expo at loc...

gold processing | britannica

gold processing | britannica

For thousands of years the word gold has connoted something of beauty or value. These images are derived from two properties of gold, its colour and its chemical stability. The colour of gold is due to the electronic structure of the gold atom, which absorbs electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths less than 5600 angstroms but reflects wavelengths greater than 5600 angstromsthe wavelength of yellow light. Golds chemical stability is based on the relative instability of the compounds that it forms with oxygen and watera characteristic that allows gold to be refined from less noble metals by oxidizing the other metals and then separating them from the molten gold as a dross. However, gold is readily dissolved in a number of solvents, including oxidizing solutions of hydrochloric acid and dilute solutions of sodium cyanide. Gold readily dissolves in these solvents because of the formation of complex ions that are very stable.

Gold (Au) melts at a temperature of 1,064 C (1,947 F). Its relatively high density (19.3 grams per cubic centimetre) has made it amenable to recovery by placer mining and gravity concentration techniques. With a face-centred cubic crystal structure, it is characterized by a softness or malleability that lends itself to being shaped into intricate structures without sophisticated metalworking equipment. This in turn has led to its application, from earliest times, to the fabrication of jewelry and decorative items.

The history of gold extends back at least 6,000 years, the earliest identifiable, realistically dated finds having been made in Egypt and Mesopotamia c. 4000 bc. The earliest major find was located on the Bulgarian shores of the Black Sea near the present city of Varna. By 3000 bc gold rings were used as a method of payment. Until the time of Christ, Egypt remained the centre of gold production. Gold was, however, also found in India, Ireland, Gaul, and the Iberian Peninsula. With the exception of coinage, virtually all uses of the metal were decorativee.g., for weapons, goblets, jewelry, and statuary.

Egyptian wall reliefs from 2300 bc show gold in various stages of refining and mechanical working. During these ancient times, gold was mined from alluvial placersthat is, particles of elemental gold found in river sands. The gold was concentrated by washing away the lighter river sands with water, leaving behind the dense gold particles, which could then be further concentrated by melting. By 2000 bc the process of purifying gold-silver alloys with salt to remove the silver was developed. The mining of alluvial deposits and, later, lode or vein deposits required crushing prior to gold extraction, and this consumed immense amounts of manpower. By ad 100, up to 40,000 slaves were employed in gold mining in Spain. The advent of Christianity somewhat tempered the demand for gold until about the 10th century. The technique of amalgamation, alloying with mercury to improve the recovery of gold, was discovered at about this time.

The colonization of South and Central America that began during the 16th century resulted in the mining and refining of gold in the New World before its transferal to Europe; however, the American mines were a greater source of silver than gold. During the early to mid-18th century, large gold deposits were discovered in Brazil and on the eastern slopes of the Ural Mountains in Russia. Major alluvial deposits were found in Siberia in 1840, and gold was discovered in California in 1848. The largest gold find in history is in the Witwatersrand of South Africa. Discovered in 1886, it produced 25 percent of the worlds gold by 1899 and 40 percent by 1985. The discovery of the Witwatersrand deposit coincided with the discovery of the cyanidation process, which made it possible to recover gold values that had escaped both gravity concentration and amalgamation. With E.B. Millers process of refining impure gold with chlorine gas (patented in Britain in 1867) and Emil Wohlwills electrorefining process (introduced in Hamburg, Ger., in 1878), it became possible routinely to achieve higher purities than had been allowed by fire refining.

The major ores of gold contain gold in its native form and are both exogenetic (formed at the Earths surface) and endogenetic (formed within the Earth). The best-known of the exogenetic ores is alluvial gold. Alluvial gold refers to gold found in riverbeds, streambeds, and floodplains. It is invariably elemental gold and usually made up of very fine particles. Alluvial gold deposits are formed through the weathering actions of wind, rain, and temperature change on rocks containing gold. They were the type most commonly mined in antiquity. Exogenetic gold can also exist as oxidized ore bodies that have formed under a process called secondary enrichment, in which other metallic elements and sulfides are gradually leached away, leaving behind gold and insoluble oxide minerals as surface deposits.

Endogenetic gold ores include vein and lode deposits of elemental gold in quartzite or mixtures of quartzite and various iron sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite (FeS2) and pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS). When present in sulfide ore bodies, the gold, although still elemental in form, is so finely disseminated that concentration by methods such as those applied to alluvial gold is impossible.

Native gold is the most common mineral of gold, accounting for about 80 percent of the metal in the Earths crust. It occasionally is found as nuggets as large as 12 millimetres (0.5 inch) in diameter, and on rare occasions nuggets of native gold weighing up to 50 kilograms are foundthe largest having weighed 92 kilograms. Native gold invariably contains about 0.1 to 4 percent silver. Electrum is a gold-silver alloy containing 20 to 45 percent silver. It varies from pale yellow to silver white in colour and is usually associated with silver sulfide mineral deposits.

Gold also forms minerals with the element tellurium; the most common of these are calaverite (AuTe2) and sylvanite (AuAgTe4). Other minerals of gold are sufficiently rare as to have little economic significance.

Of the worlds known mineral reserves of gold ore, 50 percent is found in South Africa, and most of the rest is divided among Russia, Canada, Australia, Brazil, and the United States. The largest single gold ore body in the world is in the Witwatersrand of South Africa.

multotec | mineral processing

multotec | mineral processing

For over 45 years, weve been driven by one primary goal: helping customers get more from their ore. We partner with our clients to drive continuous process optimisation to their plant with application-specific mineral processing solutions that:

For over 45 years, weve helped the worlds biggest mining houses maximise process efficiency and plant uptime, increase levels of product quality, consistency and reliability, and enhance product speed to market.

Multotec is active across the world. Through our global presence, we deliver local expertise, with engineered solutions and services tailored to the unique mineral processing requirements of each region.

mineral processing equipment

mineral processing equipment

Driven by a global team of process engineers and metallurgical specialists, Multotec designs, builds, manufactures, installs and maintains equipment throughout the entire value chain of mineral processing plants across all commodity sectors, from diamonds to coal, gold, iron ore, platinum and phosphates.

Today, Multotec mineral processing equipment is used in over 100 countries on 6 continents, and by the worlds leading mining houses such as Glencore Xstrata, Anglo Coal, BHP Billiton, OceanaGold, QM and Rio Tinto.

Multotec has consistently grown its international footprint in order to serve its customers with greater flexibility, agility and technological support. With operations in almost 90 countries on 6 continents, and a high focus on knowledge sharing and strategic global research and development, Multotec is a world of mineral processing knowledge.

Through our strategically located network of sales and service branches, we provide this knowledge to our customers, wherever their operations may be. By developing local capacity including both skills and infrastructure as close to our customers plants as possible we ensure a quick and effective response to your challenges, with leading metallurgical expertise on your doorstep.

With our rapidly growing support network and proven range of products, Multotec is increasingly assisting customers with operations contracts to take over the maintenance of plant equipment, aligned to service level agreements.

Backed by a world-leading range of specialised mineral processing equipment, Multotec provides complete life-of-plant technical services aimed at increasing metallurgical efficiency to optimise your plant throughput.

We assist our customers not just in meeting their demands for products and equipment, but by optimising the life and efficiency of these products to optimise the entire supply chain for our customers. Through holistic plant evaluation, sampling and testing, optimising flow sheets and looking in detail at any plant-wide processing problems, we are able to offer solutions that offer a direct improvement to the process, with significant tangible impacts on your bottom line.

Reducing downtime saves your plant vast amounts of money. Multotec understands this, and, through our flexible and agile global network, ensures we respond to your requirements with maximum speed and efficiency. In most locations, we can respond to customer requests in under 4 hours.

Some of the challenges minerals processing plants face include the high cost of replacing capital equipment, the labour requirements in changing out heavy equipment, such as a DMS cyclone, and production downtime while staff have to comply with safety regulations while equipment is being replaced. Multotec strives to be a plug-and-play solutions provider, providing maintenance and delivery of high-quality equipment through your local branch.

Our investments in R & D are geared towards 4 key optimisation areas: the need for high recovery and yields, for high levels of product consistency and reliability, for lower lifecycle costs and the ability to develop new products on behalf of our customers.

We prioritise skills transfer and capacity-building across our worldwide branch network, and also train our customers staff in the maintenance of our equipment so that they can help ensure maximum efficiency of their plant.

Multotec is able to provide equipment and services to ensure compliance with safety, health and environmental management standards. This includes the supply of equipment, technical expertise and maintenance.

We help the mining industry improve the efficiency of processing plant performance through our approach to training and education. Multotec has invested in several pilot plants and testing equipment that are used for experiential training, as well as in conducting research and development projects, with the results shared among the relevant stakeholders in the industry for continuous product improvements.

Leading metallurgists and engineers from Multotec deliver training courses for mine managers, plant managers, process equipment operators, metallurgists, project house engineers, original equipment manufacturers and chemical engineers.

Multotecs education and training initiatives include a What is Happening in Industry forum, which brings together industry experts and academics to share best practice, knowledge, ideas and the latest trends in technology.

The forum helps ensure that all industry stakeholders and minerals processing faculties at universities keep abreast of changes in terms of technology to develop relevant and updated curricula, and to facilitate participation in research and development programmes.

Majola has over 20 years of experience in mining and extractive metallurgy. He has held a wide range of positions in the mineral processing industry, including Production Metallurgist, Senior Plant Metallurgist and in sales. Bheka has been with Multotec since 2013.

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