In American English, a small piece of stone like this may also be called a rock.She bent down, picked up a rock and threw it into the trees.In both British and American English, a rock is also a large piece of stone that sticks up out of the ground or the sea, or that has broken away from a mountain.
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Manganese (Mn) is a hard, silvery white metal with a melting point of 1,244 C (2,271 F). The two main manganese minerals are pyrolusite (MnO2) and rhodochrosite (MnCO3). Manganese is the fourth most used metal in terms of tonnage after iron, aluminium and copper.
Ordinarily too brittle to be of structural value itself, it is an essential agent in steelmaking, in which it removes impurities such as sulfur and oxygen and adds important physical properties to the metal. For these purposes it is most often employed as a ferromanganese or silicomanganese alloy; as a pure metal it is added to certain nonferrous alloys.
The second most important market for manganese in the form of electrolytic manganese dioxide is dry cell batteries. Manganese also is an important alloying element in aluminium and copper, is used in plant fertilisers and animal feeds and is a colorant.
Manganese crusher is the stone crusher or rock crusher used for crushing manganese mineral materials in mining industry. Manganese crusher is used widely in the USA, India, Russia, Malaysia, and European countries etc. According to the manganese crusher application, crusher can supply you jaw crusher , cone crusher, impact crusher, and mobile crusher equipments in manganese crushing plants or manganese production lines etc.
Over 80% with the recognised planet manganese means are discovered in South Africa and Ukraine. Other significant manganese deposits are in China, Australia, Brazil, Gabon, India, and Mexico. the usa imports manganese ore mainly because the manganese means within the U.S. are fairly reduced in manganese articles every lot of ore. Importing these ores is presently much more financial than mining them locally.
Most manganese ore imported towards United States is employed to manufacture intermediate manganese ferroalloy products and services and electrolytic manganese for use in dry-cell batteries. Only a little quantity with the ore is straight employed within the metal producing process.
Some manganese is recovered via the reprocessing of scrap metals and metal slag, or even the components left more than in the steel-making process. although regarded as spend in conditions of its metal content, slag usually consists of substantial quantities of other components that may be recovered.
crusher is a manufacturer of crushers and grinding mills in China, supplies all kinds of ore crushers, such as iron ore crusher, copper crusher, chromium crusher, manganese ore crusher for sale with best price, etc. Our products has exported to many countries such as USA, India, Brazil, Ghana, South Africa, Australia, Gabon, and received high popularity.
3. heating the solid-liquid suspension in the pressure vessel to a temperature between about 150 C and 300 C for 0.5 to 4 hours to cause the nickel, copper, cobalt and zinc to be selectively leached to form a metal rich leach solution containing these metals and a residue, with the solid-liquid suspension having a sulfuric acid content of less than 35 g/l upon completion of the leaching;
6. extracting copper from the filtrate of step (d) with a copper specific organic solvent extractant to form an organic phase containing the copper and an aqueous raffinate and separating the organic phase from the aqueous raffinate;
"Attached" TNG, Episode 7x08 Production number: 40277-260 First aired: 8 November 1993 159th of 176 produced in TNG 159th of 176 released in TNG 293rd of 801 released in all Written by Nicholas Sagan Directed by Jonathan Frakes In-universe date 47304.2 (2370) After escaping imprisonment on an alien world, Picard and Dr. Crusher find that their thoughts are connected by brain implants.
Dr. Crusher and Captain Picard are sharing breakfast in the captain's quarters. While Crusher tells Picard of the burgeoning romance between Nurse Alyssa Ogawa and Ensign Markson, Picard seems preoccupied. When confronted with his inattention, Picard confesses that he is, while not exactly worried, bothered by the idea of admitting only half of Kesprytt III to the Federation while leaving the other half out. Crusher attempts to alleviate his concerns by pointing out that the Kes inhabit about three-quarters of the planet and present all the characteristics necessary for admission, even if the Prytt are xenophobic and wish only to be left alone. If Australia had refused to join the United Earth Government in 2150, Crusher hypothetically asks Picard, should the people of Earth have been left out of the Federation? Picard is arguing that the cases are hardly analogous when he is interrupted by a communication from Commander Riker, alerting him to the fact that Ambassador Mauric is awaiting them on the planet. Picard and Crusher leave for the transporter room, but not before Crusher promises a special Vulcan dish for the next morning's breakfast.
Lieutenant Worf is standing ready at the transporter console and beams Picard and Crusher to Mauric's chambers, after receiving confirmation from Kes Security Relay Station One that they have dropped their defense shield and are ready to receive transport. Worf is about to leave the transporter room after successfully beaming down the two officers when he receives word from Security Relay Station 1 that Picard and Crusher never arrived. He is stunned.
Picard regains consciousness lying on a dirty stone floor in a dimly-lit room. Crusher is slumped against a wall nearby. He calls her by her name, and she wakes at his touch. Together they observe their surroundings, and find that the last thing either remembers is beginning to transport off the Enterprise. Picard deduces that they must be on Kesprytt, in a prison cell of some kind, although he can think of no reason for Ambassador Mauric to detain them. When he stands up to look at the barred window, Crusher notices a device of some sort protruding from the back of his neck. Upon closer examination, she finds an implant, connected directly to the brain stem; an identical implant also juts from her own neck. Picard asks if it could be a coercive device, and Crusher observes dryly that she doubts it's intended for their health.
The door slides open. Three guards enter, two armed with phasers and one carrying a tricorder. While they are being scanned with the tricorder, Picard demands to know what it is going on, but receives no answer. When Crusher asks why they are being held hostage, the guard with the tricorder responds that they are not hostages, but prisoners held by the authority of the Prytt Security Ministry, charged with conspiring with the enemy. She accuses the Federation of attempting to establish a military alliance with the Kes, and informs them that such an attempt will not be tolerated. When Picard tries to tell her that the Federation is not interested in destroying the Prytt, the guard will not listen, informing them that the truth will soon be known from their implants, which are being calibrated to their psi wave pattern. Picard tells her that the data from the implants will conclusively prove they are telling the truth and the guard says they will see about that. The guards leave.
Meanwhile, on the Enterprise, Data has run a diagnostic of the targeting components of the transporter and has determined that there has been no malfunction. Worf, however, has been looking at the sensor logs and has found an unusual concentration of antigravitons in the emitter coil. Data realizes that this suggests a tractor beam, which might have deflected the transporter beam to another set of coordinates. He is unable to determine the exact coordinates, but tells Riker that the beam originated somewhere in the Prytt Alliance. Worf wonders aloud what the Prytt Alliance could have wanted with Picard and Crusher, and Riker responds that it's going to be hard to find out the Prytt are xenophobic, and have consistently shied away from any outside contact at all. He decides to work through the Kes, and orders Worf to contact Ambassador Mauric and schedule a meeting immediately.
Picard is systematically trying the tiny bars on the window when he senses Crusher staring at him. She protests that she is only trying to think of a way to escape. He continues to search for a structural flaw, telling Crusher that the important thing to remember in any confinement situation is to think positively. Picard reminds her that there is a solution to every puzzle and a way out of every box they just have to find it. The door slides open, disclosing a male guard with a phaser and a covered plate. He sets the plate down just inside the door, keeping the phaser on them at all times, and leaves. Picard rushes the door as it closes, but is too late to keep it open. He swears, but Crusher observes that at least they won't starve. Upon lifting the cover, however, Crusher finds not food, but her medical tricorder. It is not only fully functional, but has been modified to include a map with an escape route. Picard gloomily observes that this may be part of a carefully-laid trap, but Crusher tells him that she would rather take her chances "out there," and he agrees. The code to the door has been programmed into the tricorder, and they creep out without further discussion.
Having arrived on the Enterprise, Ambassador Mauric presents his formal apologies to Riker in the observation lounge on behalf of his government for the unfortunate incident involving the Enterprise's officers. Riker and Counselor Deanna Troi assure Mauric that the Federation does not blame the Kes for what happened, and that the Enterprise's primary concern is rescuing Picard and Crusher. Mauric offers his government's assistance, and assures them that the Kes are prepared to send a hostage rescue team into the Prytt capital city in three hours. Riker rolls his eyes, looks at Troi, and tells Mauric that they have not even attempted a diplomatic solution yet, and that he would rather not use excessive force until they have exhausted all other options. Options, however, are something Mauric sees little of: the Kes have no formal diplomatic relationship with the Prytt, no ambassadors, and no way of communication. Troi asks about the system in place for a planetary emergency, but Mauric says they have never had need of such a system.
Finally, when Worf suggests that they can determine the Prytt communication frequencies and simply establish a link themselves, Mauric replies that he must be blunt the Prytt are a xenophobic, fanatical people who refuse to engage in civilized discourse, and it has been nearly a century since there has been any diplomatic contact between the Kes and the Prytt. In response to Troi's suggestion that the Prytt might have changed over the century, Mauric is adamant that they've indeed changed very little. Riker is annoyed by the Kes ambassador, and tells him that with all due respect, the Enterprise must communicate with the Prytt before he will sanction the use of force. Although Mauric assents, his placating manner is subverted by his statement that he will continue making preparations for a hostage rescue mission. Riker agrees, and brings the meeting to a close by getting up, along with Worf and Troi. Mauric has one last request, however due to the presumed breach of the Kes communication network, he would like to establish a base of communications on the Enterprise. Riker assigns Worf to help him.
Worf leads Mauric and his young assistant to standard guest quarters. Mauric sends Worf into the room first to make sure there are no traps, then waits until his assistant carefully scans the entire suite before pronouncing it acceptable. Worf is offended by his excessive caution, and stiffly offers his assistance as Security Chief of the Enterprise. Mauric says they will manage alone, effectively dismissing Worf.
Meanwhile, Crusher and Picard escape from the Prytt base into subterranean caves, about thirty meters above a lava flow. They follow the escape map on the tricorder through a cave of erupting gas spouts, barely managing to flee the area before an enormous fire explosion of gas pursues them.
Back on the Enterprise, Lieutenant Commander Data has scanned the entire Prytt communication network and found the primary access module to their central government. On orders from Riker, Data hails the Prime Minister's office. The official who answers is initially unaware of the origin of the communication. Riker gets no further than identifying himself and his ship before the official interrupts in fear and anger and, upon learning that the ship has no authorization from the Prytt Security Ministry, abruptly terminates the connection.
Within seconds, the Enterprise is hailed by the Prytt Security Council, represented by Security Minister Lorin, who was the tricorder-bearing guard from Picard and Crusher's cell. Lorin demands the immediate cessation of all communication with her people. Riker counters by asking to discuss Picard and Crusher's confinement, but Lorin says there is nothing to discuss. As Mauric and his aide appear on the bridge, she continues by threatening aggressive action against the Enterprise unless it ceases all communication with the Prytt, and then abruptly ends the connection. Worf assures Riker that the Prytt pose no appreciable military threat to the Enterprise. Riker nonetheless orders the shields to be kept up for the time being.
Mauric then tells Riker that while the Enterprise's efforts to effect a diplomatic solution have stalled, a Kes operative has freed Picard and Crusher from Prytt custody and set them on their way to the border between Kes and Prytt. Riker asks how exactly the two officers are meant to cross the fortified border, and Mauric says the information is confidential. When Riker presses the matter, Mauric intimates that the bridge is not sufficiently secure for him to explain. Neither is the captain's ready room, Riker's next suggestion. Only the quarters assigned to Mauric and his aide are acceptable to the Kes ambassador, who claims that they are "safer". Riker is nonplussed, but agrees.
On the planet, Picard and Crusher are navigating through a maze of underground tunnels. Crusher announces that she is also thirsty, under the impression that Picard had just made the same observation aloud. He protests that he only thought about his thirst, and did not express it in audible speech. They realize that the transceivers must have calibrated to their psi wave pattern, as threatened by Loren back in the cell, and are now transmitting their thoughts to one another. Their attempts to prove the hypothesis are unsuccessful, and they wonder if it might have been a fluke. In any case, however, the immediate concern of finding a way out demands their attention.
The map sends them to a great hill of rock, indicating that a ledge about thirty meters up leads to a tunnel that connects to the surface. Picard has just started to climb when he stops and turns, having felt a sudden sense of fear from Crusher. Crusher admits her fear of heights, and Picard attempts to calm her by telling her to pretend that she is on the holodeck. They begin to climb toward the ledge.
Entering Mauric's quarters, promptly scanned by the aide, Riker notices the "redecorating" done by the Kes. Machines and gadgets of all kinds now fill the room, humming and whirring away. Mauric characterizes them as a few pieces of equipment necessary for security, as the aide pronounces Riker "all right" to enter. Riker and Mauric huddle over a desk to discuss the situation. Demanding complete confidentiality, Mauric tells Riker that the Kes employ operatives in Prytt territory. The escape map provided to Picard and Crusher will lead them to a tavern in a village near the border, where these operatives will be waiting to help them cross. Riker is skeptical of the advisability of sending Human Starfleet officers into a Prytt village, but Mauric downplays the risk in a manner that is faintly patronizing, citing the great deal of experience the Kes have with the Prytt. He attempts to reassure the skeptical Riker by pointing out that the Kes have no reason to wish Picard and Crusher harm, as they still hope that the Enterprise will support the Kes petition to enter the Federation. Riker smiles wanly.
Picard and Crusher emerge from underground into a sunny, deserted countryside. They hike down a hill amidst tall green grass as Picard observes that one of the two is hungry. Crusher admits it, and Picard pleads for her to think of something else, as he is becoming hungry himself just observing her thoughts of a large bowl of vegetable soup. Crusher remembers how her grandmother used to make it, with peas and carrots, but is interrupted by an exasperated Picard. She apologizes, but apparently indulges in the thought that he is being unreasonable. He abruptly stops and defends himself. They discuss the matter, and come to the decision that they cannot react to every thought that crosses the other's mind, and that there is a difference between thoughts and speech. Telepaths acquire new respect from the pair, as their experience demonstrates just how much clutter and flotsam the mind churns out on a continual basis.
When Picard thinks a joke to see if Crusher is "still listening," she realizes that the link is growing stronger. Picard suggests putting some distance between them to see if that helps, although he sarcastically observes, "not that I'm growing tired of hearing your most intimate thoughts." As soon as they are only a couple of yards apart, however, they are overcome with pain and nausea. Crusher's tricorder tells them there's nothing physically wrong with them, but a second try yields the same result, this time with only a step's distance. They continue their journey side by side.
As their link grows stronger, Picard "remembers" Dr. Crusher's memory as if it were his own. He finishes a sentence about a boy, Tom Norris, that Crusher had a crush on when she was younger. Crusher acknowledges Picard's sudden knowledge of shame on the doctor's part, and Crusher admits she acted unkindly towards Norris by asking him whether he was growing in a beard or if it was just dirt on his face. Crusher thought at the time that she was merely being cute but she ended up hurting his feelings. At that moment, they see who they think is a Prytt operative, but was probably a Kes operative.
Meanwhile on the Enterprise, Riker and Mauric argue about how safe Picard and Crusher are and whether or not they will know to meet up with their operatives. Mauric makes the accusation that since Picard and Crusher did not meet with their operative at the border, that they must be meeting the Prytt in secret in order to negotiate a military alliance. Riker says it's ridiculous, and denies it. Mauric doesn't believe him and wants to leave the ship. Riker agrees, and tells him to take his "junk" with him.
Picard and Crusher try to find something to eat before nightfall, but there is nothing edible on the planet's surface. Gathered around a fire, Picard tells Crusher that they will probably be on the Enterprise by tomorrow and that she can plant herself in front of a replicator with a fork and knife. Crusher and Picard talk about breakfast and the Vulcan dish she was meant to have prepared. Picard, it turns out, just wants a simple meal in the morning, not the elaborate things they have been eating. Crusher realizes that he wants coffee and croissants, and by her own admission, says she also likes the simple things. They then both agree that coffee and croissants are what they shall be having for breakfast in the future. When she mentions when she took a trip with her son Wesley when he was very young to Balfour Lake, she begins to reference her deceased husband, Jack Crusher, and then she senses Picard's feeling towards her. Picard, a bit embarrassed, at first denies it, but Crusher realizes that Picard has had romantic feelings towards her even when she was married. Picard admits that because he was afraid of what would happen, he tried denying her application to be aboard the Enterprise; he also says that he had those feelings from when Crusher was married and then hated himself for wanting to act on his romantic feelings when Jack died. He never did act on them and he says that eventually, those feelings went away. Crusher acknowledges that and then says they are now good friends, seven years later. Feeling both a little awkward from this experience, Crusher announces that they have a lot of ground to cover tomorrow and probably should get some sleep. Picard and Crusher both lay down near the fire and fall asleep.
Riker tries to contact the Prytt again, but they will not listen. Fed up by the two nations' lack of communication, Riker has Worf transport the Prytt security minister, Lorin, directly to the observation lounge against her will, to force a dialogue with Mauric. However, the "dialogue" is entirely unproductive, as the two ministers hurl various conspiracy theories at each other for instance, Lorin says the Prytt "know" about the Kes's plans to build new orbital attack satellites with Federation technology, and warns Mauric that they have already prepared defenses; Mauric calls these accusations ridiculous, but rejoins that the Kes "know" about the Prytt's plans to use Federation aid to regain control of certain territory; Lorin says the Prytt don't need aid, the territory is quite clearly theirs and so on.
Riker slams a hand down on the observation lounge's table and tells both ministers he is finished with them. He allays Lorin's concerns by assuring her that the Kes's application for Federation membership will be denied. Mauric, outraged, says Riker has no authority to make such a decision, and threatens to go over his head to the Federation Council. Riker rejoins that his report to the Council will carry serious weight, and his report will state in no uncertain terms that the Kes, while outwardly democratic and friendly, are also paranoid and suspicious to the point of insanity. The Federation does not ask much from its members, but it does assume that they are at least willing to trust each other, and the Kes have a long way to go before they can meet this basic requirement. Moreover, although the Federation was initially willing to consider admitting KesPrytt because the Kes are the majority faction, Lorin and Mauric's "dialogue" has graphically illustrated that the division between the Kes and the Prytt is a much deeper problem than the Kes were willing to admit, and disqualifies their world for membership.
Addressing Lorin, Riker demands the return of Picard and Crusher, but she stubbornly insists that they are still suspected of espionage. Riker turns up the heat on Lorin, telling her that if anything happens to their missing officers, then Starfleet will subject her country to increasing scrutiny, ranging anywhere from more starships in orbit to sensor sweeps to maybe even away teams conducting interrogations of hundreds of Prytt citizens a very unsettling prospect to Lorin, as Riker makes clear that she will be held responsible by her own people for the Federation intrusion.
On the planet's surface, Picard and Crusher are attacked by the Prytt. They run for a while before getting to the border. Crusher disables the force field just long enough for Picard to get through but she is captured by the Prytt. However, Riker has finally made Lorin understand, and she tells her operatives on the surface to give the Enterprise the coordinates of both Picard and Crusher. The Captain and Doctor both arrive in the transporter room and they continue to share some thoughts, literally, while Riker walks behind them utterly confused as to why they are laughing.
Later that night, Picard and Crusher have just finished an elegant dinner, and both have already had their implants removed. Picard and Crusher are both relieved that they won't be hearing each other's thoughts any longer. Crusher then says "a penny for your thoughts" to Picard and reveals that while she was trying to sleep on Kesprytt, Picard fell asleep faster than her and that he had some very interesting dreams. Picard asks her not to blame him for his dreams because it wasn't something he had control over, as he was sleeping. Crusher then asks what about the things he does have control over, such as his thoughts when he was awake. Picard says that now that they both know how they feel, maybe they shouldn't be afraid to explore the possibilities that are in store for them. Crusher replies "Or maybe we should be afraid.", she then kisses Picard on the cheek. Crusher suggests maybe she should be going now. Picard agrees and they kiss on the lips. She departs from the room and stands outside the door reflecting for a moment on what happened. Picard goes to the dinner table and blows out the candles and looks out the window into space.
"And when Jack died, you felt guilty." "I felt guilty before he died. Having feelings like that for my best friend's wife... and then later after the accident, I promised myself that I would never tell you how I felt. It would be like betraying my friend." "That's why you didn't want me on the Enterprise seven years ago."
"We still plan to take our petition directly to the Federation Council! They'll listen-!" "They will also listen to the reports of the Captain of the Enterprise and his First Officer! And I can tell you right now the First Officer's report will go something like this: 'Kesprytt, a deeply troubled world with social, political, and military problems that they have yet to resolve. The Kes, while a friendly and democratic people, are driven by suspicion, deviousness, and paranoia. It is the opinion of this officer that they are not ready for membership.'"
47; 2150; 23rd century; 2350; 2364; analogy; antigraviton; attack satellite; Australia; Balfour Lake; best friend; brain stem; carrot; cerebral cortex; coffee; communications frequency; conspiracy; croissant; Crusher, Jack; Crusher, Wesley; defense shields; diplomacy; Earth; emitter coil; European Hegemony; fear of heights; Federation; Federation Council; freedom; fugitive; graviton; graviton beam; hip; holo-programs; Horath; hostage rescue team; Howard, Felisa; Howard, Isabel; Howard, Paul; Human history; "Joined at the hip"; Kes; Kesprytt; Kesprytt III; Kes Security Relation Station One; Kolrod Island; map; Markson; medical tricorder; methanogenic compound; military; military alliance; Mintakan tapestry; multiphase pulse; nation-state; Norris, Tom; number one; Ogawa, Alyssa; Ohn-Kor; operative; painting; pea; penny; plot; political differences; prime minister; prison; Prytt; Prytt Alliance; Prytt National Communications Net; Prytt Security Ministry; psi-wave device; security minister; Security Relay Station One; sextant; social differences; Starfleet; structural flaw; targeting components; tavern; toast; topography; tractor beam; transport sequence; transporter; transporter beam; transporter room; transporter sensor log; tricorder; undercover operative; United Earth; vegetable soup; village; Vulcan dish; World Government; xenophobia (xenophobic)
Dolomite is the leading supplier of crushed stone, sand and gravel, and recycle materials in the Greater Rochester Area and Southern Tier. Our products are used in a wide variety of construction applications as well as in the asphalt and concrete industries.
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Woven fabrics allow for the passage of water where non-woven fabrics are filters; both serve different purposes. Our fabric is a woven stabilization fabric with high high durability. These fabrics offer a critical function that allows water to pass through and not damage your driveway. Non-woven fabrics, are often suggested, by some companies, but are not a good choice. Non-woven fabrics serve as a filter product and are not good for stabilization. Also, non-woven fabrics stretch more than woven fabrics, making them less attractive for driveway use.
First, you must prepare the surface by removing any debris and protruding objects such as rocks and stumps that will tear the fabric. Next you are going to level the surface without creating a bathtub effect that could hold water. If you have an area that always retains water, use a pipe or drain to remove it.
Take the fabric and lay it directly on the now prepared surface. You do this by rolling it out flat, as you need to minimize any creases and folds. If needed, overlap the fabric by 1 to 3 inches and if needed, use pins or staples to hold the fabric in place. Using stones, dirt or other somewhat heavy materials will be enough to hold the fabric in place for dumping the aggregate (rock).
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If you do not mind the extra care needed for a gravel driveway, the cost will be a lot less than paving and will last just as long. If building a gravel driveway is a first for you, there are mistakes you must avoid, so keep this information in mind:
You do not want to spread gravel on a soft, mushy ground. Soil that has leaves, grass, roots, weeds and other debris will cause a spongy surface that will lead to trouble down the road. You must get rid of all topsoil and strip the soil all the way down to hard rock. This will make for a much more stable and dependable bed. You can place the topsoil somewhere for later use.
If your driveway is not properly leveled, drainage is going to become a problem, allowing water to erode and destroy it. You will have nothing but a mud hole as silt, from below, comes up to the gravel. The silt will loosen the gravel pieces, they will lose their friction and start to weaken and separate.
One option to keeping the gravel in place on your drivewway is to use a gravel paver product which prohibits the gravel from migrating, resists rutting and provides a very stable surface. Gravel pavers are available in a variety of different shapes and sizes and are composed from either plastic or a heavy duty geotextile. Another option is to install sides to the driveway. The side forms can be constructed of wood or you could opt to place a retaining wall of brick or concrete blocks. These materials will also prevent spreading outside the parameters of the driveway.
Your base layer of gravel pieces should be at least 3 to 4 inches in diameter or you will experience shifting and sinking from the weight of your vehicle on top of it. The pieces must be angular with sharp edges, rounded pieces are not capable of locking into place with adjacent pieces. Sharp-edged pieces are almost as solid as a single large rock. Gravel pieces laid on the final top layer should not be any larger than a golf ball. The total thickness of your driveway, with layers of different sizes of gravel, should be approximately 12-inches.
While your driveway should be composed of various layers of gravel, each layer must be compacted. If not compacted properly, the driveway will not keep its shape. Each layer should be approximately 4-inches thick and the gravel pieces should be smaller than those of the layer below it. You must compact each layer as you lay them down by tamping with a hand operated roller or a machine.
If done properly, you will have a great driveway that will last for many years. Be careful not to overlook steps that must be taken. Building a driveway will take a little time and some work, doing a poor job will only lead to a complete mess that will have to be completely done over. Take each step one at a time, do not skip steps and make sure you have the proper materials required.
Driveway fabric helps prevent ruts and potholes and greatly reduces the need to replace the majority of the rock surface of your driveway every few years. It also helps prolong the life of your asphalt or cement driveway by reducing cracking.
US 200 is the fabric we recommend for the typical residential driveway application. Some unique job site or traffic conditions may require utilizing a heavier stabilization fabric. However, US 200 is a COMMERCIAL GRADE construction fabric and has high tensile strength. US Fabrics will be happy to assist you with making the proper choice for your product.
Woven stabilization fabrics provide this crucial function while also allowing water to pass. Also, nonwovens have much greater elongation, meaning they stretch much more, thereby making them less appealing for driveway applications.
Remove any protruding objects, such as stumps and rocks that could result in tearing or puncturing the driveway fabric. Level the surface without excavating too deeply and creating a "bathtub" effect that will hold water. If there are any areas that consistently hold water, the water will need to be removed via pipe, drain tile, or other means.
Place the stabilization fabric directly on the prepared surface. Roll it out flat in the roll direction, trying to minimize folds and creases. When required, overlaps should be 1'-3'. Pins or staples can be used for convenience, but are not required to hold the fabric in place. If necessary, a pile of stone, dirt, or other piece of material on the corners is enough to hold it in place during the dumping of the aggregate.
Place and compact the gravel in 6"-8" lifts. Dump trucks and loaders can be driven directly on the fabric if needed. However, avoid quick stops, starts and turns. The preferred method is to dump the stone onto the stabilization fabric and then push it out onto the fabric to provide some protection. Make sure to create a slight crown to your driveway to facilitate water draining to the sides.
Aggregate should be crushed, angular, 1" minus in size (diameter) with about 10% dust (or fines). Limestone is a good option, but other stone will work fine. Some names for this type of stone are "dense grade aggregate (DGA)" or "crusher run." Driveway Fabric eliminates the need to utilize stone larger than 1" in size. Avoid using rounded stone.
Its powerful live, polyphonic, multichannel granular synthesis algorithm creates very complex sounds, drones and outstanding surround effects. Since 1999, the crusher-X trademark has been "the" granular effect standard. crusher-X is used by famous sound-designers, composers, musicians and film-makers all over the world. It comes with GCOs, an Autotune and Pitch tracking system, up to 10-channel surround outputs, up to 199 individual grain streams, unique 3D grain visualization, over 3000 LFOs, over 340 real-time parameters and more than 170 presets. Read more about the crusher-X key features here.
For this purpose the qualification beautiful or ugly makes no sense for sound, nor for the music that derives from it; the quantity of intelligence carried by the sounds must be the true criterion of the validity of a particular music. Iannis Xenakis in "Formalized music: Thought and mathematics in composition.", 1963-1992
The crusher-X algorithm is based on the traditional granular synthesisalgorithm (Xenakis, Roads, Wilkins), which wasinvented in the early 1950s. In granular synthesis, short sound fragments (e.g. 50 milliseconds), "the grains," come from a fixed file buffer. The starting time, length and silence between the grains can be modulated. Working with more than one grain at a time is possible, thus you can create complex sound "clouds" from any soundsignal.
When experimenting with those (length of grains), I have discovered a certain confusion as to what effect one can expect when setting parameters to certain values. Not only it seemed that length and density each had an impact of its own on the character of the granulated sound, but it also appeared that their relational value was highly important. Leon Zadorin "Composing with Granular Synthesis"
A "window function" blends in and out the grains at the beginnings and endings of their life cycles. This function determines the character of the continuum and thus the different perceptions. Xenakis recommended the Gaussian window because of its theoretical considerations.
All sound is an integration of grains, of elementary sonic particles, of sonic quanta. Each of these elementary grains has a threefold nature: duration, frequency, and intensity. All sound, even all continuous sonic variation, is conceived as an assemblage of a large number of elementary adequately disposed in time. (...) Hecatombs of pure sounds are necessary for the creation of a complex sound. Iannis Xenakis in "Formalized music: Thought and mathematics in composition.", 1963-1992
Instead of the classic file-based approach, the crusher-X algorithm provides a floating grain buffer which allows real-time input and output. In this floating buffer, the grains are created by several generators routed to several outputs (surround modes) or combined to become single outputs (mono and stereo modes). You are able to apply many unusual modulations to the grains such as pitch, filter, pan, reverse, X-Crush, waveshape as you like - all modulated by independent modulation sources and modulation phases, either synchronized or not synchronized to the host. The X-Crush parameter is unique in the world of granular synthesis: It applies a ring modulation between the overlapping areas of the grains that follow each other. A feedback loop from the output towards the input is capable of generating extremely complex and non-linear sounds.
A complex sound may be imagined as a multi-colored firework in which each point of light appears and instantaneously disappears against a black sky. But in this firework there would be such a quantity of points of light organized in such a way that their rapid and teeming succession would create forms and spirals, slowly unfolding, or conversely, brief explosions setting the whole sky aflame. A line of light would be created by a sufficiently large multitude of points appearing and disappearing instantaneously. Iannis Xenakis in "Formalized music: Thought and mathematics in composition.", 1963-1992
A ureteral stone forms in the kidney and moves down the ureter and gets stuck there. The ureter is the tube that takes urine from the kidney to the bladder. Stones can form in the urinary system when your urine has high levels of minerals and salts. Urinary stones can be made of uric acid, calcium, phosphate, or oxalate crystals.
Your healthcare provider will examine you and ask about your symptoms. Tell your provider about your activity level and your usual foods. Also tell your provider about any health conditions you have. You may also need any of the following:
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Also known as a sacrifice area, confinement area; or dry lot, these smaller outdoor areas are meant to be safe and comfortable places for horses to enjoy some movement and socialization when grass turnout isnt available to them.
Because the paddock is a heavy use area that receives lots of hoof traffic and needs to be usable year round, extra steps have to be taken to deal with mud and damage to the paddock surface. The best solution is to install and maintain some sort of paddock footing. This can frequently go over your existing paddock surface, but the application and maintenance will depend on what type of footing you use.
Hogfuel is made by chipping waste-wood products in a wood processor called a hogger. This material is often cheap to obtain and varies in quality and composition quite a bit. Hogfuel is commonly used to remediate mud on cow farms due to its relatively low cost. Its typically a very comfortable material for horses to lay, walk, and urinate on. It does a great job of filling and absorbing muddy spots. However, because its absorbent and holds moisture like a sponge, it can harbor bacteria and quickly breaks down into more mud, requiring it to be scraped out, disposed of, and replaced almost yearly. Even still, it is a popular option due to its price and effectiveness, even if it is not a particularly long-lasting solution.
Wood chips can often be found for free as a result of the tree trimming industry. If you see a tree trimmer working in your area, you can often stop and leave your contact information as a dump site for the chipped wood. This material makes good pathways and landscaping fill. However, we dont recommend it for paddocks because it can often have sharp branches, strong scents/oils, or poisonous tasty-looking leaves. If you plan on using this material near or in horse areas be sure to find out what type of tree was being chipped because some trees are very toxic to horses. Common toxic trees include yew, red maple, all cherry trees, all plum trees, oleander, walnut, and oak.
Sawdust, shavings, and bedding are all better options for indoor horse areas rather than outdoor ones. The benefit of wood products designed as horse bedding is that you know they are safe for keeping horses on and work tremendously well to absorb moisture and neutralize urine odors. However, in an outdoor area these absorbent wood products get saturated quickly and become a mushy mess. Better to use them in the stalls and find an all-weather footing for your outdoor areas.
Rock products, also known as sand and gravel, are a great choice for paddock footing because they are extremely slow to break down, dont hold moisture or bacteria, and can be supported for a stronger base. This is typically a more expensive footing option, but the initial investment will last longer if properly installed. There are also many types of rock products available. They vary by geographic location and range from mostly unsuitable to ideal for horses.
Course angular rock is often found as a base, or as the entire footing material in horse paddocks and gate areas. This type of rock typically has particles that are about 1-2 in diameter and fairly uniform in size. Its made in a quarry by crushing larger rocks into smaller ones. This rock, once compacted, is fairly hard to damage and drains well. The downside is that its not very comfortable for horses to stand or lay on and can be difficult to muck off of because the rocks dont fall through the fork tines. For these reasons, the most common use for this rock is as a base, usually 3-8 thick, topped with another 4-6 of a finer gravel.
For gravel, particle size is usually described by the approximate diameter of the largest particle. For example, a crushed rock has pieces in it that are no larger than in diameter. If you would like to avoid hoof bruising and discomfort when laying down, choose a maximum particle size that is around or smaller. Be aware that if your horses are barefoot, fine gravel particles can become lodged in the white line area of your horses hoof and, if not removed on a regular basis, can cause flaring, splitting or even abscess. Its best to pick your horses hooves daily or weekly even if you are not riding them. Particle shapeis important as it is the key to the stability of your gravel. An angular shape will stay where you put it and provide traction to your horses, whereas a rounded shape will never become firm enough to create a sturdy base and horses will sink or slip in it. Shape is defined by how the gravel is created. If it was created naturally, in a river bed or on a beach for example, it would tend to have rounder particles. If it was man-made in a quarry by crushing bigger rocks into smaller rocks, it would be angular in particle shape. Angular gravel is often referred to as crushed rock and rounded gravel can be found as pea gravel or drainage rock.
Pea gravel is often praised for its softness on unshod hooves and many people feel that it helps keep bare hooves rounded and filed. As a paddock footing, it has some challenges though. Its extremely unstable and if its not enclosed in a small area with high edges it quickly migrates downhill or spreads out. If its placed in a thin layer over a hard surface, it can be dangerously slippery. If it is deep, then the horses feet sink in and the hoof is bearing weight at an angle, putting stress on tendons. It drains very well, but water will need some place to go once it drains through or it will pool under the pea gravel and create pea soup! Angular crushed rock is what we recommend for use with Lighthoof mud management panels. It creates a firm clean surface that, when supported by the Lighthoof panels, is long lasting, safe, and easy to maintain.
Particle uniformity refers to the mix of particle sizes within the blend. A minus gravel has fines (very small particles) in it which fill the void space between the larger pieces. This makes for a very stable, smooth surface. This effect can also be achieved by mixing sand in with your gravel. A washed or clean gravel has been sifted and washed to remove the fines. This creates gravel that has more void space which will drain a little more quickly until the gaps fill with something else, such as horsehair, hay, or dust. For this reason, we usually recommend the minus gravel because the enhanced stability outweighs the temporary improved porosity when it comes to mud prevention in heavy use horse areas. When selecting gravel footing for your paddocks be sure to ask about the particle size, shape, and uniformity and, if possible, visit the quarry or get a sample of the gravel to take a closer look. Then you will be able to see whats going on at the particle level and know how it will perform in your paddocks as footing.
Sand is a much debated choice for horse paddocks. Many people fear using sand because they are worried about sand colic, a dangerous condition that results from the buildup of ingested sand or dirt particles in the horses gut. This is indeed something to be careful of but can easily be avoided with careful management. Its important not to feed horses directly on sand. Always place hay in an enclosed feeder or feed them in another area, for example, a stall that is kept free of sand. A good way to test if your horse is getting a buildup of sand in his gut is to pick up a manure ball with a clear plastic glove on. Invert the glove when you take it off, fill it with water and tie the top. Shake it and squish it to fully dissolve the manure in the water, and then hang it by the top with the fingers pointing down. In a few minutes, sand will settle into the bottom of the finger tips. If you have more than a teaspoon total, consider talking to your vet and/or feeding a sand clearing supplement such as psyllium. But sand colic isnt a good reason to avoid using sand as a paddock footing; you just have to be careful that your horse isnt ingesting large amounts of it. In fact, letting a horse graze on thin pastures with sandy soil can be just as harmful. Sand can have many benefits as a footing material. Its very comfortable for horses to lay, roll and pee in and its super easy to keep clean - like cleaning a little box! In fact, horses enjoy it so much that on many Lighthoof installations (where the main footing material is minus crushed rock) we add a small patch of sand for them to roll and pee in.
Manufactured products can be a good way to deal with mud in horse paddocks. In many cases, farm owners have gotten creative with products intended for other industries or uses, but there are also new solutions designed specifically for paddock mud management.
Lighthoofis a flexible plastic material that holds gravel in connected fist-sized cells to give better support to the footing. This stops hooves from churning up the footing with the ground below it and prevents mud from forming.
Lighthoofrequires less footing to achieve stability and creates a permanent solution when paired with angular crushed gravel. Its easy to install, even over uneven or steep terrain, and is gentle and safe for horses. Learn more about how Lighthoof works. There are also hard plastic grids on the market that provide a different solution to the problem. They go over the crushed rock to distribute the horses weight and can work very well in situations where the ground underneath is stable enough to support them and prevent them from moving and coming apart at the seams.
People frequently ask me if they can or should use manufactured arena footing products as their paddock footing. Typically the answer is no, for several reasons. Arena footing products such as crumb rubber, fiber or textile shreds, or other blended materials, are designed to fulfill a certain purpose in the arena. Usually that purpose is shock absorption and/or dust remediation. Besides being terribly expensive, these products arent really suitable for paddock footing. Unsupervised horses run the risk of ingesting the material, which could be very harmful. Also, it will get into your manure pile which will hinder the breakdown of manure whether you are dealing with waste onsite or having it removed.
Rubber stall mats can be a good solution for areas of your paddock that need a smooth, impervious, easy to clean surface. They typically run about $30-40 for a 4x6 mat and can be stuck down in front of stall doors, under feeders, or anywhere you need them. The cost prohibits them from being used across the whole paddock, but they can be useful in small areas and they are mobile and reusable. Be careful though, because rubber mats can be very slippery when wet. Keep a close eye on the situation to make sure people or horses dont injure themselves in the rain or near a water trough. Some mats have a rough texture on one side and a smooth texture on the other. Play with which side is up to balance slipperiness with ease of sweeping.
Ive heard many stories of people using used scrap carpet or discarded conveyor belting much like rubber mats in their paddocks. Some have even laid it across their entire paddocks to create a surface that is protected from mud oozing up and is sturdy enough for some hoof traffic. The only caution is to ensure that horses dont get tripped up on the edges of these materials and keep an eye out for ingestion or allergic reactions. Often these discarded products can be picked up for free, so if they dont last forever, no biggie!
As you can see, there are many pros and cons to the different footing options and ultimately your decision will be based on cost, availability, and your preferred farm maintenance routine. Theres no doubt, however, that installing and maintaining a footing material of some kind in your paddocks will help manage mud and create a healthier, safer outdoor living environment for your horse.
Depends on how thick you're going to lay the gravel. If you're only putting down an inch or two, normal foot traffic will eventually stir up the gravel such that in places you'll see the underlying native soils mixing with the gravel. In that case, the fabric might be a good idea. But if you're putting down 6 inches or more of gravel, I wouldn't worry about the mixing issue, and I'd leave the fabric out.
As to the weed issue, weeds will grow anywhere. and as much as you might have killed the present weeds, weed seeds will find their way onto and into the gravel over time, and you'll see them poking their nasty little heads out here and there. Fabric might help to insure that weed seeds in the native soils below don't germinate and poke their heads up for air, but the weed seeds dropped by wind and birds won't be much impressed by the fabric.
I have landscape fabric covered by bark mulch in some planting beds and gravel in others. It works quite well. Weeds do pop up but they don't get a very good foothold and there are few compared to a plain soil planting bed.
We put in gravel paths with fabric underneath because we have moles that would tunnel under it and cause problems. We also have thistles, dock, and blackberries that would come up through the gravel if we didn't use the fabric. So it depends on your situation.
No need to secure it, the gravel will do that for you. If you haven't bought the fabric yet don't buy that thin plasticy shtuff that you get at home centers. Go to a place called WhiteCap Contractors Supply, they have a fabric that is like a heavy felt. Its what I used when I was a landscape contractor in Seattle.
And 20% vinegar--an organic control--will be effective for weed control on any weeds that invariably will come through at some point in time. I wouldn't use any deadly poisons, then track them in and out of my house.
Progress report: I have started and things are progressing well. The best investment I have made so far is in a 8x8 hand tamper with a fiberglass handle to compact the gravel. The 10x10 model was too heavy and IMO a bit large so I might have gotten my foot at some point, so I opted for the 8x8. It makes a big difference - the compacted gravel is much easier to walk on and you don't kick around loose rock much at all.
I use weed fabric a lot. Recently I removed some brick pavers from which grass was growing inbetween, layed down the fabric and put the pavers back on top. So far, so good. Our grass is rather invasive but I have not seen growing back.I've thought about doing what you did, but using brick instead of gravel. Since I've considered using sand as a filler between the bricks, I'm curious if the weeds will set seed in the sand.
I use weed fabric a lot. Recently I removed some brick pavers from which grass was growing inbetween, layed down the fabric and put the pavers back on top. So far, so good. Our grass is rather invasive but I have not seen growing back.I've thought about doing what you did, but using brick instead of gravel. Since I've considered using sand as a filler between the bricks, I'm curious if the weeds will set seed in the sand.
I am following directions from Better Homes & Gardens book on how to make a gravel path. 1) Lay down a covering of landscape fabric, which I'm doing. 2) 2 inches of 'construction grade' gravel. Question here: the guy at the materials yard advises me to use AB Roadgrade Gravel here. Says it will compact well. I'm worried about drainage. Any advice from experienced users/builders? Wondering if pea gravel would be better.
Ralph,Don't worry about different mixes of gravel.I have many paths here in olympia. Just specify 5/8 minus crushed gravel. This is gravel that is screened to a maximum size of 5/8 inch across. I got some 3/5 minus one time but don't like the look. the 5/8 minus compacts better.
Looking for advice on applying 2" of P2 or P1 gravel as landscaping to the front of my house. I was told to utilize the landscape fabric, will the weight of the stone be sufficient to hold it down or should some type of spikes be nailed? Is there a need for any additional layers? Can this arrange be conducive for walking? Can a motor vehicle drive and park on this? Thanks in Advance.
The answer, thought, is no. Rounded pea gravel should only be used in ornamental applications. Because it is round, it never locks into place. Every time you walk on it you sink in. A car would sink all the way through 2 inches of it.
There is a material with sharp edges that will work for you. You put down a layer and tamp it. Then another layer and tamp it. It becomes surprisingly firm (until the grass comes up). But the weight of the stone will hold the fabric down. You'll have many tons of stone on it.
definitely put fabric under gravel, especially if there are heavy loads involved that will cause the clay to pump up into the gravel - fabric keeps the layers separate and adds strength. Helps with weeds too.
I am new to gardening and a lot of you all are freaking me out:) The ones using the fabric with stone are for pathways etc. My question is this. Do I use the fabric if I am using rocks to landscape with my shrubs? We have a new house and the mulch that was their was attracting all kinds of bug, slugs, rodents because it is so wet. We decided to have shrubs around the house and use rocks at their base with the fabric under the rocks. Is this wrong? I want little maintenance for weeding and of course the pruning of the bushes. One can go crazy trying to figure it all out. HELP!
Yes, I know it has been years since anyone has posted a note on this site but....I have a retaining wall that my husband built about 6 years ago. We planted nice plants and some vinca, (big mistake, HUGE), the vinca has taken over everyting and is cascading down the wall. I want it gone! What I would like to do is take up all the plantings, (read vinca), and replace it all with nice looking stone gravel. But I do not want to waste time with thnigs that will not work. I am way to busy, and have an organic farm operation, with this seriously ugly front landscaping.
I am looking at taking out all the vinca plantings with a weedeater than putting "round up" on it, then plastic and then the nice looking gravel stone. I am too busy with other stuff to do this more than once. What I need to know is:Will my plan work, and what kind of landscaping plastic do I need as a base for the gravel? Please someone help me! I would very much appreciate any advice. I am only planning on doing this once!
It has been suggested to me to use old carpet instead of the expensive landscape fabric.I also hate to hear of your "problem" with vinca. It is a wonderful travelling rock plant for your wall, can't you embrace the natural beauty and trim as needed. A lot less to take care of instead of rigid plantings.
If you want the fabric work for the weeds, you must take ALL the contaminated soil with weed roots first. That mean taking about 4" and adding good un-contaminated soil, then put the fabric overlapping about 1" and secure with clamps, then put the gravel on top
I am building some pea gravel walkways. I have excavated down ~6 inches, installed borders, put down 1/2" hardware cloth (for the gophers we have which are the worst) and then landscape fabric. Now I intend to put ~3" of base rock which I will compact and then 2" pea gravel on top of that. My question is: Do I need to put another layer of landscape fabric between the base rock and teh pea gravel? I would rather not as I don't want the fabric to show through. thanks for any help.
To HU-890777521, See the following site regarding a pea gravel path. I don't know if this works, but the writer claims so. Scroll down to the 4th pic. Hope this helps. https://gardenerofgoodandevil.wordpress.com/2014/05/04/how-to-build-a-stable-pea-gravel-path/Get in Touch with Mechanic