gravel driveway: types of gravel, drainage & edging, repair & cleaning

gravel driveway: types of gravel, drainage & edging, repair & cleaning

A gravel driveway is the perfect choice for a countryside residence and is also your cheapest driveway option. In this driveway guide we will look at the many different types of gravel you can use to create your own unique style. We will also address the cost of gravel driveway installation and what you should look for from a contractor. And we also tackle what you need to know about driveway gravel drainage and edging, as well as maintenance and repair costs.

Road gravel driveways: Road gravel is the most affordable type of driveway gravel. Its makeup is clay and small stones, typically crushed or naturally angular stones that hold together better than round, smooth stones. The exact mix, and therefore the color, in road gravel varies from region to region. Commonly blends are medium to dark brown, shades of gray, light brown or yellow and rusty red to reddish pink.

Crushed stone driveways: Besides limestone, granite, gneiss, dolomite and trap rock are popular for driveways. The stone is screened and sorted for size; the angled rather than round edges cause the stones to support one another to create a stable base. The color of crushed stone for driveways varies widely, and they can be dusty like limestone.

Pea gravel driveways: Pea-sized stones in a blend of colors are popular for upscale gravel driveways. The stone is washed. While attractive, pea gravel driveways can form ruts easier than most, and the gravel is easily scattered into the surrounding landscape.

Water is the nemesis of gravel because it causes erosion. Gravel drains very well, but standing water alongside gravel softens and weakens forms of it containing clay and/or dust. Running water can wash out softer types of gravel.

A gravel driveway can be dressed up with edging. The most popular edging materials are pavers or blocks, though concrete is sometimes used as well. Driveway edging is also useful to hold crushed stone and pea stone in place rather than it spreading into the yard.

The driveway should be excavated wide enough to accommodate the edging material. Then, the base aggregates are poured and compacted the full width of the excavated bed. The edging is installed on top of the base before the top layer of gravel is installed and compacted.

It depends on the scope of the project. Factors that push costs toward the upper end of the spectrum are deeper excavation, excavating wooded property and higher trucking costs for jobs distant from the gravel source. Then, of course, there are potential extras such as drainage and edging. These are national average costs, and costs are per square foot unless indicated.

Would you like to compare the cost of a gravel driveway with the price of other driveway types? Take a look at these price guides: Driveway Paver Prices| Concrete Driveway Prices| Asphalt Driveway Prices

Gravel driveways require ongoing maintenance to keep them in good repair and looking like new. These maintenance tasks are often handled by the homeowner or a handyman rather than by a driveway contractor.

Our site caters to both homeowners and professional home improvement contractors, providing everyone the ability to review, research, and compare all types of projects around a home, apartment or condo.

dolomite quarry | a leading dolomite quarry supplier in malaysia

dolomite quarry | a leading dolomite quarry supplier in malaysia

A leading quarry supplier in Malaysia that supply dolomites which is widely used as raw material in many industries which includes glass manufacturing industry, insulation industry, GML and many more.

To be a leading corporation in the regional quarry industry by providing superior products and services to our valued customer while maintaining sustainable and valuable growth through quality work environment

In the earlier year when the Company was first established, the Company solely supply Dolomite. Subsequently, the Company has expanded its products line to also produce crushed run and aggregate to cater the increasing demand for such products from our valued customers. Currently, the Company is also in the midst of installing new plants and machineries to produce dolomite powder which is being used as in glass manufacturing and GML.

We focus on getting the details right to ensure our customers receive a seamless service. Whatever your requirements, contact us today to find out how we can provide the service and the products you need.

500t/h dolomite crushing plant | quarrying & aggregates

500t/h dolomite crushing plant | quarrying & aggregates

In July 2020, it obtained the mining right of the dolomite mine for building stone materials, with a recoverable reserve of 310.631 million tons and a production scale of 20 million tons per year. With the smooth delivery of finished aggregates of different specifications to storage, the 500-600 tons per hour dolomite aggregate crushing plant has recently entered the trial operation stage.

The sand and gravel aggregate processing system is designed with a processing capacity of 500 t/h, a production capacity of 450 t/h, and a monthly processing capacity of 175,000 tons. It can produce four different specifications of finished aggregates.

Material: DolomiteCapacity: 500-600t/hProduction process: dry methodFinished material specifications: 0-5-10-20-31.5 mmFinished material use: sold to the sand and gravel marketEquipment: C6X125 jaw crusher, CI5X impact crusher, F5X1360 vibrating feeder

the dolomite group

the dolomite group

Founded in 1920 by John H. Odenbach, Dolomite has grown dramatically through expansion & acquisition into one of the largest materials suppliers in Upstate, NY. The diversity of the Dolomite Group means one company will be with you from start to finish, making sure your job is done right, on time, and within the specifications you demand. There is no easy road to excellence. True excellence in any field evolves only from years of hard work, a dedication to quality, and an uncompromising commitment to be the best. The Dolomite group has built its business, and its reputation on three small but powerful ideas: Service, Quality, & Commitment.

CRH continuously strives to serve four key groups: employees, customers, shareholders, and communities. We take our role as a good neighbor very seriously, and our companies are actively involved in their local communities. Our companies work to safeguard the health, safety, and environmental well-being of their neighborhoods and to support the schools, charities, and nonprofit organizations around them.

bond work index - an overview | sciencedirect topics

bond work index - an overview | sciencedirect topics

The Bond work index is not solely a material constant but is influenced by the grinding conditions. For example, the finer the grind size desired, the higher is the kWh/t required to grind to that size. Magdalinovic [38] measured the Bond work index of three ore types using different test screen sizes. He produced a correlation between the mass of test screen undersize per revolution, G, and the square root of the test screen size, D:

The constant K2 is also dependent on ore type and ranged from 1.4 to 1.5. A regression of Magdalinovics data including the feed 80% passing size gives an average value of 1.485 for K2. If we extend this relationship to any sample of screened material then this gives an approximate estimate of the 80% passing size as 67.3% of the top size. This compares with a value of 66.7% of the 99% passing size obtained from data in Table3.3.

Using Magdalinovics method, from the results of a Bond work index test at a single test screen size, the constants K1 and K2 can be calculated and from these values, the work index at any test screen size can be estimated.

An alternative approach to determine the effect of closing screen size on the Bond ball mill work index (BWi), in the absence of extensive test work, is to use computer simulation. The batch grinding process has been modelled using the sizemass balance approach (Austin [37], Chapter11) and if we can do this, then we can effectively simulate the Bond ball mill work index test. Yan and Eaton [39] measured the selection function and breakage distribution parameters for the Austin grinding model and demonstrated the BWi simulation with soft and medium/hard ore samples. The measured BWi was 14.0 and 6.6kWh/t for the medium/hard and soft ore, respectively, at a closing screen size of 106 m compared with the simulated values of 13.2 and 5.6kWh/t.

The ability to simulate the Bond work index test also allows examination of truncated ball mill feed size distributions on the work index. For grinding circuits where the feed to a ballmill is sent directly to the classifier and the cyclone underflow feeds the ball mill (see Figure3.10), a question arises as to whether this practice will alter the ball mill work index (BWi) of the material being ground and hence have an impact on the energy used in the mill for grinding. Some might conclude that a higher percentage of coarse material in the mill feed will increase the amount of material that needs to be ground to produce the end product and hence it will affect the BWi. Others, in the absence of contrary evidence, assume that there is no change in the work index. Figure3.11 shows the typical circuit represented by the standard Bond work index correlation and Figure3.10 represents the scalped or truncated feed case.

The procedure for the work index test bases the BWi value on the calculation of new fines generated in the test. This means that the fraction of fines in the feed should not influence the test result significantly, if at all. For example, for a sample with 20% of 300 m material in the feed, if this is not scalped out of the fresh feed, then the mill charge, at 250% circulating load will contain 0.2/3.5 or 5.7% of 300 m in the mill charge compared with 0% for a scalped fresh feed, at a closing screen of 300 m. This should not have a great influence on the production of new fines unless the test was carried out in a wet environment and the fines contained a high percentage of clays to affect the viscosity of the grind environment. Thus for a Bond test (dry test), the difference between the scalped and unscalped BWi result is expected to be minor. In a plant operation where the environment is wet and clays are present, a different result may be observed.

Tests carried out to confirm this have clouded the water a little. Three rock types were tested with scalped and unscalped feeds with two samples showing higher BWi values for the scalped ore and the other sample showing a lower value [40].

In the work index test simulation, it is easy to change the closing screen size to examine the effect on the BWi. The results of such a simulation are shown in Figure3.12 where the simulated test was performed at different closing screen sizes and different scalping sizes. This shows that for scalping sizes at or below the closing screen size of the test, the BWi values are not affected. The scalping size of zero refers to the un-scalped mill feed. For scalped screen sizes above the closing screen size, the BWi values start to increase. The increase in BWi is more pronounced at the larger closing screen sizes. At a closing screen size of 300 m and a scalped size of 600 m, the increase in BWi is 4%.

Another outcome of the simulation is the effect of the closing screen size on the work index. As the closing size decreases, the ore must be ground finer, using more energy and producing a higher work index. Further simulations at even larger closing screen sizes show the BWi to increase. This dip in BWi with closing screen size has been observed experimentally, as shown in Figure3.13, with the minimum in BWi occurring at different closing screen sizes for different rock types [41,42].

Bond impact crushability work index (CWi) (Bond, 1963) results reported for iron ores vary from hard iron ore (17.7kWh/t) to medium hardness iron ore (11.3kWh/t) and friable iron ore (6.3kWh/t) (Table 2.11; Clout et al., 2007). The CWi for hard iron ores typically overlaps with those reported for BIF (taconite) iron ores while the range in values in Table 2.11 covers that for different types of iron ores and materials reported earlier by Bond (1963), with some relevant data in Table 2.12.

The most widely used parameter to measure ore hardness is the Bond work index Wi. Calculations involving Bonds work index are generally divided into steps with a different Wi determination for each size class. The low energy crushing work index laboratory test is conducted on ore specimens larger than 50mm, determining the crushing work index (WiC, CWi or IWi (impact work index)). The rod mill work index laboratory test is conducted by grinding an ore sample prepared to 80% passing 12.7mm ( inch, the original test being developed in imperial units) to a product size of approximately 1mm (in the original and still the standard, 14 mesh; see Chapter 4 for definition of mesh), thus determining the rod mill work index (WiR or RWi). The ball mill work index laboratory test is conducted by grinding an ore sample prepared to 100% passing 3.36mm (6 mesh) to product size in the range of 45-150m (325-100 mesh), thus determining the ball mill work index (WiB or BWi). The work index calculations across a narrow size range are conducted using the appropriate laboratory work index determination for the material size of interest, or by chaining individual work index calculations using multiple laboratory work index determinations across a wide range of particle size.

To give a sense of the magnitude, Table 5.1 lists Bond work indices for a selection of materials. For preliminary design purposes such reference data are of some guide but measured values are required at the more advanced design stage.

A major use of the Bond model is to select the size of tumbling mill for a given duty. (An example calculation is given in Chapter 7.) A variety of correction factors (EF) have been developed to adapt the Bond formula to situations not included in the original calibration set and to account for relative efficiency differences in certain comminution machines (Rowland, 1988). Most relevant are the EF4 factor for coarse feed and the EF5 factor for fine grinding that attempt to compensate for sizes ranges beyond the bulk of the original calibration data set (Bond, 1985).

The standard Bond tumbling mill tests are time-consuming, requiring locked-cycle testing. Smith and Lee (1968) used batch-type tests to arrive at the work index; however, the grindability of highly heterogeneous ores cannot be well reproduced by batch testing.

Berry and Bruce (1966) developed a comparative method of determining the hardness of an ore. The method requires the use of a reference ore of known work index. The reference ore is ground for a certain time (T) in a laboratory tumbling mill and an identical weight of the test ore is then ground for the same time. Since the power input to the mill is constant (P), the energy input (E=PT) is the same for both reference and test ore. If r is the reference ore and t the ore under test, then we can write from Bonds Eq. (5.4):

Work indices have been obtained from grindability tests on different sizes of several types of equipment, using identical feed materials (Lowrison, 1974). The values of work indices obtained are indications of the efficiencies of the machines. Thus, the equipment having the highest indices, and hence the largest energy consumers, are found to be jaw and gyratory crushers and tumbling mills; intermediate consumers are impact crushers and vibration mills, and roll crushers are the smallest consumers. The smallest consumers of energy are those machines that apply a steady, continuous, compressive stress on the material.

A class of comminution equipment that does not conform to the assumption that the particle size distributions of a feed and product stream are self-similar includes autogenous mills (AG), semi-autogenous (SAG) mills and high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR). Modeling these machines with energy-based methods requires either recalibrating equations (in the case of the Bond series) or developing entirely new tests that are not confused by the non-standard particle size distributions.

Variability samples must be tested for the relevant metallurgical parameters. Ball mill design requires a Bond work index, BWi, for ball mills at the correct passing size; SAG mill design requires an appropriate SAG test, for example, SPI (Chapter 5). Flotation design needs a valid measure of kinetics for each sample, including the maximum attainable recovery and rate constants for each mineral (Chapter 12). Take care to avoid unnecessary testing for inappropriate parameters, saving the available funds for more variability samples rather than more tests on few samples. Remember that it must be possible to use the measured values for the samples to estimate the metallurgical parameters for the mine blocks in order to describe the ore body, and these estimates will be used in process models to forecast results for the plant. Always include some basic mineralogical examination of each sample.

The expression for computing the power consumption (P) derived theoretically by Rose and English [9] involved the knowledge of Bonds work index (Wi). To evaluate the work index they considered the maximum size in the feed and also the maximum size of particles in the discharge from the crusher. To determine the size through which 80% of the feed passed, they considered a large database relating the maximum particle size and the undersize. From the relation it was concluded that F80 was approximately equal to 0.7 times the largest size of particle. Taking the largest size of the particle that should be charged to a jaw crusher as 0.9 times the gape, F80 was written as

Also, to establish the P80 from the largest product size, Rose and English considered that the largest particle size discharged from the bottom of the crusher would occur at the maximum open set position and hence

For operating a jaw crusher it is necessary to know the maximum power required consistently with the reduction ratio and the gape and closed side settings. The maximum power drawn in a system will occur at the critical speed. Thus for maximum power, Q in Equation (4.51) is replaced with QM from Equation (4.19) to give

The largest size of ore pieces mined measured 560mm (average) and the smallest sizes averaged 160mm. The density of the ore was 2.8t/m3. The ore had to be crushed in a C-63 type jaw crusher 630 440. At a reduction ratio of 4, 18% of the ore was below the maximum size required. Determine:1.the maximum operating capacity of the crusher,2.the optimum speed at which it should be operated.

Finally, a look should be taken at coal elasticity, hardness and strength. However, a particular matter of importance which arises from those consideration is the ease of coal grinding, an important step in whatever coal preparation efforts for further processing. The more fundamental material properties are covered reasonably by Berkowitz (1994), so the discussion here will be limited to coal grindability. For that purpose, use is made of two different indices, both determined experimentally with the material to be ground. One is the Hardgrove grindability index and the other the Bond work index.

The Hardgrove index is determined using the ASTM method D 40971. It involves grinding 50g of the material, e.g. coal, of specified size (1630 mesh cut) in a specified ball-and-race mill for 60 revolutions. The amount of 200 mesh material is measured (w grams) and the index is defined as I = 13+ 6.93w. Thus, the higher the index, the easier is the grinding task. This method loosely assumes that the specific energy consumed is proportional to the new surface generated, following the concept of Rittingers law of comminution.

Berkowitz (1994 p.96) gives a generalized variation of the Hardgrove index with coal rank. According to the variation, anthracites are hard to grind, bituminous coals the easiest, and the subbituminous more difficult, with lignites down to the same low index level as anthracites. It is suggested that the decrease in the index below daf coal of 85% is caused by plastic deformation and aggregation of the softer coal particles, hence reducing the 200 mesh fraction generated by the grinding test.

The Bond work index (Bond, 1960) is based on Bonds law, which states that the energy consumed is proportional to the 1.5 power of particle size rather than the square of Rittingers law. Accordingly, the energy consumed in reducing the particle size from xF to xp (both measured as 80% undersize) is given by

We should note that the higher the value of the work index, the more difficult it is to grind the material. A compilation of data is available, for example, in Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook (Perry et al., 1984). For coal, one average value is given, with Ei = 11.37 for = 1.63. Bonds law is useful because of the extensive comparative database.

Interestingly, Hukki (1961) offers a Solomonic settlement between the different grinding theories (rather than laws). A great deal of additional material related to grinding, or size reduction, comminution, is available in handbooks, e.g. by Prasher (1987) and research publications in journals such as Powder Technology. A very brief overview of grinding equipment is given in Section 1.5.3.

Rock fragmentation is a consequence of unstable extension of multiple cracks. Theoretically, rock fragmentation is also a facture mechanics problem. Two major differences between rock fracture and rock fragmentation are that (1) rock fragmentation deals with many cracks, but rock fracture deals with only one or a few, and (2) rock fragmentation concerns the size distribution of the fragments produced, but rock fracture does not. There are two important factors in rock fragmentation: (1) total energy consumed and (2) size distribution of fragments. In a study on crushing and grinding, fracture toughness has been taken as a key index similar to the Bond Work Index. Due to many cracks dealt with, rock fragmentation is a very complicated and difficult fracture problem. To achieve a good fragmentation, we need to know how the energy is distributed, which factors influence energy distribution, what is the size distribution, and so on. In practice such as mining and quarrying, it is of importance to predict and examine size distribution so as to make fragmentation optimized by modifying the blast plan or changing the fragmentation system. About size distribution, there are a number of distribution functions such as Weibulls distribution function [11], Cunninghams Kuz-Ram model [12], and the Swebrec function [13]. In engineering practice, how to develop a feasible and simple method to judge rock fragmentation in the field is still a challenging but significant job and will be in the future.

Although the fracture toughness of a rock is very important in rock fracture, the strengths of the rock are also useful in rock engineering. In the following we will see that the strengths and fracture toughness of a rock have a certain relation with each other, partly because of a similar mechanism in the micro-scale failure.

Bong's Work Index is used in Bong's law of comminution energy. It states that the total work useful in breakage is inversely proportional to the length of the formed crack tips and directly proportional to the square root of the formed surface:

where W is the specific energy expenditure in kilowatt-hours per ton and dp and df are the particle size in microns at which 80% of the corresponding product and feed passes through the sieve; CB is a constant depending on the characteristics of materials; and Sp and Sf are the specific surface areas of product and initial feed, respectively. Wi is called Bond's Work Index in kilowatt-hours per ton. It is given by the empirical equation:

where P1 is the sieve opening in microns for the grindability test, Gb.p. (g/rev) is the ball mill grindability, dp is the product particle size in microns (80% of product finer than size P1 passes) and df is the initial feed size in microns (80% of feed passes). A standard ball mill is 305mm in internal diameter and 305mm in internal length charged with 285 balls, as tabulated in Table 2.1. The lowest limit of the total mass of balls is 19.5Kg. The mill is rotated at 70 rev/min. The process is continued until the net mass of undersize produced by revolution becomes a constant Gb.p in the above equation.

To investigate the influence of the coal type on the stampability factor K, stamping tests with eight different coals (C1C8 in Table11.1) were carried out, using the Hardgrove grindability index (HGI) as a measure for the material dependency. The grindability is broadly defined as the response of a material to grinding effort. It can be interpreted as the resistance of the material against particularization. It is not an absolutely measurable physical property of the material. Generally, grindability can be determined either based on product constant fineness method (Bond work index Wi) or on constant useful grinding work method (HGI). The correlation between HGI and Wi can be described by the formula (11.5):

HGI is influenced by the petrographic composition of coal. HGI was developed to find a relationship between petrographic properties and strength of coal particles thus aiming to interpret the coking behavior of coals (Hardgrove 1932). HGI correlates to VM content, and the relationship is empirically specified for most of the hard coals and given with VM from 10% to 38% (db) by Eqs. (11.6) and (11.7):

For the execution of each test, further coal property parameters, particle size distribution and moisture content, as well as the height of fall of the stamp and the number of stamping steps were kept constant, so that the only parameter varied was the coal rank characterized by HGI.

The obtained data of each test was analyzed as described above to calculate the stampability factor K. A higher value for the HGI is equivalent to a lower resistance to stamping, i.e., a better stampability. The determined values of the stampability factor K are plotted against HGI in Fig.11.12.

minerals - stardew valley wiki

minerals - stardew valley wiki

Minerals are items that can be found in The Mines and the Skull Cavern. Most minerals are acquired from geodes after having Clint process them. Some are found on the ground and some can be mined from nodes, which are also found in the Quarry. They can also sometimes be acquired as Monster Drops, as gifts from Villagers, or from the Statue of Endless Fortune. Minerals (other than geode minerals) are also possible items found in Fishing Treasure Chests.

Minerals can be donated to the Museum for rewards and achievements. Minerals that you have not yet donated will have an item description of "Gunther can tell you more about this if you donate it to the museum." After one of that mineral has been donated, the item's description will appear. There are 53 different minerals which can be donated.

All Minerals, Gems, and Geodes can be used in the spool of the Sewing Machine located inside Emily and Haley's house to Tailor clothing, once the Sewing Machine is unlocked. All minerals, gems, and geodes can be used to dye existing clothing using the Sewing Machine, and some can be used to dye clothing using Dye Pots.

Foraged minerals are found on the ground in The Mines and the Skull Cavern. They can be picked up in the same way that other forageables can, and if the Gatherer profession is chosen at Foraging level 5 then the player has a chance of a double harvest. They are used in crafting recipes and in the Geologist's Bundle in the Boiler Room.

Geode minerals are extracted from geodes. They are mainly used as donations to the Museum, or sold for a small profit. They can be used to tailor or dye clothing. They are generally disliked as gifts. The Wizard likes all Geode Minerals.

Geodes must be processed either using a Geode Crusher or at the Blacksmith to obtain the minerals inside. The Geode Crusher requires 1 Coal for each Geode processed, and Clint charges 25g each. Certain minerals are only available from certain types of Geodes, but Omni Geodes can contain any mineral.

Note that minerals found in Fishing Treasure Chests may not appear as found on the collections tab. Dragging the mineral outside the inventory window and allowing it to be taken back into inventory may correct this. Holding the mineral in inventory overnight may also correct this.

Note also that minerals' descriptions appear on the collections tab as soon as they are found, even while the inventory description says "Gunther can tell you more about this if you donate it to the museum."

aggregate | the dolomite group

aggregate | the dolomite group

Dolomite is the leading supplier of crushed stone, sand and gravel, and recycle materials in the Greater Rochester Area and Southern Tier. Our products are used in a wide variety of construction applications as well as in the asphalt and concrete industries.

Since 1920, Dolomite has been an important and responsible member of the community. We're highly respected for our reclamation activities. Two former Dolomite quarries, Shadow Lake Golf Course and Allens Creek Valley Townhomes, are stunning examples of how depleted quarries can be turned into beautiful properties.

CRH continuously strives to serve four key groups: employees, customers, shareholders, and communities. We take our role as a good neighbor very seriously, and our companies are actively involved in their local communities. Our companies work to safeguard the health, safety, and environmental well-being of their neighborhoods and to support the schools, charities, and nonprofit organizations around them.

henan mining machinery and equipment manufacturer - average cost of aggregate dolomite per ton

henan mining machinery and equipment manufacturer - average cost of aggregate dolomite per ton

crushed limestone price per ton - YouTube ... sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate or dolomite. It is commonly ... C & E Aggregate Recycling ...aggregate cost per ton Crusher|Granite Crusher ... Brief and Straightforward Guide: What is the Average Cost of Gravel per Ton? Average Gravel Price.

Ore beneficiation equipment, sand making equipment, crushing equipment and powder grinding equipment, which are widely used in various industries such as metallurgy, mine, chemistry, building material, coal, refractory and ceramics.

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