dynamic modeling and analysis of a novel 6-dof robotic crusher based on movement characteristics

dynamic modeling and analysis of a novel 6-dof robotic crusher based on movement characteristics

Guoguang Li, Boqiang Shi, Ruiyue Liu, "Dynamic Modeling and Analysis of a Novel 6-DOF Robotic Crusher Based on Movement Characteristics", Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol. 2019, Article ID 2847029, 11 pages, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2847029

This paper proposes a novel 6-DOF robotic crusher that combines the performance characteristics of the cone crusher and parallel robot, such as interparticle breakage and high flexibility. Kinematics and dynamics are derived from the no-load and crushing parts in order to clearly describe the whole crushing process. For the no-load case, the kinematic and dynamic equations are established by using analytical geometry and Lagrange equation. Analytical geometry is mainly used to solve the inverse kinematics and then establish the velocity relationship between generalized coordinates and actuators. Lagrange equation which takes into account the weight of the mantle and actuators is used to solve driving forces of actuators. For the crushing case, crushing pressure is related to the compression ratio and particle size distribution, but the selection and breakage functions should be established first. Because the trajectory model of the mantle is difficult to be established by using analytical method, it can be obtained by an eccentric simulation. The results of input velocities and driving forces of actuators are distinctive due to the eccentric angle and selection of the initial position. Finally, the proposed approach is verified by a numerical example and then the energy consumption is calculated.

Crushers are commonly used in the mining, construction, and recycling industries to crush a variety of raw materials [1]. Many different types of crushers have been developed over the years, which play a vital role in reducing the particle size of granular solids [2]. As one of the typical crushers, cone crusher is an indispensable piece of equipment [3]. It is typically used in secondary and tertiary crushing stages in minerals processing plants [4, 5]. The mantle and concave are the two main crushing parts. The main shaft of the mantle is suspended on a spherical radial bearing at the top and in an eccentric at the bottom [6]. The crushing action of the mantle around the pivot point is an oscillating motion which can be described with a cyclic function of the eccentric angle. Previous research of scholars has made the performance experience a significant improvement, but cone crusher is inevitably accompanied by high power consumption and low flexibility due to its own structural characteristics. Meanwhile, the parallel robot has received a great concern from many researchers. Compared with serial robot, the parallel robot is a closed-loop mechanism presenting very good potential in terms of high stiffness, large payload, and high speed capability [710]. It has been widely used in many fields, such as medical equipment, entertainment, and factory automation [11]. The forward kinematic solution is more complicated than inverse kinematic solution because of the coupling among actuators. The mantle motion of cone crusher is usually set in advance and then the motors are adjusted, which is similar to the inverse kinematic solution. Contemporary crushers are developing towards intelligence. This paper proposes a novel 6-DOF robotic crusher which has their respective advantages through combining the performance characteristics of the cone crusher and parallel robot.

A novel 6-DOF robotic crusher has achieved both interparticle breakage of a cone crusher and high flexibility of a parallel robot. In order to systematically describe the performance characteristics of the whole crushing process, modeling and analysis would be performed from the no-load and crushing parts. Kinematics and dynamics are essential research issues in evaluating the performance. For the no-load case, the inverse kinematic solution which describes the velocity relationship between generalized coordinates and actuators is established. It plays a vital role in the design and component selection [12]. The dynamics of a 6-DOF robotic crusher are complicated by the existence of multiple closed-loop chains, which have several effects caused by inertia, centripetal, and gravity forces [13]. Dynamic modeling can be used for computer simulation without the need of a real system to test various specified tasks, and it plays an important part in system control [14, 15]. Dynamic equations accounting for the parallel configuration of a 6-DOF robotic crusher can be derived in the task-space through the modeling approach of Lagrange equation which provides a well analytical and orderly structure. For the crushing case, the crushing process can be described by a number of crushing zones. The output from the previous crushing zone is the input for the next crushing zone. Crushing pressure is generated on the surfaces of the mantle and concave, and it is related to the compression ratio and particle size distribution.

The trajectory model of the mantle is an essential element for establishing the kinematic and dynamic equations. But it is very difficult to be established by using analytical method. Taking into account the motion characteristics of cone crusher, a small-scale cone crusher is created and the model is obtained by an eccentric simulation. Then, the mathematical calculation tools, MATLAB and Maple, can be employed to solve the input velocities and driving forces of the actuators.

3D geometric model of a novel 6-DOF robotic crusher is shown in Figure 1, which consists of a fixed unit (CFU) and a drive unit (CDU). The CDU has six actuators. Each actuator is made up of a cylinder and a piston which are connected together by a prismatic joint. The upper and lower ends of each actuator are both spherical joint. A coordinate frame O(X,Y,Z) is attached to the fixed base and the other coordinate frame O1(X1,Y1,Z1) is attached to the mantle.

Particles are squeezed and crushed between the mantle and concave. The transition of the closed side setting (CSS) and open side setting (OSS) is achieved by the extension and contraction of six actuators. The motion of the mantle can be described by a cyclic function of the eccentric angle which represents the angle between the eccentric axis and vertical axis. The final crushed material is excluded from the OSS due to gravity.

A generalized coordinate vector which describes the position and orientation of a 6-DOF robotic crusher is defined as . In Figure 2, the matrix denotes the translation vector of the mantle frame O1,X1,Y1,Z1 with respect to the reference frame . defines an Euler angles system representing orientation of the mantle frame O1,X1,Y1,Z1 in regard to the reference frame O,X,Y,Z [16].

Inverse kinematic is to solve the lengths and velocities of six actuators through the trajectory model of the mantle. The rotation matrix of frame O1,X1,Y1,Z1 relative to the reference frame O,X,Y,Z is given by [14]where

From the geometric model of the 6-DOF robotic crusher, vector can be expressed as [1618]where (i=1,2,,6) denotes the length vector of each actuator, which is Bi to Ai in O-XYZ. (i=1,2,,6) represents the coordinates of Ai(i=1,2,,6) in O1-X1Y1Z1. (i=1,2,,6) denotes the coordinates of Bi(i=1,2,,6) in O-XYZ.

According the principle of virtual work, the generalized force which is projected along the variation of the generalized coordinates can be derived as follows [14, 20]:where F denotes the matrix of six driving forces. Equation (13) has been employed, and then (16) can be rewritten as

The kinetic energy of the mantle includes its translational kinetic energy and rotational kinetic energy with respect to its center of mass, which can be written aswhere Mu denotes the mass of the mantle, is the angular velocity vector of the mantle with respect to the mantle frame, and is the rotational inertia matrix in regard to mass center of the mantle.

In Figure 3, li denotes the length of the ith actuator; gi represents the length between the lower spherical joint and the center of mass. S1 is the length between the lower spherical joint and the center of mass of a cylinder. S2 is the length between the upper spherical joint and the center of mass of a piston [19]. Then, the length gi can be denoted aswhere

As shown in Figure 4, the crushing process can be described by a number of different crushing zones. The feed material is crushed by the interparticle breakage and flows through each crushing zone in the crushing chamber. The material is transformed to the product by a repeated crushing process and crushed once in each crushing zone between the mantle and concave.

In Figure 5, crushing pressure p is generated on the surfaces of the mantle and concave [21]. It is related to the compression ratio and particle size distribution . Compression ratio represents the proportional relationship between compression length and height of crushing zone. Particle size distribution describes the uniformity of the particle size distribution. The compressive ratio is the largest value when the material moves to the closed side. Meantime, the corresponding pressure p is also the largest value of the same horizontal cross section. Crushing pressure p can be represented as

A process model of consecutive crushing events is presented, as shown in Figure 6. The selection function Si describes particles of all sizes which enter a crushing process have some probability of being broken, and the probability is constantly changing as the particle size changes. A certain proportion of particles in each size range are selected for breakage and the remainder passes through the process unbroken during the crushing events. The breakage function Bi reflects the particle size distribution of each size range after particles are broken into smaller fragments.

The process model uses the output from the previous crushing event as input for the next crushing event. Each crushing zone corresponds to a crushing event, and the size-reduction process can be described aswhere P represents the product size distribution and F is the feed size distribution. The total number of crushing events is denoted as n.

Selection and breakage functions can be established by the compression ratio and particle size distribution through the analysis of the experimental results. Thus, S and B can be established aswherewhere ai are fitted constants. xmin represents the minimum particle size of different crushing zones, and xmax denotes the maximum particle size. xi is the particle size distribution of each size range.

In this section, a trajectory model of the mantle is established by an eccentric simulation. The main purpose is to solve the input velocities and driving forces of a 6-DOF robotic crusher. At the same time, it demonstrates the suggested approach can solve the dynamic problem effectively. Furthermore, the power of six actuators and energy consumption are calculated.

The parameters of a 6-DOF robotic crusher are presented in Table 1. The trajectory model of the mantle is an essential element for establishing the kinematic and dynamic equations for the 6-DOF robotic crusher. But it is very difficult to be established by using analytical method.

A small-scale cone crusher is created in a virtual environment by using ADAMS in order to obtain the trajectory model of the mantle, which can be shown in Figure 7. The oscillating motion of the mantle is accomplished by the eccentric simulation. Position and orientation of point O1 relative to the fixed point can be extracted and shown in Table 2.

The movement simulation based on ADAMS is carried out to establish the trajectory model of the mantle for the 6-DOF robotic crusher. Then, the model of the mantle frame O1,X1,Y1,Z1 relative to the reference frame O,X,Y,Z can be described aswhere =1.483rad/s.

The proposed approach is used to solve the kinematic and dynamic equations. Input velocities and driving forces of six actuators have the same time period, as shown in Figures 9 and 10. Input velocities of actuators 4 and 5 are greater than others. Negative value indicates that the actuator is contracting. The values of driving forces are in the interval , and the maximum value is found on actuators 3 and 6. They can be used as a basis for the design and component selection. The difference of the peak value is related to the eccentric angle and selection of the initial position.

Settings of connectors and motions of 3D model in ADAMS are shown in Figure 8 [22]. In order to validate the proposed approach, driving forces of six actuators are simulated by using ADAMS, which are represented in Figure 11. Figures 10 and 11 are obtained by executing the simulation for 20s. It can be observed that the calculated and simulated outputs have good agreements, which indicates the suggested approach of dynamic modeling is suitably selected.

Power of six actuators can be described with a cyclic function of the time, as shown in Figure 12. Power is only related to the payload consumption when six actuators are all expanding, and it has nothing to do with the structure. The energy consumption of the 6-DOF robotic crusher can be mainly divided into two parts: energy consumption during breakage E1 and no-load mechanical energy E0. E1 is obtained by integrating the pressure p over the stroke s and multiplying the cross-sectional surface area A perpendicular to the compressed volume. Similarly, E0 can be calculated by integrating the power of six actuators over the time. Therefore, the energy consumption E of the 6-DOF robotic crusher can be expressed aswhere T represents the crushing period of particles.

A novel 6-DOF robotic crusher was proposed which could achieve both interparticle breakage of a cone crusher and high flexibility of a parallel robot. The kinematic and dynamic models were derived from the no-load and crushing parts in order to systematically describe the performance characteristics. For the no-load case, the kinematic model was established by analytical geometry and Jacobian matrix was conducted. The dynamic model which takes into account the weight of the mantle and actuators was derived based on the Lagrange equation. For the crushing case, the crushing process could be described by a number of different crushing zones. The crushing pressure was related to the compression ratio and particle size distribution, and the closed side was the largest location of the same horizontal cross section. In order to establish the trajectory model of the mantle, a small-scale cone crusher was created and the model was obtained by an eccentric simulation. The result showed that the position and orientation functions changed periodically. Then the mathematical calculation tools, MATLAB and Maple, were employed to solve the input velocities and driving forces of actuators. The suggested approach had been verified by using ADAMS. Input velocity and driving force of each actuator were different due to the eccentric angle and selection of the initial position. Finally, the power of six actuators and energy consumption were given.

Copyright 2019 Guoguang Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

can crusher - crush even large 16oz cans

can crusher - crush even large 16oz cans

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a fundamental model of an industrial-scale jaw crusher - sciencedirect

a fundamental model of an industrial-scale jaw crusher - sciencedirect

In this study, an analytical perspective is used to develop a fundamental model of a jaw crusher. Previously, jaw crushers were modelled in regard to certain aspects, for example, energy consumption (Legendre and Zevenhoven, 2014) or kinematics (Oduori et al., 2015). Approaches to date have been mainly property specific. In this work a physical modelling approach has been used to derive the modules, which are based on established facts of comminution machines, from the literature. A modelling methodology mainly inspired by Evertsson has been applied (Evertsson, 2000). The modules are divided into kinematics, flow, breakage, capacity, pressure and power. Each module has been derived and tested decoupled from the other modules to provide increased transparency of the module and its behaviour. The results of the modelling are presented for a baseline case of one industrial-scale jaw crusher and compared to manufacturer data. Future work will include validation and DEM simulations.

new crusher models enhance process design flexibility | e & mj

new crusher models enhance process design flexibility | e & mj

Modern mine-duty crushers generally do their jobs amazingly well. In fact, its possible that their broad versatility and effectiveness can sometimes mask deficiencies in upstream or downstream processes such as drilling and blasting during the mining sequence, or pebble handling from SAG mill grinding, respectively.

This isnt the fault of the crusher itself or the companies that build these highly efficient machines. Crushers, when properly sized for the application and well maintained, can handle mostif not allof the material dumped into them with very little outside assistance. Its up to mine management and technical staff to decide what goes in them and what comes out in order to achieve optimal process performance.

Several speakers at a recent mining conference touched upon the real possibility that when it comes to optimizing mine-to-mill product flow, a simple shift in focus may produce significant improvements in overall cost control and asset utilizationand as an added benefit, crusher availability and efficiency might be improved even more.

For example, one speaker offered the example of a mine manager focused solely on getting tons to the crusher. Optimal fragmentation size from drilling and blasting isnt a primary consideration, as in: We have this gigantic gyratory crusher. It can handle pretty much anything. Why worry about fragmentation? Theactual issues related to poor fragmentation, the expert noted, arent primarily associated with the crusher; they take the form of loading and haulage inefficiency, high secondary blasting costs and accelerated equipment wear and failure, to name a few.

Looking further downstream, another speaker suggested that a mill might expend a lot of energy and money on crushing and rehandling those troublesome, grind-resistant pebbles that come out of the SAG milland which may not contain enough metal to make their treatment a significant contributor to overall recovery rates.

And yet another pointed to site-specific quirks of mineralogy that can lead to unnecessary crushing and rehandling. At one mine, a study found that fines accounted for a surprisingly large portion of available metal content, with larger fragments being much lower in value. By taking advantage of the natural segregation of material in the ore stockpilewith fines remaining at the top while larger fragments worked their way to the bottomthe mine could harvest the top 20% of the pile and maintain recovery rates, while the larger fragments could be crushed and handled on a more selective and cost-effective basis.

The economic forces currently in play across the hard rock mining sector put additional pressure on operators to get the most out of their equipment in terms of performance, cost of ownership and safety. Are crusher manufacturers meeting the challenge? Heres a brief rundown on recent product announcements from the industrys leading suppliers.

At the bauma 2016 trade fair held earlier this year in Munich, Germany, thyssenkrupps Industrial Solutions group introduced the industrys largest gyratory crusher. The KB 63-130 features a design, which, despite a roughly 14% larger mantle diameter of 130 in. (3.3 m), weighs less than its predecessor, the KB 63-114, at 490 tons. Its rated throughput of up to 14,000 metric tons per hour (mt/h) is more than 30% higher than that of the preceding model, said the company. It also noted that the new unit achieved this level of compactness and performance because thyssenkrupps crushing technology specialists moved beyond customary design principles during its development.

The increase in throughput and significant weight reduction was made possible by combining proven Finite Element Method (FEM) with advanced Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations. In the past, the rule of thumb was the bigger the diameter, the taller the crusher, said Detlef Papajewski, head of mineral processing at thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions. But, because users generally only need a bigger diameter to increase output, the KB 63-130 is exactly the same height as the other crushers in the 63-in. series despite the larger mantle diameter.

Technical highlights of the new crusher include a rotatable countershaft assembly for setting tooth clearance, and an eccentric bearing assembly with top bevel gear. Along with enabling better balancing of the machine, the new bearing system permits a much more compact design as well as maintenance-friendly assembly and disassembly.

The KB 63-130s housing exhibits the fish belly design seen on other large thyssenkrupp gyratory crushers, intended to reduce stress and increase the overall strength of the housing. However, when used in a semimobile crushing plant (SMCP), for example, crusher weight can be reduced by around 200 mt prior to relocation by removing certain parts. These parts, such as the heavy main shaft fitted with crushing tools, can also be easily removed for maintenance purposes.

Introduction of the gyratory follows the companys revision and standardization of its Kubria line of cone crushers. On display at bauma was the Kubria F/M 90, whose nomenclature stems from the size of the machines lower cone diameter of 90 cm. The F/M indicates that crushers of this type are used for fine and medium crushing; i.e., mainly as secondary and tertiary crushers. Depending on requirements, the F/M 90 can be equipped with a feed opening of 180 mm and can achieve throughputs of up to 200 mt/h.

Thyssenkrupp refined and optimized the Kubria line to increase the crushers throughput rates, while at the same time standardizing certain modulesa change that will provide customers with both lower prices and shorter delivery times for the Kubria models, according to the company.

On the updated models, the cone is mounted in an eccentric bearing and driven by a spiral bevel gear with Cyclo-Palloid toothing, which permits the transmission of high crushing forces while ensuring smooth operation. The hydraulic cylinder beneath the machine serves both to adjust the crusher gap and to protect against overloading of the crusher.

Telsmith describes its T900 cone crusher as a true mine-duty machine. Offering output rates ranging from 550 mt/h to 2,100 mt/h with up to 15-in. (38-cm) feed size, the company said the T900 offers the largest in-class clearing stroke, the highest in-class crushing force, and features 900-hp performance.

Among the crushers reliability and ease-of-maintenance features, Telsmith noted that the T900 is designed with eight cylinders (versus 12 cylinders in conventional units) for reduced maintenance time and costs. The crusher also offers an improved anti-spin feature that prevents head spin, thus extending manganese life. According to Telsmith, the T900 also has the largest-in-class hybrid bearings, which, unlike roller bearings, offer both a static and dynamic lift to efficiently carry the crushing forces. Hybrid bearings feature a washer and ramp design that replaces the conventional use of a socket, socket liner and head ballall of which typically require time-consuming removal when servicing the machine.

The T900 is equipped with a release system that eliminates the need for maintenance-intensive hydraulic accumulators. Further operational cost savings stem from features such as a concave (bowl liner) retention system, which consists of a specially designed and positioned lip ring that centers the bowl and achieves retention without the use of hammers and other hand tools. The T900 also can reduce inventory costs because it enables the use of a single bowl for all liners over its range of operation, providing versatility in any hard rock mining application.

Metso recently launched a new generation of upgrades aimed at improvingthe productivity of older crusher models while reducing maintenance costs and bringing equipment in line with enhanced safety practices. They come in kits with installation instructions; alternatively, Metso can provide the customer with a field service team for support or for the complete upgrade installation.

Metso understands the tough nature of the current mining market for our customers, so we made it our goal to design a new generation of crusher upgrades that would enable them to generate more ROI without the need for expensive capital investments, said Jaakko Huhtapelto, sales development director for Metsos spare parts business.

Metso said installing the upgradescan improve productivity through increased product rate capability, easiersetting adjustments, better crusher reliability and reduced bridging from over-sized materials. Maintenance can be reduced through the improved lifetime ofcomponents, more reliable crushing andeasier maintenance procedures. Safety can be enhanced through better maintenance practices, reduced stoppages from bridging, and the usage of automatic or remote settings.

Also available from Metso are new maintenance platforms that enhance worker safety when changing wear parts in jaw crushers. The maintenance platforms, for all C Series jaw crushers, include hand rails, a sturdy work platform and a control mechanism that enables precise placement at the desired height of the jaw opening. The aluminum platforms are light enough for one person to move; depending on model size, they weigh between 12 kg and 23 kg.

With a small investment, Metsos new maintenance platform offers a huge improvement in safety when making jaw changes. When the platform is installed correctly into the opening, it holds the jaw in place so that it cannot drop, even if the jaws upper mounting hardware is loosened or even removed. The platform is lightweight and it is easy to handle and adjust to fit the desired level in the crusher cavity, said Ilkka Somero, product manager of Metsos jaw crusher line.

Sandviks latest crusher models include the CH860 cone, designed for high-capacity secondary crushing, and the CH865 cone for high-reduction tertiary and pebble applications; both feature higher crushing forces relative to mantle diameter and a 500-kW motor. According to the company, both new crushers combine a range of advanced automation features for a more secure and productive process.

We scaled down our larger Sandvik CH890 and Sandvik CH895 mining cone crushers to create two mid-range models, said Andreas Christoffersson, product line manager for cone crushers at Sandvik Mining. Depending on the application, the CH860 and Sandvik CH865 outperform competing equipment in the midrange segment by as much as 30% and deliver a twofold increase in performance range.

FLSmidth offers a comprehensive line of cone crushers, starting at the smaller end of the capacity spectrum with the Raptor 200, which features a low-profile design suitable for mounting on a portable chassis, inverted tramp release cylinders that keep hydraulics cleaner than conventional designs, and a single accumulator for less maintenance. At the other end of the Raptor line is the Raptor 2000, a candidate for worlds largest and configured with model-specific features such as spiral bevel gearing, double-acting tramp release and clearing cylinder, easy access to critical load-carrying bearings, design elements that include substantial eccentric throw and high pivot point crushing action, and 2,500-hp direct drive with a variable speed option.

In the gyratory crusher market, FLSmidth continues to offer its line of TS gyratories, built around the principle that major crusher service and maintenance functions should be made as safe and convenient as possible. Accordingly, in the TS line the eccentric assembly, bushings and hydraulic piston are easily accessible and removed through the top of the crusher.

The TS line has two variations available, depending on the application and customer requirements. Heavy Duty TS units are suitable for most mining applications, while Ultra Duty TSU units are designed for extreme applications where additional motor power and heavier sections are necessary.

TAKRAF now offers standardized primary and secondary sizers for various crushing applications. The primary sizer product range covers inlet sizes from 2.5 m to 4 m with throughputs of up to 10,000 mt/h, while the secondary sizer range offers inlet sizes from 2 m to 4 m with throughput rates up to 3,500 mt/h.

TAKRAF said it paid close attention to ease of maintenance, reduced downtime and extended service life during the lines initial development. Some of the innovations resulting from this focus are provisions for convenient changeout of crushing segments, and the use of advanced wear-resistant items such as hard-faced segments and tungsten picks. Other features include an inching drive for roll maintenance, a heavy-duty drivetrain and an efficient oil lubrication system.

Meanwhile, thyssenkrupp announced that its complete RollSizer seriescapable of crushing medium-hard rock as well as sticky and soft materialhas been standardized and new models added. As a result, according to the company, the entire range of crushing applications can now be handled by RollSizers.

The company highlighted its RollSizer DRS 660X3000 S at the bauma show. With a roll length of 3 m and shaft center distance of 660 mm, the RollSizer DRS 660X3000 S is the second largest member of the family of secondary and tertiary RollSizers. The DRS 660X3000 S features a direct drive system consisting of two spur gears with fluid couplings. The couplings allow startup even under the load of a full crushing chamber, and also provide overload protection; when thesizer encounters an uncrushable object, the fluid slip provided by the couplings protects the machine against damage. Drive torque is provided by two 250-kW electric motors.

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best apple watch (2021): which models to buy, or avoid | wired

best apple watch (2021): which models to buy, or avoid | wired

We Gadget Labbies all agree: If you have an iPhone, the Apple Watch is the best wearable to go with it. This year, Apple released two versions, the Series 6 and the SE. It's also continuing to sell the old Series 3. All these watches look the same, more or less. So which one should you get?

Special offer for Gear readers: Get a 1-year subscription to WIRED for $5 ($25 off). This includes unlimited access to WIRED.com and our print magazine (if you'd like). Subscriptions help fund the work we do every day.

For three years, we've recommended the Watch Series 3 as a very well-priced option if you want a basic fitness tracker that will work well with an iPhone. Apple listened, and continues to sell it. It also regularly goes on sale for much less than the list price of an already affordable $199.

It's older. If you've tried the newer watches, you'll notice that this one is slightly chonkier and doesn't have some of the flashy new features like electrocardiograms or fall detection. (We've also heard stories of random, annoying reboots and other delays). But it melds seamlessly with your phone and delivers notifications; it's waterproof and has Apple's addictive fitness rings feature. On sale, it's one of the best basic fitness trackers around.

The SE is the James Marsden character in The Notebook: a handsome placeholder lurking in the background, hoping that Ryan Gosling was killed in the war. It looks exactly like a Series 5 or a Series 6. I have all three lined up here, and I'm mildly worried about mixing them up. Apple has removed a few popular features, like the always-on display and ECG readings.

It's definitely a better watch than the Series 3, with features like the upgraded Retina display, a newer processor, a fall detector, more memory, and a louder speaker. I really miss the always-on display, though, and removing important health features makes this watch a less useful pick for older relatives with Family Setup. If you can find the older Series 5 for a similar price, go for it. If you can't, the SE is a still a handsome choice.

This year, the newest feature on the Series 6 is blood oxygen measuring. This isnt necessarily a "new" featureyouve been able to take optical wrist-based SpO2 measurements on fitness trackers like Garmins for yearsbut its one step closer to making the Series 6 a more comprehensive and capable fitness tracker, whether you want to detect sleep apnea, keep track of early-warning Covid19 signs, or start altitude training for your sport.

If you own a Series 5, one single measurement might not be worth the upgrade. But if this is your first Apple Watch, I like being able to take my SpO2 measurements. The watch monitors your SpO2 continuously while you sleep, and you can also take measurements during the day. Youll also need its slightly faster charging times if you use your watch to track your sleep, because battery life still sucks for that.

This is a hard recommendation to make, because Apple isn't selling the Watch Series 5 anymore. But if you can find a refurbished version at a price similar to the SE's, you should get it. The SE is just a Series 5 with a few of the best features yanked, like the sapphire crystal display, the electrical heart sensor to take ECGs, and the much-loved always-on display.

It's also worth noting here: If you see a Watch Series 4 on sale, you should grab it, instead of the SE, for an older relative. Right now the Series 4 is the earliest watch that will work with Apple's new Family Setup, and it still has fall detection and both the electrical and optical heart sensors. Family Setup will not work with the Watch Series 3, which Apple is still selling.

It's been years since we've seen retailers carry the Series 1 or Series 2. But should you see them on resale sites, they are probably not worth the price. Family Setup works only on Series 4s and above, so you can't pick these up as cheaper options for your very old or very young family members.

One of the most vaunted new features was the Solo Loop, a fastener-less silicone band that allows you to slip the watch on and off. It comes in nine sizes, and if you're not near an Apple store, you can size yourself using Apple's printable tool. My correct size is a 4, which Apple sent. I found it just a little too tight to be comfortable; I prefer the woven nylon sport loop instead.

I've never had an Apple Watch case or screen crack on me, but I have heard reports of this happening. We like Spigen's unobtrusive, affordable cases. You can also add a screen protector for good measure.

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sbm introduces new jaw and impact crusher models in 40-ton class

sbm introduces new jaw and impact crusher models in 40-ton class

The JAWMAX 400/450 are a new design, according to SBM, with options to run as diesel-electric or fully electric, with an optional mains connection. They are powered by a 6.7-litre Cummins diesel and a 200 kVa onboard generator that runs all electrical drives as well as electrically operated hydraulics for lifting cylinders and tracks.

A 110-kW electric motor is tasked to drive the new STE 110-70 jaw crusher, which has been specifically designed for mobile applications. An inlet opening of 1100 x 700 mm, nominal feed material size of up to 700 mm a max lump size of 1000 x 600 x 600 mm and a design for rock strengths up to 400 MPa allow this machine to work in a wide range of applications, from processing of large concrete pieces up to hard natural stone varieties. The machine offers a large stroke of 34 mm and a fully automated monitored gap adjustment of 40 to 160 mm that can be adjusted under load Optional overload protection also helps ensure continuous high production.

The JAWMAX and REMAX 450 - which is based on the REMAX 400 platform introduced in 2018 - both feature a high-performance pre-screening unit that effectively separates contaminated or valuable material, which helps in reducing crusher wear while improving results in terms of quality and output. This new double-deck pre-screen is designed as a circular vibratory screen and is directly connected to the vibrating chute in the feed hopper. The two fractions can be discharged in full or in part as fines, or added to end product as crusher bypass.

SBM says the use of this pre-screen can increase hourly capacity by about 50 tph. At the same time, the JAWMAX 450 using the pre-screen has shown significant improvements in fuel economy, and using the machine plugged into mains power chops energy costs even further.

The JAWMAX is designed for ease of transport, with a transport weight of 39.2 tonnes and slim dimensions. It can be loaded and unloaded easily, and hydraulics position things like the hopper walls, overband magnet and discharge conveyors, allowing the plant to be operational in just over five minutes Operators are supported by the standard multi-functional remote control and setup routines of the intelligent SBM Crush Control system, which also monitors and controls the fully automatic crushing operation along preset parameters. A web-based app allows remote access to important operating and production data.

small jaw crusher for sale - low cost of mini jaw crusher

small jaw crusher for sale - low cost of mini jaw crusher

Small jaw crusher for sale is mainly used for the medium-size crushing of various ores and bulk materials. It can crush materials with a compressive strength of not more than 320Mpa, and there are two types crushing methods: coarse crushing and fine crushing. This series of small jaw crushers has complete specifications for your reference, and its feed size is 125mm~750mm, which makes it the first choice for primary crushing.

If you need to process small pebbles and stones, you need to be equipped with a fine crusher. The processed finished products have characteristics of uniform particle size, high content of three-dimensional finished products, and high sales of finished products, which can meet the high-standard material requirements in the construction field.

If you are a beginner and do not know about mini jaw crusher, tell us your raw material characteristics, finished product requirements, site conditions, production budget, hourly production, and other requirements, we have professional engineers to equip you with a suitable model at a reasonable price. Next, lets see the types of jaw crushers we can supply.

1. The jaw crusher mini adopts a V-shaped crushing cavity design, the optimized configuration of the crushing cavity structure and moving jaw motion trajectory parameters, and a large stroke maximizes the feed size, output, and crushing ratio.

3. The elastic limit block and rubber damping device are used to replace the original rigid foot connection, which can effectively absorb the shock peak load, thereby reducing the mutual impact between the crusher and the foundation and increasing the service life of the equipment.

When the mini jaw crusher machine is working, the motor drives the eccentric shaft to rotate through the belt pulley, so that the movable jaw periodically approaches and leaves the fixed jaw, thereby squeezing, rubbing, and crushing the material, making the material from large to small, gradually decreasing, Until it is discharged from the discharge port.

Compared with the traditional PE series, the 6CX series mini jaw crusher for sale has fundamentally changed the crushing cavity, material, bearing standards, and manufacturing process. Its structure is stronger, the reliability is higher, the output is increased by more than 30%, and the unit operating cost is reduced by 20 %. This series of small jaw crushers can be widely used in all kinds of hardest and highly abrasive rocks. They are ideal products for mine crushing operations and stone processing and production.

Pre-sales service: According to your requirements, tailor-made solutions, project managers one-to-one service, factory and workshop-visiting, spot supply, free test equipment with materials, and inspection site nearby.On-sale service: delivery on time, guide the installation, and guide the test equipment on-site, until the normal production and operation.

After-sales service: Provide customers with remote assistance services at any time. If it cannot be solved, a professional engineer can be assigned to the site to solve after-sales problems. It will arrive at the scene within one day in China and within one week in foreign countries. The small size jaw crusher is guaranteed for one year and repair for life.

As for the price, we cant show you the accurate price, because we are dealing with customers from all over the world, and there are many factors that affect the price. If you want to know the small jaw crusher price, you can leave us a message on this page, we have a professional salesman and engineer to give you an explanation.

As a professional small jaw crusher manufacturer in Henan, AIMIX strictly controls every small jaw crusher machine for sale, with more reliable quality, old brand, and fairer prices. Come to the factory for discounts and other services, and AIMIX will fully understand the needs of users to ensure that we can provide you bring higher returns. What are you waiting for? Contact us now!

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