technical parameter - an overview | sciencedirect topics

technical parameter - an overview | sciencedirect topics

The technical parameters (specific energy, number of cycles, energy efficiency) of the different technologies are shown in Table 14.9. These data have been obtained through contacts with the battery industry and through literature research. The technical performances play an important role in the environmental impact of the batteries as these parameters determine the required quantities of batteries for each technology as well as the frequency in which the batteries are replaced during the vehicles lifetime.

The environmental impact of the maintenance has been assumed to be negligible. The depth of discharge (DOD) of the battery is assumed to reach 80% for each cycle. The self-discharge of the batteries is neglected for all the technologies.

The NaNiCl battery is the only high-temperature battery amongst the assessed technologies. As a consequence, extra energy (typical power 85W) is needed to keep the battery at an appropriate temperature. The additional energy consumption needed for heating the battery has been estimated to be 7.2% of the capacity. This assumption is based on a daily use of the vehicle, except on weekends.

The key technical parameters of this fabric are detailed in the technical specification table (Table6.1). Due to restrictions on the technical conditions in fabric making, the parameters based on production devices for black-and-white simulative fabric cannot be modified during the design process. According to the key technical parameters shown in Table6.1, the final fabric was designed by using 12-thread gamut weaves with lower fabric density. Polyester threads were employed in both warp and weft direction to facilitate ease of production. In addition, since the design of jacquard fabric with a portrait image always has the highest technical requirements for simulative effect, a portrait image was selected for the design creation of black-and-white simulative fabric.

The major technical parameters of full-colour figured double-face fabric are shown in Table7.4. Both the warp and weft threads were polyester. The fabric was constructed by 12-thread gamut weaves with a lower thread density in the warp direction and a higher thread density weft-wise. As a two-layer structure is necessary for double-face fabric, four weft threads were used for the fabric construction. Their colours were dark, dark, light and light, arranged in the proportion of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1.

According to technical parameter, structural form, overall dimension, components of the dampers, there are several corresponding measures for the care of finished and semifinished products before, during, and after construction. Care of work principles can be classified as:

Precontrol. The arrival plan of material and equipment should be in accordance with the construction plan. The subcontractors (including the assigned subcontractors) should provide in advance the material arrival plan. This should take into account the actual schedule and the available space. The material and equipment arrival time shall be coordinated to prevent a too long time piling.

Site material and equipment protection. After the materials, semifinished products, and equipment arrive to the site, they should be correctly and carefully stored. Moreover, subcontractors should be in charge of the specific care of works.

Crossover working care. When the subcontractors are carrying out construction, they must report to the project management in the written form about when they need to touch other professions finished products. In this case, the project management should assign workers to assist the subcontractors construction. After construction, other workers shall restore the finished products. If any subcontractor starts construction without authorization and causes damage of other products, the subcontractor should be responsible for the compensation.

The main technical parameters of high-intensity mining are mining method, panel length, and width, face advance velocity, mining height, and annual output. The large mining height fully mechanized coal mining and fully mechanized caving mining method are most widely used in China.

Panel sizes: The panel width of high-intensity mining is mostly larger than 200m, with a majority ranging from 200 to 300m, and the maximum more than 400m. The face advance mostly ranges from 1000 to 5000m/yr, with the maximum more than 6000m.

Face advance velocity: Statistics show that the face advance velocity of high-intensity mining ranges from 5.0 to 15.57m/d. Generally, the face advance velocity of fully mechanized caving mining is smaller than that of large mining height fully-mechanized coal mining.

Coal seam thickness: The coal seam thickness of high-intensity mining is greater than 3.5m, and the maximum is 8.0m when large mining height fully-mechanized coal mining is used. At present, the super-high shield (mining height is 8.8m) had been developed successfully by Zhengzhou Coal Mining Machinery Group Co., Ltd. In China, Tashan coal mine had done the industrial test successfully, with the average coal seam thickness 18.44m by the fully mechanized top coal caving mining method (Ming and Baiyun, 2009). In 2014, the large mining height and top coal caving of 1420m extra-thick coal seam mining had been successfully implemented.

The main technical parameter determining the economic success of a wind turbine system is its annual energy output, which in turn is determined by parameters such as average wind speed, statistical wind speed distribution, distribution of occurring wind directions, turbulence intensities, and roughness of the surrounding terrain. Of these, the most important and sensitive parameter is the wind speed (where the power in the wind is proportional to the third power of the momentary wind speed), which increases with height above the ground. As a result, vertical-axis wind turbines have mostly been abandoned in favor of the taller traditional horizontal-axis configuration. As accurate meteorological measurements and wind energy maps become more commonly available, wind project developers are able to more reliably assess the long-term economic performance of wind farms.

Some of the problems with wind power involve siting wind turbines. In densely populated countries where the best sites on land are occupied, there is increasing public resistance, making it impossible to realize projects at acceptable cost. This is one of the main reasons that countries such as Denmark and The Netherlands are concentrating on offshore projects, despite the fact that technically and economically they are expected to be less favorable, compared to good land sites. On the other hand, in countries such as the United Kingdom and Sweden, offshore projects are being planned not due to scarcity of suitable land sites, but because preserving the landscape is such an important national value. Another obstacle can be that the best wind site locations are not in close proximity to populations with the greatest energy needs, as in the U.S. midwest, making such sites impractical due to the high cost of transmission of power over long distances.

There has been a gradual growth of the unit size of commercial machines since the mid-1970s, when the typical size of a wind turbine was 30 kW installed power. By 1998, the largest units installed had a capacity of 1.65 MW, and turbines with an installed power of 2 MW are now being introduced on the market, with 3.6-MW machines now slated for construction. The trend toward larger machines is driven by the demand side of the market to utilize economy of scale, to reduce the visual impact on the landscape per unit of installed power, and to support the expectation that the offshore potential will be developed soon. Recent technical advances have also made wind turbines more controllable and grid compatible and have reduced their number of components, making them more reliable and robust.

Wind energy, although considered an environmentally sound energy option, does have several negative environmental aspects connected to its use. These include acoustic noise emission, visual impact on the landscape, impact on bird life, shadow caused by the rotor, and electromagnetic interference (influencing the reception of radio, television, and radar signals). In practice, the noise and visual impacts appear to cause the most problems for siting projects. Noise issues have been reduced by progress in aeroacoustic research, providing design tools and blade configurations that have successfully made blades considerably quieter. The impact on bird life appears to be a relatively minor problem. For instance, a research project in The Netherlands showed that bird casualties as a result of collisions with rotating rotor blades for a wind farm of 1000 MW represent only a very small fraction of birds killed from hunting, high-voltage lines, and traffic; the estimates predict a maximum level of six to seven bird collisions/turbine/year (see Table II). Avoiding endangered species habitats and major migration routes in the siting of wind farms can, for the most, part eliminate this problem.

In addition to being cost-competitive and environmentally sound, wind energy has several additional advantages over conventional fossil fuel power plants and even other renewable energy sources. First, it is modular: that is, the generating capacity of wind farms can easily be expanded because new turbines can be quickly manufactured and installed, not true for either coal-fired or nuclear power plants. Furthermore, a repair to one wind turbine does not affect the power production of all the others. Second, the energy generated by wind turbines can pay for the materials used to make them in as short as 34 months for good wind sites. Third, during normal operation, they produce no emissions. One estimate of wind energy potential to reduce CO2 emissions predicts that a 10% contribution of wind energy to the world's electricity demand by 2025 would prevent the emission of 1.4 Gton/year of CO2. Finally, there is also a strong and growing market for small wind turbines (under 100 kW), of which the United States is a leading manufacturer. Four very active U.S. manufacturers are estimated to cover a 30% market share worldwide. Small-scale turbines especially can play a significant role in rural and remote locations, particularly in developing countries, where access to the grid is either unlikely or extremely expensive.

A variety of technical parameters have been optimized in recent years to modulate the efficiency and fidelity of cell fate reprogramming. In addition to those already discussed, novel delivery methods, ranging from nonintegrating recombinant viruses to TF-independent methods involving proteins or mRNA molecules, synthetic engineering of pluripotency TFs via selective mutagenesis and protein fusions have also improved reprogramming efficiencies. Of note, reprogramming potential has been shown to decrease after serial passaging, associated with the onset of senescence.76

Ongoing advancements in the quality and efficiency of reprogramming have transformed iPSC technology into a more feasible option in the realm of regenerative medicine. Several recent studies have employed high-throughput screening assays to elucidate the multitude of factors that affect reprogramming. These screening technologies have validated previously known reprogramming barrier genes, including those involved in cell cycle progression and epigenetic marker regulation, while highlighting novel putative pathways (such as clatherin-mediated endocytosis and cell motility) that are involved in modulating reprogramming efficiency.110 A systems biology-based approach combined with target validation is necessary to further deduce essential pathways and barriers during reprogramming.

To estimate the economic and technical parameters used in the proposed model, reliable historical data and scientific reports are used [85]. To estimate biodiesel demands for 40 periods, first fossil demands are predicted for 40 periods according to historical data. Then, the predetermined percentages of fossil diesel in different periods are considered as biodiesel demands. Fig.3.2 shows the estimated biodiesel demand of 25 considered customer centers. In this figure, each color is representative of a specific city. Biodiesel demand in big cities (i.e., Tabriz, Isfahan, Khorasan R., Khozestan, Fars) and capital (i.e., Tehran) starts with B2 type and reaches B15 (85% diesel and 15% biodiesel) and B20 after planning horizon, respectively. Other cities are expected to reach B5 after planning horizon. This policy is taken into account to reduce the high amount of greenhouse gases emitted due to fossil fuel combustion in big cities. Since it is not reasonable to spend high transportation costs to fulfill very low biodiesel demands, 5 cities with the very low demand for biodiesel are not considered as customer centers. Therefore, there would be 25 cities demanding biodiesel. Note that biodiesel demand incremental trend is noted annually not periodically. For example, predicted biodiesel demand for summer in 2015 was higher than that of 2014 but lower than biodiesel demand for spring in 2015.

Glycerin as a byproduct of the transesterification process is used in producing hygienic products. About 11 cities in Iran have factories producing hygienic products. About 75% of hygienic products are produced in Tehran. The demand of glycerin in each city is consistent with the capacity of the hygienic factory in that city. That is, the estimated produced glycerin is divided between 11 cities according to their capacity for producing hygienic products [85].

The amount of waste cooking oil produced in each city is provided by Iranian Fuel Conversion Company [126]. Fixed opening costs, variable opening costs, production and inventory holding costs are taken into account according to own calculation. Transportation cost between every two cities is calculated by multiplying unitary transportation cost, which is extracted from An etal. [108], by the distance between them. Ministry of Roads & Urban Development [127] is responsible for the data describing road distance among cities. Also, Asia Seir Aras Company [128] is responsible for the gathered data describing the rail distance between cities. Conversion factor parameters are achieved from scientific reports according to Table3.6. It should be noted that the parameters reported in Table3.6 are average values found in literature, and one may find some difference in the reported values in the literature. The discount factor is assumed to be 16% per year. It should be noted that road mode is possible among all 30 considered cities, but rail mode is possible only between 11 cities [85].

A conversion factor of jatropha cultivated area to jatropha seeds (ft) is location and time period dependent. Locations with good ecologic and soil condition have a higher amount of conversion. It is worthy to note that jatropha yields are altered from 2 to 12t/ha/y in the literature according to ecological and soil condition [129,130]. Since arid and semiarid areas are considered as potential areas for jatropha cultivation in the studied case, the jatropha yields are assumed to be between 2 and 7t/ha/y. In a mild condition like as our case, this amount of jatropha yields is expected according to real experiences and scientific reports [15,79]. It is worthy to note that these yields are in terms of seeds instead of the whole fruit. In other words, the whole fruit yield per hectare, per year, will range from about 0.9 to 26t [129]. Another assumption is that 33m2 spaces are considered for cultivation of each jatropha plant and so there would be about 1100 plants per hectare [8].

Fuels can be categorized in two major classes, fossil fuels and alternatives to fossil fuels. Figure 3.1 illustrates a general classification of fuels. It is shown that conventional fossil fuels are coal, petroleum (oil), and natural gas as well as all petrochemical fuels obtained in refineries, such as gasoline, diesel, refined natural gas, etc. There are some unconventional fossil fuel sources which have started to be exploited more recently. These sources include tar sand bitumen, oil shale, and gas hydrates deposits. Synthetic crude oil and synthetic natural gas can be obtained from unconventional fossil fuel sources which can be further processed to obtain end user fuels.

As indicated in Figure 3.1, the first and the major alternative to fossil fuels is biomass. This is a very diverse fuel source containing organic substances, derived from recently living biological systems. Rough biomass can be combusted directly or it can be processed to obtain higher-quality fuels as solids, liquids, or gases. Waste materials and recovered waste energy can be also used to produce fuels. Some technologies of waste recycling for fuel are presently studied worldwide, e.g., conversion of waste plastic materials to diesel fuel. Hydrogen is also an alternative fuel if it is derived from sustainable sources using sustainable technologies with limited or no environmental pollution. Other synthetic fuels may be ammonia, urea, ethers, etc. Another alternative to fossil fuels is represented by fuel blends. Fuel blends emit lower carbon per unit of released energy because a part of emissions originates from a biofuel such as bioethanol, while another part is derived from the fossil fuel component.

Conventional nuclear fueluranium-235 (0.7% natural occurrence)has been used in the last 60 years in nuclear power plants and represents a mature technology alternative to power generation from fossil fuels. Two unconventional fissile fuels which can be produced artificially from abundant resources are envisaged with the next generation of nuclear reactors. These are plutonium (94239Pu), which can be obtained from non-fissile uranium-238 (99.3% natural occurrence) and uranium-238 (92233U), which is produced from thorium-232 (~100% natural occurrence).

The calorific value represents the essential technical parameter of a fuel. It expresses the heat which can be released per quantity of fuel utilized. Here, the quantity of fuel can generally be measured in kg, but other units are also used depending on the nature of the fuel. For fluids, the quantity is typically measured in volume units such as barrels (for petroleum) or normal cubic meters (for natural gas). Figure 3.2 illustrates graphically the calorific equivalents of various fuels. The calorific value of fuels is usually given in one of the following two forms:

Gross calorific value (GCV) of solid fuels or higher heating value (HHV) for fluid fuels, which represents the heat of combustion when all combustion products are brought to the reactants (fuel and oxidant) temperature, condensing all water vapor. Note that the gross heating value accounts for water existent in the fuel prior to combustion, which is of relevance for solid fuels such as coals and biomasses.

Net calorific value (NCV) of solid fuels or lower heating value (LHV) of fluid fuels, which represents the heat of combustion case when all products are brought to the reactants temperature but water remains in vapor phase; the NCV (LHV) is determined by subtracting the heat of evaporation of water from the GCV (HHV) value.

Fuels release energy due to the exothermic oxidation reaction with atmospheric air (except the nuclear fuels). Three atomic elements included in the molecular structure of any fuel are responsible for heat generation by oxidation, namely carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur. The heat released during oxidation of carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur is equivalent to the formation enthalpy of carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur dioxide. The oxidation reactions and their reaction enthalpies are given in Table 3.1. It can be observed that carbon has the highest reaction oxidation enthalpy per unit of volume, while hydrogen has the highest oxidation enthalpy per unit of mass.

The presence of carbon in a fuel molecule may lead to a high energy density (high heating value per unit of volume). Furthermore, as seen in Table 3.1, the presence of hydrogen in a fuel molecule may lead to a high HHV per unit of mass. In general, fuels containing carbon and hydrogene.g., hydrocarbonsrepresent the best option for the transportation sector or for remote applications: hydrocarbon fuel tanks are neither heavy nor voluminous.

The calorific value of fuels can be correlated to their hydrogen versus carbon ratio (H:C). There are two main theories regarding the influence of oxygen atoms present in some fuels (e.g., in alcohols such as CH3OH, coals, and other fuels) on the HHV, which are discussed as follows. According to Ringen et al. (1979) the heating value of a general fuel containing hydrogen, carbon, sulfur, and oxygen atoms can be determined using the equation developed by Dulong in nineteenth century. The Dulong model is applicable for fuels which contain <10% oxygen by mass, and is given by

In Equation (3.1) it is assumed that oxygen atoms embedded in the fuel react with hydrogen only and form water, while the remaining hydrogen further reacts with combustion air. A more elaborate model for the heating value of fuels was developed by the middle of twentieth century by Boie at the University of Dresden. As indicated in Ringen et al. (1979), the model of Boie (1953) accounts for the possible existence of nitrogen atoms in fuels and the formation of NOx. Note that NOx formation is an endothermic process which reduces the heating value of fuels (formation enthalpy of NO is 91kJ/mol and that of NO2 is 34kJ/mol). The equation of Boie is

A correlation between the HHV of fossil fuels and the H:C weight ratio can be obtained using Equations (3.2) and (3.3). For a first approximation, one assumes that the sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen contents are negligible. As seen in Figure 3.3, the calorific value per unit of weight increases with the H:C ratio, a fact that suggests that lighter fuels have higher energy content. The average GCV of coals is roughly 18MJ/kg, while the petroleum-derived fuels have a HHV, ranging from about 25MJ/kg (for alcohols) to 55MJ/kg (for methane).

In general, if a fuel is in contact with atmospheric air it does not ignite. The activation energy required for initiation of a combustion process can be obtained by increasing the fuel temperature. In a standard atmosphere (defined by 21% molar fraction of oxygen and a total pressure of 101.325kPa), the lowest fuel temperature at which combustion is initiated without any exterior energy, such as a flame or a spark, is denoted as AIT. Simplified kinetic models are usually elaborated to predict AIT. The model must assume an airfuel mixture at a certain temperature, and, based on mass and energy balance equations and chemical kinetics equations, a mathematical equation is formulated and solved in a transient mode to predict the evolution of species concentrations in time. If temperature is lower than AIT the mixture is stable at chemical equilibrium. If the temperature is equal to or higher than AIT, then the forward reaction proceeds at a high enough rate to produce autoignition.

The AIT depends strongly on the molecular structure of the fuel, such as the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. It also depends on the number and length of molecular bonds and on the level of branching. In recent years semi-empirical methods of AIT prediction based on the structural contribution method have been developed. In this method the molecular structure of the fuel is divided into functional groups which are assigned a weight factor determined from available experimental data. A regression formula for the AIT of hydrocarbons has been proposed by Albahri (2003) according to

Any organic molecule can be decomposed into a number of structural groups, such as CH3,=CH2,>C<,=CH,>CH,>CH2,>C= etc. Each functional group has an associated group contribution term denoted as fi, where i is an indexation. Table 3.2 gives group contribution terms specific to paraffins, olefins, cyclic hydrocarbons, and aromatics. Many of these molecules are present in crude oil. The overall contribution is calculated with f=nifi, where ni represents the number of i groups in the molecular structure.

Paraffins are one of the most encountered molecules in the constituency of crude oil. Paraffins have the general formula CnH2n+2 and those with a linear molecule consist of two CH3 structural groups and n2 structural groups of type =CH2. The AIT is calculated with Equation (3.4) for a wide series of paraffins, from n=2 (ethane) to n=16 (hexadecane), and the results are plotted in Figure 3.4. The behavior of AIT is nonlinear with molecular complexity (represented here by number of carbon atoms, n). In general, for lighter hydrocarbons, the AIT is higher. However, due to structural variations of the molecule there is not a monotonic decrease of AIT with n. Starting with decane (n=10) the AIT increases and decreases with n, but its value is around 200C.

In order for solid and liquid fuel to combust with air, a mixture of fuel vapors and ambient air (oxygen) has to be created. A non-gaseous fuel can emanate vapors due to evaporation or sublimation effect at the liquidgas or solidgas interface, depending on the case. Vapor generation is influenced by pressure and temperature conditions. At standard pressure the minimum temperature at which sufficient vapor is generated at the surface vicinity to form a flammable mixture with atmospheric air is denoted as flash point temperature (FPT). A source of ignition is required to inflate the flammable mixture formed at FPT. The FPT is a very important safety parameter of a fuel because it indicates the presence of combustible vapor and flammable mixtures of gases.

Figure 3.5 illustrates the variation of NBP and FPT with the molecular weight of linear paraffins. Here paraffins with a number of carbon atoms from 2 (ethane) to 20 (icosane) are considered. The FPT is below NBP and follows the same trend: it increases with the molecular mass of the hydrocarbon. It may be observed that combustion can be ignited in open air for all lighter paraffins, ranging from ethane to octane, because the FPT is below 13C. Heavier hydrocarbons, such as cetane (hexadecane) with an FPT of 135C, may require initial heating for ignition. This fact explains the need for fuel heating at cold startup of diesel engines, especially during the winter season. The conclusions derived from the results for linear paraffins illustrated in Figure 3.5 are valid for all types of petroleum fuels.

Ignition of any fuel can be initiated only under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and oxidant (air) concentrations. In atmospheric air at standard pressure and temperature (101.325kPa and 298.15K), the fuel must be at a temperature higher than FPT (see above) but in addition the vapor concentration must be in a specified range denoted as flammability limits. The lower flammability limit (LFL) is defined as the volumetric concentration of vapor fuel in air below which there will be not enough fuel to allow for combustion to be self-sustained. If fuel concentration is too high, then another factor limits the ignition process: there is not enough oxygen for the combustion reaction to be maintained. The upper flammability limit (UFL) is defined as the volumetric concentration of fuel vapor in atmospheric air over which there is not enough oxygen to sustain combustion in the vicinity of the ignition point. For a combustion flame to be maintained, the fuel vapor concentration must be between LFL and UFL. The flammability limits can be predicted based on a structural contribution method using polynomial relations similar to those in Equation (3.4). In Albahri (2003) correlations for LFL and UFL were developed based on a dataset comprising 500 combustible chemicals. The regression equations are as follows:

An example of utilizing the correlations for LFL and UFL according to Equations (3.6) and (3.7) is given in Figure 3.6, which represents the variation of flammability limits of linear paraffins with respect to the number of carbon atoms in the compound molecule. The LFL is predicted very well and decreases with increase of molecular complexity. For heavy hydrocarbons the LFL is below 1% by volume.

For prediction of UFL there are some discrepancies. The prediction is good for lighter hydrocarbons, in general, and one may conclude that the flash point tends to decrease with molecular complexity in this case. For heavier hydrocarbons the UFL dependency on molecular mass does not appear to be linear. In general, petrochemical fuels have a LFL below 5% and an UFL above 2.56%. Flammability limits of gases have higher values than those of liquids. Methane has a flammability range of 515% while n-octane has one of 0.966.5%.

symons cone crusher

symons cone crusher

For finer crushing or reduction a Symonscone crusher the norm. Symons are commonly used for secondary, tertiary or quaternary crushing. They do this by a different chamber design which is flatter and by operating at about twice the rotational speed of a primary type gyratory crusher.

One of the first cone crushers had a direct drive vertical motor mounted above the spider with the drive shaft passing through the hollow bored main shaft. With relatively high speeds of 480 to 580 rpm and small eccentric throw, the machine produced a uniform produce with minimum fines.There are numerous Symonscone crusher manufacturers of modern crushers each promoting some unique aspect.

The Allis Chalmers Hydrocone selling point is its adjustability and tramp protection through a hydraulic support system for the headcentre. By merely adjusting the oil reservoir below the head centre the crusher setting can be changed while in full operation. Tramp metal causes a surge of pressure in this hydraulic system which is absorbed through relief valves and gas-bladder-filled accumulator bottles which allow the headcentre to momentarily drop and return to its normal operating position when the tramp has fallen through.

The Symons or Rexnord spring cone crusher is adjusted by spinning the bowl up or down manually or through hydraulic rams. A series of powerful springs give the necessary tramp protection. Several other manufacturers produce similar types and sizes of crushers but all follow the basic types described.

When the Symons brothers Invented the cone crusher, they employed the principle wherein the length of the crushing stroke was related to the free fall of material by gravity. This permitted the material being crushed to fall vertically in the crushing chamber; and in effect, caused the particles to be crushed in a series of steps or stages as the particles got smaller due to the crushing action. This also helps to reduce the rate of wear of the liners since the sliding motion of the particles is minimized.

Recognizing that the Symons principle of crushing is the most efficient means of ore and aggregate reduction in hard rock applications, the engineers used this same principle in the design on the hydrocone.

Versatility in the form of having the ability to perform in a wide range of applications without the need for a change in major assemblies was another objective in the design. Ease of maintenance and remote setting capability also were part of the design parameters the market requires.

There is no startling revelation to the fact that the mining industry as a whole is generally moving toward the use of larger equipment to process ores in quantities far greater than what was even considered a decade ago. Trucks and shovels have led the way in extra large machines and many other manufacturers have followed suit in the development of so-called supers in their line of equipment.

In order to keep pace with the industry, crusher manufacturers have also enlarged the size of their equipment. There is now on the market, a Gyratory crusher capable of accepting a 72 diameter piece of ore. Primary jaw crushers have also increased in size. It is inevitable, therefore, that larger secondary cone crushers would also be required to complement the other equipment used to process these large quantities of ore. This super-size secondary cone crusher is the SYMONS 10 Ft. Cone Crusher.

Until 1973, the largest cone crusher built was the 7 Ft. Extra Heavy Duty crusher, which is currently used in the majority of the mining operations throughout the world. The 10 Ft. crusher, when compared to the 7 Ft. Extra Heavy Duty Crusher, is approximately 1 times larger in physical dimensions; three times heavier; will accept a maximum feed size which is approximately twice as large; and will crush at approximately 2 times the rate of the 7 Ft. machine at identical closed side settings. It will be the largest cone crusher built in the world.

The conclusions of this investigation were all positive the crusher could be built and at a cost that would be in line with its size and capacity and also with other size crushers. After that preliminary study, the project became dormant for several years.

The project was reactivated and this time general assembly drawings were made which incorporated many improvements in the crusher such as pneumatic cylinders in place of the conventional, springs for tramp iron release, a two-piece main frame a dynamically balanced design of the internal moving parts of the crusher, and an automatic clearing and adjusting mechanism for the crusher. At this stage of development we felt we were ready to build a 10 Ft. crusher for any mine that was willing to try one. Unfortunately, the conservative posture of the mining industry did not exactly coincide with our sales plans. This, added to the popularity of the autogenous mill concept at the time, led to another lull in the 10 Ft. development program.

The project was reactivated again in 1970, this time primarily at the request of one of the large Minnesota Iron Range mining companies. We then undertook a comprehensive market research study to determine if there was a need for this size crusher by the mining industry in general, rather than just the iron ore industry. We talked not only to the iron ore people but to the copper people and persons connected with the other metallic ores as well. The acceptability of this large crusher was also discussed with the aggregate industry. After interviews with many of the major mining companies, the decision was made to complete the entire engineering phase of the development program and to actively solicit a customer for this new crusher. We spent approximately $85,000 on engineering work and tests on the gamble that we could find a customer. I speak of a gamble because during our market research study we continually were told my company would be very interested in buying a 10 Ft. crusher, but only after we have seen one in operation.

The actual building and test of the first prototype unit without a firm commitment for a sale was an economic impossibility. We were now at the point where we needed to sell at least one unit in order to prove not only the mechanical reliability of the machine, but the economic justification for its purchase as well. Needless to say, when the order for two SYMONS 10 Ft. cone crushers was received, we felt we were now on the way toward completion of the development program.

Perhaps at this point it might be apropos to examine the crusher itself. It will stand 15-6 above its foundation, the overall height will be 19-4-. At its greatest diameter, in the area of the adjustment ring, it will be approximately 17-6. It will weigh approximately 550,000 lbs. Under normal crushing conditions, the crusher will be connected to a 700 HP motor. A 50 ton. overhead crane is required to perform routine maintenance on this crusher.

The main shaft assembly will weigh approximately 92,000 lbs. and the bowl assembly approximately 95,000 lbs. The mantle and bowl liner, cast from manganese steel, will weigh approximately 13,000 lbs. and 25,000 lbs. respectively.

The throughput capacity of the Standard will be approximately 1300 TPH at a 1 closed side setting and 3000 TPH at a 2- closed side setting. The throughput capacity of the SHORT HEAD will be approximately 800 TPH at closed side setting and 1450 TPH at a 9/16 closed side setting.

Persons familiar with the design of a conventional 7 Ft. SYMONS cone crusher will recognize that the design of the 10 Ft. is quite similar to it. As a matter of fact, we like to say that the design of the 10 Ft. is evolutionary rather than revolutionary, because all the reliable features of the SYMONS cone crusher were retained and the only changes that were made were those that added to the convenience of the operator, such as automatic clearing and automatic adjustment. From a mechanical point of view the stresses generated due to crushing loads are less in the 10 Ft. crusher than in the existing 7 Ft. Extra Heavy Duty cone.

One of our senior engineers who has long since retired told me that he had the occasion many years ago to make a presentation of a newly designed crusher to a prospective customer. He carefully prepared a rather detailed description of the crusher which included all the features that his new machine had when compared to the customers existing machine. The presentation itself took about one hour and after that period the customer leaned back in his chair and said, Thats all well and good, but will it crush rock? In effect, the customer was; saying that all the features in the world were of no use to him if the crusher did not perform its basic function to crush rock and ultimately make profits for the owner. Using todays financial terminology he was asking the engineer to economically cost justify the purchase of the crusher.

The working day of the contemporary manager or project engineer evolves around making decisions to economically justify a piece of equipment or a new operation. In our development program of the 10 Ft. cone crusher, we felt that the economic justification, from the customers point of view, was just as important to develop as the engineering aspects of the program. So we developed a three-part program to examine the economics of installing a 10 Ft. crusher. First we talked in wide generalities concerning the use of a 10 Ft. crusher. Secondly, we discussed the ramifications of using a 10 Ft. crusher versus 7 Ft. crushers in a completely new plant being considered for the future. Thirdly, we examined how a 10 Ft. crusher could be used to its best advantage in a plant that is being expanded.

The first consideration was the economic generalities of installing the crusher, or more specifically, what questions regarding the installation are pertinent to every crushing plant. Usually, the initial comparison which is made between a 7 Ft. crusher and a 10 Ft. crusher is that of price versus capacity. Theoretically, the capacity of a 10 Ft. crusher is 2 times that of a 7 Ft. while the selling price is approximately 3 times that of the 7 Ft. On that basis alone, it would appear that the 10 Ft. could not be justified. However, this is an incomplete picture. Recent cost estimates show that considerable savings are realized when the entire physical plant structure is considered. Because fewer machines are required to crush an equivalent amount of ore, the size of the buildings can be reduced, thereby decreasing the capital investment of buildings and allied equipment used as auxiliaries for the crusher.

Total manpower requirements to operate and maintain the plant is another of the generalities which were considered. Fewer crushers normally require less personnel to operate and perform maintenance, Manpower requirements obviously play a large part in the profitability of a plant. Therefore, it follows that using a 10 Ft. in place of multiple 7 Ft. units should be more profitable from the standpoint of manpower. We should, however, clarify one point regarding normal maintenance of the 10 Ft. crusher which is commonly misunderstood; namely, the periodic changeout of manganese liners in the crusher. The normal time period between manganese changes would not be significantly different between the 7 Ft. and a 10 Ft. because the wear rate, that is, the pounds of liner worn away per ton of ore crushed, will remain the same. Consequently, if a set of liners in a 7 Ft. crusher, lasted six weeks, a 10 Ft. crusher in the same operation would also last approximately six weeks. However, since the total amount of ore crushed will be greater, the maintenance costs per liner changeout will be less on the 10 Ft. crusher.

Another point for consideration is that the 10 Ft., cone crusher is a secondary crusher and normally would be fed with the product of a gyratory crusher. Since the 10 Ft. can accept a larger feed than a 7 Ft. crusher, it is possible to increase the open side setting of a gyratory crusher, thereby, allowing a greater volume of feed to pass through the crusher. Because of this, it is conceivable that a smaller primary crusher could be used in order to obtain a given quantity of ore.

A good salesman could expound on a multitude of ideas for using 10 Ft. crushers in place of 7 Ft. crushers in a new plant, but in the final analysis, the deciding factor as to whether or not the 10 Ft. crushers should be used will be the anticipated over-all plant capacity. Several studies have indicated that as a general rule of thumb the break even point for using 10 Ft. crushers in place of 7 Ft. crushers is a plant which will have an overall ore treatment capacity of approximately 40,000 TPD or approximately 8,000,000 TPY. Anything less than that figure should indicate the use of conventional 7 Ft. crushers. Obviously a small four stage crushing plant in which the third stage crusher was a 7 Ft. Standard and the fourth stage consisted of two 7 Ft. SHORT HEAD cone crushers, would not improve economically by the use of one 10 Ft. Standard cone crusher and one 10 Ft. SHORT HEAD cone crusher in place of the 7 Ft. crushers.

A study was made which considered a plant to be built using three different approaches of a conventional crushing-grinding operation. The plant which was being considered would be crushing taconite similar to that found in the Iron Range. The end product of the crushing was 5/8 rod mill feed and in this example the plant capacity was to be approximately 13.5 million TPY of ore processed to eventually produce approximately 4 million TPY of iron ore pellets. The study arbitrarily chose a four-year period of operation so that operating costs would be included and also because a four-year period is the usual comparison basis for calculating return on investment. In this example the primary crusher as well as the fine crushing plant would be operated fourteen shifts per week.

In our economic analysis of the 10 Ft. crusher development program, we also studied how this crusher could be used to best advantage when planning expansion of an existing plant. Before delving into the actual dollars and cents of several variations of expansion plans, several preliminary questions must be answered in the affirmative:

Since each plant is unique, the relative merits of the 10 Ft. crusher must be examined on an individual plant basis. Again, as a general rule of thumb, it has been found that the most benefit can be achieved in those plants which presently contain a four-stage crushing plant in which the first two stages of crushing are gyratory crushers. Studies have shown that converting the second stage gyratory crusher to a 10 Ft. Standard crusher shows most potential because the major auxiliaries required for the crusher, such as crane, conveyors, etc., are already large enough to accommodate the increased capacity of the 10 Ft.

As one possible solution, we suggested that the two 30 x 70 secondary gyratory crushers be replaced by two 10 Ft. Standard cones. These crushers could then send approximately 3600 TPH of minus 3 material to the fine crushing plant. The two existing 7 Ft. Standard crushers could be converted easily to SHORT HEAD crushers and two new 7 Ft. SHORT HEAD crushers added to the existing vacant foundations.

In Summary, we feel that the Symons cone crusher has a very definite place in the future of the mining industry and we intend to move steadily ahead with its progress. However, we have learned a few lessons along the way.

Initially, the development of these super size machines is an extremely expensive proposition. We know that if our company alone, attempted to completely design, manufacture, erect, and test a machine in this size range, it would severely tax our financial resources.

We found that super size equipment also presents some problems for our manufacturing facilities. The manufacture of one of these units puts a large dent into the production schedule of many of the smaller conventional units. In our enthusiasm to build a bigger newer machine, we continually remind ourselves that the smaller conventional units are still our bread and butter units.

On the positive side, we found that our reputation as a crusher manufacturer was enhanced because of what our customers refer to as progressive thinking. We listened to the suggestions of the mining industry in attempting to give them what they wanted.

Perhaps you will allow me to close with a bit of philosophizing from a manufacturers point of view. The 10 Ft. crusher is here ready to go into operation. Where do we go from here? A 15 Ft. cone crusher? A 20 Ft. cone crusher? Who knows? We do know that we have reached the financial limit of a development program on a machine of this size. We also know that as the size of a machine grows larger, the developmental and manufacturing risks grow larger along with it and any allowable margin for error must be minimized. We, like you, are in business to make a profit. Since larger crushers usually mean a fewer number of crushers, we must examine the profit picture from aspects of the sale. I think I speak for other manufacturers as well when I say that bigness in machines reflects bigness in development costs as well. If the mining industry wants still larger equipment in the future, the industry should prepare itself to contribute to the development program of those machines.

A multi-cylinderHydraulic Cone Crusher, theHydrocone Cone Crushercan be used in either the second or third stage of crushing by merely changing liners and adaptors.It can produce the full product range that the combination of a comparable sized Standard and Short Head can produce. It makes the machine much more versatile. It allows for much more standardization. The value of this feature is one where spare parts investment in the form of major assemblies is minimized.

All operator controls are conveniently mounted on a remote control console to eliminate the need for an operator to approach the crusher during operation.Over a period of years we have developed a unique engineering knowledge about the effects of cone crusher design parameters such as speed, throw and cavity design on crusher productivity.

Each Hydrocone Cone Crusher features dual function hydraulic cylinders that provide overload protection and a safe and fast way to clear a jammed cavity. Should the crusher become plugged, the operator merely pushes levers on the remote control console to clear the cavity.

It can produce the full product range that the combination of a comparable sized Standard and Short Head can produce. It makes the machine much more versatile. It allows for much more standardization. The value of this feature is one where spare parts investment in the form of major assemblies is minimized.

All operator controls are conveniently mounted on a remote control console to eliminate the need for an operator to approach the crusher during operation.Over a period of years we have developed a unique engineering knowledge about the effects of cone crusher design parameters such as speed, throw and cavity design on crusher productivity.

Each Hydrocone Cone Crusher features dual function hydraulic cylinders that provide overload protection and a safe and fast way to clear a jammed cavity. Should the crusher become plugged, the operator merely pushes levers on the remote control console to clear the cavity.

TheHydraulic Cone Crusheruses hydraulic tramp release cylinders and accumulators to hold the adjustment ring against the main frame seat. There is only one angular surface between the main frame and the adjustment ring which also has a radial contact point in the lowermost area. When a piece of tramp goes through the crusher, the oil is forced into the accumulators allowing the adjustment ring to raise and pass the tramp.

The tramp release cylinders are secured to the adjustment ring and the lower portion of the main frame through clevises. This allows the crushing forces to be transferred directly from the frame arm locations to the adjustment ring. This relieves the main frame shell and upper flange from carrying heavy loads.

The Hydraulic Cone Crusher is equipped with hydraulic clearing. The tramp release cylinders which hold the adjustment ring in place are double acting cylinders. These cylinders can be pressurized in the opposite direction, after the clamping pressure has been released, to raise the adjustment ring and bowl assembly for clearing; only the weight of the adjustment ring, clamp ring, and bowl assembly, plus any residual material in the bowl hopper raises.

palm kernel crusher | crushing machine

palm kernel crusher | crushing machine

The palm kernel crusher can replace the labor crushing of the palm kernels. It is the common pretreating machine of the palm fruit in the palm oil production line. This palm kernel crushing machine is mainly to crush the palm fruit into small pieces so that to increase the palm fruit oil yield of the palm oil extracting machine. And the finer the palm kernel is broken, the higher the oil yield of the palm.

Palm fruit is also known as oil palm fruit. Palm fruit is generally grown on the large fruit bunches of palm trees. Each fruit bunch has about 2,000 palm fruits, and palm fruit can extract palm oil. The outer layer of palm fruit is flesh, containing 45% to 50% oil, with a hard brown nucleus and kernels. Palm kernel oil can be obtained from palm kernel.The palm fruit always can be harvested manually and be sold as the fruit, and it can also be further processed for making palm oil.

Before making the palm oil, the palm kernel should be crushed first. The purpose of palm kernel crushing is to destroy oil cell tissue, so that palm oil can be produced more smoothly. After being crushed, the palm kernel has an increased surface area, and it is easy to absorb heat and regulate moisture when heated, and the protein is easily aggregated and swelled to destroy the cell membrane. The oil in the cells is easily separated after the colloid is destroyed. Palm kernel crushing is an important process in the extraction of palm oil.

Palm kernels generally need to be broken twotimes. The first break: Because the palm core is relatively large and relatively hard, in order to better improve the oil yield, it needs to be broken first. Secondary crushing: It is mainly to break the palm kernel into small pieces to facilitate oil production.

The crusher uses hammer crushing to pulverize palm kernels. The main structure of this machine is a drum in the middle of the machine, followed by 42 active cymbals on the drum. The hammer is made of rectangular flat steel and is connected to the drum by means of a connecting rod. These crushing devices are divided into 6 groups, and7pieces for eachgroup. A sieve plate is arranged under the casing, and the size of the mesh hole can be selected according to the crushing requirements. According to our production experience, the sieve diameter of the machine is 4~4.5 mm, and the rotating speed of the drum is about 2200-2500 rpm.

The palm kernel crusher can be operated by one person only, but the palm kernel to be crushed should be transported to the crusher (or conveyed by a conveyor) before crushing. In operation, first, turn on the motor switch of the machine. After the pulverizer is running normally, start adding materials to the hopper.

Adjust the feed amount at the feed port to keep the feed amount uniform. After the palm fruit enters the machine from the nozzle, it is crushed by the hammering of the high-speed rotating hammer. The fine palm kernel granules are screened out through the mesh, while the larger palm kernels that pass through the mesh are still smashed in the machine.

Zhengzhou Taizy Machinery Co., LTD. is the leading food processing machinery manufacturer and supplier of China, which is adhering to the principle ofQuality First, Customer First and aims to provide good business opportunities to our customers. We sincerely welcome you to consult us and visit our food machine factory and look forward to having perfect cooperation with you.

wood crusher machine | logs & branches sawdust shredder machine

wood crusher machine | logs & branches sawdust shredder machine

Wood crushers are commonly used shredding equipment for processing sawdust of different finenesses. The wood crusher can quickly smash logs, branches, bamboos, straws, and other biomass materials into sawdust, and the production efficiency is very high. The industrial wood crusher shredder is a new type of superfine wood processing equipment. Wood crusher machine also can be called wood shredder, wood grinder, bamboo mill(milling machine), branches pulverizer. The processing size of the raw materials for the high-efficient wood crusher ranges from 5cm to 50cm, and the final sawdust size can be decided according to the customer's requirements.

Raw materials that can be processed by wood crushers are various. But there is a standard for the size of the materials to be crushed. Generally speaking, it can crush tree branches and stems with a diameter of 5cm-50cm.

Many fiber stalks like coconut shell, corn stem, bamboo, couch grass, sorghum stalk, rice husk, straw, and cotton stem are also the common materials for the wood crushing machine. After crushing, the materials are always the particles or pellets and with a diameter less than 5mm.

The tree branches crusher integrates slicing and grinding into a whole, and can cut branches into small pellets. It is mainly used for processing pine, miscellaneous wood, poplar wood, raw bamboo, and other materials.

And this wood crusher shredder is more suitable for processing sawdust inedible fungus production. At the same time, this wood shredder can also be used for bamboo, thatch, corn stalks, sorghum stalks, and other fibrous culm-like material.

With a fineness analyzer, this wood shredder machine is specialized in crushing lightweight materials, fiber materials, brittle materials, ductile materials, and other special materials. This sawdust making machine can crush the branches with a diameter of less than 30cm. The main parts of the wood crusher include the feed port, main body, outlet, motor, and holder.

Generally, the diameter of the holes in the screen mesh is 8mm, but we can also customize the screen mesh for customers' special requirements. And the larger the diameter of the mesh holes, the greater the discharging speed and the output of the crushed materials.

And then the granular wood chips will be shattered into powdery materials with a diameter less than 5mm by the hammers. The hourly output of the wood crusher machine is different according to different models, which range from 500kg/h to 5t/h.

Branches and straw are extremely common biomass materials in urban or rural areas. Therefore, wood processing machines such as tree branches shredders, straw shredders, and wood crushers are common in life.

Why is the application of wood crushers so common? Because there is a great demand for wood products in our lives, there are also many tree processing plants. When the thick trunk is used, the remaining scraps, such as branches and roots, are also recyclable.

In addition, the multi-purpose wood crusher can also smash the template, worn furniture, leaves, straw, corn cob, and other materials into sawdust, which not only saves resources but also reduces pollution and beautifies the environment.

The wood crusher and the wood powder machine are both practical wood processing equipment, but their raw materials and processing effects are different. The wood pulverizer equipment can directly crush some coarse-grained wood, branches, and other materials, and the fineness of the specific pulverization can be adjusted by changing the screen.

The wood shredder machine has low power consumption and high output. The wood powder machine also named sawdust crusher can grind the materials to a fineness of 300 mesh or 500 mesh, which can be said to reach the fineness of the flour level.

Shuliy Machinery not only provides high-quality machines but also provides comprehensive after-sales service. We have been focusing on the charcoal machinery industry for nearly 20 years and have rich experience in designing and manufacturing large and medium-sized charcoal machines to meet the needs of various customers. At the same time, according to the requirements of customers, we can provide services such as plant construction plan, market analysis, and best product formula. learn more >>>

Get in Touch with Mechanic
Related Products
Recent Posts
  1. busan tangible benefits environmental lime stone crusher manufacturer

  2. maiduguri high quality large stone stone crushing machine for sale

  3. used stone crushing plant sale in dubai

  4. mega gold ore crusher

  5. machine tool association

  6. cao material crusher ton

  7. second hand zenith crushers

  8. how to use marble edging machine

  9. high quality stone stone crusher in jakarta

  10. different crushing value

  11. gritt crusher manufactureing companies in india

  12. briquette machine ruf

  13. schematic layout of stone crushing machine

  14. screening sand used

  15. good magnetic separators foot

  16. shanghai spring cone crusher manufacturer

  17. crusher parts suppliers in india

  18. high quality new carbon black stone crusher sell in chandigarh

  19. grind calcium chinagrindingmill

  20. wood pellet machine australia