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Selina Solutions Concise Physics Class 10 Chapter 3 Machines are created by our subject experts with the intention to help students solve the questions with ease. These Solutions are also helpful in checking the answers which have been written during the exam. By practising Selina Solutions students gain a better hold on the subject.
These Solutions are well structured, according to the understanding capacity of the students. Selina Solutions Concise Physics Class 10 are the best study tool to improve students skills in the subject. Students use the Selina Solutions in solving complex questions easily as the answers are explained thoroughly.
(a) A machine is a device by which we can either overcome a large resistive force (or load) at some point by applying a small force (or effort) at a convenient point and in a desired direction or by which we can obtain a gain in speed.
(b) A machine whose parts are weightless and frictionless so that which there is no dissipation of energy in any manner is an ideal machine. The work output is equal to work input i.e its efficiency is 100%
(c) To change the direction of force: to lift a bucket full of water from the well, a single fixed pulley is used by applying the effort in the downward direction instead of applying it upwards when the bucket is lifted up without the use of pulley.
A machine whose parts are weightless and frictionless so that which there is no dissipation of energy in any manner is an ideal machine. The work output is equal to work input which means its efficiency is 100%.
The term velocity ratio is defined as the ratio of the velocity of effort to the velocity of the load is called the velocity ratio of the machine. Since the velocity ratio is also the ratio of two similar quantities, so it has no unit.
The term efficiency of a machine is defined as the ratio of the work done on a load by the machine to the work done on the machine by the effort or efficiency is the ratio of the work output to the work input.
Principle: A lever works on the principle of moments. For an ideal lever, it is assumed that the rod is weightless and there is no friction at the fulcrum. In the equilibrium position of the lever, by the principle of moments,
A man uses a crowbar of length 1.5 m to raise a load of 75kgf by putting a sharp edge below the bar at a distance 1 m from his hand. (a) Draw a diagram of the arrangement showing the fulcrum (F), load (L) and effort (E) with their directions. (b) State the kind of lever. (c) Calculate: (i) load arm, (ii) effort arm, (iii) mechanical advantage, and (iv) the effort needed.
(a) If a weight W is placed at a distance of 250 cm from the support on the long arm, Find W. (b) If a weight 5 kgf is kept to balance the rod, find its position. (c) To which class of lever does it belong?
A lever of length 9 cm has its load arm 5 cm long and the effort arm is 9 cm long. (a) To which class does it belong? (b) Draw diagram of the lever showing the position of fulcrum F and directions of both the load L and effort E. (c) What is the mechanical advantageand velocity ratio if the efficiency is 100%? (d) What will be the mechanical advantage and velocity ratio if the efficiency becomes 50%?
The figure shows a wheelbarrow of mass 15 kg carrying a load of 30 kgf with its centre of gravity at A. The points B and C are the centre of wheel and tip of the handle such that the horizontal distance AB = 20 cm and AC = 40 cm.
A fire tongs has its arms 20 cm long. It is used to lift a coal of weight 1.5kgf by applying an effort at a distance 15 cm from the fulcrum. Find: (i) the mechanical advantage of fire tongs and (ii) the effort needed.
In single fixed pulley, there is no gain in mechanical advantage. A single fixed pulley is used only to change the direction of effort to be applied i.e with its use the effort can be applied in a more convenient direction. It is difficult to lift a load up directly upwards.
In which direction the force need be applied, when a single pulley is used with a mechanical advantage greater than 1? How can you change the direction of force applied without altering its mechanical advantage? Draw a labelled diagram of the system.
Draw a labelled diagram of an arrangement of two pulleys, one fixed and other moveable. In the diagram, mark the directions of all forces acting on it. What is the ideal mechanical advantage of the system? How can it be achieved?
The ideal mechanical advantage of this system is 2. This can be achieved by assuming that string and the pulley are massless and also there is no friction in the pulley bearings between the string and surface of the rim of the pulley.
(a) Name the pulleys A and B. (b) In the diagram, mark the direction of tension on each strand of string. (c) What is the purpose of the pulley B? (d) If the tension is T, deduce the relation between (i) T and E, and (ii) E and L. (e) What is the velocity ratio of the arrangement? (f) Assuming that the efficiency of the system is 100%, what is the mechanical advantage?
Draw a diagram of combination of three movable pulleys and one fixed pulley to lift up a load. in the diagram, show the directions of load, effort and tension in each strand. Find:(i) the mechanical advantage, (ii) velocity ratio and(iii) the efficiency of the combination in ideal situation.
Draw a diagram of a block and tackle system of pulleys having a velocity ratio of 5. In your diagram indicate clearly the points of application and the directions of the load L and effort E. Also mark the tension T in each strand.
(a) In a single fixed pulley, the velocity ratio is always more than the mechanical advantage. (b) The efficiency of a movable pulley is always less than 100%. (c) In the case of a block and tackle system, the mechanical advantage increases with the increase in the number of pulleys. (d) The lower block of a block and tackle pulley system must be of negligible weight.
(a) Some effort is wasted in a single fixed pulley in overcoming friction between the strings and the grooves of the pulley. So, the effort needed is greater than the load and thus the velocity ratio is always more than the mechanical advantage
Explanation: The mechanical advantage of the movable pulley is greater than 1. Hence, using a single movable pulley, the load can be lifted by applying an effort equal to half the load i.e the single movable pulley acts as a force multiplier.
A woman draws water from a well using a fixed pulley. The mass of the bucket and water together is 6 kg. The force applied by the women is 70 N. calculate the mechanical advantage. (Take g = 10 m s-2).
A pulley system has a velocity ratio 3. Draw a diagram showing the point of application and direction of load (L), effort (E) and tension (T). If lifts a load of 150 N by an effort of 60 N. Calculate its mechanical advantage. Is the pulley system ideal? Give reason.
(a) Draw a string around the pulleys. Also show the point of application and direction in which the effort E is applied. (b) What is the velocity ratio of the system? (c) How are load and effort of the pulley system related? (d) What assumption do you make in arriving at your answer in part (c)?
(a) How many strands of tackle are supporting the load? (b) Draw arrows to represent tension T in each strand. (c) What is the mechanical advantage of the system? (d) When load is pulled up by a distance 1 m, how far does the effort end move? (e) How much effort is needed to lift a load of 100 N?
A block and tackle system has the velocity ratio 3. Draw alabelleddiagram of the system indicating the points of application and the directions of load L and effort E. A man can exert a pull of 200kgf. (a) What is the maximum load he can raise with this pulley system if its efficiency is 60%? (b) If the effort end moves a distance 60 cm, what distance does the load move?
You are given four pulleys and three strings. Draw a neat and labelled diagram to use them so as to obtain a maximum mechanical advantage equal to 8. In your diagram mark the directions of load L, effort E and tension in each strand.
Selina Solutions Concise Physics Class 10 Chapter 3 Machines is related to the study of Machines. Some of the topics which are discussed in this chapter are technical terms related to a machine, principle of a machine, pulley, single fixed pulley. Students clear their doubts completely if they follow Selina Solutions while solving the textbook questions. Frequent practise of these solutions will help students to excel in exams with ease.
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